WorldWideScience

Sample records for single wax dipping

  1. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  2. Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: 120233951@qq.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.

  3. Large-area fluidic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes through dip-coating and directional evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilnam; Kang, Tae June

    2017-12-01

    We present a simple and scalable fluidic-assembly approach, in which bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selectively aligned and deposited by directionally controlled dip-coating and solvent evaporation processes. The patterned surface with alternating regions of hydrophobic polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) (height 100 nm) strips and hydrophilic SiO2 substrate was withdrawn vertically at a constant speed ( 3 mm/min) from a solution bath containing SWCNTs ( 0.1 mg/ml), allowing for directional evaporation and subsequent selective deposition of nanotube bundles along the edges of horizontally aligned PDMS strips. In addition, the fluidic assembly was applied to fabricate a field effect transistor (FET) with highly oriented SWCNTs, which demonstrate significantly higher current density as well as high turn-off ratio (T/O ratio 100) as compared to that with randomly distributed carbon nanotube bundles (T/O ratio <10).

  4. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  5. Dip-Pen Nanolithography on (Bio)Reactive Monolayer and Block-Copolymer Platforms: Deposition of Lines of Single Macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, Ramon B.; Shovsky, A.; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2006-01-01

    The application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-mediated molecular transfer (dip-pen nanolithography or DPN) to fabricate nanopatterned (bio)reactive platforms based on dendrimers on reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer thin films is discussed. The transfer of high-molar-mass

  6. Online estimation of wax deposition thickness in single-phase sub-sea pipelines based on acoustic chemometrics: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Halstensen, Maths; Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Amundsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Wax deposition in sub-sea oil producing pipelines is a concern to the oil producing companies. The deposition of wax in pipelines can cause serious economic implications if not monitored and controlled. Several researchers have developed models and investigated the deposition of wax in crude oil pipelines. As of today, there is no off the shelf instrument available for reliable online estimation of the wax depo- sition thickness in sub-sea pipelines. Acoustic chemometrics was applied to inves...

  7. Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DIP database catalogs experimentally determined interactions between proteins. It combines information from a variety of sources to create a single, consistent...

  8. The potential of postharvest silicon dips to regulate phenolics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the ability of silicon dips to enhance the phenolic content in order to reduce the incidence of chilling injury in lemon fruit. Fruits were obtained from two farms and dipped in 0, 50, 150 and 250 mg L-1 solutions of K2SiO3 for 30 min and afterward, fruit were air dried and waxed. Thereafter, fruits were ...

  9. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  10. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard...

  11. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  12. Preparing paraffin wax, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-27

    A process is described for preparing paraffin wax by separation from substances containing bitumen, consisting of treating the raw material at an elevated temperature under such moderate conditions and by means of such organic solvents that the bitumen present in the raw material or formed in the process dissolves as well as the asphaltic and phenolic substances and the humic acids which may be said to be neither extracts nor decomposed materials, and then submitting the products and extracts to a treatment with hydrogen gas, which is effected below 300/sup 0/C, and passing the material over fixed hydrogenation catalysts above 300/sup 0/C by means of hydrogenation catalysts finely dispersed in carbonaceous materials all avoiding decomposition with the formation of volatile products.

  13. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  14. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  15. Review of Langmuir-Wave-Caused Dips and Charge-Exchange-Caused Dips in Spectral Lines from Plasmas and their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dalimier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review studies of two kinds of dips in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas—dips that have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips. There is a principal difference with respect to positions of L-dips and X-dips relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line: positions of L-dips scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne (the dependence is much weaker than for L-dips. L-dips and X-dips phenomena are important, both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental importance is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. L-dips are a multi-frequency resonance phenomenon caused by a single-frequency (monochromatic electric field. X-dips are due to charge exchange at anticrossings of terms of a diatomic quasi-molecule, whose nuclei have different charges. As for important practical applications, they are as follows: observations of L-dips constitute a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas—a method that does not require knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves—the only spectroscopic method available for this purpose. Observations of X-dips provide an opportunity to determine rate coefficient of charge exchange between multi-charged ions. This is an important reference data, virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rate coefficients of charge exchange are important for magnetic fusion in Tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae.

  16. E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Search × MENU BACK CLOSE SMOKEFREE.GOV HOME E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip There are many types of tobacco products. Learn how e-cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and other products ...

  17. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk

  18. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C. E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 {mu}m. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 {mu}m and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 {mu}m beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  19. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  2. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  3. The First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, Tabetha. S.; Alonso, Roi; Ammerman, Alex; Armstrong, David; Asensio Ramos, A.; Barkaoui, K.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Benni, Paul; Bentley, Rory O.; Berdyugin, Andrei; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Bergeron, Serge; Bieryla, Allyson; Blain, Michaela G.; Capetillo Blanco, Alicia; Bodman, Eva H. L.; Boucher, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Brincat, Stephen M.; Brink, Thomas G.; Briol, John; Brown, David J. A.; Budaj, J.; Burdanov, A.; Cale, B.; Aznar Carbo, Miguel; Castillo García, R.; Clark, Wendy J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Clem, James L.; Coker, Phillip H.; Cook, Evan M.; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Curtis, J. L.; Cutri, R. M.; Cseh, B.; Cynamon, C. H.; Daniels, Alex J.; Davenport, James R. A.; Deeg, Hans J.; De Lorenzo, Roberto; de Jaeger, Thomas; Desrosiers, Jean-Bruno; Dolan, John; Dowhos, D. J.; Dubois, Franky; Durkee, R.; Dvorak, Shawn; Easley, Lynn; Edwards, N.; Ellis, Tyler G.; Erdelyi, Emery; Ertel, Steve; Farfán, Rafael. G.; Farihi, J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foxell, Emma; Gandolfi, Davide; Garcia, Faustino; Giddens, F.; Gillon, M.; González-Carballo, Juan-Luis; González-Fernández, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Graham, Keith A.; Greene, Kenton A.; Gregorio, J.; Hallakoun, Na’ama; Hanyecz, Ottó; Harp, G. R.; Henry, Gregory W.; Herrero, E.; Hildbold, Caleb F.; Hinzel, D.; Holgado, G.; Ignácz, Bernadett; Ilyin, Ilya; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Jehin, E.; Jermak, Helen E.; Johnston, Steve; Kafka, S.; Kalup, Csilla; Kardasis, Emmanuel; Kaspi, Shai; Kennedy, Grant M.; Kiefer, F.; Kielty, C. L.; Kessler, Dennis; Kiiskinen, H.; Killestein, T. L.; King, Ronald A.; Kollar, V.; Korhonen, H.; Kotnik, C.; Könyves-Tóth, Réka; Kriskovics, Levente; Krumm, Nathan; Krushinsky, Vadim; Kundra, E.; Lachapelle, Francois-Rene; LaCourse, D.; Lake, P.; Lam, Kristine; Lamb, Gavin P.; Lane, Dave; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Lewin, Pablo; Lintott, Chris; Lisse, Carey; Logie, Ludwig; Longeard, Nicolas; Lopez Villanueva, M.; Whit Ludington, E.; Mainzer, A.; Malo, Lison; Maloney, Chris; Mann, A.; Mantero, A.; Marengo, Massimo; Marchant, Jon; Martínez González, M. J.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; McCormac, James; McNeely, Aaron; Meng, Huan Y. A.; Miller, Mike; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Morales, J. C.; Morris, Brett M.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Nespral, David; Nugent, C. R.; Nugent, Katherine M.; Odasso, A.; O’Keeffe, Derek; Oksanen, A.; O’Meara, John M.; Ordasi, András; Osborn, Hugh; Ott, John J.; Parks, J. R.; Rodriguez Perez, Diego; Petriew, Vance; Pickard, R.; Pál, András; Plavchan, P.; Pollacco, Don; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Rau, Steve; Redfield, Seth; Relles, Howard; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Jon; Saario, Joonas L. O.; Safron, Emily J.; Sallai, J. Martin; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Schumer, Clea F.; Schwartzendruber, Madison; Siegel, Michael H.; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Simon, Joshua D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sitko, Michael L.; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Sódor, Á.; Starkey, Donn; Steele, Iain A.; Stone, Geoff; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Street, R. A.; Sullivan, Tricia; Suomela, J.; Swift, J. J.; Szabó, Gyula M.; Szabó, Róbert; Szakáts, Róbert; Szalai, Tamás; Tanner, Angelle M.; Toledo-Padrón, B.; Tordai, Tamás; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Turner, Jake D.; Ulowetz, Joseph H.; Urbanik, Marian; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Vanderburg, Andrew; Vida, Krisztián; Vietje, Brad P.; Vinkó, József; von Braun, K.; Waagen, Elizabeth O.; Walsh, Dan; Watson, Christopher A.; Weir, R. C.; Wenzel, Klaus; Westendorp Plaza, C.; Williamson, Michael W.; Wright, Jason T.; Wyatt, M. C.; Zheng, WeiKang; Zsidi, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in 2015 October, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1%–2.5% dips, named “Elsie,” “Celeste,” “Skara Brae,” and “Angkor,” which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are as follows: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips and (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-gray extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale ≪1 μm, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term “secular” dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process.

  4. Physical properties of beeswax, sunflower wax, and candelilla wax mixtures and organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased interest in natural waxes as alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and saturated fats as oil structuring agents. Using relatively low concentrations (0.5-5%), natural waxes are able to form crystalline networks, or organogels, which bind liquid oil. Each natural wax is uniqu...

  5. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  6. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  7. ICE-DIP kicks off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Last month, Marie Curie Actions* added a new member to its ranks: ICE-DIP (the Intel-CERN European Doctorate Industrial Program). The programme held its kick-off meeting on 18-19 February in Leixlip near Dublin, Ireland, at Intel’s premises.   Building on CERN’s long-standing relationship with Intel in the CERN openlab project, ICE-DIP brings together CERN and industrial partners, Intel and Xena Networks, to train five Early Stage ICT Researchers. These researchers will be funded by the European Commission and granted a CERN Fellow contract while enrolled in the doctoral programmes at partner universities Dublin City University and National University of Ireland Maynooth. The researchers will go on extended secondments to Intel Labs Europe locations across Europe during their three-year training programme. The primary focus of the ICE-DIP researchers will be the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger a...

  8. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping is accomplished by thoroughly wetting the entire skin by either...

  9. Aplikasi Wax Sebagai Salah Satu Material Di Bidang Kedokteran Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Jamilah Israwati Lubis

    2008-01-01

    Wax merupakan salah satu bahan termoplastik yang terdiri dari berbagai bahan organis dan bahan alami sehingga membuatnya sebagai bahan dengan sifat-sifat yang sangat berguna. Unsur-unsur pokok dental wax terdiri dari 3 suraber utama, yaitu : mineral, serangga (hewani), dan sayur-sayuran (tumbuh-tumbuhan). Wax yang berasal dari bahan mineral diantaranya adalah paraffin wax dan microcrystallin wax yang diperoleh dari hasil residu petroleum melalui proses destilasi. Wax yang berasal dari serangg...

  10. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. The Effect of Paraffin Wax to Properties of Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2015-01-01

    Dipping factories often encounter a serious problem with high tackiness of the finish products during storage. The tackiness effect can be lead to rejection of products. This tackiness effect of natural (NR) rubber film originates in the free rubber chain ends at the surface of the film. The tackiness is not depends on the degree of crosslinking (vulcanization), since radiation itself unable to reduce the tackiness effect. The RVNRL requires addition of additive or anti-tack agent into formulation to reduce tackiness effect. In this experiment, paraffin wax manufactured by Emulco Sdn Bhd under the trade name Aquawax 48 was added into RVNRL formulation as anti-tack and the effect of paraffin wax to physical and mechanical properties of RVNRL was study. (author)

  12. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  13. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  14. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  15. DIPS space exploration initiative safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issues were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept

  16. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  17. Extracting paraffin and mineral waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, I C

    1930-01-17

    In a process for freezing liquids, particularly for precipitating wax from oils such as petroleum or shale oils, the liquid to be treated is cooled first in vessels 10, 11, and 12 by chilled liquid from the final separating tanks 22, then in vessels 13, 14 and 15 by brine cooled by an evaporator 38 and finally in vessels 16,17, 18 directly by the evaporator of a refrigerating plant. The cooling in vessels 10, 11, 12 is regulated by recirculating some of the chilled liquid through the valved pipe 30 while that in tanks 13, 14, 15 is regulated by short-circuiting the brine circulation through a tank 35. Refrigerant vapour from the evaporators in vessels 16, 17, 18 may return through pipe 61 to the compressor or absorber of the plant 45 or it may be withdrawn by pump 58. By the operation of valves A, B, 47, and a valve in pipe 61, the pressures in the evaporators may be varied individually to regulate the cooling in each vessel. Mechanical stirrers are provided in tanks 16, 17, 18.

