Full Text Available This article introduces subject of an insurance captive entity, with focus on how it could be used as insurance formula for risk management. Captive might be the most appropriate insurance formula for risk management. However, the level of achieved success depends on many factors.Insurance captivesare understood as entities which are formed and owned by companies mostly for the purpose of insuring own risks (pure captive or single parent captive. More and more often captives are also formed by a group of companies (group captives to insure their properties and liabilities towards 3rd parties. Captives are widely used by many companies nowadays. However, many of them,are used solely for a purpose of a risk cession and premium transfer, with an intention to use captivesmore as a profit center in a low taxation country rather than for the purpose of risk management (i.e. a more appropriate role for captive would be to support their owners in enterprise risk management - ERM. This article touches on why captives are not used to their full potential. It may be toochallenging for many decision makers to embrace on captives as risk management formula and extend captives' roles to utilize all possible advantages resulting from owning a captive. Captive can deliver risk management in a more comprehensive way than most commercial insurers on the market. The article also presents advantages and disadvantages of owning an insurance captive.
Frese, Richard C
Potential benefits of a captive insurance company include: Broader coverage Improved cash flow and stability. Direct access to reinsurance markets. Tax advantages. Better handling and control of risk management and claims. Potential drawbacks and challenges include: Startup capitalization. Underwriting losses. Administration and commitment.
In this study the contribution is intended to provide more clarity and to demonstrate that under certain circumstances an insurance captive can have important efficiency effects and, among other things, a positive effect on moral hazard and adverse selection. For the purpose of acquiring more information on insurance captives and their operation, literature research was augmented by interviews conducted with the director of an insurance captive of a Dutch multinational, as well as with repres...
... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...
Josafat, Jason Marc
Little is known regarding the involvement levels of single parents in their child's education or what schools can do to support the collaborative involvement with single parents. This is important, because parent involvement is crucial for student success, and schools play an important part in garnering this role towards parent involvement; single…
Greif, Geoffrey L.
Examines the concept of boundaries--drawing of emotional lines between family subsystems, and between "family" and the outside world--in assessment and intervention with single parent families. Argues that clear, flexible boundaries are needed for healthy family functioning; that coalitions, rigid or unclear boundaries, and triangulation…
... and to best manage our single parent service members and dual-military couples. There is a need to address the Army regulations that are ambiguous and contradictory toward enlisting and retaining single parents...
Moncrief, Terri; Beck, Andrew F; Simmons, Jeffrey M; Huang, Bin; Kahn, Robert S
To characterize whether single parent households are associated with pediatric asthma-related repeat healthcare utilization and to examine family-level psychosocial variables that may explain this relationship. We analyzed a prospective cohort of 526 children aged 1-16 years hospitalized for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing whose caregivers self-reported their marital status. Those reporting being "single" were considered the at-risk category. The outcome was repeat asthma-related utilization (emergency room (ER) revisit or hospital readmission) within 12 months. We assessed, a priori, four psychosocial variables (household income, caregiver risk of psychological distress, ratio of in-home children to adults, and regular attendance at childcare or a secondary home). Among all children enrolled in the cohort, 40% returned to the ER or hospital for asthma within 12 months. Of all caregivers, 59% self-identified as single. Single status was significantly associated with each psychosocial variable. Children in households with lower incomes and higher ratios of children to adults were both more likely to return to the ER or hospital than children with higher incomes and lower ratios, respectively (each p asthma from single parent households were more likely to have asthma-related reutilization within 12 months than children from homes with married parents. This was driven, in large part, by underlying differences in household income.
Full Text Available In this study the contribution is intended to provide more clarity and to demonstrate that under certain circumstances an insurance captive can have important efficiency effects and, among other things, a positive effect on moral hazard and adverse selection. For the purpose of acquiring more information on insurance captives and their operation, literature research was augmented by interviews conducted with the director of an insurance captive of a Dutch multinational, as well as with representatives from AON and Marsh, two major insurance brokers/consultancy firms in risk management that are often involved in the establishment and management of a captive
Shenoy, Divya P; Lee, Christine; Trieu, Sang Leng
Single-parenting students face unique challenges that may adversely affect their mental health, which have not been explored in community college settings. The authors conducted secondary analysis of Spring 2013 data from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment to examine difficulties facing single-parent community college students and the association between single parenting and negative mental health (depression, self-injury, suicide attempt). Participants were 6,832 California community college students, of whom 309 were single parents. Demographic and mental health data were characterized using univariate descriptive analyses. Bivariate analyses determined whether single parents differed from other students regarding negative mental health or traumatic/difficult events. Finances, family, and relationship difficulties disproportionally affected single parents, who reported nearly twice as many suicide attempts as their counterparts (5.3% vs. 2.7%; p students face a higher prevalence of mental health stressors than other community college students.
Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.
The purpose of this report is to identify the key challenges with current Army personnel policies and to provide recommendations that would reduce the impact of single parents on Army unit readiness...
Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer. Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/30/2012.
Granek, L; Rosenberg-Yunger, Z R S; Dix, D; Klaassen, R J; Sung, L; Cairney, J; Klassen, A F
Single parents whose children have cancer are a marginalized group who report less family centred care, and therefore, less quality cancer care for their children. As such, the aims of this study were to explore how single parents of children with cancer describe their caregiving experiences and to understand their contextual life stressors. A constructivist grounded theory method was used. Qualitative interviews with 29 single parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited between November 2009 and April 2011 from four hospitals across Canada. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relationships among emerging codes and conceptual themes. The first set of findings report on caregiving duties including: emotional tasks, informational tasks and physical tasks. The second set of findings report on the contextual picture of parent's lives including their living conditions, their physical and mental health and their family histories of disruption, trauma and disease. Single parents caring for children with cancer were found to experience several cumulative stressors in addition to the current strain of caring for a child with cancer. The synergy of these cumulative stresses with the added strain of caregiving for a child with cancer may have long-term health and financial implications for parents. Broad-based policy interventions should focus on relieving the chronic strains associated with being a single parent of a child with cancer. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shabrina Umi Rahayu
Full Text Available Women have significant roles in development, such as women as human resources in development, women as a subject in development, and women as a family builder. This study focused on how women’s role as a family builder in a single parent status. The variables used in this study are number of dependents, age, education, and employment status to be analyzed its impact on income of single parent women. This research took a place in Sesetan Village, South Denpasar with the number of samples taken were 84 samples with the purposive sampling method. The data was collected by questionnaires and interviews. Multiple linear regression analysis with quantitative and qualitative independent variables was used as the analysis technique. Based on the analysis result had found that variables of number of dependents, age, education, and employment status had a positive impact as a partial to the income of single parent women. The government’s efforts for all the kinds of women coaching are important to be developed, with the aim to the community prosperity especially single parent women who have heavier burden of life. The attention of education, health, and economy is necessary to improved to ease the burden for the families of the single parent women.
Amato, Paul R; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett
Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children's test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children's school achievement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tarigan, Selvia Veronika
Being single parent for women will provide a variety of issues. The main problemis related tothe economic problems. To overcome the problems occurred woman who acts as a single parent, they must work and survive in the organization where she worked. Commitment to remain in the work referred to as continuance commitment. The decision to work and take care of the family can cause conflicts are referred to work-family conflict. This study was conducted to see the relationship between work-fa...
single-parent families must rely on the complete knowledge of this social phenomenon, with the need to establish databases and map the dispersion of single-parent families within administrative-territorial units. The decrease in the number of families with a high social risk over time is the result of correlated and harmonized public policies, aimed at fighting poverty, discrimination, unemployment, lack of access to education, while ensuring the general background for economic development and prosperity. The study is determined by the fact that many times the parents and the children of single parent families find themselves in the situation of not being able to make ends meet, the lack of finances, education and proper housing making it impossible for them to live a decent life. By identifying, through specific scientific methods such as document analysis, interviews, case studies, the particular types of problems facing single parent families, we consider we will succeed in offering a strong basis to motivate decision makers to establish additional social protection measures that will contribute to the reduction of the causes that maintain this social category among vulnerable groups.
Caissie, Julie; Gaudet, Jeanne d'Arc; Godin, Jeanne
This phenomenological study focused on single-parent, low-income francophone mothers' relationships with the educational and cultural achievement of their children attending French-speaking schools in Anglo-dominant settings in New Brunswick (Canada). We conducted individual (N = 8) semi-structured interviews to solicit information about the…
Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E
Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.
Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy
This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…
Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.
This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…
Samantha E. Blanchard
Full Text Available The military has taken extraordinary steps in establishing programs to support not only the member serving but their families as well. This article will examine military policy as it impacts single parents serving in the Air Force, highlighting existing programs, and calling for more research on this valuable population.
Full Text Available The establishing of a group that has good awareness on law for single parent women in Batu Hampa, aims at facilitating knowledge and understanding on marriage problem and resolution from law perspective, both on divorce legalization and right-obligation as a single parent. An illegal divorce will take effect of her personal and social life such as citizen status or for a remarried action. The single parent women were provided with a law counseling in order to prepare them as a personal that has law awareness. They were given a partner community before the counseling. Partner group supported them to establish the group which has good law awareness. In case of a family which is about to have divorce, the groups will show their care and is hoped to give the better solution. They should be able to elaborate the knowledge and are able to help the others who have the same problem. Keywords: single parent, aware of law group, community partnersCopyright © 2014 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v4i2.99
A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for
Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants. Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/27/2017.
Peterson, Paul E.
Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…
Pieslak, Raymond F.
The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to acquaint deaf students with the various types of insurance protection that will be available to them in their future life. Seven units covering the topics of what insurance is, automobile insurance, life insurance, health insurance, social security, homeowner's…
Deborah M. Whitley
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.
Whitley, Deborah M.
Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities. PMID:26448744
Bachelor's thesis deals with the life insurance market in the Czech Republic. I compared the different insurance products life insurance among themselves. And these products is the formula published in the scientific literature.
SINGLE PARENT STATUS ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED SOLDIERS ..8 TABLE 6. ACTIVE DUTY GENDER DISTRIBUTION BY GRADE ............................................ 10...493,563 (100%) TABLE 6. ACTIVE DUTY GENDER DISTRIBUTION BY GRADE WHAT THESE METRICS TELL US These data indicate that there is a problem in the Army...Army War College, March 1998) Fifth Amendment Sisters. "Pregnancy Disrimination ." Available from <http://userpages.aug.com /captbarb/pregnancy.html
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is a comparison of psychological readiness of the child to go to school in nuclear and single parent families. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 methods “Two schools” by L.A Venger to identify the level of formation of internal position of the student; 2 the method “Motivational research studies in older preschoolers” by M.R. Ginsburg; 3 method “Pattern” by L.I. Tsehanskaya to determine the degree of development of skills training activities; 4 method “Graphic dictation” by D. El’konin to study the ability to follow adult instructions. The investigated group consisted of 40 students from first grade secondary school - 20 students from nuclear families (12 girls and 8 boys and 20 students from single parent families (9 girls and 11 boys. As a result of qualitative, comparative and correlation analysis it was shown that readiness of children to go to school susbstantially depends on completness of their families. The children from families have a higher level of skill training and internal position than children from single parent families. This occurs because both parents pay more attention to the children in the forming of a willingness to learn in school. The studies have shown that in the group of children from nuclear families dominate the highest level of development of skills training activities, increased formation of internal positions and childrens social motivation. These indicators are the hallmarks of readiness to learn at school. Also, some recommendations to teachers are provided as for increase of motivation to learn in children from single parent families.
Singhammer, John; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Lund-Kristensen, Peter; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo
Single-parent family status has been investigated as a possible psychosocial determinant of children's level of physical activity (PA)-although with mixed and inconclusive results. Prevailing evidence of the importance of two-parent family status as a resource for children's PA is based on a mix of subjective and objective measurements of PA. Objectives: To investigate if the level of PA among children living with a single parent was lower compared to children living with two parents by means of a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. We restricted our analysis to studies with objective measurements of PA. Data sources: The databases, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched (1987-2013). Study eligibility criteria: Observational studies comparing objectively measured PA between single-parent children and children from two-parent families. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: We used guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale overall to assess the quality of the included studies. We refrained from calculation of summary scores. Twelve studies met the following inclusion criteria of which six were unpublished: (a) child age (6-18 years) and (b) objectively measured level of PA. Meta-analysis revealed pooled estimates of -0.01 for boys (95 % CI -0.04-0.03, p = 0.77, I 2 = 6.5 %, p = 0.38) and 0.01 for girls (95 % CI -0.03-0.04, p = 0.62, I 2 = 21.0 %, p = 0.24), respectively. Estimates show no differences in objectively measured physical activity between children living in single-parent families compared to children living with two parents. Analyses investigating seven potential moderators did not yield any statistical significant effect size estimates. No evidence of heterogeneity between studies was observed. Limitations: Retrieved articles were assessed by several of the authors. Blinding of the
Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, ...
The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators
P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)
textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these
Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.
Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be
Crandall, C J; Karlamangla, A S; Merkin, S S; Binkley, N; Carr, D; Greendale, G A; Seeman, T E
Bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental circumstances. We examined the independent associations of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood with adult bone strength indices. Longer exposure to a single-parent household in childhood was associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Because peak bone mass is acquired during childhood, bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental disadvantage. The goal of this study was to determine whether being raised in a single-parent household is associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from 708 participants (mean age 57 years) in the Midlife in the United States Biomarker Project, we examined the independent associations of composite indices of femoral neck bone strength relative to load (in three failure modes: compression, bending, and impact) in adulthood with the experience of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood. After adjustment for gender, race, menopause transition stage, age, and body mass index, each additional year of single-parent childhood was associated with 0.02 to 0.03 SD lower indices of adult femoral neck strength. In those with 9-16 years of single-parent childhood, the compression strength index was 0.41 SD lower, bending strength index was 0.31 SD lower, and impact strength index was 0.25 SD lower (all p values divorce during childhood was not by itself independently associated with adult bone strength indices. The magnitudes of these associations were unaltered by additional adjustment for lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood. Independent of parental death or divorce, growing up in a single-parent household is associated with lower femoral neck bone strength in adulthood, and this association is not entirely explained by childhood or adult socioeconomic conditions or lifestyle choices.