  18. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  19. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  20. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  1. Fabrication of 5 cm long epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} single buffer layer on textured Ni-5%W substrate for YBCO coated conductors via dip-coating PACSD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, M.; Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Yang, X.S.; He, L.J. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)] [Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors was deposited via fluorine-free dip-coating CSD. Flat, dense and crack-free SCO films with sharp (2 0 0) c-axis texture were obtained by carefully controlling the processing. YBCO thin films with a homogeneous surface microstructure were deposited on the SCO-buffered NiW substrate via CSD approach. Five centimeters long epitaxial Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} (SCO) single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors was deposited via dip-coating polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach on bi-axially textured Ni-5%W (2 0 0) alloy substrate. The film formation and texture evolution were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Flat, dense and crack-free SCO films with sharp (2 0 0) c-axis texture were obtained by way of carefully controlling the concentration of precursor solution, withdrawing speed, annealing temperature and dwelling time. On consideration of both microstructure and texture, epitaxial SCO single buffer layers were fabricated using precursor solution of 0.3 M cationic concentration, the withdrawing speed of 10 mm/min and heat treatment at 1100 deg. C in Ar-5%H{sub 2} mixture gas for 0.5 h. Epitaxial YBCO thin films with a homogeneous surface microstructure were deposited on the SCO-buffered NiW substrate via dip-coating PACSD approach. The PACSD approach was a promising way to fabricate long and low-cost YBCO coated conductors.

  2. Dip-slope and Dip-slope Failures in Taiwan - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan is famous for dip-slope and dip-slope slides. Dip-slopes exist at many places in the fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan. Under active cutting of stream channels and man-made excavations, a dip-slope may become unstable and susceptible for mass sliding. Daylight of a bedding parallel clay seam is the most dangerous type for dip-slope sliding. Buckling or shear-off features may also happen at toe of a long dip-slope. Besides, a dip-slope is also dangerous for shallow debris slides, if the slope angle is between 25 to 45 degrees and the debris (colluvium or slope wash) is thick (>1m). These unstable slopes may slide during a triggering event, earthquake or typhoon storm; or even slide without a triggering event, like the 2010 Tapu case. Initial buckling feature had been found in the dip-slope of the Feitsui arch dam abutment after detailed explorations. Shear-off feature have also been found in dip-slope located in right bank of the Nahua reservoir after field investigation and drilling. The Chiufengerhshan slide may also be shear-off type. On the other hand, the Tapu, the Tsaoling slides and others are of direct slide type. The Neihoo Bishan slide is a shallow debris slide on dip-slope. All these cases demonstrate the four different types of dip-slope slide. The hazard of a dip-slope should be investigated to cover these possible types of failure. The existence of bedding parallel clay seams is critical for the stability of a dip-slope, either for direct slide or buckling or shear-off type of failure, and is a hot point during investigation. Because, the stability of a dip-slope is changing with time, therefore, detailed explorations to including weathering and erosion rates are also very necessary to ensure the long-term stability of a dip-slope.

  3. Deformation modeling and the strain transient dip test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.; Swearengen, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent efforts in material deformation modeling reveal a trend toward unifying creep and plasticity with a single rate-dependent formulation. While such models can describe actual material deformation, most require a number of different experiments to generate model parameter information. Recently, however, a new model has been proposed in which most of the requisite constants may be found by examining creep transients brought about through abrupt changes in creep stress (strain transient dip test). The critical measurement in this test is the absence of a resolvable creep rate after a stress drop. As a consequence, the result is extraordinarily sensitive to strain resolution as well as machine mechanical response. This paper presents the design of a machine in which these spurious effects have been minimized and discusses the nature of the strain transient dip test using the example of aluminum. It is concluded that the strain transient dip test is not useful as the primary test for verifying any micromechanical model of deformation. Nevertheless, if a model can be developed which is verifiable by other experimentts, data from a dip test machine may be used to generate model parameters

  4. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DIP and DIP + 2 as glutathione oxidants and radiation sensitizers in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.; Power, J.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Kosower, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Two diamide analogues, diazene dicarboxylic acid bis (N'-methyl-piperazide) or DIP, and its bis-N'-methyl iodide salt, or DIP + 2, were tested for their ability to penetrate cultured Chinese hamster cells and oxidize intracellular glutathione. DIP penetrated the cells at a reasonable rate at 18 0 C, 160 nmoles being required to oxidize the endogenous glutathione of 2 x 10 6 cells, but it penetrated very slowly at 0 0 C. DIP + 2 did not effectively oxidize glutathione in Chinese hamster cells, possibly because it did not enter the cels. DIP became toxic after about 10 min of exposure, but its toxicity could be moderated by using anoxic conditions. DIP, but not DIP + 2, sensitized anoxic Chinese hamster cells to X-radiation by a factor of 1.5, an effect that was due entirely to removal of the shoulder from the survival curve. (author)

  6. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  7. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  8. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eh Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  9. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  10. 75 FR 17162 - Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's... Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be... of efforts in obtaining information (29 U.S.C. 657). The Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations...

  11. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu C Racovita

    Full Text Available In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33, primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28 and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28 were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  12. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  13. Current trend in latex dipped products manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper present the activities in dipped products manufacturing in Malaysia; the activities carried out by MARGMA - Malaysian Rubber Glove manufacturer; other issues discussed such as labour, pricing environmental issue, product certification in this activity

  14. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.

    1994-01-01

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  15. Heat transfer enhancement in energy storage in spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, Hisham; Alatiqi, Imad; Al-Sahali, Mohammad; Al-Hajirie, Khalida

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage is an attractive option to conserve limited energy resources, where more than 50% of the generated industrial energy is discarded in cooling water and stack gases. This study focuses on the evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in phase change energy storage units. The experiments are performed using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads. The experiments are conducted by inserting a single spherical capsule filled with wax and metal beads in a stream of hot/cold air. Experimental measurements include the temperature field within the spherical capsule and in the air stream. To determine the enhancement effects of the metal beads, the measured data is correlated against those for a spherical capsule filled with pure wax. Data analysis shows a reduction of 15% in the melting and solidification times upon increasing the number and diameter of the metal beads. This reduction is caused by a similar decrease in the thermal load of the sphere due to replacement of the wax by metal beads. The small size of the spherical capsule limits the enhancement effects; this is evident upon comparison of the heat transfer in a larger size, double pipe energy storage unit, where 2% of the wax volume is replaced with metal inserts, result in a three fold reduction in the melting/solidification time and a similar enhancement in the heat transfer rate

  16. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  17. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  18. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register... it is very hygroscopic and will react with some metal containers in the presence of air. Phosphoric... high enough to keep the wax melted. (Note: In preheating the sulfoxide-acid mixture, remove the stopper...

  19. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  20. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  1. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  2. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S S; Chivate, Amit

    2007-09-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%-20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusion of ground or emulsified carnauba wax did not sustain the release of theophylline for more than 3 hours. Matrix pellets of theophylline prepared with various concentrations of carnauba wax were sintered thermally at various times and temperatures. In vitro drug release profiles indicated an increase in drug release retardation with increasing carnauba wax concentration. Pellets prepared with ground wax showed a higher standard deviation than did those prepared with emulsified wax. There was incomplete release at the end of 12 hours for pellets prepared with 20% ground or emulsified wax. The sintering temperature and duration were optimized to allow for a sustained release lasting at least 12 hours. The optimized temperature and duration were found to be 100 degrees C and 140 seconds, respectively. The sintered pellets had a higher hydrophobicity than did the unsintered pellets. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the carnauba wax moved internally, thereby increasing the surface area of wax within the pellets.

  3. Expression Patterns and Potential Biological Roles of Dip2a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Disconnected (disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A is a member of the DIP2 protein family encoded by Dip2a gene. Dip2a expression pattern has never been systematically studied. Functions of Dip2a in embryonic development and adult are not known. To investigate Dip2a gene expression and function in embryo and adult, a Dip2a-LacZ mouse model was generated by insertion of β-Gal cDNA after Dip2a promoter using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Dip2a-LacZ mouse was designed to be a lacZ reporter mouse as well as a Dip2a knockout mouse. Heterozygous mice were used to study endogenous Dip2a expression and homozygotes to study DIP2A-associated structure and function. LacZ staining indicated that Dip2a is broadly expressed in neuronal, reproductive and vascular tissues, as well as in heart, kidney, liver and lung. Results demonstrate that Dip2a is expressed in ectoderm-derived tissues in developing embryos. Adult tissues showed rich staining in neurons, mesenchymal, endothelial, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes by cell types. The expression pattern highly overlaps with FSTL1 and supports previous report that DIP2A to be potential receptor of FSTL1 and its protective roles of cardiomyocytes. Broad and intense embryonic and adult expression of Dip2a has implied their multiple structural and physiological roles.

  4. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  5. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  6. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  7. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    greatly with the source of crude oil. Some crudes contain little wax. The U.S. crudes from Pennsylvania and the midcontinent areas contain high...years ago in Egypt for many different purposes. The term wax comes to us from the Anglo-Saxon "weax," the name given to material from the bee ...usually produced in the wild and not by large scale cultivation. Although plants produce small amounts of waxes in their tissues, seeds and pollen

  8. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  9. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  10. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  11. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Study of phase transition in hard microcrystalline waxes and wax blends by differential scanning calorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, S.; Agrawal, K. M.; Khan, H. U.; Sikora, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, 3 & 4 (2004), s. 337-345 ISSN 1091-6466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phase transition * hard microscrystalline waxes * differential scanning calorimetry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  13. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  14. Three cases of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaie P

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available D.I.P is a rare disease. The etiology is unknown. It is characterized pathologically by massive proliferation and desquamation of alveolar cells and thickening of the alveolar walls. In our studies from 1368-73 we have three patients hospitalized earlier the prognosis would be much better. Corticosteroid and other effective drugs would be helpfull in treatment of these patients.

  15. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  16. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impacted wax has been classified as an ear disease. It can cause pain, itching, tinnitus hearing loss or otitis externa. The prevalence of cerumen impaction varies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association ...

  17. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  18. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  19. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  20. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-22

    Dec 22, 2005 ... viscosity of a polymer melt. In many instances it ... amounts of different waxes on the viscosity (melt flow) of ..... Since the MFI is a direct measure of the viscosity .... melt flow index increasing with increasing wax content. There.

  1. Geometric accuracy of wax bade models manufactured in silicon moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the test results of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models manufactured in silicon moulds in the Rapid Tooling process, with the application of the Vacuum Casting technology. In batch production casting waxes are designed for the manufacture of models and components of model sets through injection into a metal die. The objective of the tests was to determine the possibility of using traditional wax for the production of casting models in the rapid prototyping process. Blade models made of five types of casting wax were measured. The definition of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models makes it possible to introduce individual modifications aimed at improving their shape in order to increase the dimensional accuracy of blade models manufactured in the rapid prototyping process.

  2. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  3. Cattle dipping practices in the Philippines and the degradation of coumaphos in a simulated cattle dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calumpang, S.M.F.; Medina, M.J.B.; Tejada, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)

  4. Purifying oils and waxes. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1926-01-27

    Fractions of petroleum, shale oil, coal oil, and paraffin wax are refined by passing the vapour under reduced pressure through fuller's earth, bauxite, silica gel, or other adsorbent at a temperature not substantially more than sufficient to maintain the vapour phase. The vapour may be passed in succession through adsorbent of increasing strength. Treatment with sulphuric acid, or with alkali, or with both may precede treatment with absorbent, and this successive treatment may be repeated any number of times. The action is accelerated by passing a current of inert gas insufficient to affect the vacuum materially along with the vapours. In an example a 160 to 225/sup 0/C kerosene fraction is treated with sulphuric acid of 10 percent strength, and passed into a fuller's earth chamber under a vacuum of 27 in. of mercury and heated by steam to about 140/sup 0/C. The apparatus is described.

  5. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  6. Hyperuricemia and non-dipping blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrone O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oreste Marrone,1 Maria Rosaria Bonsignore1,21National Research Council, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Palermo, Italy; 2Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyThe strong association between the metabolic derangements that characterize the metabolic syndrome with arterial hypertension is very well-known, as it is the common finding of hyperuricemia in the patients with the metabolic syndrome. Besides, hyperuricemia has been found to be associated with cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic diseases; including not only gout but also type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its role as a risk factor is still debated.1 We were not aware of previous studies describing an association between uric acid levels and the non-dipping 24-hour blood pressure (BP pattern, and for that reason we were intrigued by Tutal et al’s article, regarding hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome.2 The authors explain some possible causes that could determine an increase in uric acid in the metabolic syndrome, and describe some pathogenetic mechanisms of systemic hypertension in their patients. We would like to point out one more possible mechanism that could link hyperuricemia to non-dipping BP.View original paper by Tutal et al

  7. Development of flow-through and dip-stick immunoassays for screening of sulfonamide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2008-08-20

    Two formats of membrane-based competitive enzyme immunoassays (flow-through and dip-stick) have been developed for the screening of sulfonamide residues in pig muscle and milk. Membrane was coated with anti-sulfonamide antibody and a sulfonamide hapten D2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugant was used as the labeled antigen for competitive assay of sulfonamides. Visual detection limits of the flow-through or dip-stick assay were 1-5 microg L(-1) or 1-10 microg L(-1) in buffer for seven sulfonamides, respectively. Assay validation was performed using samples spiked with single sulfonamide, spiked samples were tested using the developed strip assays and results were compared with those obtained by a validated high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) method. Results showed that the two strip assays were correlated well with HPLC, respectively. With assay times of 5 min (flow-through) and 15 min (dip-stick), these rapid tests could offer simple, rapid and cost-effective on-site screening tools to detect sulfonamides in pig muscle (flow-through or dip-stick) or milk (only dip-stick).

  8. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  9. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  11. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  12. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  13. Magnetic dips in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolny, M.; Bavassano, B.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N.; Burlaga, L.

    1978-09-01

    With the help of magnetic data from the HELIOS 1 fluxgate magnetometer, with a 0.2 sec resolution, the structures of several interplanetary discontinuities involving magnetic dips and rotations of the magnetic field vector were investigated. A minimum variance analysis illustrates the behavior of the magnetic field through the transition in the plane of its maximum variation. By means of this analysis, quite different structures have been individuated, in particular, narrow transitions resembling almost one-dimensional reconnected neutral sheets. For the thinner cases (scale lengths of the magnetic rotation of the order or smaller than 1,000 km), results show the observed structures could be the nonlinear effect of a resistive tearing mode instability having developed on an originally one-dimensional neutral sheet at the solar corona

  14. Two-colour dip spectroscopy of jet-cooled molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mitsuo

    In optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy, the resonance transition from an intermediate state to a final state can be detected by a dip of the signal (fluorescence or ion) associated with the intermediate state. This method probing the signal of the intermediate state may be called `two-colour dip spectroscopy'. Various kinds of two-colour dip spectroscopy such as two-colour fluorescence/ion dip spectroscopy, two-colour ionization dip spectroscopy employing stimulated emission, population labelling spectroscopy and mass-selected ion dip spectroscopy with dissociation were briefly described, paying special attention to their characteristics in excitation, detection and application. They were extensively and successfully applied to jet-cooled large molecules and provided us with new useful information on the energy and dynamics of excited molecules.

  15. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  16. The effects of magnetic fields on carnauba wax electret formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clator, Irvin G.

    1987-08-01

    The results of thermally stimulated depolarization current and effective surface charge-density measurements indicate that magnetic fields do not produce carnauba wax electrets and that previously reported data can be attributed to nonmagnetic effects.

  17. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examined and compared to those of beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax. The results showed that the genotype of Kluai Namwa was Musa acuminata X M. balbisiana (ABB group cv. Pisang Awak. The highest amount of wax extracted was 274 μg/cm2 surface area. The fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the wax were similar to those of carnauba wax. It could be suggested that the banana wax could be used as a replacement for carnauba wax in various utilizing areas.

  18. CARNAUBA WAX USED AS AN HYDROPHOBIC AGENT FOR EXPANDED VERMICULITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Melo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of carnauba wax as an expansion and hydrophobicity agent for vermiculite, to be utilized in the sorption process of oil in water. Evaluation of the system (oil-water-hydrophobic vermiculite submersion percentage was considered in assessing the performance of vermiculite in comparison to a Mexican turf. Carnauba wax seems to be more efficient in both fresh and salt waters.

  19. Subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Cox, G E; Babish, J G; Gallo, M A; Hess, F G; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    Carnauba wax fed at levels of 0.1, 0.3 and 1% in the diet to beagle dogs for 28 wk did not produce evidence of toxicity or pathological effects. Body weight gain, food consumption, clinical chemical, haematological, and urine analysis data, and organ weights of animals fed carnauba wax were comparable with those of control animals. Ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations revealed no significant treatment-related findings.

  20. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S. S.; Chivate, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%–20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusio...

  1. Effects of UV-B radiation on wax biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Paul, N.; Percy, K.; Broadbent, P.; McLaughlin, C.; Mullineaux, P.; Creissen, G.; Wellburn, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two genotypes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were exposed in controlled environment chambers to three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B BE ; 280-320nm): 0, 4.54 (ambient) and 5.66 (∼ 25% enhancement) kJ m -2 d -1 . After 28 days, the quantity of wax deposited on leaf surfaces was determined gravimetrically; epicuticular wax chemical composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography with homologue assignments confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaf wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets placed on leaf surfaces. Tobacco wax consisted of three major hydrocarbon classes: Straight-chain alkanes (C 27 -C 33 ) which comprised ∼ 59% of the hydrocarbon fraction, containing a predominance of odd-chain alkanes with C 31 as the most abundant homologue; branched-chain alkanes (C 25 -C 32 ) which comprised ∼38% of the hydrocarbon fraction with anteiso 3-methyltriacontane (C 30 ) as the predominant homologue; and fatty acids (C 14 -C 18 ) which comprised ∼ 3% of the wax. Exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the quantity of wax on the adaxial surface of the transgenic mutant, and resulted in marked changes in the chemical composition of the wax on the exposed leaf surface. Enhanced UV-B decreased the quantity of straight-chain alkanes, increased the quantity of branched-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and resulted in shifts toward shorter straight-chain lengths. Furthermore, UV-B-induced changes in wax composition were associated with increased wettability of tobacco leaf surfaces. Overall, the data are consistent with the view that UV-B radiation has a direct and fundamental effect on wax biosynthesis. Relationships between the physico-chemical nature of the leaf surface and sensitivity to UV-B radiation are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: Transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Alcantara, Ramon; Garcia-Martinez, Jesus; Carrasco, Jesus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, School of Mines, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003-Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in some parts of the world. The main uses of Jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the Jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with methanol, catalysed with sodium methoxide (1wt% of the oil). The transesterification reaction has been carried out in an autoclave at 60 deg C, with a molar ratio methanol/oil 7.5:1, and vigorous stirring (600rpm), reaching a quantitative conversion of the oil after 4h. The separation of the fatty acid methyl esters (the fraction rich in FAME, 79% FAME mixture; 21% fatty alcohols; 51% of methyl cis-11-eicosenoate) from the fatty alcohols rich fraction (72% fatty alcohols; 28% FAME mixture; 26% of cis-11-eicosen-1-ol, 36% of cis-13-docosen-1-ol) has been accomplished in a single crystallization step at low temperature (-18 deg C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. The fraction rich in FAME has a density (at 15 deg C), a kinematic viscosity (at 40 deg C), a cold filter plugging point and a high calorific value in the range of the European standard for biodiesel (EN 14214)

  3. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  4. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  5. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.

  6. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Drncova, Daniela; Richard, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in environmental cycling and the fate of many organic pollutants. This is especially the case for pesticides because plant leaves are their first reaction environment after application. It is commonly accepted that photochemical reactions of pollutants on plants predominantly take place in the cuticular wax coating of the leaves. Thus, we used films made of either cuticular wax extracted from maize or carnauba gray wax as a model support. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, sulcotrione (a new class of triketone herbicides) sorbed on cuticular wax films was photolyzed and mainly underwent an intramolecular cyclization. The photoproduct is a chromone derivative which was isolated and fully characterized. It is reported for the first time as a sulcotrione degradation product. The photoreactivity of formulated sulcotrione at the surface of cuticular waxes was investigated too. It photodegraded more rapidly than nonformulated sulcotrione. This study also shows that the rate of sulcotrione photolysis was much faster than the rate of penetration into the wax; photolysis should be, thus, a relevant process in real conditions.

  7. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kawelke

    Full Text Available Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2 and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity.

  8. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  9. Gravity interpretation of dipping faults using the variance analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, Khalid S

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed to estimate simultaneously the depth and the dip angle of a buried fault from the normalized gravity gradient data. This algorithm utilizes numerical first horizontal derivatives computed from the observed gravity anomaly, using filters of successive window lengths to estimate the depth and the dip angle of a buried dipping fault structure. For a fixed window length, the depth is estimated using a least-squares sense for each dip angle. The method is based on computing the variance of the depths determined from all horizontal gradient anomaly profiles using the least-squares method for each dip angle. The minimum variance is used as a criterion for determining the correct dip angle and depth of the buried structure. When the correct dip angle is used, the variance of the depths is always less than the variances computed using wrong dip angles. The technique can be applied not only to the true residuals, but also to the measured Bouguer gravity data. The method is applied to synthetic data with and without random errors and two field examples from Egypt and Scotland. In all cases examined, the estimated depths and other model parameters are found to be in good agreement with the actual values. (paper)

  10. Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.

  11. Dip coating of sol-gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, P. R.; Hurd, A. J.; Brinker, C. J.

    Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface tension. This, together with slow coating speeds (less than 1cm/s), makes analysis of the coating process complicated; unlike most high-speed coating methods, solvent evaporation, evolving rheology, and surface tension gradients alter significantly the fluid mechanics of the deposition stage. These phenomena were studied with computer-aided predictions of the flow and species transport fields. The underlying theory involves mass, momentum, and species transport on a domain of unknown shape, with models and constitutive equations for vapor-liquid equilibria and surface tension. Due accounting is made for the unknown position of the free surface, which locates according to the capillary hydrodynamic forces and solvent loss by evaporation. Predictions of the effects of mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and surface tension gradients on final film thickness are compared with ellipsometry measurements of film thickness on a laboratory pilot coater. Although quantitative agreement is still lacking, both experiment and theory reveal that the film profile near the drying line takes on a parabolic shape.

  12. Friction and wear of Synfluo 180XF wax and nano-Al2O3 filled Nomex fabric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fenghua; Zhang Zhaozhu; Wang Kun; Liu Weimin

    2006-01-01

    Nomex fabric composites filled with the particulates of Synfluo 180XF wax (SFW) and nano-Al 2 O 3 was prepared by dip-coating of Nomex fabric in a phenolic resin containing particulates to be incorporated and the successive curing. The friction and wear performance of the pure and filled Nomex fabric composites sliding against AISI-1045 steel in a pin-on-disk configuration were evaluated on a Xuanwu-III high temperature friction and wear tester. The microstructure of the composites, and the morphologies of the worn surfaces and the morphologies of counterpart steel pins were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. And the elemental plane distribution of Al on the cross-section of the Nomex fabric composites filled with nano-Al 2 O 3 was analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The results showed that the addition of Synfluo 180XF wax in composites have the potential to increase wear resistance and friction reduction of Nomex fabric composites, and the addition of the nano-Al 2 O 3 with the optimum mass fraction in composites can improve the anti-wear ability of the composites. Besides the self-properties of the filler, the character of the microstructure of the Nomex fabric composites filled with different particles, coupled with the character of the transfer film, largely accounts for the improved anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of the filled Nomex fabric composites as compared with the unfilled one

  13. Content of Wax during Dewaxing Process: Adopting a DOE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Eghbali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content of the wax produced in a dewaxing process is the key economic parameter that should be reduced as much as possible. Some factors such as the type of solvents, cooling rate, temperature, and solvent to oil ratio influence the dewaxing process. Due to the fact that crude oil differs from place to place and since the operational conditions for wax extraction vary for different types of crude oil, the objective of this work is to study the operational conditions for wax production from an Iranian raffinate sample used in Sepahan Oil Company. All the experiments are conducted based on a design of experiment (DOE technique for minimizing the oil content of the wax produced. The effects of five factors have been determined quantitatively and appropriate levels are suggested for reducing the oil content. The results show that the solvent ratio, solvent composition, and cooling rate play the most important role in minimizing the oil content of the produced wax.

  14. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  15. The study of importance sampling in Monte-carlo calculation of blocking dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhengying; Zhou Peng

    1988-01-01

    Angular blocking dips around the axis in Al single crystal of α-particles of about 2 Mev produced at a depth of 0.2 μm are calculated by a Monte-carlo simulation. The influence of the small solid angle emission of particles and the importance sampling in the solid angle emission have been investigated. By means of importance sampling, a more reasonable results with high accuracy are obtained

  16. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  17. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  18. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  20. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  1. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proprietary brands of permitted dips—as well the use of compressed air, vat management techniques, and other... maintained and that under actual field conditions the dipping of cattle with a solution of definite strength...