What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only...... for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental...... to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation...
Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise
In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single
Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
This chapter reviews the existing empirical evidence on how social insurance affects health. Social insurance encompasses programs primarily designed to insure against health risks, such as health insurance, sick leave insurance, accident insurance, long-term care insurance and disability insurance; and programs that insure against other risks, such as unemployment insurance, pension insurance and country-specific social insurance. These insurance systems exist in almost all developed countri...
High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...
Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.
textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...
Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka
In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...
Ellis T. Williams
Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...
Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Andrés Mauricio Cano Rodas
The experience of the head of a single-parent home has led interviewed parents to modify the exercise of their masculinity regarding communication, relationships, the manner to express affection and the everyday performance with their children, accepting the new family role by associating it with the responsibility of raising and caring for the children
... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the... secondary school settings, including area vocational education schools, and community-based organizations... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced...
..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...
Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.
Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de
Around the world today there are striking differences in pension systems. The roles played by families, employers, trade unions, financial intermediaries, community organizations, affiliation groups, and governmental agencies vary tremendously. Yet despite these differences, in almost every country the government is ultimately the pension insurer of last resort, either explicitly or implicitly. If designed well and managed well, a system of government pension insurance can enhance the wellbei...
Fariza, M. S.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a phase of emotionl turmoil and stress. If not balanced with religious practice, it may cause adolescents to fall into moral and social problems such as breach of school discipline, delinquency, drug addiction and sexual permissiveness. Religiosity is one way for adolescents to deal with challenges in life thereby avoiding immoral activities. This is because religiosity may help to balance adolescent emotional, cognitive and social developments.The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviour and level of religiosity among 30 adolescents from single parents families who settle in government-subsidised area of residence, namely known as the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA. The area is located in the state of Pahang, situated on the eastern part of Malaysia. These adolescents have been selected as research respondents. This research was conducted as a survey using questionnaire as the research instrument. It was constructed based on the guidelines of Islamic Practice Instrument (IPI (Fariza, 2012 and has already been verified in terms of its validity and reliability. The data analysis has adopted the method of descriptive statistics explained in table form. The research results have found that religiosity or religious behaviour that the adolescents most frequently abide by are staying away from gambling, having good thoughts and expectations of Allah, feeling awed and fear of Allah’s power (taqwa, staying away from fornication (zina and supplication (doa to Allah facing the direction of Qibla. The level of religiosity is medium for most adolescents. This factor explains why not many respondents are involved in moral and disciplinary problems at school. This research finds that generally, religiosity protects adolescents from being involved in immoral activities and other vices.
The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de
Alston, Julian M.; Quilkey, John J.
Where the production of milk for sale on the fresh milk market at 'controlled' prices is subject to nontransferable quotas the holders of quota who wish to maximise profits have a motive to maintain production above the quota level to insure against variations in demand for over-quota sales and yield. The concept of 'production of milk as insurance' is used to clarify the way in which such behaviour gives rise to social costs which could be avoided in a competitive market, by a permissive att...
A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....
Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...
Wijk, van der S.
Crop insurance was fairly new in the Netherlands but there was no legal objection or limitation to particular crops. If a crop were insured, it was important that the whole area of the crop were insured. Speculative insurance seemed preferable to mutual insurance.Crop insurance covered all risks
Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch
These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions
Jett, John; Visser, Ingrid N; Ventre, Jeffrey; Waltz, Jordan; Loch, Carolina
Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted. Summary statistics described the distribution and severity of pathologies; inferential statistics examined how pathologies differed between sexes, between wild-captured and captive-born orcas and between captive orca at four facilities. We also evaluated how dental pathology and duration of captivity were related. Approximately 24% of whales exhibited "major" to "extreme" mandibular coronal tooth wear, with coronal wear and wear at or below gum line highly correlated. More than 60% of mandibular teeth 2 and 3 exhibited fractures. Bore holes were observed primarily among anterior mandibular teeth, with more than 61% of teeth 2 and 3 bearing evidence of having been drilled. Four of five orca with the highest age-adjusted tooth pathology indices were captive-born. Various dental pathologies were observed across all whales, with pathologies beginning at a young age. Oral stereotypies exhibited by captive orca contributed to the observed dental damage. By making dental and health records of captive whales publicly available, the theme park industry is uniquely positioned to provide further insight into dental pathology and resultant health consequences in captive orca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n = 6474 and 2014–15 (n = 6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.
The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...
Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee
This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, pself-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, pself-esteem.
Lima, Juliana S.F. [IRB-Brasil Resseguros, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
This work shows an overview, focused mainly Brazil, of the insurance branch that deals with the upstream activities. The oil industry represents a substantial exposition for insurance international market because of the catastrophic nature of its risks, that entails a capacity dependency. The most of Insurance split into several insurers and reinsurer and are distributed into several markets and several regions of the world. The oil and gas branch of insurance covers: physical damage to equipment (platforms, vessels, drill ship etc), build, operation and liability in consequence of claims. The contract of insurance is complex because it is specific and demands much negotiation of rates and conditions. Moreover it is needed to find reliable insurers which want to accept the risk. There are alternatives to insurance market created by oil companies such as Captive and Mutual companies. The insurance international market built a complex and customized structure in order to be able to offer coverage to upstream risks and to participate in the amounts related to oil and gas production. (author)
Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung
The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population.
Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).
Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S
An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.
Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...
Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.
Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...
Jones, M P
This article describes concepts of raptor behavior in captive birds of prey with inferences from the behavior of their wild counterparts that will assist the veterinarian in understanding the causes of managing abnormal behaviors.
Walker, Janet; Crawford, Karin; Taylor, Francesca
This paper reports on the experiences and views of children and young people of single-parent families, as findings from a European Union-funded research project undertaken in England, Greece and Cyprus. The objectives of the research project were to investigate how children and young people of single-parent families understand and experience their worlds as members of these families: whether and to what extent they experience poverty and social exclusion and how they cope with the challenges that this confronts them with. Methodology was replicated in each of the countries; however, this paper draws on the English experiences. Semistructured interviews (40) and focus groups (four) were undertaken with children of single parents. In addition, focus groups were undertaken with children of two-parent families (four), focus groups with single parents, focus groups with two-parent families (four) and individual interviews with key professionals. Detailed discussion guides were followed, with open-ended questions to allow participants to express their feelings and ideas in their own words. The research sample included children from single-parent and two-parent families, aged 6 years to 16 years, balanced in terms of age, gender and geographical location. Findings demonstrate the children's and young people's understanding of the impact of poverty and social exclusion on their family life and their everyday experiences. The positive benefits of being in a single-parent family are highlighted, with 'time poverty' raised as a significant issue. Children and young people are aware of their poverty and how it influences exclusion from friendships, play, leisure and community activities. Policy needs to take account of the systematic reality of children's experiences; alliances with adults that support meaningful involvement and participation by children and young people will make a significant contribution to this.
Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.
In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...
ambiguous, insurance firms are reluctant to market coverage. The oae of nulear power provides a graphic example. Neither risk managers of nuclear...Inauiry, 20, 1-9. Alliance of American Insurers, American Insurance Association, National Association of Independent Insurers, Mutual Atomic Energy
This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…
Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C
Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.
Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S
Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr
Christie, Mark R.; Marine, Melanie L.; French, Rod A.; Blouin, Michael S.
Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigen...
A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug
Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang
A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild
Simpson, Gary; Zimmerman, Ralph; Shashkina, Elena; Chen, Liang; Richard, Michael; Bradford, Carol M; Dragoo, Gwen A; Saiers, Rhonda L; Peloquin, Charles A; Daley, Charles L; Planet, Paul; Narachenia, Apurva; Mathema, Barun; Kreiswirth, Barry N
Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized by...
Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
... For several years after the drug is developed, laws prevent other drug companies from copying it. When other companies start manufacturing ... understand medical bills to know what your insurance company is paying…Health ... It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding ...
Nordstrom, Lisa A.
A..11 species of Tapiridae and Rhinocerotidae are threatened or endangered in the wild. Captive populations have been established for most of these species, but successful management has proved challenging. Effective ex situ conservation strategies, however, rely on the ability of zoological institutions to maintain and breed these endangered species. In this study, I examined the captive environment to identify the factors associated with reproduction, mortality, and health of rhinos and tap...
Nov 6, 1980 ... drohyrax dorsalis) Biologia Gabonica I. RUDNAI, J. 1984. Activity cycle and space utilization in a captive. Dendrohyrax arboreus group. S. Afr. J. Zool. 19: 124-128. SALE, J.B. 1 965a. Some aspects of the behaviour and ecology of the rock hyraces (Genera Procavia and Heterohyrax) Ph.D. thesis, Ju·.
The locomotory activity of a free-ranging, male. Chrysospalax trevelyan; was monitored for five days in the. Amatola Forest, Ciskei, using radio telemetry. In addition, locomotory activity of a captive juvenile male and adult female C. trevelyan; was monitored in a speCial laboratory enclosure for 30 days. Preliminary results ...
Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.
When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr
Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work
Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves
surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily...
Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)
Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H
This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health...
GONO SEMIADI; R. TAUFIQ PURNA NUGRAHA
The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The...
Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.
Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H
This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were ana...
Thornton T. Munger; H.B. Shepard
This inquiry, originally conceived as an effort to determine definitely whether the existing lack of adequate and practical forest fire insurance facilities is in truth unavoidable and, if possible, to suggest means whereby the condition might be remedied, finds no apparent reason why successful forest fire insurance should not be possible as far as the loss situation...
International Labour Office. Geneva
This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.
Full Text Available Introduction: Female-headed households are among the most vulnerable groups of society and there are potential of many critical jeopardies for these families. Therefore, this study was focused to evaluate the effect of home care program on self-efficacy of female-headed single parent households supported by Isfahan Behzisti-Welfare Organization in year 2015. Methodology: This study was a quasi-experimental design research with random selection of 36 female headed single parent. Prior to the nursing intervention, demographic and life style information of these families were evaluated using 70 questions in a questionnaires. In addition, a pre-test using a standard self-efficacy questionnaires with 17 questions were used to assess the level of self-efficacy of these families. Following the experiment, these families responded to the self-efficacy questionnaires. For descriptive statistics analysis, frequency, average, and standard deviation were evaluated. Furthermore, paired-sample t-test, Pearson's chi-squared test, Mann–Whitney test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance were analyzed using SPSS v.18 software for statistical inference analysis. Results: Our analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the score average of pre- and post- home care program. It supported our hypothesis that the supportive home care program had significant effect on self-efficacy of femaleheaded single parent households. Discussion and Conclusion: Following the effect of the supportive nursing intervention on self-efficacy of female-headed households, it should be mentioned that this supportive program can be the best strategic plan to increase the family’s health and preventing health issues. Therefore, given the multiple roles of public health nurse, supportive home care program is critical and should be emphasized.
Squeezed by coordinated-care initiatives, a number of hospital systems are looking to help fill beds and reap more revenue by offering insurance plans on the state exchanges set to launch this fall. Some will use narrow networks, a strategy that allows systems to create a captive customer base. "I think it's going to be a huge growth area in the exchanges," says Jonathan Gruber, left, a professor of economics at MIT.
This fact sheet, NHTSA Facts: Summer 1996, discusses automobile insurance discounts. It relates how to obtain a discount, and details what factors can influence insurance premiums. It notes that discounts for safety features vary from insurance compa...
.... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...
Most health insurance plans are required to cover routine patient care costs in clinical trials under certain conditions. Learn about the conditions that insurance plans take into account and how to work with your insurance company.
.... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...
The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance. The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...
In the fourth concluding article on this subject (following articles in VW 1981 pp. 483, 552 and 629), the author explains procedures, duties and obligations according to the Para. Para. 5, 6 and 7 of the AHBKA. These obligations are to be observed before or after the occurrence of damages. In addition, legal consequences following violations of duties - loss of right - joint, insurance, transfer ban, period for filing suit, duty to notify, 'The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance and Reinsurance Community', the insurance according to the 'General terms and conditions governing the liability insurance of licensed activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations (AHBStr.)', object, beginning and exclusion of coverage, 'Special conditions governing the transport of nuclear fuels according to Para. 25 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law' are attached to the General Terms and Conditions governing the liability insurance of licenced activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de
Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart
We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...
Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...
... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.15 Mechanical; captive bolt. The... under the Act. (a) Application of stunners, required effect; handling. (1) The captive bolt stunners shall be applied to the livestock in accordance with this section so as to produce immediate...
Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)
Perry, M.C.; Obrecht, H.H.; Williams, B.K.; Kuenzel, W.J.
Blood chemistry and packed cell volume (PCV) did not vary among groups of captive canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) maintained ad libitum on 5 diets varying in metabolizable energy (ME) and protein. Ducks fed low quality diets increased their consumption so that all ducks were obtaining similar amounts of energy and protein. Some variables, including cholesterol, were found to differ between the sexes and ages of captive ducks. Seasonal differences were detected in the blood chemistry of captive canvasbacks. Four of the 5 enzyme values increased from October to January and then declined to April. PCV increased from 45 in October to 51 in April. Overall, blood chemistry values and PCV's were highly variable and did not appear to be good discriminators for age, sex, and diet of captive canvasbacks. Differences detected between captive and wild canvasbacks were attributed to increased stress of wild ducks during handling.
Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.
Wood, D P; Sexton, J L
In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school.
The reproductive endocrinological characteristics of beluga, killer whale, spotted seal and bottlenose dolphin were evaluated and used in conjunction with applied reproductive research to enhance captive breeding programs. Results from 8 y of biweekly serum progesterone determination in a female beluga indicated that sexual maturity occured at approximately age 13, two to seven estrous cycles, lasting 37 +/- 3.9 days, per yr began in April-May every year. Rectal temperature was positively correlated with serum progesterone levels and negatively associated with behavioral estrus. In five cases of pregnancy of two female killer whale, positive relationship was found between serum progesterone concentration and temperature during the first period of 18 month-gestation. In the normal parturitions (n=4), rectal temperature decreased 0.8 C lower than average rectal temperature during pregnancy. Sexual maturity of female killer whales occurred at age nine. Yearly contraception in the mono-estrus captive spotted seals (n=10) using a single dose of the progestagen (proligestone(TM); 5 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) was achieved in 94% (33/35) of the attempts over 5 yr when the hormone was administered two months prior to the breeding season. Artificial insemination trials (n=4) were conducted in female bottlenose dolphin (n=3) using fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Estrus synchronization using regumate (27 days) resulted in ovulation occurring 19 to 24 days post withdrawal. Conception was confirmed in 75% of the attempts, with two females successfully delivering calves.
Mark V. Pauly
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...
The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013: The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address). The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)
Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom
Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor
The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.
Fisch, Kathleen M; Ivy, Jamie A; Burton, Ronald S; May, Bernie
The delta smelt, an endangered fish species endemic to the San Francisco Bay-Delta, California, United States, was recently brought into captivity for species preservation. This study retrospectively evaluates the implementation of a genetic management plan for the captive delta smelt population. The captive genetic management plan entails tagging fish, molecular data collection, pedigree reconstruction, relatedness estimation, and recommending fish crosses annually in an effort to minimize the average coancestry in the population and limit inbreeding. We employed 12 microsatellite DNA markers to examine temporal genetic diversity in consecutive, discrete generations to determine the effects of intensive genetic management on the population and to quantify the amount of wild genetic diversity present within each captive generation. Wild fish are incorporated into the captive population each generation to minimize genetic drift, and 91% of the original founders are still represented in the F(3) generation. The average mean kinship in the third generation in captivity was 0.0035. There was no evidence of significant genetic divergence of the captive population from the wild population. The results of this study yield management insights into the practical application of genetic management plans for captive populations and conservation hatcheries, in an attempt to preserve the genetic integrity of endangered species.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.
Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M = 13.82 years, SD = 1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for
Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J
Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.
Risk, a word that causes a lot of associations in human brains. Many of us don't like risks. Since hundreds of years insurance is the most common way to get rid of the financial consequences when risks convert to damages. This article deals with commercial risks and the possibilities of risk transfer, an important task within the field of risk management. For commercial entities it is very important to transfer risks, threatening the competitiveness or even worse the existence of a company. At the beginning of insurance it was more the less a bet between merchants and rich people. Later on mutual societies were taking place. Today we see a complex insurance industry with insurers, reinsurers, self insuring possibilities via captives and much more. This complex system, with all the different ways to deal with risk transfer requires a professional risk assessment! Risk assessment is based on knowledge about the threatened assets, the likelihood that they will be damaged, the threats and the possibilities to protect these assets. Assets may be tangible or intangible. Assessing risks is not a precise calculation that delivers a result without any doubt. But insurers and insured need a basis to fix a premium, both of them can agree. This contribution will present a system to assess risks and to find the right risk-transfer-premiums.
Nakagawa, S; Ouchi, K
From a freeze-tolerant baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 2,333 spore clones were obtained. To improve the leavening ability in lean dough of the parent strain, we selected 555 of the high-maltose-fermentative spore clones by using a method in which a soft agar solution containing maltose and bromocresol purple was overlaid on yeast colonies. By measuring the gassing power in the dough, we selected 66 spore clones with a good leavening ability in lean dough and a total of 694 hybrids were constructed by crossing them. Among these hybrids, we obtained 50 novel freeze-tolerant strains with good leavening ability in all lean, regular, and sweet doughs comparable to that of commercial baker's yeast. Hybrids with improved leavening ability or freeze tolerance compared with the parent yeast and commercial baker's yeasts were also obtained. These results suggest that hybridization between spore clones derived from a single parent strain is effective for improving the properties of baker's yeasts.
Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.
Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen
The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...... in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S....... Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles...
Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the occurrence of hepatic capillariasis in two non-human primates of the species Callithrix penicillata that were kept in captivity. Case 1 was in a young female, whose liver presented pale coloring, softening due to autolysis and several noticeably whitish areas. Case 2 was in a male of unknown age, whose liver was slightly pale and brownish. Histological analysis on the samples revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with hemosiderotic areas. Adult nematodes of Capillaria hepatica and numerous eggs, morphologically characterized by their non-embryonic ellipsoid shape, with bipolar plugs that did not protrude from the shell, thick and birefringent, with a porous layer, thus giving a striated appearance to the eggs. Some cystic formations presented nematode eggs surrounded by numerous foreign-body giant cells. The literature consulted made little reference to reports of Capillaria hepatica in non-human primates. However, similar infections have been extensively studied in domestic rodents.
Morozov, V M; Bulyko, V I; Rustanovich, A V; Kozachenko, V V
The clinical and medico-psychological research of the servicemen, long time staying by hostages in captivity is lead. Boundary mental frustration, in particular neurotic reactions and the conditions, asthenodepressive syndrome, posttraumatic stress frustrations, are revealed in 45.8% surveyed. The most psychotraumatic is initial period of adaptation to conditions of captivity. The necessity to carry out the measures of medico-psychological rehabilitation and treatment of the servicemen, released from captivity, should be taken into account during planning of medical maintenance of the troops in local wars and armed conflicts.
Full Text Available Parasitic infections are widespread among exotic lizards and cause serious problems in both private captive breeding and trade networks. Among 168 lizards obtained from captive breeding (Zoological Garden in Wrocław and private owners and trade (pet shops and wholesale the total prevalence of endoparasites was 42.35 %. We detected species of Protozoa, Cestoda, Trematoda - Digenea and Nematoda as well as pseudoparasites. The prevalence of endoparasites was higher in the reptiles obtained from captive breeding (59.5 % than in those from trade network, however the parasite species spectrum was wider in the animals form pet shops and wholesales.
The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance. This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF. The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll. Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions. More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...
Obadović Mirjana M.
Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.
Ravi SS Toor
Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.
Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de
Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...
In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.
Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...
Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui
Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...
This article investigates the interaction between life insurance and long-term care insurance markets on the demand side. In the model utility depends on both consumption and bequest, and utility from consumption is contingent on the state of health. While the demand for life insurance increases both with decreasing income and with a rising degree of altruism, the influences of these two parameters on the demand for long-term care insurance are ambiguous. If the utility shock arising from dis...
Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara
Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...
Žagar Zlatko A.
Full Text Available Prior the commencement of the clinical trial in Serbia the Sponsor is obliged to provide the insurance policy covering the patient's bodily injury and damaged health caused by the clinical trial. According to provisions of Serbian Insurance law insurance polices have to be issued by the insurance companies established in Serbia. Every insurance policy not issued by the insurance company established in Serbia shall be deemed as null and void. The only expectance, is when the foreign clinical trial liability policy is stipulated that the insurance contract acknowledges the jurisdiction of Serbian domestic courts and other Serbian authorities to decide on damage claims (that never happened in Serbian practice. The Sponsor will fulfill this obligation stipulated in Serbian law when provides the Clinical Trial Liability policy issued by the Serbian insurance company. Nowadays, few of Serbian insurance companies are issuing such polices. Under the clinical trial liability insurance cover the insured's are: Sponsor, Medical Centers in Serbia performing or controlling the clinical trial, Principal Investigators and their assistant staff performing or controlling the clinical trial. The beneficiaries of the insurance cover are patients and/or members of their families - inheritresses. The insurance company will indemnify the beneficiary mentioned in the policy when the insured event occurred i.e. when occurred bodily injury, psychic disease and alienation, psychic damages, illnesses and deaths caused by the clinical trial. The amount of indemnity by the insurance company to the beneficiaries is limited by the amount of sum insured per occurrence and/or by the total amount of the sum insured for the total period of the insurance cover. According to case-law in Serbia the total sum insured between EUR 500.000 and EUR 1.000.000 is considered as sufficient so far to indemnify the patients in case of the insured event. If an insurance event occurs the
Carvalho, T.S.G.; Zangeronimo, M.G.; Saad, C.E.P.; Alvarenga, R.R.; Assis, V.D.L.; Pereira, V.M.; Scalon, J.D.; Silva, J.P.
Behavioural studies with cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) in captivity are scarce. Due to the need for appropriate management of these animals, this study was performed to examine the behaviour of cockatiels kept in captivity at two temperatures. Sixteen cockatiels were individually housed in cages (62cm high x 43cm long x 27cm wide) and fed with a commercial ration and seed mixture for psittacids. Water was provided ad libitum. The eight-day experiment was divided into two stages of four d...
International Monetary Fund
This technical note discusses key findings of the assessment of Insurance Core Principles (ICP) for the reinsurance industry for Switzerland. It reveals that the Swiss reinsurance market is dominated by three large players with a strong international presence. The reinsurance industry comprises 20 professional reinsurers and 50 reinsurance captives with gross premiums written totaling SwF 37.4 billion for 2005. Swiss Re, European Re, and Converium have consistently maintained more than 75 per...
Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.
Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...
Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system
Rocha, L.M.G. da.
The fuel transport insurance in Brazil is analysed. There are some special and additional clauses that can be included or excluded, according to the contracting parts and because of some rules, conventions and treaties they are obliged to insert certain conditions, in view of the nature of the transported material and the risks resulting from it. (A.L.S.L.) [pt
FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA
Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.
O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene
Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...
Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi
Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.
Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.
We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...
Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of nontuberculous mycobacteria species in the pathology of various reptilian pet species as well as their epidemiological significance of infection transmission to humans. Faeces samples from six living reptiles and organs from ten carcasses were submitted to bacteriological testing during the years 2003–2015. Positive colonies from one faeces sample and two organs showed the presence of a gene coding 65kDa antigen common for all mycobacteria. Further identification to the species level revealed that the isolates belong to Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, later subjected to drug susceptibility testing which confirmed high resistance levels in both isolates. In conclusion, there is a great significance of the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in captive and pet reptiles, presenting reptiles as possible hosts representing a serious threat of transmission of high resistance mycobacterial isolates to humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. avium subsp. hominissuis occurrence in reptiles.
Schmit, Brandon S; Primus, Thomas M; Hurley, Jerome C; Kohler, Dennis J; Graves, Shawna F
A captive striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) study was conducted between February and June 2004 at the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The main objective was to determine the percentage of adult striped skunks that were marked after consuming placebo oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits containing 100 mg of an experimental microencapsulated (coated microparticle) tetracycline hydrochloride biomarker. Biomarkers were identified in the canine teeth and mandibles of five of five skunks that consumed an ORV bait. A second objective was to determine if the microencapsulated tetracycline was resistant to photochemical conversion from tetracycline to epitetracycline. After 15 days of exposure, conversion from tetracycline to epitetracycline concentration in the microencapsulated product (mean 1.9% conversion, SD=1.24) was significantly less (P=0.006) than the pure-grade tetracycline powder (mean 7.5% conversion, SD=1.37). Results support the use of microencapsulated tetracycline hydrochloride as a biomarker in circumstances where the use of conventional powdered tetracycline hydrochloride is not feasible due to ORV bait design constraints.
Kaplan, W; Chandler, F W; Padhye, A A; Hamm, T E
We report disseminated, fatal fungal disease involving subcutaneous and visceral tissues in 4 captive snakes (1 Elaphe guttata, 2 Crotalus horridus, and 1 Pituophis melanoleucus). The etiologic agent, which was abundant in the lesion, had a rounded form in vivo with a prominent nucleus. These cells averaged 17 microns in diameter and reproduced by fission, forming clusters of two or four daughter cells. The etiologic agent was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar from one of the snakes. It also grew well on various mycologic media, forming soft, raised, glabrous, tannish colonies. The colonies were composed of large spherical cells with prominent nuclei that reproduced by fission like those seen in tissue. In addition, some of the cells were observed to germinate, forming rudimentary hyphal filaments that were up to 8 microns in diameter and 100 microns in length, with occasional septa and thick-walled structures regarded as azygospores. We consider the fungus to be a zygomycete that may belong to the order Entomophthorales.
Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph
Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...
Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette
Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats. © 2015
Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi
1. Background Major portions of the Asia-Pacific region is facing escalating exposure and vulnerability to climate change and flood-related extremes. This highlights an arduous challenge for public agencies to improve existing risk management strategies. Conventionally, governmental funding was majorly responsible and accountable for disaster loss compensation in the developing countries in Asia, such as Taiwan. This is often criticized as an ineffective and inefficient measure of dealing with flood risk. Flood insurance is one option within the toolkit of risk-sharing arrangement and adaptation strategy to flood risk. However, there are numerous potential barriers for insurance companies to cover flood damage, which would cause the flood risk is regarded as uninsurable. This study thus aims to examine attitudes within the insurers about the viability of flood insurance, the decision-making processes of pricing flood insurance and their determinants, as well as to examine potential solutions to encourage flood insurance. 2. Methods and data Using expected-utility theory, an insurance agent-based decision-making model was developed to examine the insurers' attitudes towards the insurability of flood risk, and to scrutinize the factors that influence their decisions on flood insurance premium-setting. This model particularly focuses on how insurers price insurance when they face either uncertainty or ambiguity about the probability and loss of a particular flood event occurring. This study considers the factors that are expected to affect insures' decisions on underwriting and pricing insurance are their risk perception, attitudes towards flood insurance, governmental measures (e.g., land-use planning, building codes, risk communication), expected probabilities and losses of devastating flooding events, as well as insurance companies' attributes. To elicit insurers' utilities about premium-setting for insurance coverage, the 'certainty equivalent,' 'probability
This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.