  2. The potential of postharvest silicon dips to regulate phenolics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACCI

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... This study investigated the ability of silicon dips to enhance the phenolic content in order to .... observed under a scanning electron microscope equipped with. EDX detector (Zeiss EVO LS15, Oxford XMax detector, and INCA.

  3. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  4. Attenuation of pressure dips underneath piles of spherocylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; An, Xizhong; Gou, Dazhao; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Runyu

    2018-05-30

    The discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the piling of rod-like (elongated sphero-cylindrical) particles, mainly focusing on the effect of particle shape on the structural and force properties of the piles. In this work, rod-like particles of different aspect ratios were discharged on a flat surface to form wedge-shaped piles. The surface properties of the piles were characterized in terms of angle of repose and stress at the bottom of the piles. The results showed that the rise of the angle of repose became slower with the increase of particle aspect ratio. The pressure dip underneath the piles reached the maximum when the particle aspect ratio was around 1.6, beyond which the pressure dip phenomenon became attenuated. Both the pressure dip and the shear stress dip were quantitatively examined. The structure and forces inside the piles were further analyzed to understand the change in pressure dip, indicating that "bridging" or "arching" structures within the piles were the cause of the pressure dip.

  5. ASPHALT-RESIN-WAX DEPOSITS ANALYSIS WITH PETROLEUM REFINERY EQUIPMENT USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Bondar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methodology and analysis of wax deposits formed in-water-cooling tower, cistern and tank from wax petroleum were developed. It was shown, that deposits consist of organic (>90% and inorganic components – the first one was enriched by high molecular wax hydrocarbons, the second one – by mechanical impurities. The methods of deposits utilization were proposed

  6. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  7. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  8. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  9. Effects of wax treatment on quality and postharvest physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cell membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content when compared with those in control. This waxing also improved total sugars and the contents of ascorbic acid in pineapple fruits. These results suggested that this treatment might be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury and maintain fruit quality during ...

  10. Structural characterization of wax esters by electron ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Klára; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Valterová, Irena; Háková, Martina; Cvačka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 204-213 ISSN 0022-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : interpretation * neutral lipids * spectral database * waxes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.386, year: 2012

  11. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  13. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, I. K.; Lanny, V.; Franke, J.; Eglinton, T. I.; Zech, M.; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 551-564 ISSN 2199-3971 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : leaf waxes * soil s Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www. soil -journal.net/2/551/2016/ soil -2-551-2016.pdf

  14. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  15. EPICUTICULAR WAX COMPOSITION OF SOME EUROPEAN SEDUM SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; BOLCK, A; ZWAVING, JH; MALINGRE, TM

    Epicuticular waxes from 30 species of Sedum and 2 species of Sempervivoideae, i.e. Aeonium spathulatum and Sempervivum nevadense, have been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The Sedum taxa examined were S. acre, S. album, S. series Alpestria (13 species), S. anglicum, S. brevifolium, S. litoreum, S. lydium,

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  17. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  18. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  19. Development of a Parafin Wax deposition Unit for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Greta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2014-01-01

    . This project illustrates the redesign of an extrusion unit for the deposition of paraffin wax in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) instead of the conventional polymeric materials. Among the benefits and brought by the use of paraffin wax in such system are: the possibility to make highly complex and precise...... parts to subsequently use in a Lost Wax Casting process, multi-material Additive Manufacturing and the use of wax as support material during the production of complicated parts. Moreover it is believed that including waxes among the materials usable in FDM would promote new ways of using and exploring...

  20. Studies on Hydrotreating Process of Microcrystalline Wax Produced from Marine Belayim Crude Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Karashi, S.; Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microcrystalline wax was produced from solvent dewaxing process of vacuum residue raffinate produced from Marine Belayim origin. The untreated microcrystalline wax contains trace amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and organometallic compounds as well as heavy aromatics which affect the properties of wax applications in pharmaceutical and technical fields . Microcrystalline wax hydrotreating process was studied using digital controlled unit and Ni O-MoO 3 / Al 2 O 3 catalyst, where operating parameters that controlled the efficiency of the hydrotreated wax were studied separately at different values including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio . Hydrotreated microcrystalline wax at operating conditions (temperature 300 degree C, pressure 73 kg/cm 2 , LHS V 0.52 h-l and H 2 /HC ratio 266.6 Nm 3 /m 3 ) has the best quality to be used as food grade wax

  1. Protocol for the microbial degradation of coumaphos from cattle dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulbry, W.; Karns, J.

    1997-01-01

    Insecticide wastes generated from livestock dipping operations are well suited for biodegradation processes since these wastes are concentrated, contained, and have no other significant toxic components. About 400,000 L of cattle dip wastes containing approximately 1500 mg/L of the organophosphate coumaphos are generated yearly along the Mexican border from a USDA program designed to control disease carrying cattle ticks. Use of unlined evaporation pits for the disposal of these wastes has resulted in highly contaminated soils underlying these sites. Previous work has shown that microbial consortia present in selected dip wastes can be induced to mineralize coumaphos. Our laboratory results show that these consortia are able to colonize plastic fibers in trickling biofilters and can be used in these filters to quickly metabolize coumaphos from dip wastes. A field scale biofilter capable of treating 15,000 litre batches of dip waste was used to reduce the coumaphos concentration in two successive 11,000 litre batch trials from 2000 mg/L to 10 mg/L in approximately 14 d. (author)

  2. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hosdital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7{approx}+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21{approx}+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71{approx}-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured {+-}3 mm for Mouth Piece, {+-}2 mm for Paraffin Wax and {+-}2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other

  3. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun

    2011-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7∼+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21∼+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71∼-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured ±3 mm for Mouth Piece, ±2 mm for Paraffin Wax and ±2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other impressions and

  4. Replication of specifically microstructured surfaces in A356-alloy via lost wax investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Todor; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas; Vroomen, Uwe; Hartmann, Claudia; Holtkamp, Jens; Gillner, Arnold; Bobzin, Kirsten; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Theiss, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    A common way of realizing microstructural features on metallic surfaces is to generate the designated pattern on each single part by means of microstructuring technologies such as e.g. laser ablation, electric discharge machining or micromilling. The disadvantage of these process chains is the limited productivity due to the additional processing of each part. The approach of this work is to replicate microstructured surfaces from a master pattern via lost wax investment casting in order to reach a higher productivity. We show that microholes of different sizes ( 15–22 µm at depths of 6–14 µm) can be replicated in AlSi7Mg-alloy from a laser-structured master pattern via investment casting. However, some loss of molding accuracy during the multi-stage molding process occurs. Approximately 50% of the original microfeature's heights are lost during the wax injection step. In the following process step of manufacturing a gypsum-bonded mold, a further loss in the surface quality of the microfeatures can be observed. In the final process step of casting the aluminum melt, the microfeatures are filled without any loss of molding accuracy and replicate the surface quality of the gypsum mold. The contact angle measurements of ultrapure water on the cast surfaces show a decrease in wettability on the microstructured regions (75°) compared to the unstructured region (60°)

  5. 5-Fluorouracil:carnauba wax microspheres for chemoembolization: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benita, S; Zouai, O; Benoit, J P

    1986-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil:carnauba wax microspheres were prepared using a meltable dispersion process with the aid of a surfactant as a wetting agent. It was noted that only hydrophilic surfactants were able to wet the 5-fluorouracil and substantially increased its content in the microspheres. No marked effect was observed in the particle size distribution of the solid microspheres as a function of the nature of the surfactant. Increasing the stirring rate in the preparation process decreased, first, the mean droplet size of the emulsified melted dispersion in the vehicle during the heating process, and, consequently, the mean particle size of the solidified microspheres during the cooling process. 5-Fluorouracil cumulative release from the microspheres followed first-order kinetics, as shown by nonlinear regression analysis. Although the kinetic results were not indicative of the true release mechanism from a single microsphere, it was believed that 5-fluorouracil release from the microspheres was probably governed by a dissolution process, rather than by a leaching process through the carnauba wax microspheres.

  6. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  7. A case study of an erosion control practice: the broad-based dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Bold; Pamela Edwards; Karl Williard

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, 19 gravel haul roads with broad-based dips within the Monongahela National Forest were examined to determine if those dips adhered to Forest specifications for cut depth and dip outslope. Data on the azimuth, contributing road lengths, slopes of the contributing lengths, landscape position of the dip, and soil texture of the road bed materials also were...

  8. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  9. Study of Plant Waxes Using Low Temperature Method for ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Schiebertová, P.; Zajícová, I.; Schwarzerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1180-1181 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM * plant waxes * low temperature method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  10. Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed

  11. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm 2 , and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm 2 field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm 2 . At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used

  12. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Influence of dipping time on cracking during bending of hot dip galvanized coatings with Sn and Ti contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zortea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the attention to environmental topics led a new approach solution in classical protection techniques, introducing innovative way oriented to optimize different coating properties. Hot-dip galvanizing is a classical process aimed to generate coatings on iron-based surfaces, used unchanged since 200 years: some chemical elements are added in the bath with different aims (e.g., Pb is really important for its fluidizing properties, sometimes replaced by Sn but sometimes these elements are dangerous for human health (e.g. … Pb!.In this work, the influence of dipping time and coatings chemical compositions on damaging micromechanisms was investigated considering different Sn and Ti contents. Main damaging micromechanisms in hot dip zinc coated ipersandelin steel specimens were investigated by means of bending tests. Longitudinal sections of bended specimens were observed by means of a LOM (Light Optical Microscope: main damage micromechanisms were identified as longitudinal and radial cracks.

  14. Leaf waxes of slow-growing alpine and fast-growing lowland Poa species: inherent differences and responses to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, J.J.; Lambers, H.; Baas, W.; Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.; Atkin, O.K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether alpine and lowland Poa species exhibit inherent differences in leaf cuticular waxes, leaf UV absorbing compounds and/or growth responses to UV-B treatment. All plants were grown hydroponically in a growth cabinet (constant 20°; 14 hr photoperiod; 520 μmol photons m −2 s −1 PAR). Two alpine (P. fawcettiae and P. costiniana), one sub-alpine (P. alpina) and three temperate lowland species (P. pratensis, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were grown under conditions without UV radiation for 36 days. In a subsequent experiment, four Poa species (P. costiniana, P. alpina, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were also exposed for 21 days to UV-B/(UV-A) radiation ('UV-B treatment') that resulted in daily UV-B radiation of 7.5 kJ m −2 day −1 , with control plants being grown without UV-B ('UV-A control treatment'). All treatments were carried out in the same growth cabinet. There was no altitudinal trend regarding wax concentrations per unit leaf area, when the six species grown under UV-less conditions, were compared at similar developmental stage (20–30 g shoot fresh mass). However, large differences in cuticular wax chemical composition were observed between the alpine and lowland species grown under UV-less conditions. For example, a single primary alcohol was present in the waxes of the lowland and sub-alpine species (C 26 H 53 OH), but was virtually absent in the alpine species. Although alkanes were present in all six species (primarily C 29 H 60 and C 31 H 64 ), the proportion of total wax present as alkanes was highest in the alpine species. Aldehydes were only present in the waxes of the alpine species. Conversely, substantial amounts of triterpenoids were mainly present in the three lowland species (squalene and lupeol were the dominant forms). The proportion of total wax present as long-chain esters (LCE-s) was similar in all six species grown in the absence of UV radiation. Acetates were observed only in the wax of

  15. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Mamontova, Varvara; Engblom, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C 22 H 45 OH) and dotriacontane (C 32 H 66 ), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C 16 –C 32 ) and 16% n-alkanes (C 21 –C 33 ). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C 22 H 45 OH/C 32 H 66 /H 2 O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax

  16. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  17. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerström, Anton, E-mail: anton.fagerstrom@mah.se [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin [Agro Applications Europe, AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry AB, Stenungsund (Sweden); Mamontova, Varvara [Ecological and Chemical Research, St. Petersburg Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Engblom, Johan [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2013-11-10

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH) and dotriacontane (C{sub 32}H{sub 66}), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C{sub 16}–C{sub 32}) and 16% n-alkanes (C{sub 21}–C{sub 33}). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH/C{sub 32}H{sub 66}/H{sub 2}O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax.

  18. Fracture of the clavicle and second rib: an indirect injury from tricep dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Eduardo A; Assunção, Jorge H; Gracitelli, Mauro E; Lobo, Frederico L; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo A

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent rise in the interest in strength training, an increment in the number of lesions is expected, whether of the tendons, muscles, or bones. We describe a case of fracture involving the middle third of the clavicle and the second rib in a low-demand weightlifter. The fractures occurred suddenly while performing a triceps dips exercise, and the patient had no previous symptoms. He was treated conservatively and was able to return to sports six months later. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the association of these fractures triggered by a single event of muscle contraction.

  19. Novel dip-pen nanolithography strategies for nanopatterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based lithography technique offering the possibility of fabricating patterns with feature sizes ranging from micrometers to tens of nanometers, utilizing either top-down or bottom-up strategies. Although during its early development

  20. Electrochemical properties of dip-coated vanadium pentaoxide thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based on Helmholtz's double-layer capacitance, which is formed on an ... hybrid electric vehicles, laser, fuel cells, cellular phones, digital camera, etc. [5]. ... preparation of V2O5 by dip coating [43], but no work is found in the literature regarding ...

  1. Enhanced Lamb dip for absolute laser frequency stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman, A. E.; Byer, R. L.; Wang, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Enhanced Lamb dip width is 5 MHz and total depth is 10 percent of peak power. Present configuration is useful as frequency standard in near infrared. Technique extends to other lasers, for which low pressure narrow linewidth gain tubes can be constructed.

  2. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted dips; substances allowed. 73.10 Section 73.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... flowers of sulphur or sulphur flour to 100 gallons of water; or a specifically permitted proprietary brand...

  3. Impact of the Voltage Dips in Shipboard Microgrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage and frequency transient variations are the most common power quality issues in a ship microgrid system. In this paper, the impacts of the voltage dips induced by the sudden-load of ballast pump are analyzed in detail for the ship power systems. Several relevant ship power quality standards...

  4. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  5. Effect of waste wax and chain structure on the mechanical and physical properties of polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. AlMaadeed

    2015-05-01

    The wax dispersion in the matrix strongly depends on the percentage of wax added to the polymer and the molecular structure of the polymer. It was found that increasing the wax content enhances the phase separation. LDPE undergoes less phase separation due to its highly branched structure composed of a network of short and long chain branches. The wax has no pronounced plasticising effect on the polymer. This is clearly manifested in LDPE as no change in the melting temperature occurred. LLDPE and HDPE were slightly affected by a high concentration of wax (30% and 40%. This is due to the non-uniform distribution of short chain branching along the LLDPE and HDPE main chains, which can interact with the wax structure.

  6. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  7. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Charumanee; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Panee Sirisa-ard; Kiatisak Pholsongkram

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examin...

  8. Methods for separating boron from borated paraffin wax and its determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boron compounds are found to be useful in shielding against high-energy neutrons. In radiotherapy treatments, in order to protect occupational workers and patients from the undesirable neutron and gamma doses, paraffin wax containing B 4 C/boric acid is used. Low-level borate wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been immobilized with paraffin wax using a concentrate waste drying system (CWDS). Borated paraffin waxes are prepared by mixing calculated amounts of either boric acid or boron carbide with the molten wax. This necessitates the determination of boron at different locations in order to check the homogeneous distribution of B over the borated wax. The determination of boron in nuclear materials is inevitable due to its high neutron absorption cross section. For the determination of boron in borated waxes, not many methods have been reported. A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H 3 BO 3 and B 4 C. The B 4 C optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U 3 O 8 , which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O 2 at 950℃ for 60 and 90 min for wax with H 3 BO 3 and wax with B 4 C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H 3 BO 3 . In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N=3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD)

  9. The MIEL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Negatively Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Kim, Juyoung; Suh, Mi Chung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2017-07-01

    Cuticular wax is an important hydrophobic layer that covers the plant aerial surface. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is shaped by multiple layers of regulation. In particular, a pair of R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, MYB96 and MYB30, are known to be the main participants in cuticular wax accumulation. Here, we report that the MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) E3 ubiquitin ligase controls the protein stability of the two MYB transcription factors and thereby wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. MIEL1-deficient miel1 mutants exhibit increased wax accumulation in stems, with up-regulation of wax biosynthetic genes targeted by MYB96 and MYB30. Genetic analysis reveals that wax accumulation of the miel1 mutant is compromised by myb96 or myb30 mutation, but MYB96 is mainly epistatic to MIEL1, playing a predominant role in cuticular wax deposition. These observations indicate that the MIEL1-MYB96 module is important for balanced cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2014-01-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ∼ Φ 0.89 ) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 10 9 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 10 9 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress. (papers)

  11. Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaser, A S; Maharjan, C M; Wang, P; Litvinyuk, I V

    2006-01-01

    We studied ionization of neon and argon by intense linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses of different wavelengths (400 nm and 800 nm) and peak intensities, and by measuring momentum distributions of singly charged positive ions in the direction parallel to laser polarization. For Ne the momentum distributions exhibited a characteristic dip at zero momentum at 800 nm and a complex multipeak structure at 400 nm. Similarly, for Ar the momentum distributions evolved from a complex multipeak structure with a pronounced dip in the centre at 400 nm, to a smooth distribution characteristic of pure tunneling ionization (800 nm, high intensities). In the intermediate regime (800 nm, medium to low intensities), for both atoms we observed recoil ion momentum distributions modulated by quasi-periodic structures usually seen in the photoelectron energy spectra in a multi-photon regime (ATI spectra). Ne did show a characteristic 'dip' at low momentum, while the longitudinal momentum distribution for Ar exhibited a spike at zero momentum instead. The spectra did dramatically change at 400 nm, where both ions show the pronounced dip near zero momentum. Based on our results, we conclude that the structures observed in Ne and Ar momentum distributions reflect the specifics of atomic structure of the two targets and should not be attributed to effects of electron recollision, as was suggested earlier. Instead, as our results indicate, they are due to the effects of multi-photon resonant enhancement of strong-field ionization. (letter to the editor)

  12. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaka A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminu Ishaka,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Rozi Mahamud,3 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,4 Ismail Maznah1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm, with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV, pH (6.79–6.92 and refractive index (1.50; these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. Keywords: rice bran wax, policosanol, nanoemulsion, characterization

  13. Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, G; Ziaie, B; Tan, T

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO 2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc–copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ∼3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  16. Apex Dips of Experimental Flux Ropes: Helix or Cusp?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Li, Hui [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B227, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Shengtai, E-mail: pwongwai@caltech.edu, E-mail: mhaw@caltech.edu [Mathematical Modeling and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B284, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We present a new theory for the presence of apex dips in certain experimental flux ropes. Previously such dips were thought to be projections of a helical loop axis generated by the kink instability. However, new evidence from experiments and simulations suggest that the feature is a 2D cusp rather than a 3D helix. The proposed mechanism for cusp formation is a density pileup region generated by nonlinear interaction of neutral gas cones emitted from fast-gas nozzles. The results indicate that density perturbations can result in large distortions of an erupting flux rope, even in the absence of significant pressure or gravitational forces. The density pileup at the apex also suppresses the m = 1 kink mode by acting as a stationary node. Consequently, more accurate density profiles should be considered when attempting to model the stability and shape of solar and astrophysical flux ropes.

  17. Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, P.R.; Cuclcasi, J.D.; Elsner, C.I.; Sarli, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe 2 Al 5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

  18. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Biella, Serena; Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  19. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biella, Serena, E-mail: serena.biella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  20. Ni-YSZ graded coatings produced by dipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, B.; Moreno, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new colloidal processing route for the shaping of a graded Ni-YSZ composite for applications in SOFC devices is described. A Ni foil is coated by Ni/YSZ layers by dipping in aqueous suspensions with an organic binder. Behind the metal-ceramic layers introduced to improve adhesion, an outer thin layer of nanosized YSZ is formed by electrophoretic deposition. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  3. Fabrication of tubed functionally graded material by slurry dipping process. Thickness control of dip-coated layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1997-03-01

    In order to obtain long life fuel cladding tubes for the fast breeder reactor, the concept of functionally graded material was applied for the material combination of Molybdenum/stainless steel/Titanium, in which Titanium and Molybdenum were placed at the inner and outer sides, respectively. Slurry dipping method was employed because of its capability of shape forming and microstructural control. We have hitherto reported the design criteria for the graded layers, preparation of the slurry, and microstructural control of the dip-coated layers. In the present report, the thickness control of the dip-coated layer is described in detail. The thickness of the dip-coated layer depends primarily on the viscosity of the slurry. Nevertheless, for the stable dispersion of the powder in the slurry, which dominates the microstructural homogeneity, an optimum viscosity value is present for the individual slurries. With stable slurries of Ti, Mo, stainless steel powders and their mixtures, the thicknesses of dip-coated layers were controlled in dependence of their viscosities and yield values. For Ti and stainless steel powders and their mixture a PAANa was used as a dispersing agent. A NaHMP was found to be effective for the dispersion of Mo powder and Mo/stainless steel powder mixture. For all slurries tested in the present investigation PVA addition was helpful for the viscosity control. Dip-coating maps have been drawn for the stabilization of the slurries and for the formation of films with a sufficient strength for further manipulation for the slurries with low viscosity (∼10 mPa s). The final film thickness for the low-viscosity slurry with the optimum condition was about 200 μm. The slurries with high viscosities of several hundreds mPa s had a good stability and the yield value was easy to be controlled. The film thickness was able to be adjusted in the size range between several tens and several hundreds μm. The final thickness of the graded layer was determined

  4. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  5. Phase Transformation of Hot Dipped Aluminium during High Temperature Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Hishamuddin Husain; Mohd Saari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2014-01-01

    Low alloy carbon steel was coated by hot-dipping into a molten aluminum bath. Isothermal oxidations were carried out at 750 degree Celsius in static air to study the oxidation behaviour of the hot-dipped aluminide steel. The phase transformation in the aluminide layer during diffusion at 750 degree Celsius in static air was analyzed by SEM-EDX and XRD. After hot-dip treatment, the coating layers consisted of three phases, where Al, thinner layer of FeAl 3 , and thicker layer of Fe 2 Al 5 were detected from external topcoat to the aluminide/ steel substrate. After oxidation, the Fe 2 Al 5 formed during the immersion process completely transformed to Fe 2 Al 5 , FeAl 2 , FeAl and Al-Fe(Al) phases because of the composition gradient and the chemical diffusion by oxidation. After oxidation, there are some voids were found at the coating/ substrate interface due to the rapid inter-diffusion of iron and aluminium during oxidation. The FeAl phase kept growing with increasing exposure time at 750 degree Celsius, while the Fe 2 Al 5 was consumed during oxidation. After 168 hrs oxidation, the Fe 2 Al 5 phase was going disappeared as the aluminum layer was consumed. (author)

  6. Multiple-Satellite Observation of Magnetic Dip Event During the Substorm on 10 October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaoguo; Chen, Lunjin; Zhu, Hui; Xia, Zhiyang; Reeves, G. D.; Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Cao, Yong

    2017-09-01

    We present a multiple-satellite observation of the magnetic dip event during the substorm on 10 October 2013. The observation illustrates the temporal and spatial evolution of the magnetic dip and gives a compelling evidence that ring current ions induce the magnetic dip by enhanced plasma beta. The dip moves with the energetic ions in a comparable drift velocity and affects the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. In addition, the magnetic dip provides a favorable condition for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation based on the linear theory analysis. The calculated proton diffusion coefficients show that the observed EMIC wave can lead to the pitch angle scattering losses of the ring current ions, which in turn partially relax the magnetic dip in the observations. This study enriches our understanding of magnetic dip evolution and demonstrates the important role of the magnetic dip for the coupling of radiation belt and ring current.

  7. Trapping dynamics of diindenoperylene (DIP) in self-assembled monolayers using molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Clancy, Paulette

    2011-01-01

    (hexamethyldisilazane), are more likely to scatter energetic incoming DIP molecules with little insertion on first impact (depending on the incident energy of the DIP molecule). Grazing angles of incidence of the depositing molecules generally favor surface adsorption

  8. A Case Study Of Turkish Transmission System For VoltageDips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inan, E.; Alboyaci, B.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    Power quality problems usually appear in the form of voltage sags, transients and harmonics. From these three broad categories of power quality problems, voltage dips account the most disturbances experienced by industrial customers. Voltage dips generally refer to instantaneous short-duration vo......Power quality problems usually appear in the form of voltage sags, transients and harmonics. From these three broad categories of power quality problems, voltage dips account the most disturbances experienced by industrial customers. Voltage dips generally refer to instantaneous short...... analysis of voltage dip performance of the whole transmission system, is used to compare with results constructed fault statics from SIMPOW DIPS analysis program real data. SIMPOW DIPS software enables to calculate dip frequency for all busses and lines....

  9. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C n ) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C n of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C n of 24-32. The C n of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to 14 CO 2 for 4 h, 60% of the recovered 14 C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of 14 C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to 14 CO 2 to 55% at 8 h. Little 14 C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes

  10. Thermal Cracking to Improve the Qualification of the Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Agblevor, F. A.; Chen, C. G.; Feng, J.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal cracking of waxes at mild conditions (430-500°C) has been reconsidered as a possible refining technology for the production of fuels and chemicals. In this study, the more moderate thermal cracking was investigated to process Uinta Basin soft waxes to achieve the required pour point so that they can be pumped to the refineries. The best thermal cracking conditions were set 420°C and 20 minutes. The viscosity and density of the final liquid product were respectively achieved as 2.63 mP•s and 0.784 g/cm3 at 40°C. The result of FT-IR analysis of the liquid product indicated that the unsaturated hydrocarbons were produced after thermal cracking, which was corroborated by the 13C NMR spectrum. The GC analysis of the final gas product indicated that the hydrogen was produced; the dehydrogenation reaction was also proved by the elemental analysis and HHV results. The pour point of the final liquid product met the requirement.