It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies
Gerber, Hans U
This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.
Константин Борисович Зуев
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical studies of single-parent families.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-6
Freund, KM; Isabelle, AP; Hanchate, A; Kalish, RL; Kapoor, A; Bak, S; Mishuris, RG; Shroff, S; Battaglia, TA
We investigated the impact of the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform on insurance coverage and stability among minority and underserved women. We examined 36 months of insurance claims among 1,946 women who had abnormal cancer screening at six Community Health Centers pre-(2004–2005) and post-(2007–2008) insurance reform. We examined frequency of switches in insurance coverage as measures of longitudinal insurance instability. On the date of their abnormal cancer screening test, 36% of subjects were publicly insured and 31% were uninsured. Post-reform, the percent ever uninsured declined from 39% to 29% (p.001) and those consistently uninsured declined from 23% to 16%. To assess if insurance instability changed between the pre- and post-reform periods, we conducted Poisson regression models, adjusted for patient demographics and length of time in care. These revealed no significant differences from the pre- to post-reform period in annual rates of insurance switches, incident rate ratio 0.98 (95%-CI 0.88–1.09). Our analysis is limited by changes in the populations in the pre and post reform period and inability to capture care outside of the health system network. Insurance reform increased stability as measured by decreasing uninsured rates without increasing insurance switches. PMID:24583490
Full Text Available The article deals with the process of locating foreign war prisoners in the Kurgan district from September 1914 to January 1917 and provides the data on their number and placement process. The author studies in detail the employment of captives in the economy of the district and characterizes the food, monetary and other regulations. The article also contains the information about companies and jobs where captives were involved and analyzes the legal rules applicable to captives and their practical implementation. The overview of the governance structure of captives is given. On the basis of extensive archival material, the author provides many early-unknown or little-studied historical facts about Trans-Urals in a given period. The conclusion is made about the importance of captives’ labor for the economic development of the Kurgan district during the First World War. The war prisoners were deeply involved in the economic development of the Kurgan district, their number was considerable, and they represented the major group of the population. It is also worth mentioning that the conditions of captives affected directly the military situation in the country – if at the beginning of the war, they were actually recognized by the Russian army, to its completion the allowance has been abbreviated in order to save the military.
Before open access, long-term contracts between gas producers, pipelines, and local distribution companies (LDCs) were the rule. Since then, spot trading has dominated the gas market. Spot prices govern short-term transactions and often determine adjustments in longer-term contracts. Experts have repeatedly predicted a return to long-term fixed-price (LTFP) contracts. (open-quotes Fixedclose quotes means unrelated to spot prices, but not necessarily frozen.) They have perceived spot dealing as a response to temporary chaos, or as the consequence of a open-quotes bubbleclose quotes of deliverable gas that would soon vanish. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission staff's analysis of Order 636 anticipates that the order will foster long-term contracts. But as the dust settles, the reign of spot gas continues. LTFP gas contracts certainly appear superior to spot trades. In readily, LTFP contracts are inferior at almost every turn. Paradoxically, they are riskier than spot transactions. If LTFP contracts were worthwhile, most large gas buyers would use them. Instead, those buyers purchase spot gas and hedge it with futures and options. Electric utilities, nonutility generators, and LDCs are virtually the only users of LTFP contracts. Unlike other gas buyers, utilities can shift risk onto their customers through automatic adjustments in their regulated rates. If ratepayers were not captives, they would not bear the added risk of LTFP contracts without compensation. LTFP contracts are a thing of the past, a security blanket for utilities that is paid for by their customers. If regulators do not put an end to LTFP contracts, competition will. Customers with choices will not hold still for LTFP pass-throughs, as has become evident in LDC gas bypass
Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.
Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.
Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.
Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch
We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings....
Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana
Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cronstedt-Fell, A; Richter, B; Voracek, T; Kübber-Heiss, A
Infection with Neospora caninum has been diagnosed in a variety of animal species; however, reports in marsupials are rare. A captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) died suddenly and was subjected to necropsy examination. The main finding was necrotizing myocarditis associated with protozoan parasites. The protozoa were identified as N. caninum by use of immunohistochemistry and partial gene sequence analysis. Neospora and Toxoplasma should be considered a possible cause of disease in captive marsupials. Further work is required to determine whether marsupials are an accidental or terminal host of this protozoan in order to better understand the host-parasite relationship. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karsten Jeske; Sagiri Kitao
The U.S. tax policy on health insurance favors only those offered group insurance through their employers, and is highly regressive since the subsidy takes the form of deductions from the progressive income tax system. The paper investigates alternatives to the current policy. We find that a complete removal of the subsidy results in a significant reduction in the insurance coverage and serious welfare deterioration. There is, however, room for improving welfare and raising the coverage, by e...
Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch
Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (2007...... a cognitive model based on budgeting. Our findings emphasize the importance of budget constraints, which lead consumers to budget their income across consumption categories. We find also that a simple heuristic accounts for many collision coverage decisions: purchase coverage for cars worth more than some...
Full Text Available The process of precarization is analysed in different manners in most literature concerning contemporary stakes of western welfare states. In comparison to other countries, Belgium has known a rather specific and delimited effect of the economic crisis from 2008, but certain groups face rather an ongoing effect of precarization on multiple and intertwined aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the situation of precarity of single-parent families in the Brussels-Capital Region. The attention to that group is related to its higher risk of precarity and poverty. Furthermore it allows analysing the limits of public policies in the fight against poverty and precarity, that are clearly inadequate. Various options in terms of public policies and legal measures in the fight against poverty are discussed from three different angles of perspective: socioeconomic positions, social integration and the subjective experience (Dubet 1994. The tension between recognition and redistribution measures is central (Fraser 2011 in the argumentation for a balanced vision of policy measures to address single-parent poverty. La literatura científica sobre las apuestas contemporáneas de los estados de bienestar occidentales analiza de forma diferente el proceso de precarización. En comparación con otros países, Bélgica ha vivido desde 2008 un efecto de la crisis económica bastante específico y delimitado. Sin embargo, algunos grupos se enfrentan a un proceso de precarización continuo en numerosos aspectos, interrelacionados entre sí. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la situación de precariedad de las familias monoparentales de la región de Bruselas capital. La atención a ese grupo está relacionada con su mayor riesgo de precariedad y pobreza. Además, permite analizar los límites de las políticas públicas en la lucha contra la pobreza y la precariedad, que son claramente insuficientes. Se analizan desde tres puntos de vista diversas
Hassemer, Peter; Kline, Paul; Heindel, Jeff; Plaster, Kurtis
The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance...
This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.
Introduction: The older population in most developing countries are uninsured and lack access to health services. This study assessed the extent to which a multi-strategy health insurance education intervention would increase the number of insured among the older population in rural Kenya. Methods: The ...
P.O. Box 2SS, Lusaka, Zambia. J. Hanks. Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, ..... Oxford University. Press. 212 pp. SKINNER, J.D. 1972. Eland vs. Beef. Afr. Wildl. 26(1): 4-9. STAINTHORPE, H.L. 1972. Observations on captive eland in the. Loteni Nature Reserve. Lammergeyer 15: 27 - 38. TAYLOR, C.R. ...
Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.
There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife
A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death.
The locomotory activity of a free-ranging, male Chrysospalax trevelyani was monitored for five days in the Amatola Forest, Ciskei, using radio telemetry. In addition, locomotory activity of a captive juvenile male and adult female C. trevelyani was monitored in a special laboratory enclosure for 30 days. Preliminary results ...
Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.
Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations
Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...
Zoological gardens showcase wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases had been described to be a big threat to animals in captivity, leading to high mortality in some cases. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats fed to ...
Jul 18, 2012 ... Emergent patterns of social organization in captive Cercocebus torquatus: Testing the GrooFiWorld agent-based model. R DOLADO. 1,* and FS BELTRAN. 2. 1Department of Behavioral Sciences Methods, 2Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C), Adaptive Behavior and Interaction Research ...
Parasites and associated packed cell volume changes of captive wild birds in the semi-arid region of north-eastern Nigeria. ... Eimeria oocysts (19.8%) were the most prevalent followed respectively by strongyle (7.9%), Ascaridia galli (4.8%) and Raillietina (1.6%) eggs. Egg and oocyst counts were generally low. Necropsy ...
Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchart; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Angkavanich, Taweepoke; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Thongtip, Nikorn; Colenbrander, Ben; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.
The genetic diversity and population structure of 136 captive Thai elephants (Elephas maximus) with known region of origin were investigated by analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We did not detect significant indications of inbreeding and only a low differentiation of elephants
Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...
The number of crocodiles and the number of eggs were of the constraints faced in managing them in captivity. The constraints mentioned includes inadequate space (75%) and inadequate funds (62.5%). Others includes problems of water, fighting among the crocodiles, diseases and parasites. The main recommendation is ...
Kik, M. J. L.; Goris, M. G.; Bos, J. H.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Dorrestein, G. M.
An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity is described. In a zoo in The Netherlands 5 adult seals died within 12 days. At necropsy all animals showed signs of acute septicaemia, consistent with acute leptospirosis. Serological examination of one animal was positive for
... age of the insured under a life insurance contract. (a) In general. This section provides guidance on determining the attained age of an insured under a contract that is a life insurance contract under the... second of the two insureds dies. (ii) Section 1.7702-2(c)(1) provides that if a life insurance contract...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance..., Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-357. OMB Control Number: 2900-0016. Type of Review: Extension of a... disability insurance on National Service Life Insurance and United States Government Life Insurance policies...
... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations...
...-0001] RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance... changes to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance...
Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C
In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the
Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.
The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.
... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...
...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...
... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...
... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...
Marius Dan GAVRILETEA
Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.
The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.
This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...
Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.
Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich
This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...
Răducu Marian PETRESCU
Full Text Available This work aims to identify and develop best practices in the insurance field. We must mention from the beginning that best practices are not compulsory or mandatory rules of law, they cannot and do not want to be placed above the legal provisions in force, they only complement the law. Moreover, we intend to look into the implementation of the Solvency II Directive from the point of view of best practices in insurance. In this research, the main method of study was the theoretical qualitative research (especially document analysis, with the purpose to identify and theoretically develop the information on best practices in the insurance field. The main results of the research consist in the identification of general best practices in performing the activity (such as communication/consultation with the interested parties, the consistency as regards contractual/non-contractual relations, the effectiveness and efficiency, transparency and honesty, fair treatment of customers etc. which have been presented in short and which could be implemented by any company that seeks to achieve superior performances, including the insurance companies. The work also includes some important best practices, described in detail, in a sensitive area such as the insurance field (best practices in relation to the management of personal information, the management and settlement of disputes by insurance companies or intermediaries in the field of insurance etc..
The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies
N. Tkachenko; O. Kryvytska
The article investigates the practical aspects of the activity of insurance intermediaries in Ukraine. The structure and dynamics of insurance payments for life insurance in Ukraine as a whole, as well as in the context of residents and non-residents, are analyzed. The share of insurance intermediaries in the realization of life insurance services in Ukraine is revealed. The indexes of insurance intermediaries in the organization of life insurance in Ukraine for 2012-2016 are systematized. In...
Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.
Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.
Love, Ashley C; Lovern, Matthew B; DuRant, Sarah E
Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We tested how captivity influences stress endocrinology, immune responses, and organ mass, and also investigated if the production or regulation of corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, correlated with changes in immunity. We found that baseline corticosterone concentrations and maximum capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone increase following captivity and remain elevated after 9weeks of captivity. A measure of innate immune function, the bactericidal ability of plasma, also increased with time spent in captivity. Wound healing was also influenced by time spent in captivity, with birds taking almost 2days longer to heal if they were wounded after 3weeks in captivity when compared with birds that were wounded immediately upon capture. Additionally, captivity caused notable reductions in spleen and liver mass. Together, these results imply that captivity can have long-lasting effects on house sparrow corticosterone release and immune function, and suggest that even after 9weeks house sparrows do not acclimate physiologically to life in captivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.
Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.
A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists
The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...
Gomez del Campo, Julian.
The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr
Rykova Valentina V.
he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...
Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C
Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.
Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L
Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Stephanie M. Allard
Full Text Available The type of learning exhibited during foraging has been studied in a large number of species. Species that feed on food sources that temporally vary in quality could be well suited for exhibiting evidence of spatial learning. The foraging strategies of captive giant anteaters were examined using an experimental foraging task. Two giant anteaters were exposed to a modified radial arm maze in order to determine whether or not they would demonstrate evidence of spatial learning. Both subjects demonstrated significant improvement in performance by visiting baited feeders more consistently across learning trials. A disruption in performance occurred when the task was reversed, indicating that giant anteaters may use spatial learning to locate food sources. Obtaining a more sound understanding of the cognitive abilities of giant anteaters may help to enhance their welfare in captive settings.
Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella
Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...... of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections....
Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M
A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 3052.228-70... of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-70 Insurance. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.310-70 and 3028... insurance. Insurance (DEC 2003) In accordance with the clause entitled “Insurance—Work on a Government...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Share insurance. 741.212 Section 741.212 Banks... INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.212 Share insurance. (a) Member...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Rehabilitation Loans § 203.443 Insurance...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 206.15 Section 206.15... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement § 206.15 Insurance. Mortgages originated under this...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value or...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance charge. 201.31 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Insurance of Loans § 201.31 Insurance charge. (a...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4222... General Provisions § 36.4222 Hazard insurance. (a) The holder shall require insurance policies to be... it may be subjected to the extent customary in the locality. The costs of such required insurance...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4329... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4329 Hazard insurance. The holder shall require insurance policies to be procured and maintained in an amount sufficient to...
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...
Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K.; Reddy, P. Anuradha
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90?% of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to ac...
Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.
Kim, J C; Kalter, S S
In contrast to the findings in newly caught babboons in Africa, the leading cause of death in captivity in America was a pneumonia and enteritis complex. Bacterial species such as Proteus morgani, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium sp., Pseudomonas paracolon, pathogenic Escherichia coli and cocci have been isolated in association with a pneumoenteric syndrome of 35 newborn baboons, including neonates. The majority of these animals died with pulmonary factors such as anoxia and pneumonia.
Dolphin Population Cory D Champagne & Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92106 phone...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. It determines...baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluates the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations to establish rules and procedures for the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Under the pilot program, VA will contract with a private insurer, through the Federal contracting process, to offer dental insurance to eligible individuals. The private insurer will be responsible for the administration of the dental insurance plan. VA will form the contract and verify the eligibility of individuals who apply for the private dental insurance.
Nakulan Valsala Rajesh
Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.
Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris
According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.
Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.
Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.
Marcos J. Oliveira
Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.
... Insurance Information Access AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The...-AO42 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access... operation, also has the right to full access to records held by the insurer or on behalf of the insurer from...
... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life...' Group Life Insurance (``SGLI'') and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (``VGLI'') to prohibit payment of insurance proceeds payable because of the death of a person whose life was insured under SGLI or VGLI...
... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-11-0011] RIN 0563-AC34 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop...
Full Text Available The article investigates the practical aspects of the activity of insurance intermediaries in Ukraine. The structure and dynamics of insurance payments for life insurance in Ukraine as a whole, as well as in the context of residents and non-residents, are analyzed. The share of insurance intermediaries in the realization of life insurance services in Ukraine is revealed. The indexes of insurance intermediaries in the organization of life insurance in Ukraine for 2012-2016 are systematized. In the article mention that insurance intermediaries stay in not active phase in their activity in life insurance sphere. The definition of the insurance intermediary is defined in broad and narrow terms. The purpose of the activity of insurance intermediaries is determined. Schematically shows the common and excellent in the activities of the key representatives of insurance mediation - insurance agents and insurance brokers. It is argued that insurance intermediaries have the opportunity to become key players in life insurance, since they are the ones who can reach potential insurers in the shortest possible time. It is also noted that the further development of life insurance will largely depend on the professionalism of the insurance intermediary. Noted the appropriate identification of a life insurance intermediary with a financial advisor.
... their apple production to the public as fresh apples, without undergoing any change in its basic form... Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Crop Insurance Regulations, Apple Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to...
The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish
Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.
Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H
Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.
In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.
The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...
Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min
risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...... measurement and the actual losses of the insured. It is not easy to predict the direction in which basis risk is going to affect insurance demand, in contrast to the clear and strong predictions for standard indemnity insurance products. Index insurance can be theoretically conceptualized as a situation...... affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while...
Full Text Available Increasingly, complaints about medical malpractice ocure extreme situations such as the death of the person or the occurrence of irreparable injuries. Professional misconduct in the exercise of the medical or medical-pharmaceutical act generating harm to the patient implies the civil liability of medical personnel and the provider of medical, sanitary and pharmaceutical products and services. Law no. 95/2006 on the health reform stipulates the obligation of the medical staff to conclude a malpractice insurance for the cases of professional civil liability for the damages created by the medical act, the indemnities being the responsibility of the insurer, within the limits of the liability established by the insurance policy.
Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna
Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...
Frank, M; Philipp, K P; Franke, E; Frank, N; Bockholdt, B; Grossjohann, R; Ekkernkamp, A
Vole captive bolt devices are powder actuated spring guns that are used as a pest control mean. After having triggered the explosion of the blank cartridge by touching a metal ring around the muzzle, the vole is killed by the massive propulsion of the gas jet. Improper use and recklessness while handling these devices may cause severe injuries with the hand of the operator at particular risk. Currently, there are no experimental investigations on the ballistic background of these devices. An experimental test set-up was designed for measurement of the firing pressure and the dynamic force of the gas jet of a vole captive bolt device. Therefore, a vole captive bolt device was prepared with a pressure take-off channel and a piezoelectric transducer for measurement of the firing pressure. For measurement of the dynamic impact force of the gas jet an annular quartz force sensor was installed on a test bench. Each three simultaneous measurements of the cartridges' firing pressure and the dynamic force of the blast wave were taken at various distances between muzzle and load washer. The maximum gas pressure in the explosion chamber was up to 1100 bar. The shot development over time showed a typical gas pressure curve. Flow velocity of the gas jet was up to 2000 m/s. The maximum impact force of the gas jet at the target showed a strong inverse ratio to the muzzle's distance and was up to 11,500 N for the contact shot distance. Energy density of the gas jet for the close contact shot was far beyond the energy density required for skin penetration. The unique design features (short tube between cartridge mouth and muzzle and narrow diameter of the muzzle) of these gadgets are responsible for the high firing pressure, velocity and force of the gas jet. These findings explain the trauma mechanics of the extensive tissue damage observed in accidental shots of these devices.
Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.
Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.
Full Text Available Poaching of both black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceros in Africa has increased significantly in recent years. In an effort to ensure the survival of these critically endangered species, breeding programs were established in the 1990s in Australia, where a similar climate and habitat is available. In this study we examined blood samples from two C. simum, including a 16 yr old female (Aluka who died in captivity, and a 17 yr old asymptomatic male (Umfana. Bloods from seven healthy D. bicornis housed at the zoo were also collected. All samples were tested for the presence of piroplasms via blood smear and PCR. A generic PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of the Piroplasmida revealed the presence of piroplasm infection in both dead and asymptomatic C. simum. Subsequent sequencing of these amplicons revealed the presence of Theileria bicornis. Blood smear indicated that this organism was present at low abundance in both affected and asymptomatic individuals and was not linked to the C. simum mortality. T. bicornis was also detected in the D. bicornis population (n = 7 housed at Taronga Western Plains Zoo using PCR and blood film examination; however only animals imported from Africa (n = 1 tested T. bicornis positive, while captive-born animals bred within Australia (n = 6 tested negative suggesting that transmission within the herd was unlikely. Phylogenetic analysis of the full length T. bicornis 18S rRNA genes classified this organism outside the clade of the transforming and non-transforming Theileria with a new haplotype, H4, identified from D. bicornis. This study revealed the presence of Theileria bicornis in Australian captive populations of both C. simum and D. bicornis and a new haplotype of the parasite was identified. Keywords: Piroplasm, Theileria bicornis, 18S rRNA, Rhinoceros, Translocation
Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan
Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.
Full Text Available A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion.
Full Text Available Hydrodynamic derivatives or coefficients are required to predict the maneuvering characteristics of a marine vehicle. These derivatives are obtained numerically for a DTMB 5512 model ship by virtual simulating of captive model tests in a CFD environment. The computed coefficients are applied to predict the turning circle and zigzag maneuvers of the model ship. The comparison of the simulated results with the available experimental data shows a very good agreement among them. The simulations show that the CFD is precise and affordable tool at the preliminary design stage to obtain maneuverability performance of a marine vehicles.
Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.
Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A
Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).
Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A
A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.
Carol de Dobay Rifelj
Full Text Available Central to Proust's Remembrance as a whole and to The Captive in particular is Marcel's attempt to discover what other people think and feel. But, as reading the work in the light of modern analytic philosophy shows, his efforts are thwarted by the deceptions of others and by his own irreconcilable views. The other is radically inaccessible, yet the object of our search; the self is a stable entity, yet multiple, changing, and a fiction constituted by language; language is communication, yet the source of error. These are the problems which confront philosophy and literature when they try to come to terms with the otherness of others.
It is clear that most zoos feed their gorillas a principally frugivorous diet, while the diets of wild gorilla populations are undoubtedly basically herbivorous. The primary food plant of western and eastern lowland gorillas is Aframomum, and Blancou (1955) even maintains that these plants possess active parasiticidal qualities, but this subscription is not borne out by recent research. However, it is possible that another plant food, combretum, could have some propensities as a deparasitant. Many captive gorillas accept cooked or raw meat in their diets and there is some evidence that feral gorillas may also occasionally consume matter of animal origin.
One way to investigate what animals in captivity might need is to conduct preference and motivational tests. These types of tests can help facilitate the animals to express different priorities. The motivation can be assessed by having the animals “pay an entry cost” (e.g. push a weighted door) that increases with time to get access to a resource. The highest price that the animals are willing to pay for this resource is called “the maximum price paid”. This study intends to test ...
Martins, Bianca C; Oriá, Arianne P; Souza, Ana L G; Campos, Carla F; Almeida, Denise E; Duarte, Roberta A; Soares, Christiane P; Zuanon, José A S; Neto, Carlos B; Duarte, José M B; Schocken-Iturrino, Rubén P; Laus, José L
Captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) were manually restrained to assess tear production by the Schirmer tear test I to measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, to examine ocular conjunctival epithelial cells via cytologic and histologic samples, and to survey ocular conjunctival microflora by microbiologic culture. The mean value for the Schirmer tear test I was 8.9 +/- 1.8 mm/min, and the mean intraocular pressure was 15.3 +/- 3.1 mm Hg. Conjunctival epithelium contained stratified pavimentous layers of cells, and the microflora consisted of predominantly gram-positive bacteria.
Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud
It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social
Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker
During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias...
Oksana E. Dmitrieva
The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.
Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.
This study represents the first attempt to determine post-release survival of a captive-bred owl in Africa. We released six captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis into suitable habitat and, using radio telemetry, determined their daytime roost sites. One bird left the study area soon after release and did not yield data.
Flagg, T.A.; McAuley, W.C.; Wastel, M.R.; Frost, D.A.; Mahnken, C.V.W.
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species
Flagg, Thomas A.
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.
Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric
Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...
... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...
... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...
... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...
... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...
... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...
Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)
Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live
Colburn, Ben; Lazenby, Hugh
What level of government subsidy of higher education is justified, in what form, and for what reasons? We answer these questions by applying the hypothetical insurance approach, originally developed by Ronald Dworkin in his work on distributive justice. On this approach, when asking how to fund and deliver public services in a particular domain,…
investment. Construction work by nature is hazardous, and accidents are. JournalofEAEA, VoL 17,2000 frequent and often severe. The annual toll of deaths, ..... advisable to establish specialist insurance consulting . firms, who could handle all types of construction demands: such as structural and architectural designs,.
It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.
Costa, M.P.R. da.
The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt
Chakraborty, G; Ettenson, R; Gaeth, G
The authors used choice-based conjoint analysis to model consumers' decision processes when evaluating and selecting health insurance in a multiplan environment. Results indicate that consumer choice is affected by as many as 19 attributes, some of which have received little attention in previous studies. Moreover, the importance of the attributes varies across different demographic segments, giving marketers several targeting opportunities.
Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph
We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...
Raduna, Daniela Viviana; Roman, Mihai Daniel
Human behavior, rational or irrational one, influences one of the most complex markets worldwide: the insurance market. In most situations, insurance markets are not competitive and risk neutral insurers negotiate under asymmetric information with actors who exhibit risk aversion. In this paper we develop a game theory model that analyzes the negotiation of an insurance contract under risk aversion conditions (in static and dynamic approach). Risk aversion influence was introduced in the mode...
Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.
Schmidt, Debra A; Barbiers, Robyn B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Ball, Ray L; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Griffin, Mark E; Grobler, Douw; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell
Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be related to zoo nutrition and management issues. Serum samples were collected from 20 captive giraffes at 10 United States institutions. Thirteen of the captive animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection; seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. These samples were compared with serum samples collected from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Differences between captive and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed by using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's least significant difference for mean separation; when necessary variables were ranked and analyzed via analysis of variance. Potassium and bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were different between captive and free-ranging giraffes, but all fell within normal bovid reference ranges. The average glucose concentration was significantly elevated in free-ranging giraffes (161 mg/dl) compared with captive giraffes (113 mg/dl). All giraffes in this study had glucose concentrations higher than bovine (42-75 mg/ dl) and caprine (48-76 mg/dl) reference ranges. Differences were also seen in lipase, chloride, and magnesium though these findings are likely not clinically significant. There were no differences detected between sexes. Adults had higher concentrations of potassium, total protein, globulins, and chloride and higher gamma glutamyltransferase activities, whereas subadults had higher concentrations of phosphorus. Within the captive group, nonimmobilized animals had higher concentrations of total protein and globulins. Captive giraffe diets
Flagg, Thomas A.
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.
... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance... Management (OPM) is announcing changes in premiums for certain Federal ] Employees' Group Life Insurance... coincided with the implementation of the Federal Employees' Life Insurance Improvement Act, Public Law 105...
... / Tuesday, April 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...
... adoption, or marriage. (3) The Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance or Veterans' Group Life Insurance... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...
Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer
The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays.
Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella
Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.
Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay
Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.
Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel
Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (H O ) and mean inbreeding (F IS ) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b) No...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 117.11 Section 117.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.11 Insurance. The superintendent may obtain policies of insurance covering the restricted property, real or personal, of minor...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 970.2803 Section 970.2803 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Bonds and Insurance 970.2803 Insurance. ...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance. 778.18 Section 778.18 Mineral... APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LEGAL, FINANCIAL, COMPLIANCE, AND RELATED INFORMATION § 778.18 Insurance. An application shall contain either a certificate of liability insurance or evidence of self...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property insurance. 256.924... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.924 Property insurance. (a) This account shall include the cost of insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased property...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 35.013 Section... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.013 Insurance. Nonprofit, educational, or State institutions performing cost-reimbursement contracts often do not carry insurance. They may claim immunity from...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 2201.24 Section 2201.24 Agriculture... TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.24 Insurance. The Borrower of a Loan guaranteed under the Program shall obtain, at its expense, insurance sufficient to protect the...
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... carriers and (2) does not buy insurance coverage for its property in the possession of commercial carriers...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of agency...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance. 36.212 Section 36.212 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.212 Insurance. (a) This part shall not be construed to... benefit plan that is not subject to State laws that regulate insurance. (b) Paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 3550.61 Section 3550.61 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.61 Insurance. (a) Borrower... furnish and continually maintain hazard insurance on the security property, with companies, in amounts...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 627.415 Section 627.415 Employees... UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.415 Insurance. (a) General. Each recipient and subrecipient shall follow its normal insurance procedures except as otherwise indicated in...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any credit...
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.
Carol A. Sakosky; S. Travis Pritchett
The nature of productivity measurement and problems specific to measuring insurance productivity are discussed. A specific measure--based on microeconomic principles, a multiproduct output concept, and readily available firm-level data--is developed. The measure should be applicable to the operations of any health insurer and is designed for use by health insurers interested in productivity measurement.
... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...
....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance availability. 400.652 Section 400.652 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... Implementation § 400.652 Insurance availability. (a) If sufficient actuarial data are available, FCIC will offer...
2. Life insurance/pension insurance models are gen- erally described in terms of continuous time Markov processes with state space having only a finite number of elements; at least one state is absorbing, and cer- tain transitions may be disallowed. For example, in the simplest life insurance model there are only two states,.
... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to... investigation or review. (b) Time of receipt of benefit. In the case of export insurance, the Secretary normally...
The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr
establishment of some form of national health insurance ( !HI) or social health insurance (SHl) system has .... analysis was done using relative risk (prevalence ratios), with confidence intervals and chi-squared tests. ..... health insurance systems. Some of these are likely to change with the passage of the Medical Schemes.
Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)
Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions)....
Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang
This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.
Zhang, Yu-Gaung; Li, Di-Qiang; Xiao, Qi-Ming; Rao, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Wen
The tiger is one of the most threatened wildlife species since the abundance and distribution of tiger have decreased dramatically in the last century. The wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) only distributed in northeast China, the far east area of Russia and the north Korea and its size of wild population is about 450 in the world and 20 in China. Several hundred captive populations of Amur tigers are the main source to protect gene library of tiger and the source of recovering the wild populations. The Breeding Center for Felidae at Hengdaohezi and Haoerbin Tiger Park in Heilongjiang Province is the biggest captive breeding base in China. How to make clear the genetic pedigree and establish reasonable breeding system is the urgent issues. So we use the microsatellite DNA markers and non-invasive technology to research on the genetic diversity of captive Amur tiger in this study. Ten microsatellite loci (Fca005, Fca075, Fca094, Fca152, Fca161, Fca294, Pti002, Pti003, Pti007 and Pti010), highly variable nuclear markers, were studied their genetic diversity in 113 captive Amur tigers. The PCR amplified products of microsatellite loci were detected by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allele numbers, allelic frequency, gene heterozygosity(H(e)), polymorphism information content(PIC) and effective number of allele(N(e)) were calculated. 41 alleles were found and their size were ranged from 110bp to 250bp in ten microsatellite loci, Fca152 had 6 alleles, Fca075, Fca094 and Fca294 had 5 alleles, Fca005 and Pti002 had 4 alleles and the others had 3 alleles in all tiger samples, respectively. The allelic frequencies were from 0.009 to 0.767; The He ranged from 0.385 to 0.707, and Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; the PIC were from 0.353 to 0.658, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; and N(e) were from 1.626 to 3.409, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value, which showed the ten
Stephanie O. Crofton
Full Text Available Founded in 1974, American Share Insurance (ASI is an insurer for deposits in credit unions and it is the sole surviving private primary deposit insurer in the US. We assess reasons why ASI survived when numerous other deposit insurance systems did not. These reasons include ASI’s policy of insuring only credit unions, its geographic diversification, its efforts to shed the quasi-governmental nature of other nonfederal deposit insurers, its covering only stronger depositories, its ability to draw funding from stronger insured institutions as needed, and its use of incentives for improved performance among its insured institutions. While the severity of the effects of the housing, financial, and economic crises on depositories and their insurers is yet to become fully clear, ASI’s performance up to the Summer of 2009 points to a set of practices that could help buttress other government and private deposit insurers in the US and abroad.
Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.
D. I. Ramazanova
Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of financial stability and solvency of the insurance company, which plays an important role in the selection of the insurer potential insurers, which guarantee payment of insurance compensation when the insured event. The author's approach to assessing the financial stability of the insurance company. Investigated the order analysis of financial stability of the insurance company. Based on the proposed method calculated the indicators of financial stability of the insurance company Rosgosstrakh Ltd.
Rohendi, Keukeu; Putra, Ilham Eka
Sinarmas currently has several insurance services featured. To perform its function as a good insurance company is need for reform in terms of services in the process of calculating insurance premiums of insurance carried by marketing to use a calculator which interferes with the activities of marketing activities, slow printing insurance policies, automobile claims process that requires the customer to come to the office ASM, slow printing of Work Order (SPK) and the difficulty recap custome...
Jain Nishant; Bhat Ramesh
Health insurance schemes are increasingly recognised as preferable mechanisms to finance health care provision. In this direction micro health insurance schemes and community based health insurance schemes are assuming significant importance in reaching large number of people. However, at the community level despite low premiums the penetration of health insurance is small. The objective of this paper is to analyse factors determining the demand for private health insurance in a micro insuran...
Taylor, L A; Müller, D W H; Schwitzer, C; Kaiser, T M; Castell, J C; Clauss, M; Schulz-Kornas, E
Captive breeding has played a crucial role in the conservation of threatened equid species. Grazing ruminants and rhinoceros in captivity have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, with potential negative consequences for their health. However, a similar study on wild equids in captivity is missing. The aim was to establish if different tooth wear patterns are exhibited by free-ranging and captive equids. Cross-sectional study of museum specimens comparing free-ranging and captive equids. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of 228 museum specimens (122 from free-ranging and 106 from captive individuals) of 7 wild equid species were analysed using the extended mesowear method. Although teeth showing specific abnormalities were not scored, the presence of focal overgrowths (hooks) of the rostral premolars (106, 206) was recorded. Captive Equus ferus przewalskii, E. grevyi, E. hemionus, E. quagga boehmi and E. zebra hartmannae have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear on their premolars than their free-ranging conspecifics (P<0.001). Fewer differences were exhibited between populations in the molars. No differences were exhibited in the distal cusp of the molars (110, 210) between populations, except in a small sample of E. kiang. Captive equids exhibited more homogeneous wear along the tooth row whereas free-ranging equids exhibited a tooth wear gradient, with more abrasion on premolars than molars. There were more rostral hooks on the premolars (106, 206) in the captive than the free-ranging population (P = 0.02). Captive equids did experience less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, but the differences in tooth wear were less pronounced than those between captive and free-ranging wild ruminant and rhinoceros species. This indicates that feeding regimes for captive equids deviate less from natural diets than those for captive ruminants and rhinoceros but that factors leading to hook
Hasman, Joseph J; Chittenden, William A; Doolin, Elizabeth G; Wall, Julie F
This survey reviews significant state and federal court decisions from 2006 and 2007 involving health, life, and disability insurance. Also reviewed is a June 2008 Supreme Court decision in the disability insurance realm, affirming that a conflict of interest exists when an ERISA plan sponsor or insurer fulfills the dual role of determining plan benefits and paying those benefits but noting that the conflict is merely one factor in considering the legality of benefit denials. In addition, this years' survey includes compelling decisions in the life and health arena, including cases addressing statutory penalties and mandated benefits, as well as some ERISA decisions of note. This year, the Texas Supreme Court held that Texas's most recent version of the prompt payment statute abolished the common law interpleader exception and allowed the prevailing adverse claimant in an interpleader action filed beyond the sixty-day statutory period to recover statutory interest and attorney fees from the insurer. Meanwhile, the Court of Appeals of New York upheld the constitutionality of a statute mandating coverage for contraceptives in those employer-sponsored health plans that offer prescription drug coverage, including those plans sponsored by faith-based social service organizations. In the ERISA context, litigants continue to fight over the standard of review with varying results. In a unique assault on the arbitrary and capricious standard of review, the Fourth Circuit found that an ERISA plan abused its discretion when it failed to apply the doctrine of contra proferentem to construe ambiguous plan terms against itself. In more hopeful news for plan insurers, the Tenth Circuit held that claimants are not entitled to review and rebut medical opinions generated during the administrative appeal of a claim denial before a final decision is reached unless such reports contain new factual information.
Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.
This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…
Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.
Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Reitsma, S. M. S.
Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)
Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.
Tol, Richard S.J.
Several issues relating to insurance and the damage costs of climate change are discussed. It is argued that the option of insuring climate change is severely limited because the associated damages are hardly quantifiable and little diversifiable; in addition, binding contracts are a problem on long time scales and in an international context. Hedging, consumption smoothing over time, precautionary investments and liability are not to be presented under the heading of insurance, not only because this unnecessarily and confusingly expands the traditional definition of insurance, but also because this could create a false sense of security. The impact of climate change on the profitability of the commercial insurance sector is not likely to be severe, as the insurance companies are capable of shifting changed risks to the insured, provided that they are properly and timely informed on the consequences of climate change. (author)
Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu
The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.
Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.
Abdul-Majeed, Mohammed Arif; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Al-Soufi, Khaled Y.; Ahmad, Firoz; Rehman, Shafiqur
The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia′s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region
Clauss, Marcus; Jessup, David A; Norkus, Edward B; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F; Streich, W Juergen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S
Several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. Blood samples from captive and free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins A and E. Circulating vitamin A levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 SD) vs. 0.08 (+/- 0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/- 0.02) microgram/ml, respectively. Circulating vitamin E levels measured as alpha-tocopherol were 0.58 (+/- 0.30) vs. 0.84 (+/- 0.96) and 0.62 (+/- 0.48) vs. 0.77 (+/- 0.32) microgram/ml, respectively. In contrast to earlier findings, there was no significant difference in vitamin E concentration between captive and free-ranging black rhinoceros. When the samples of captive black rhinoceros were grouped into those taken before 1990 and after 1990, however, those collected before 1990 had significantly lower (P white rhinoceroses appear to be adequately supplemented in vitamin A and E. Captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) had significantly lower vitamin A concentrations in blood (P rhinoceros species. Equine requirements are not recommended as a model for rhinoceros vitamin requirements.
Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi
Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn. The food provided to captive animals varied both in the composition and the concentration of element present. Consumptions of feedstuff and additional foods such as D. sanguinalis and A. mangostanus for the captive golden takins were identified as the possible sources of chemical element exposure. The estimations of dietary intake of most elements by captive takins were below the oral reference dose, except for As and Pb, indicating that As and Pb were the key components which contributed to the potential non-carcinogenic risk for captive golden takins. In conclusion, captive golden takins were exposed to higher concentrations of chemical elements compared with the wild, which were likely due to their dietary difference. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Ziliak
October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...
Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...
A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...
This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...
Vylder, F Etienne
This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl, ~, ... , C at moments Tl, T , ..• , T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I,X). The whole life annuity ä is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I,'X), where 'X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + ~ v , + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and ä 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = ~ and ä = 1 + v + v + ... + v'X resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and äx 00 is x 2 A = E(~) and ä = E(I + v + v + ... + v'X...
Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L
Captive management practices have the potential to drastically alter pre-existing host-parasite relationships. This can have profound implications for the health and productivity of threatened species in captivity, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of disease. Maximising the success of captive breeding programmes requires a detailed knowledge of anthropogenic influences on the structure of parasite assemblages in captive systems. In this study, we employed two high-throughput molecular techniques to characterise the parasitic nematode (suborder Strongylida) communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, across seven captive sites. The first was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of a region of rDNA encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The second was Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 region. The prevalence, intensity of infection, taxonomic composition and comparative structure of strongylid nematode assemblages was assessed at each location. Prevalence (P = <0.001) and mean infection intensity (df = 6, F = 17.494, P = <0.001) differed significantly between the seven captive sites. Significant levels of parasite community structure were observed (ANOSIM, P = 0.01), with most of the variation being distributed within, rather than between, captive sites. The range of nematode taxa that occurred in captive red kangaroos appeared to differ from that of wild conspecifics, with representatives of the genus Cloacina, a dominant nematode parasite of the macropodid forestomach, being detected at only two of the seven study sites. This study also provides the first evidence for the presence of the genus Trichostrongylus in a macropodid marsupial. Our results demonstrate that contemporary species management practices may exert a profound influence on the structure of parasite communities in captive systems.
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY
Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.