  11. Inverse gradients in leaf wax δD and δ13C values along grass blades of Miscanthus sinensis: implications for leaf wax reproduction and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-06-01

    Compound specific hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of higher plant leaf waxes have been extensively used in paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, studies so far have focused on the comparison of leaf wax isotopic differences in bulk leaf samples between different plant species. We sampled three different varieties of tall grasses (Miscanthus sinensis) in six segments from base to tip and determined hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of leaf waxes, as well as hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of leaf water samples. We found an increasing, base-to-tip hydrogen isotopic gradient along the grass blades that can probably be attributed to active leaf wax regeneration over the growth season. Carbon isotopic ratios, on the other hand, show opposite trends to hydrogen isotopic ratios along the grass blades, which may reflect different photosynthetic efficiencies at different blade locales.

  12. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C.; Medina Z, C. [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A. [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  14. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  15. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  16. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  17. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  18. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C; Medina Z, C [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  20. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  1. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In our earlier study (AGU 2005, SSJ 2005, JPGU 2006), using a finite difference technique, we have conducted some numerical simulations related to the source dynamics of shallow dip-slip earthquakes, and suggested the possibility of the existence of corner waves, i.e., shear waves that carry concentrated kinematic energy and generate extremely strong particle motions on the hanging wall of a nonvertical fault. In the numerical models, a dip-slip fault is located in a two-dimensional, monolithic linear elastic half space, and the fault plane dips either vertically or 45 degrees. We have investigated the seismic wave field radiated by crack-like rupture of this straight fault. If the fault rupture, initiated at depth, arrests just below or reaches the free surface, four Rayleigh-type pulses are generated: two propagating along the free surface into the opposite directions to the far field, the other two moving back along the ruptured fault surface (interface) downwards into depth. These downward interface pulses may largely control the stopping phase of the dynamic rupture, and in the case the fault plane is inclined, on the hanging wall the interface pulse and the outward-moving Rayleigh surface pulse interact with each other and the corner wave is induced. On the footwall, the ground motion is dominated simply by the weaker Rayleigh pulse propagating along the free surface because of much smaller interaction between this Rayleigh and the interface pulse. The generation of the downward interface pulses and corner wave may play a crucial role in understanding the effects of the geometrical asymmetry on the strong motion induced by shallow dip-slip faulting, but it has not been well recognized so far, partly because those waves are not expected for a fault that is located and ruptures only at depth. However, the seismological recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquakes as well as a more recent one in Iwate-Miyagi Inland

  2. 29 CFR 1910.126 - Additional requirements for special dipping and coating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements for special dipping and coating... Dipping and Coating Operations § 1910.126 Additional requirements for special dipping and coating... requirements apply to flow coating? (1) You must use a direct low-pressure pumping system or a 10-gallon (38 L...

  3. Reduction of teat skin mastitis pathogen loads: differences between strains, dips, and contact times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, B D; Fox, L K; Gay, J M; Johnson, K A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to (1) assess differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to teat disinfectants (teat dips), and (2) determine the optimum time for premilking teat dips to remain in contact with teat skin to reduce pathogen loads on teat skin. Two experiments were conducted using the excised teat model. In experiment 1, the differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to 4 commercially available dips (dip A: 1% H2O2; dip B: 1% chlorine dioxide; dip C: 1% iodophor; and dip D: 0.5% iodophor) were evaluated. Four strains of 11 common mastitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus) were tested. In experiment 2, the percentage log reduction of mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) on teat skin with 3 commercially available teat dips: dip A; dip D; and dip E: 0.25% iodophor, using dip contact times of 15, 30, and 45 s, was evaluated. Experiment 1 results indicated significant differences in strain sensitivities to dips within pathogen species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Species differences were also found where Mycoplasma bovis (97.9% log reduction) was the most sensitive to tested teat dips and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (71.4% log reduction) the most resistant. Experiment 2 results indicated that contact times of 30 and 45 s were equally effective in reducing recovered bacteria for dips D and E and were also significantly more effective than a 15-s contact time. No differences were seen in recovered bacteria between tested contact times after treatment with dip

  4. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study of Dip-Coatable, High-Capacitance Ion Gel Dielectrics for 3D EWOD Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Clement

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a dip-coatable, high-capacitance ion gel dielectric for scalable fabrication of three-dimensional (3D electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD devices such as an n × n liquid prism array. Due to the formation of a nanometer-thick electric double layer (EDL capacitor, an ion gel dielectric offers two to three orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm2 than that of conventional dielectrics such as SiO2. However, the previous spin-coating method used for gel layer deposition poses several issues for 3D EWOD device fabrication, particularly when assembling multiple modules. Not only does the spin-coating process require multiple repetitions per module, but the ion gel layer also comes in risks of damage or contamination due to handling errors caused during assembly. In addition, it was observed that the chemical formulation previously used for the spin-coating method causes the surface defects on the dip-coated gel layers and thus leads to poor EWOD performance. In this paper, we alternatively propose a dip-coating method with modified gel solutions to obtain defect-free, functional ion gel layers without the issues arising from the spin-coating method for 3D device fabrication. A dip-coating approach offers a single-step coating solution with the benefits of simplicity, scalability, and high throughput for deposition of high-capacitance gel layers on non-planar EWOD devices. An ion gel solution was prepared by combining the [EMIM][TFSI] ionic liquid and the [P(VDF-HFP] copolymer at various wt % ratios in acetone solvent. Experimental studies were conducted to fully understand the effects of chemical composition ratios in the gel solution and how varying thicknesses of ion gel and Teflon layers affects EWOD performance. The effectiveness and potentiality of dip-coatable gel layers for 3D EWOD devices have been demonstrated through fabricating 5 × 1 arrayed liquid prisms using a single-step dip-coating method. Each prism module has

  7. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  8. Dimensional effects and scalability of Meta-Stable Dip (MSD) memory effect for 1T-DRAM SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ernst, T.

    2009-12-01

    The difficult scaling of bulk Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAMs) has led to various concepts of capacitor-less single-transistor (1T) architectures based on SOI transistor floating-body effects. Amongst them, the Meta-Stable Dip RAM (MSDRAM), which is a double-gate Fully Depleted SOI transistor, exhibits attractive performances. The Meta-Stable Dip effect results from the reduced junction leakage current and the long carrier generation lifetime in thin silicon film transistors. In this study, various devices with different gate lengths, widths and silicon film thicknesses have been systematically explored, revealing the impact of transistor dimensions on the MSD effect. These experimental results are discussed and validated by two-dimensional numerical simulations. It is found that MSD is maintained for small dimensions even in standard SOI MOSFETs, although specific optimizations are expected to enhance MSDRAM performances.

  9. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  10. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  11. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Interfacial Water Division and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huabin, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Centre for Tetrahertz Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  12. Impedance of the PEP-II DIP screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C -K [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T

    1996-08-01

    The vacuum chamber of a storage ring normally consists of periodically spaced pumping slots. The longitudinal impedance of slots are analyzed in this paper. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance, as a consequence of the periodicity of the slots, may exceed the stability limit given by natural damping with no feedback system on. Based on this analysis, the PEP-II distributed-ion-pump (DIP) screen uses long grooves with hidden holes cut halfway to reduce both the broad-band and narrow-band impedances. (author)

  13. Prestack traveltimes for dip-constrained TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Golikov, Pavel; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Stovas, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) formula is an integral part of many wavefield based imaging tools. A transversely isotropic medium with a titled symmetry axis (TI) version of the DSR formula is nearly impossible to obtain analytically. As a result, we develop an approximate version of the DSR formula valid for media with the symmetry axis normal to the dip of the reflector (DTI). The accuracy of this approximate solution is enhanced using Shanks transform to a point where the errors are extremely small for practical anisotropic values. Under this assumption, we also do not need to compute the symmetry axis field as it is inherently included in the formulation.

  14. Westward ionospheric currents over the dip equator during geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbed periods, the q type of sporadic E layer near the dip equator is shown to disappear with maximum error of five minutes during the period when the difference of the geomagnetic H field between the equatorial and non-equatorial station decreases below the night level. These periods are identified with the reversal to westward direction of the electrojet currents at the base of the E region around 100 km level irrespective of the changes in the S/subq/ current system which might be produced by the disturbance

  15. Impedance of the PEP-II DIP screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-09-01

    The vacuum chamber of a storage ring normally consists of periodically spaced pumping slots. The longitudinal impedance of slots are analyzed in this paper. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance, as a consequence of the periodicity of the slots, may exceed the stability limit given by natural damping with no feedback system on. Based on this analysis, the PEP-II distributed-ion-pump (DIP) screen uses long grooves with hidden holes cut halfway to reduce both the broad-band and narrow-band impedances

  16. Prestack traveltimes for dip-constrained TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Golikov, Pavel

    2012-11-04

    The double-square-root (DSR) formula is an integral part of many wavefield based imaging tools. A transversely isotropic medium with a titled symmetry axis (TI) version of the DSR formula is nearly impossible to obtain analytically. As a result, we develop an approximate version of the DSR formula valid for media with the symmetry axis normal to the dip of the reflector (DTI). The accuracy of this approximate solution is enhanced using Shanks transform to a point where the errors are extremely small for practical anisotropic values. Under this assumption, we also do not need to compute the symmetry axis field as it is inherently included in the formulation.

  17. Eigenvector of gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips considering fault type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The dips of boundaries in faults and caldera walls play an important role in understanding their formation mechanisms. The fault dip is a particularly important parameter in numerical simulations for hazard map creation as the fault dip affects estimations of the area of disaster occurrence. In this study, I introduce a technique for estimating the fault dip using the eigenvector of the observed or calculated gravity gradient tensor on a profile and investigating its properties through numerical simulations. From numerical simulations, it was found that the maximum eigenvector of the tensor points to the high-density causative body, and the dip of the maximum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the normal fault. It was also found that the minimum eigenvector of the tensor points to the low-density causative body and that the dip of the minimum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the reverse fault. It was shown that the eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips is determined by fault type. As an application of this technique, I estimated the dip of the Kurehayama Fault located in Toyama, Japan, and obtained a result that corresponded to conventional fault dip estimations by geology and geomorphology. Because the gravity gradient tensor is required for this analysis, I present a technique that estimates the gravity gradient tensor from the gravity anomaly on a profile.

  18. The effect of the environment on the structure, quantity and composition of spruce needle wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenthardt-Goerg, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The tubular structure (10-nonacosanol), as formed in spring on the wax surface of new spruce needles (Picea abies (L.)Karst.), or as regenerated on previous-year needles, becomes gradually fused and flattened in relation to needle exposure, particularly wind and rain. Structural flattening does not necessarily imply changes in wax quantity, composition or lead to changes in needle transpiration or photosynthesis, and was approximately reproduced by bathing excised twigs in water (with pH having little effect). In 4-year-old plants of one clone planted out at a Swiss plateau and alpine sites, changes in wax structure were similar to those found in mature trees. No such changes were found in plants with O 3 , SO 2 , ambient air, charcoal-filtered air, or in plants grown outside the chambers but shielded from rain. Area-related needle wax quantity in mature trees differed between the two sites, but did not differ in young plants under different treatments (fumigation or planted out at the sites). Minor differences in wax composition, however, were found to be related to the ozone dose of the fumigation or the ambient ozone dose at the sites. In each needle wax sample, 68 compounds grouped into 12 constituent classes were quantified. The quantity of the individual substituent classes varied among wax samples from genetically different mature trees at the two sites in a tree-specific way. Variation of these quantities was not larger than among young cloned plants after different treatments. (orig.)

  19. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  20. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  1. Phase Change Insulation for Energy Efficiency Based on Wax-Halloysite Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yafei; Thapa, Suvhashis; Weiss, Leland; Lvov, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have gained extensive attention in thermal energy storage. Wax can be used as a PCM in solar storage but it has low thermal conductivity. Introducing 10% halloysite admixed into wax yields a novel composite (wax-halloysite) which has a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK. To increase the base conductivity, graphite and carbon nanotubes were added into the PCM composite improving its thermal energy storage. Thermal conductivity of wax-halloysite-graphite (45/45/10%) composite showed increased conductivity of 1.4 W/mK (3 times higher than the base wax-halloysite composite). Wax- halloysite-graphite-carbon nanotubes (45/45/5/5%) composite showed conductivity of 0.85 W/mK while maintaining the original shape perfectly until 91 °C (above the original wax melting point). Thermal conductivity can be further increased with higher doping of carbon nanotubes. This new composites are promising heat storage material due to good thermal stability, high thermal/electricity conductivity and ability to preserve its shape during phase transitions

  2. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature. Drought, a major type of abiotic stress, poses huge threats to global food security and health of terrestrial ecosystem by limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The composition, biochemistry, structure, biosynthesis, and transport of plant cuticular wax have been reviewed extensively. However, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of cuticular wax in plants in response to drought stress are still lacking. In this review, we focus on potential mechanisms, from evolutionary, molecular, and physiological aspects, that control cuticular wax and its roles in plant drought tolerance. We also raise key research questions and propose important directions to be resolved in the future, leading to potential applications of cuticular wax for water use efficiency in agricultural and environmental sustainability.

  3. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. ICE-DIP closing workshop - Public session | 14 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICE-DIP, the Intel-CERN European Doctorate Industrial Program (see here), is a European Industrial Doctorate scheme (see here) led by CERN. The focus of the project, which launched in 2013, has been the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger and data-acquisition systems of the LHC experiments.   The results will be publicly presented in an open session on the afternoon of 14th September. Building on CERN’s long-standing relationship with Intel through CERN openlab, ICE-DIP brings together CERN, Intel and research universities to offer training to five PhD students in advanced information and communication technologies (ICT). These young researchers have been funded by the European Commission as fellows at CERN and enrolled in doctoral programmes at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Dublin City University. They have each completed 18 month secondments at Intel locations around the world gaining in-depth experience of the v...

  5. Development of procedures to stabilize chlorfenvinphos in model cattle dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, Y.; Caceres, T.; Merino, R.; Villamar, P.; Castro, R.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental fate and dissipation of chlorfenvinphos acaricide was studied in water and sediment in model cattle dips with recharge, without recharge and with added stabilizers. Chlorfenvinphos concentration decreased with time in all of them, and the monthly recharge at 10% of the initial concentration was inefficient to maintain a concentration that would be effective for tick control. However, the loss of pesticide in the model dip with added phosphate buffer as stabilizer was the least. Volatilization was the principal factor that influenced the dissipation of the pesticide. The sediment bound residues increased with time. Mineralization of 14 C-chlorfenvinphos due to microbial activity showed that the 14 CO 2 production increased with time in biometers flasks with different amounts of sediment. 2,4-Dichloroacetophenone, and 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were identified as degradation products. Isomerization of chlorfenviphos from isomer Z to E was influenced by sunlight. Chlorfenvinphos was stable in aqueous solution for 14 days under pH 4 to 9. Leaching tests demonstrated that the pesticide was not a potential pollutant of ground water. (author)

  6. DipA, a pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of Lyme disease spirochetes exhibits specificity for the permeation of dicarboxylates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Thein

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borreliae are highly dependent on the uptake of nutrients provided by their hosts. Our study describes the identification of a 36 kDa protein that functions as putative dicarboxylate-specific porin in the outer membrane of Lyme disease Borrelia. The protein was purified by hydroxyapatite chromatography from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 and designated as DipA, for dicarboxylate-specific porin A. DipA was partially sequenced, and corresponding genes were identified in the genomes of B. burgdorferi B31, Borrelia garinii PBi and Borrelia afzelii PKo. DipA exhibits high homology to the Oms38 porins of relapsing fever Borreliae. B. burgdorferi DipA was characterized using the black lipid bilayer assay. The protein has a single-channel conductance of 50 pS in 1 M KCl, is slightly selective for anions with a permeability ratio for cations over anions of 0.57 in KCl and is not voltage-dependent. The channel could be partly blocked by different di- and tricarboxylic anions. Particular high stability constants up to about 28,000 l/mol (in 0.1 M KCl were obtained among the 11 tested anions for oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate and citrate. The results imply that DipA forms a porin specific for dicarboxylates which may play an important role for the uptake of specific nutrients in different Borrelia species.

  7. Lattice-matched double dip-shaped BAlGaN/AlN quantum well structures for ultraviolet light emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet light emission characteristics of lattice-matched BxAlyGa1-x-y N/AlN quantum well (QW) structures with double AlGaN delta layers were investigated theoretically. In contrast to conventional single dip-shaped QW structure where the reduction effect of the spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions is negligible, proposed double dip-shaped QW shows significant enhancement of the ultraviolet light emission intensity from a BAlGaN/AlN QW structure due to the reduced spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions. The emission peak of the double dip-shaped QW structure is expected to be about three times larger than that of the conventional rectangular AlGaN/AlN QW structure.

  8. Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.

  9. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling with MeDIP-seq using archived dried blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Starnawska, Anna; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In utero and early-life experienced environmental exposures are suggested to play an important role in many multifactorial diseases potentially mediated through lasting effects on the epigenome. As the epigenome in addition remains modifiable throughout life, identifying specific...... biobanks. However, availability of this biological material is highly limited as each DBS is made only from a few droplets of blood and storage conditions may be suboptimal for epigenetic studies. Furthermore, as relevant markers may reside outside gene bodies, epigenome-wide interrogation is needed....... RESULTS: Here we demonstrate, as a proof of principle, that genome-wide interrogation of the methylome based on methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) is feasible using a single 3.2 mm DBS punch (60 ng DNA) from filter cards archived for up to 16 years...

  10. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed

  11. Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, M L; Coelho, G C; Schenkel, E P

    2000-12-01

    Caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). The total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. Epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. For some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. A positive correlation was found between inner and epicuticular caffeine contents.

  12. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  13. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal

  15. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  16. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  17. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  18. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  19. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  20. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct

  1. "Wax bloom" on beeswax cultural heritage objects: exploring the causes of the phenomenon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartl, B.; Kobera, Libor; Drábková, K.; Ďurovič, M.; Brus, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2015), s. 509-513 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 13-C NMR * wax bloom * efflorescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  2. Bee waxes: a model of characterization for using as base simulator tissue in teletherapy with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of characterization and selection of bee waxes which makes possible to certify the usage viability of that base simulator tissue in the manufacture of appropriated objects for external radiotherapy with mega volt photon beams. The work was divide into three stages, where was evaluated physical and chemical properties besides the aspects related to the capacity of beam attenuation. All the process was carefully accompanied related to the wax origin such as the bee specimen and the flora surrounding the beehives. The chemical composition of the waxes is similar to others simulators usually used in radiotherapy. The behavior of mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapeutic energy range is comparable to other simulators, and consequently to the soft tissue. The proposed model is efficient and allows the affirmative that the usage of determined bee wax as base simulator tissue is convenient

  3. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  4. Accuracy of Digitally Fabricated Wax Denture Bases and Conventional Completed Complete Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Stawarczyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the accuracy of digitally fabricated wax trial dentures and conventionally finalized complete dentures in comparison to a surface tessellation language (STL-dataset. A generated data set for the denture bases and the tooth sockets was used, converted into STL-format, and saved as reference. Five mandibular and 5 maxillary denture bases were milled from wax blanks and denture teeth were waxed into their tooth sockets. Each complete denture was checked on fit, waxed onto the dental cast, and digitized using an optical laboratory scanning device. The complete dentures were completed conventionally using the injection method, finished, and scanned. The resulting STL-datasets were exported into the three-dimensional (3D software GOM Inspect. Each of the 5 mandibular and 5 maxillary complete dentures was aligned with the STL- and the wax trial denture dataset. Alignment was performed based on a best-fit algorithm. A three-dimensional analysis of the spatial divergences in x-, y- and z-axes was performed by the 3D software and visualized in a color-coded illustration. The mean positive and negative deviations between the datasets were calculated automatically. In a direct comparison between maxillary wax trial dentures and complete dentures, complete dentures showed higher deviations from the STL-dataset than the wax trial dentures. The deviations occurred in the area of the teeth as well as in the distal area of the denture bases. In contrast, the highest deviations in both the mandibular wax trial dentures and the mandibular complete dentures were observed in the distal area. The complete dentures showed higher deviations on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth compared to the wax dentures. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM-fabricated wax dentures exhibited fewer deviations from the STL-reference than the complete dentures. The deviations were significantly greater in the

  5. Isolation and recrystallization of epicuticular waxes from Sorbus and Cotoneaster leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeva Tsveta; Stefanova Miroslava; Koleva Dimitrina; Ruiz Segundo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Wax morphology and chemical composition are widely accepted to be important for the protective properties of the leaf’s surface and also valuable characteristics in plant systematics. The leaves of Sorbus domestica L. and Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss., species of two large genera with intricate taxonomy referred to subtribe Pyrinae, Rosaceae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performing different methods of wax isola...

  6. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa; Richeliel Albert Rodrigues Silva; Talita Geovanna Fernandes Rocha; José Augusto da Silva Santana; Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore, Arecaceae) in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the r...

  7. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongquan; Wang, Youqiong; Li, Kai; Chen, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol.

  8. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović

    2011-01-01

    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  9. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  10. Dip and anisotropy effects on flow using a vertically skewed model grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoaglund, John R; Pollard, David

    2003-01-01

    Darcy flow equations relating vertical and bedding-parallel flow to vertical and bedding-parallel gradient components are derived for a skewed Cartesian grid in a vertical plane, correcting for structural dip given the principal hydraulic conductivities in bedding-parallel and bedding-orthogonal directions. Incorrect-minus-correct flow error results are presented for ranges of structural dip (0 strike and dip, and a solver that can handle off-diagonal hydraulic conductivity terms.

  11. Monitoring agrochemical diffusion through cuticle wax with coherent Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Thomson, Niall; Padia, Faheem; Moger, Julian

    2018-02-01

    The world's population is increasing rapidly and higher calorific diets are becoming more common; as a consequence the demand for grain is predicted to increase by more than 50% by 2050 without a significant increase in the available agricultural land. Maximising the productivity of the existing agricultural land is key to maintaining food security and agrochemicals continue to be a key enabler for the efficiency gains required. However, agrochemicals can be susceptible to significant losses and thus often require further chemical to be applied to compensate. Sources of such losses include spray drift, poor spray retention/capture by the target and poor penetration through the plant cuticle. Adjuvants can be used to help mitigate such losses but characterising how they alter the movement of the active ingredients (AIs) can be challenging. In this contribution we demonstrate the use of coherent Raman Scattering (CRS) as a tool to enable in-situ, real-time, label free characterisation of agrochemical AI as they move through wax.

  12. Mineral and tar oils and paraffin and mineral waxes, extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-09-01

    In the extraction of soluble bodies from coal and the like carbonaceous material, the coal is preheated in a closed vessel and then heated under pressure with the solvent. The pressure in either or both stages may be increased by gases or vapours more or less inert under the conditions, e.g. hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. In an example, brown coal is maintained at 300/sup 0/C for 10 hours, thus producing a pressure of 100 atmospheres, and is then extracted for 10 hours at 300/sup 0/C and 100 atmospheres with benzene in a closed vessel. Over 60 per cent of the coal is dissolved. After separation of the undissolved coal and removal of the solvent the soluble products may be treated with either to extract resinous matter, and then with cyclohexane to extract wax-like matters. Alternatively the soluble products, alone or in solution or with the undissolved coal, may be destructively hydrogenated, or be cracked in presence of activated aluminium and hydrogen chloride.

  13. Testing of sawdust-wax firelogs in an open fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, J.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 14 emissions tests of sawdust-wax firelogs were conducted in an open fireplace. Twelve tests used a cold-to-cold test cycle (i.e., they included the initial light-up and final charcoal phases which are not included in certification tests for wood stoves). Of these 12 tests, half were with wood and half with firelogs. Firelogs were equivalent to or better than wood in all measured parameters except heat output rate, Specifically, the firelogs had lower PM and CO emission rates by about 66 and 78 percent, respectively, had lower creosote accumulation per hour by about 66 percent, had lower opacity, and had comparable efficiency despite a lower burn rate. The heat output rate from the wood fires rose faster and peaked earlier, but the average heat output for the main load (2 hours) phases was about the same (about 6000 to 7000 BTU/hr) for the large size firelogs. Opacity was measured continuously and never exceeded the limits of 20 and 40 percent in the Washington State 1988 woodburning emissions regulation. All these results are based on using the firelogs as their instructions specify - namely using one log at a time and starting it with a match in a room temperature fireplace

  14. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  15. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  16. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  17. Problems in interpreting effects of air pollutants on spruce epicuticular waxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermadinger-Stabentheiner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spruce needles are covered with rod-like crystals, which also fill the antechambers of the stomata with a dense meshwork. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is very useful for studying epicuticular wax structure; with no intricate or laborious preparation, it is possible to obtain valuable information about the needle surface. Because the epicuticular wax layer forms a barrier between the plant and its environment, all influences that reach the surface from outside impact on this layer and, therefore, changes in epicuticular wax structure serve as diagnostic criteria for damage caused by air pollutants. This pollution influence begins as fusion of wax rods at the tips and results finally in total loss of the crystalline structure. Despite the simplicity of SEM investigations, alterations (artefacts) can occur to wax structures that may be confused with alterations caused by air pollutants (i.e., a too dense layer of twigs and needles, or careless handling with tweezers, results in mechanical damage that often influences the entire surface). Overheating occurring during transport or preparation and/or incorrect storage also produce artefacts. If the occurrence of such artefacts is taken into consideration, several contradictory interpretations of effects of air pollutants on epicuticular waxes can be explained. (orig.)