Morrison, John F; Vakharia, Kunal; Moreland, Douglas B
Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found to have decreased motor function in her hind legs. Diagnostic myelography performed at the L7/S1 level demonstrated lumbar stenosis at L5/6 for which a laminectomy was performed. Postoperatively, she returned to premorbid functional level, with no apparent associated adverse sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spine surgery in a polar bear and demonstrates that neurosurgical diagnostic and operative techniques developed for humans can also be applied to large mammals with successful results.
Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C
This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen.
Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra
Full Text Available Conservation breeding programmes as an essential tool for conservation of endangered species require a sound knowledge on behaviour of the species. At present time, knowledge of behaviour and biology of Indian pangolins is inadequate and inconsistent. During the present study, an ethogram was developed based on the behavioural observations of seven Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata at Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India, between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 27 behaviours of seven distinct behavioural categories (stationary body positions, locomotory patterns, maintenance behaviours, explorative behaviours, defensive behaviours, reproductive/social behaviours, and others were described and illustrated. The results offer a consistent frame of reference for further studies on behavioural patterns of Indian pangolins. Besides, these preliminary observations could be useful in management and breeding of the species in captivity.
Huaijantug, Somkiat; Manatpreprem, Komsan; Manatpreprem, Sukhumarn; Yatmark, Paranee
Ultrasonographic measurements of kidney size are useful in the practical diagnosis of kidney diseases in animals. In tigers, there is a lack of information regarding the ultrasonography methods used to measure the kidney size of the tiger. Thirty-three healthy captive tigers (Panthera tigris) were placed in lateral recumbency for ultrasonography. The measurements obtained from the ultrasonography were computed, and the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of body weight and renal length. The length of the right kidney was significantly different from that of the left kidney (10.23 ± 0.76 cm in males versus 9.94 ± 0.80 cm in females; Ptigers. However, kidney size evaluation must be performed using not only ultrasound but other clinical forms of technology and parameters.
Sidharth Prasad Mishra
Full Text Available A study was carried out on the captive tigers of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, to conclude any deleterious effect of inbreeding on mortality. A pedigree path analysis of 342 tigers was done to estimate the inbreeding coefficient of each tiger from the available pedigree information since the inception of zoological park in 1964. Percentage of animal with different range of inbreeding coefficient was classified based on their normal and white body coat colour. The correlation values between sex, colour and inbreeding coefficient with mortality were also estimated. The colour and inbreeding coefficient was found to be significantly (p<0.05 correlated with the mortality. The inbreeding was found to be significant (p<0.05 with white colour of tiger.
Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.
A. T. Borghare
Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-
Full Text Available Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 µg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot(R, Novartis, Kempton Park while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001. There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867. Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238.
Full Text Available Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27 between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026, while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363 and post-treatment (P = 0.004 period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.
Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS......: The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to SCCmec, virulence and resistance gene content. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using commercial...... broth microdilution tests. RESULTS: All the isolates belonged to spa type t528 ST130 and carried mecC. Based on WGS, mecC was 100% identical to the prototype sequence of S. aureus strain LGA251. The sequence of SCCmec type XI in the mara isolates had 23 SNPs compared with the one described in LGA251...
Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M
The major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), family Myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. The most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. Parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, mainly the eggs of nematodes (40%), of which the commonest were Trichuris spp (28%) and Strongyloides spp (11%); protozoa (16%), of which the commonest were Eimeria spp (10%), Entamoeba spp (5%) and Giardia spp (1%); and cestodes (8%) and acanthocephalids (1%). Bacteria cultured from the various materials included Salmonella enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp. The ectoparasites found were Amblyomma spp and Otodectis spp (Arthropoda, Acaridae).
Orozova, Petya; Sirakov, Ivo; Petkov, Iosko; Crumlish, Mags; Austin, Brian
Captive snakes, that is, a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus) a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus), died with signs of bacteraemia including the presence of petechial haemorrhages in the mouth and gums and haemorrhages in the lung, spleen and intestines. The abdomen and anus were swollen with bloody-tinged mucus in the colon. Aeromonas hydrophila was recovered in dense virtually pure culture growth from the internal organs. Characterization of the isolates was by phenotyping and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (sequence homology of 99% with A. hydrophila) with outputs confirming the identity as A. hydrophila. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed virulence to frogs (Rana esculenta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Tungsudjai, Siriporn; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Sangloung, Charoonluk; Tantawiwattananon, Nitipan; Phonaknguen, Rassameepen; Sukthana, Yaowalark
Toxoplasma gondii can infect all species of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and causes serious diseases in immunocompromized hosts. Live tachyzoites derived from serial passage in HeLa culture were used in the Sabin-Feldman dye test for detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in serum samples of 21 captive wild felids including one fishing cat (Prion nailurus viverrina), one leopard (Panthera pardus), two flat-headed cats (Prion nailurus planiceps), 6 tigers (Panthera tigris), two leopard cats (Felis bengalensis), two clouded leopards (Felis nebulosa), 3 pumas (Puma concolor), and 4 jungle cats (Felis chaus). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were founded in 9 of 21 felids (42.8%). This study revealed that cell culture-derived tachyzoites can be used successfully as a source of live organisms in a gold standard Sabin-Feldman dye test, which is simpler, cheaper and less ethically sensitive than in vivo inoculation.
Williams, E S; Young, S
In the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in Colorado and more recently in Wyoming. Clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. Gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid admixed with sand and gravel. Consistent histopathologic change was limited to the central nervous system and characterized by widespread spongiform transformation of the neuropil, single of multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles in neuronal perikaryons and intense astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Presented is a clinical characterization of chronic wasting disease and pathologic evidence supporting the conclusion that the disease is a specific spontaneously occurring form of spongiform encephalopathy.
Gross-Tsubery, Ruth; Chai, Orit; Shilo, Yael; Miara, Limor; Horowitz, Igal H; Shmueli, Ayelet; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Hoffman, Chen; Reifen, Ram; Shamir, Merav H
Osseous malformations in the skull and cervical vertebrae of lions in captivity are believed to be caused by hypovitaminosis A. These often lead to severe neurologic abnormalities and may result in death. We describe the characterization of these abnormalities based on computed tomography (CT). CT images of two affected and three healthy lions were compared with define the normal anatomy of the skull and cervical vertebrae and provide information regarding the aforementioned osseous malformations. Because bone structure is influenced by various factors other than the aforementioned disease, all values were divided by the skull width that was not affected. The calculated ratios were compared and the most pronounced abnormalities in the affected lions were, narrowing of the foramen magnum, thickening of the tentorium osseus cerebelli and thickening of the dorsal arch of the atlas. CT is useful for detection of the calvarial abnormalities in lions and may be useful in further defining this syndrome.
Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N
The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy in red pandas to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen was performed in nine captive red pandas during their annual health examinations. Seven of nine animals had six lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum consisted mainly (8/9) of three fused segments. Hypaxial muscles were easily seen in animals weighing 5 kg and above. The pylorus was located to the right of the midline and cranially to the fundus in 8/9 individuals. Bunching of small intestine in the right central abdomen occurred in animals weighing 6 kg and above. The spleen was prominent. Knowledge of the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy of red pandas is important in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations.
Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B
Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.
Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini
With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.
Full Text Available This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%. Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50% with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11, genital (8, lympho-hematopoietic (5 and alimentary organs (4 as well as the mesothelium (3. Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2, thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1, pleural mesotheliomas (3, hemangiosarcomas (2 and glossal papillomas (2. Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.
Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J
Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Palagi, Elisabetta; Paoli, Tommaso; Tarli, Silvana Borgognini
Although reconciliation in bonobos (Pan paniscus) has previously been described, it has not been analyzed heretofore by the postconflict (PC) match-control (MC) method. Furthermore, although reconciliation has been investigated before in this species, consolation has not. In this study we analyzed agonistic and affiliative contacts in all sex-class combinations to clarify and reevaluate the occurrence of reconciliation in bonobos via the PC-MC method. We also investigated the occurrence of consolation by analyzing the victims' triadic contact tendency (TCT), the influence of the sex of victims, and the relative occurrence of consolation and reconciliation. We collected 167 pairs of PC-MC observations in a captive group of bonobos (in Apeldoorn, The Netherlands). The conciliatory tendency (CCT) we obtained was tendentially lower than the mean value previously found for Yerkes captive chimpanzees. Close relationships, which were present in all female-female (FF) and some male-female (MF) dyads, positively affected reconciliation rates. When only adult PC-MC pairs (157) were considered, the mean TCTs and CCTs did not differ significantly. When we focused on types of PC affiliative contact, in the case of consolation we found a striking preference for sociosexual patterns. As to the relative occurrence of consolation and reconciliation, the highest level of the former was found in the absence of the latter. When reconciliation took place, consolation generally preceded it, suggesting that consolation may be a substitutive behavior. Our findings suggest that even if reconciliation remains the best option, consolation may be an alternative substitute for reconciliation that is used to buffer the tension originating from an unresolved conflict. Reconciliation and consolation are complex phenomena that are probably related to the life history of a group. Given that few studies have been conducted on this subject, we can not at this time make any generalizations regarding
Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Santos, Andrea Pires; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Mohamed, Ahmed; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; de Oliveira, Marcos Jose; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Donatti, Lucelia; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and/or subclinical disease in infected animals. It has been suggested that Mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether South American deer are infected with M. ovis. EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples from a herd of 32 captive South American deer were collected. DNA extraction of blood samples was performed followed by PCR amplification of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, and sequencing of products. Using M. ovis PCR, 27/31 (87%) were positive, including 21/22 Mazama nana; 2/3 Mazama americana and 4/6 Blastocerus dichotomus. Sequencing of the nearly entire 16S rRNA gene of 26/27 positive samples showed 98.2-98.8% identity to M. ovis of sheep (GenBank, AF338268) and 98.6-99.4% identity to M. ovis-like of a fawn (FJ824847); the 23S rRNA gene from one of these isolates and the fawn's had 97.6% identity. The remaining isolate had just 94.9% identity to the 16S rRNA gene of M. ovis and only 89.4% identity to the 23S rRNA gene of the fawn's M. ovis. This is the first report of M. ovis in captive South American deer, revealing a high prevalence of hemoplasma infection in these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.
Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.
Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.
Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J
Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi
Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.
Jonathan B Clayton
Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.
Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu
The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.
By the mid-1950's the United States recognised that it was in the interest to promote commercial development of nuclear energy. But the uncertainties of the technology and the potential for severe accidents were clear obstacles to commercial development. Exposure to potentially serious uninsured liability inhibited the private sector. These impediments led Congress to enact the Price-Anderson Act in 1957. The Act had several purposes: the first was to encourage private development of nuclear power; the second was to establish a legal framework for handling potential liability claims; and the third was to provide a ready source of funds to compensate injured victims of a nuclear accident. Insurers chose the pooling technique by creating in the US the American Nuclear Insurers. ANI acts as a managing agent for its members insurance companies. The accident of three Miles Island occurred on 28 March 1979 and with came the claims experience in US. The 1988 amendments to the Price-Anderson Act directed the President to establish a Commission for the purpose of developing a means to assure full compensation of victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the limitation on aggregate public liability, or currently just over US$ 9.7 billion. The Presidential Commission issued its report in August 1990, in which it reached a number of conclusions and offered a number of recommendations.The US Congress has not acted on the Commission's report, but may revisit its recommendations as debate begins this year (1999) or next on the renewal of the Price-Anderson Act. (N.C.)
Pahnenko Olena M.
Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state of development of medical insurance in Ukraine and also studies advantages and shortcomings of the use of micro-insurance for popularisation of programmes of voluntary medical insurance and satisfaction of needs in high quality medical services for all layers of the population. It identifies that as of today the Ukrainian healthcare system is at the stage of reformation, mandatory medical insurance is not yet introduced and main consumers of the programmes of voluntary medical insurance are corporate clients. The article considers main constraints of development of medical insurance in Ukraine, including: low level of income of the population; absence of high quality providers of medical services in regions; and insufficient degree of trust of the population to the insurance sphere. The article shows that introduction of micro-insurance would positively influence the development of insurance medicine in the country, would facilitate provision of medical services even for poor citizens and would allow reduction of state budget expenditures on healthcare. The conducted study of restrictions and shortcomings of introduction of micro-insurance allowed identification of the fact that main of them are information asymmetry (unfavourable selection of risks, moral risk and insurance fraud, significant limitation of insurance coverage and difficulties in identifying optimal insurance tariffs.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...
Pikula, J.; Banďouchová, H.; Kováčová, V.; Linhart, P.; Piaček, V.; Zukal, Jan
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2017), s. 665-677 ISSN 1094-9194 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bat * Fertilization * Captive birth * Euthanasia * Ethics * Blood profile * Thermoregulation * Torpor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology
Arnab K. Majie
Full Text Available High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.
Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.
Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hook and bait interaction feeding response data from experiments with captive reared loggerhead sea turtles ranging from 45 - 65 cm straight carapace length) were...
Full Text Available Most readings of American captivity narratives have so far investigated their intercultural, psychological, and theological significances, while disregarding their ecological aspects. Despite its appropriation into US-American national literature, the captivity genre contains at its root a transcultural plot of an individual's confrontation with the environment and the unsettling forces of wilderness and animality. These personal memoirs indeed hold global value by pointing to our collective embeddedness and embodiedness.This essay surveys two early captivity narratives - the classical one by Mary Rowlandson (1682 and a lesser known text by John Gyles (1736 - alongside contemporary examples of the genre that relate the stories of American captives in Iraq and Colombia.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains monthly morphometric measurements on captive reared sea turtles at the Galveston, TX NOAA lab. Morphometric measurements are taken to track growth...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...
Reitsma, S. M. S.
The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)
Kristi L. Lewton
Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.
A basic understanding of insurance principles is useful for making personal finance decisions and for considering public policy issues. Yet, insurance concepts tend to be less intuitive, more difficult for students to grasp, than other concepts. This paper shows how fundamental insurance principles can be taught by relating them to the principles underlying gambling, the game of roulette in particular. This approach has been used successfully with college freshmen taking macroeconomics at the...
Full Text Available Any human activity implies the existence of certain dangers for life, health or property. The need to protect them has led to insurance. In this article we present the chronological evolution of the phenomenon of insurance from its origin in antiquity to the contemporary period. We also show the interdependence of development of human civilization and the diversification and development of insurance services in various historical eras.
Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe
In insurance industry, the financial stability of insurance companies represents an issue of vital importance. In order to maintain the financial stability and meet minimum regulatory requirements, actuaries apply actuarial modeling. Modeling has been at the center of actuarial science and of all the sciences from the beginning of their journey. In insurance industry, actuarial modeling creates a framework that allows actuaries to identify, understand, quantify and manage a wide range of risk...
Mitchell, Paul D.; Hurley, Terrance M.; Hellmich, Richard L.
The EPA has imposed mandatory refuge requirements for Bt crops to prolong the efficacy of Bt. Growers have no economic incentive to plant the required refuge because refuge crops are on average less productive and more risky. This paper evaluates refuge insurance--insurance that pays indemnities for yield losses on refuge due to insect damage--as a tool to increase grower compliance incentives. We determine actuarially fair insurance premiums, then evaluate the feasibility of private provisio...
Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust
Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a communications centre model in an insurance company that essentially has two objectives. The first objective is focused on providing quality support with the sales process thereby creating a strategic advantage over the competition while the second objective is focused on improving the link between internal organizational units whose behaviour can often render decision-making at all levels difficult. The function of sales is fundamental for an insurance company. Whether an insurance company will fulfil its basic function, which is transfer of risk from the insured party to the insurer who agrees tonreimburse incidental damages to the damaged party and distribute them among all members of the risk group on the principles of reciprocity and solidarity, depends on successful sales and billing (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999. For an insurance company to operate successfully in a demanding market, it is necessary to meet the needs of potential clients who then must be at the centre of all the activities of the insurer. A satisfied policy holder, who is respected by the insurer as a partner, is a guarantee that the sales of insurance services will be successful and that the insured party will come back to the same insurance company. In the era of globalization and all-pervading new technologies and modes of communication, policy holders need to be able to communicate with insurance company employees. Quality communication is a good foundation for a sales conversation. A fast flow of all types of information within an organisation using a single communication module makes decision-making at all levels quicker and easier.
In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)
Schneck, L H
State-sponsored health insurance plans for people labeled "uninsurable" by commercial carriers provide financial lifelines for those who qualify. In 28 states, individuals suffering from cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, emotional disorders, cystic fibrosis, para- or quadriplegia and other chronic or recurrent health problems receive benefits--for reasonable premiums--from innovative programs that can literally make the difference between life and death, solvency or indigence. Medical practices and other health care facilities can play a pivotal role in informing patients of these coverage options--and by doing so, increase their revenue, as well.
Buškevičiūtė, Eugenija; Leškevičiūtė, Audronė
Šiame darbe nagrinėjami rizikos valdymo modeliai, taikant atvejų studijų tyrimo metodą, įvertintas galimų rizikos reikalavimų (Mokumas II) poveikis Lietuvos draudimo rinkos dalyvių veiklai ir šio tyrimo pagrindu parengtas Mokumas II hipotetinių poveikių modelis. Applying case study research method this paper analyzes risk management models, evaluates the possible effects of risk requirements (Solvency II) on the activity of Lithuanian insurance market participants and based on the research...
Oksana E. Dmitrieva
Full Text Available The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.
Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu
The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut micro...
Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B
Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be
Feldheim, K A; Clews, A; Henningsen, A; Todorov, L; McDermott, C; Meyers, M; Bradley, J; Pulver, A; Anderson, E; Marshall, A
Using a novel set of 12 microsatellites, a captive, adult female swellshark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum that produced five pups via parthenogenesis is described; naturally occurring parthenogenesis has been observed in every vertebrate class with the exception of mammals. As demonstrated in this study, a captive environment is ideal for long-term monitoring of animals under controlled conditions, and easily allows the detection of particular facets of their biology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R
We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dias, Maria de Fátima da Rocha; Brazil, Tania Kobler
Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990), which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil); they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster) with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kind...
Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Ellison, Aaron M; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Qing-Yi
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC. We found 13 congeners of PBDEs in fecal samples, of which BDE47, BDE66, BDE71, BDE99, and BDE154 were the dominant, total PBDE concentration in feces of captive pandas was 255% higher than in wild pandas. We found nine PBDEs congeners in blood samples: BDE153 and BDE183 were the predominant congers. PBDEs in blood from captive pandas were significantly higher than in wild pandas. The total concentration of PBDEs were 5473 and 4835 (pg.g) in Fargesia qinlingensis, were 2192 and 1414 (pg.g) in Bashannia fargesii (2192, 1414 pg g), 0.066, 0.038 (pg/ml) in drinking water, and 28.8 (pg.g) in supplemental feedstuff for captive and wild pandas, which indicate that the PBDEs came from its bamboo feed, especially from Bashannia fargesii. Our results demonstrate that BDE99 and BDE47 could be threatening the pandas' health especially for captive panda and there are potential health risks from PBDEs for pandas. In the short term, this risk may be ameliorated by strict control of food quality. In the long term, however, reducing air, water and soil contamination so as to improve environmental quality can best reduce these risks to meet the international standard such as Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCleary, Ryan J R; Sridharan, Sindhuja; Dunstan, Nathan L; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kini, R Manjunatha
Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution. Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... associated with the proposed rule cannot be quantified. The qualitative assessment indicates that the... corn as insurable under ARPI. Insuring crops that are not basic ARPI crops by coding them with their...
... Depository Institutions Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA) AGENCY... Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA) directs the Commission to prescribe the manner and content of... Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA), Congress directed the Commission to prescribe certain...
Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.
Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.
Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.
Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.
This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.
Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je
In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.
Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David
Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.
Kozuch, Amaranta E; McPhee, M Elsbeth
Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging behaviors of wild-caught, adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Forty-six individuals captured from a meadow outside Oshkosh, WI, were assigned to 1 of 4 captive treatment groups: simple/50 days, complex/50 days. Number of dish visits, proportion foraging, and frequency of nonforaging behaviors recorded during a 15-min foraging trial were measured for all subjects. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests were conducted to analyze 4 different comparisons within this behavioral data. Overall, neither time in captivity or environmental complexity affected nonforaging behaviors. In contrast, foraging behaviors did change with treatment: Voles were less active at food dishes and visited control dishes more in treatment group SS than in the other treatment groups. In addition, sex-related differences in foraging behaviors were maintained when voles were exposed to environmental complexity. This article includes options for wildlife managers to adapt captive environments to meet the welfare and behavioral needs of translocated wild nonhuman mammals.
Zhang, Fuhua; Yu, Jiaming; Wu, Shibao; Li, Shaoshan; Zou, Cuiyun; Wang, Qiaoyun; Sun, Ruyong
The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822) is a Critically Endangered species. Given that this species lacks effective policies for in situ conservation and prevention of poaching in the wild, ex situ conservation and a captive breeding program are urgently needed to save this species from extinction. However, techniques for the maintenance and captive breeding of pangolins have not been well developed. In June 2010, we established the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (PRB-SCNU). To date, a total of 34 Sunda pangolin cubs have been born at PRB-SCNU, 26 of which were captive bred, indicating great progress in keeping and breeding the Sunda pangolin. The techniques for maintenance-including housing, transitioning to an artificial diet, husbandry, and captive breeding-are described in this paper. The purpose of this manuscript is to share our successful experiences and techniques in the maintenance, management, and captive breeding of Sunda pangolins, and to provide guidance and a reference for the captive care and management of Sunda pangolins and other pangolin species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.
The Pensions and Savings group handles three types of payment into and out of Fluor Daniel Hanford related to insurance benefits: Premium payment to insurance company; Application of employee insurance withholding against insurance costs; Remittance of insurance claims, and administrative fees. General approach in making and recording the remittance is by forwarding payment information to Accounts Payable Master.
... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.300 Insured amount—application. An applicant for Second Seamen's war risk insurance shall not state the amount of insurance desired, which shall be as provided in...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for life insurance. 870.301... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 870.301 Eligibility for life insurance. (a) Each nonexcluded employee is automatically insured for Basic insurance unless he...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for life insurance. 870.701... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.701 Eligibility for life insurance. (a) When an insured employee retires, Basic life insurance (but...
... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life insurance reserves. 1.801-4 Section 1.801-4...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-4 Life insurance reserves. (a) Life insurance reserves defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, the term life insurance reserves (as...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant for insurance. 198.9 Section 198...) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.9 Applicant for insurance. (a) Application for premium or non-premium insurance must be made in accordance with the applicable form supplied by the FAA. (b...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-insurance. 28.308... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.308 Self-insurance. (a) When it is anticipated that 50 percent or more of the self-insurance costs to be incurred at a segment of a contractor's business will be...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance coverage...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 614.4945... OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4945 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a System... not covered by flood insurance or are covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. 457.108... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.108 Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. The sunflower seed crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding...
... practices, and/or to ensure that the activity is consistent with the purposes of Federal deposit insurance and other applicable law. (2) Grandfathered insurance underwriting subsidiaries. A subsidiary of an insured State bank may: (i) Engage in grandfathered insurance underwriting if the insured State bank or...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. 457.151... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.151 Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. The Forage Seeding Crop Insurance Provisions for 2003 and succeeding crop...
Tafere, Kibrom; Barrett, Christopher B.; Lentz, Erin; Ayana, Birhanu T.
This paper estimates the causal effects of index insurance coverage on subjective well-being among livestock herders in southern Ethiopia. The randomization of incentives to purchase index-based livestock insurance and three rounds of panel data are exploited to separately identify ex ante welfare gains from insurance that reduces risk exposure and ex post buyer's remorse effects that may ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. 870.505 Section 870.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. 870.502 Section 870.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 870.502 Basic...
... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the Program... extension approval by the Office of Management and Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office... [email protected] or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk...
... insolvency of an insurance company.'' \\10\\ The identical definition is found in Section 380.1 of Title 12 of... definition to mutual insurance holding companies because, under applicable state laws, a mutual insurance... holding company arguably does not fit squarely within a literal reading of the statutory definition of...
Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.
Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…
Quintavalle Pastorino, Giovanni; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela
Simple Summary Animal personality research is a growing field, since understanding animal personalities has notable implications in ecology and the evolution of animal behaviours. In the current study, we tested different methods described in the literature to obtain robust individual behavioural profiles. Data collected through behavioral observations were categorised into activity budgets, space usage, and social interactions for each individual. In addition, behavioural profile questionnaires were completed by the three zoo keepers who had regular interactions with the bears. The questionnaires included 22 adjectives, which were rated on a scale of 1–12 depending on how well they described each individual bear. The mean ratings of the keepers were used to create the behavioural profiles by adding the adjectives to the appropriate domains, according to the NEO Five Factor Inventory of personality model (NEO-FFI). The data gathered was used to produce behavioural profiles for all animals, in order to clarify the personality characteristics of each subject. Testing and improving existing methodologies to determine animal personality is important for providing optimal welfare and management of captive animals, since it can help to develop more effective management regimes in zoos by remodelling husbandry according to each animal’s personality type. Abstract Three brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural
Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong
Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the
... Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section 1925 of title 38 U.S.C. 8.7 Section 8.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.7 Reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section...
... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...
Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.
This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally
Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.
his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car
This book is a contribution to the scholarly engagement with the wider problem of governing through risk and the politics of uncertainty. It takes life insurance as an empirical site from which to ask: what is the kind of governance created through insurance an instance of, and how does it
... Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, ... MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversUnderstanding Your Medical BillsResources for ...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42 U.S.C...
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
Krawczyk, Michal; Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs
We study behavioral patterns of insurance demand for low-probability large-loss events (catastrophic losses). Individual patterns of belief formation and risk attitude that were suggested in the behavioral decisions literature emerge robustly in the current set of insurance choices. However, social
Andersen, Torben M.
the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...
Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan
This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.
The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.
... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section A. Grants § 4280.113 Insurance requirements. Agency approved... 1806, subpart B, of this title, if applicable. (b) Business interruption insurance is required except...
Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine
With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium 'Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group.
PURCELL, FRANK X.
A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…
Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine
With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium ‘Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group. PMID:24129434
This chapter discusses the relationship between health insurance and hospitals' decisions to adopt medical technologies. I focus on both how the extent of insurance coverage can increase incentives to adopt new treatments, and how the parameters of the insurance contract can impact the types of treatments adopted. I provide a review of the previous theoretical and empirical literature and highlight evidence on this relationship from previous expansions of Medicaid eligibility to low-income pregnant women. While health insurance has important effects on individual-level choices of health care consumption, increases in the fraction of the population covered by insurance has also been found to have broader supply side effects as hospitals respond to changes in demand by changing the type of care offered. Furthermore, hospitals respond to the design of insurance contracts and adopt more or less cost-effective technologies depending on the incentive system. Understanding how insurance changes supply side incentives is important as we consider future changes in the insurance landscape. ORIGINALITY/VALUE OF PAPER: With these previous findings in mind, I conclude with a discussion of how the Affordable Care Act may alter hospital technology adoption incentives by both expanding coverage and changing payment schemes.
... should update its website regarding the share insurance coverage for noninterest-bearing transaction... share insurance coverage and the conditions under which it is available. NCUA will update its website in... APPENDIX 0 1. The authority citation for Part 745 continues to read as follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1752(5...
Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.
Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.
Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro
Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.