  18. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS METHOD OF DETECTION OF WAX CONTENT IN GORENGAN USING SMARTPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yulia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wax is one of the compounds that can be misused to be added to Gorengan, Indonesian fritter, to keep them crispy. Gorengan containing wax is difficult to identify visually, so a quick and easy method of detecting wax content is required. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate the analytical performance of detecting wax content in gorengan using smartphone. Gorengan sample was dissolved with hexane and then added reagent that will give discoloration followed by analysis using smartphone. Some analysis performance parameters were evaluated in terms of linearity and detection limit, qualitative analysis capability, precision, and selectivity test. The developed method was also applied in some gorengan samples. The result shows that the detection of wax content in gorengan can be conducted by using reagent consisting of NaOH, Schift, and curcumin (1 : 2 : 2. Performance analysis shows that the linearity measurement at concentration between 10% and 25% has correlation coefficient (r of 0.9537 with detection limit at concentration of 2% and precision (%RSD less than 3%. The developed method can be applied for the detection of wax content in gorengan in the market.

  19. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  20. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  1. The use of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker with inner and outer reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabacigil Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential use and effectiveness of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker was experimentally investigated during daylight and late evening hours. For these experiments, a cooker having an inner reflecting surface was designed, constructed by filling paraffin wax and metal shavings. The side- and sub-surface temperatures of the paraffin wax in the cooker are measured in the summer months of June and July. The thermal efficiency of the cooker was tested on different conditions. The results show that the optimum angle of the outer reflector is 30°. Here, the peak temperature of the paraffin wax in the solar cooker was 83.4 °C. The average solar radiation reflected makes a contribution of 9.26% to the temperature of paraffin wax with the outer reflector. The solar cooker with the outer reflector angle of 30° receives also reflected radiation from the inner reflectors. Besides, the heating time is decreased to approximately 1 hour. The designed solar cooker can be effectively used with 30.3% daily thermal efficiency and paraffin wax due to the amount of energy stored.

  2. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  3. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  4. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  5. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  6. Microscopic creep models and the interpretation of stress-dip tests during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.P.

    1976-09-01

    A critical analysis is made of the principal divergent view points concerning stress-dip tests. The raw data are examined and interpreted in the light of various creep models. The following problems are discussed: is the reverse strain anelastic or plastic; is the zero creep rate periodic due to recovery or is it spurious; can the existence or inexistence of an internal stress be deduced from stress-dip tests; can stress-dip tests allow to determine whether glide is jerky or viscous; can the internal stress be measured by stress-dip tests

  7. Composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Clare; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana were analyzed. All wax mixtures were found to contain approximately equal amounts of triterpenoids and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. The triterpenoid fraction consisted of glutinol (8-19% of the total wax) and friedelin (4-9%), together with smaller amounts of glutanol, glutinol acetate, epifriedelanol, germanicol and beta-amyrin. The VLCFA derivatives comprised C27-C35 alkanes (19-37% of the total wax), C32-C34 aldehydes (3-7%), C32 and C34 fatty acids (0.2-3%), C26-C36 primary alcohols (4-8%), and C42-C52 alkyl esters (2-9%). The wax layers were found to differ in triterpenoid amounts, with the intracuticular wax containing higher percentages of most triterpenoids than the epicuticular wax. Friedelin, the only triterpenoid ketone present, showed the opposite distribution with higher proportions in the epicuticular wax. VLCFA derivatives also accumulated to higher percentages in the epicuticular than in the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax crystals were observed on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  8. New tools for digital medical image processing implemented in DIP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Erica A.C.; Santana, Ivan E.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Viera, Jose W.

    2011-01-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also called phantoms, are mostly built from stacks of images CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from scans of patients or volunteers. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computational processing for transforming image formats, dimensional image compression (2D) to form three-dimensional arrays (3D), quantization, resampling, enhancement, restoration and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often it results in a decreased development of their research or inadequate use of alternative tools. The need to integrate the various tasks of the original digital image processing to obtain an image that can be used in a computational model of exposure led to the development of software DIP (Digital Image Processing). This software reads, writes and edits binary files containing the 3D matrix corresponding to a stack of cross-sectional images of a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It can also read any type of computer image and do conversions. When the task involves only one output image, it is saved in the JPEG standard Windows. When it involves a stack of images, the binary output file is called SGI (Interactive Graphic Simulations, a symbol already used in other publications of the Research Group in Numerical Dosimetry). The following paper presents the third version of the DIP software and emphasizes the new tools it implemented. Currently it has the menus Basics, Views, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Segmentations and Study. Each menu contains items and subitems with features that generally require an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. (author)

  9. GenLocDip: A Generalized Program to Calculate and Visualize Local Electric Dipole Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    Local dipole moments (i.e., dipole moments of atomic or molecular subsystems) are essential for understanding various phenomena in nanoscience, such as solvent effects on the conductance of single molecules in break junctions or the interaction between the tip and the adsorbate in atomic force microscopy. We introduce GenLocDip, a program for calculating and visualizing local dipole moments of molecular subsystems. GenLocDip currently uses the Atoms-In-Molecules (AIM) partitioning scheme and is interfaced to various AIM programs. This enables postprocessing of a variety of electronic structure output formats including cube and wavefunction files, and, in general, output from any other code capable of writing the electron density on a three-dimensional grid. It uses a modified version of Bader's and Laidig's approach for achieving origin-independence of local dipoles by referring to internal reference points which can (but do not need to be) bond critical points (BCPs). Furthermore, the code allows the export of critical points and local dipole moments into a POVray readable input format. It is particularly designed for fragments of large systems, for which no BCPs have been calculated for computational efficiency reasons, because large interfragment distances prevent their identification, or because a local partitioning scheme different from AIM was used. The program requires only minimal user input and is written in the Fortran90 programming language. To demonstrate the capabilities of the program, examples are given for covalently and non-covalently bound systems, in particular molecular adsorbates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wax on, wax off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test....... We also found evidence that olfactory cues on the nest soil influence nestmate recognition, but this effect was not observed in all colonies. These results demonstrate that cuticular hydrocarbons deposited on the nest soil are important in creating uniformity in the odor label and may also contribute...

  11. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji P Gopalan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25–70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  12. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (pmarginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable margins of less than 120um. PMID:24724133

  13. Numerical performance study of paraffin wax dispersed with alumina in a concentric pipe latent heat storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan Arasu Amirtham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat energy storage systems using paraffin wax could have lower heat transfer rates during melting/freezing processes due to its inherent low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of paraffin wax can be enhanced by employing high conductivity materials such as alumina (Al2O3. A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the performance enhancement of paraffin wax with nanoalumina (Al2O3 particles in comparison with simple paraffin wax in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger. Numerical analysis indicates that the charge-discharge rates of thermal energy can be greatly enhanced using paraffin wax with alumina as compared with a simple paraffin wax as PCM.

  14. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  15. Review of the Factors that Influence the Condition of Wax Deposition in Subsea Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Junyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When crude oil is transported via sub-sea pipeline, the temperature of the pipeline decreases at a deep depth which causes a difference in temperature with the crude oil inside. This causes the crude oil to dissipate its heat to the surrounding until thermal equilibrium is achieved. This is also known as the cloud point where wax begins to precipitate and solidifies at the walls of the pipeline which obstruct the flow of fluid. The main objective of this review is to quantify the factors that influence wax deposition such as temperature difference between the wall of the pipeline and the fluid flowing within, the flow rate of the fluid in the pipeline and residence time of the fluid in the pipeline. It is found the main factor that causes wax deposition in the pipeline is the difference in temperature between the petroleum pipeline and the fluid flowing within. Most Literature deduces that decreasing temperature difference results in lower wax content deposited on the wall of the pipeline. The wax content increases with rising flow rate. As for the residence time, the amount of deposited wax initially increases when residence time increases until it reaches a peak value and gradually decreases. Flow-loop system and cold finger apparatus were used in literature investigations to determine the trends above. Three new models are generated through a regression analysis based on the results from other authors. These new models form a relationship between temperature difference, flow rate, residence time and Reynolds number with wax deposition. These models have high values of R-square and adjusted R-square which demonstrate the reliability of these models.

  16. Anatomically realistic ultrasound phantoms using gel wax with 3D printed moulds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Daher, Batol; Manimaran, Maniragav; Wong, Rui Yen J.; Chang, Chia-Wei; Rahmani, Benyamin; Capelli, Claudio; Schievano, Silvia; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Finlay, Malcolm C.; West, Simeon J.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3-10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0.72 to 2.91 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz and from 6.84 to 26.63 dB cm-1 at 10 MHz. With solid glass sphere concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.9 w/w%, acoustic backscattering consistent with a wide range of ultrasonic appearances was achieved. Native gel wax maintained its integrity during compressive deformations up to 60%; its Young’s modulus was 17.4  ±  1.4 kPa. The gel wax with additives was shaped by melting and pouring it into 3D printed moulds. Three different phantoms were constructed: a nerve and vessel phantom for peripheral nerve blocks, a heart atrium phantom, and a placental phantom for minimally-invasive fetal interventions. In the first, nerves and vessels were represented as hyperechoic and hypoechoic tubular structures, respectively, in a homogeneous background. The second phantom comprised atria derived from an MRI scan of a patient with an intervening septum and adjoining vena cavae. The third comprised the chorionic surface of a placenta with superficial fetal vessels derived from an image of a post-partum human placenta. Gel wax is a material with widely tuneable ultrasound properties and mechanical characteristics that are well suited for creating patient-specific ultrasound phantoms in several clinical disciplines.

  17. Rangeland degradation in semi-arid Swaziland: effects of dip-tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated dip-tank use effects on herbaceous vegetation and soil, and relationships between environmental and species variables. Eight dip-tanks, three each in sandy (DPBS) and loamy (DYRL) soils, and two in stony (ROSG) soils were used. Data were collected at 50, 100, 150, 300, 500, 700 and 900 m from ...

  18. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, R.; Junge, C.M.M.; Kemner, C.

    2018-01-01

    During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities

  19. Monitoring of Dips in the MV Network for Regulation- A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldemariam, L.E.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— Voltage dips constitute to a noticeable part of power quality (PQ) problems but causing major financial losses to industrial and commercial customers. This work involves comparative studies to choose the most appropriate location of monitoring dips for regulation. In this paper, a Dutch MV

  20. Assessment of voltage dips based on field measurements in MV networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldemariam, L.E.; Papathanasiou, F.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.

    Voltage dip is considered as the PQ problem related to the highest financial losses for the customers. It occurs unpredictably mainly due to short-circuit faults in the networks. Network operators and customers want to know more about the occurrence and the potential impact of voltage dips. PQ

  1. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R. K.; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared...

  2. Polymer nanocomposite patterning by dip-pen nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir, Ayse Cagil; Ma, Huan; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Erdem, Derya

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study is to construct polymer nanocomposite patterns by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Recent investigations have revealed the effect of the amount of ink (Laplace pressure) on the mechanism of liquid ink writing. In this study it is shown that not only the amount of ink, but also physisorption and surface diffusion are relevant. After a few writing steps, physisorption and surface diffusion outweigh the influence of the amount of ink, allowing consistent patterning governed by dwell times and writing speeds. Polymer matrices can be utilized as a delivery medium to deposit functional particles. DPN patterning of polymer nanocomposites allows for local tuning of the functionality and mechanical strength of the written patterns in high resolution, with the benefit of pattern flexibility. Typically polymer matrices with volatile components are used as a delivery medium for nanoparticle deposition, with subsequent removal of loosely bound matrix material by heating or oxygen plasma. In our study, nanocomposite patterns were constructed, and the differences between polymer and nanocomposite patterning were investigated. Cross-sectional SEM and TEM analysis confirmed that nanoparticles can be deposited with the liquid-polymer ink and are evenly distributed in the polymer matrix. (paper)

  3. Heterogeneous Rock Simulation Using DIP-Micromechanics-Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Molladavoodi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock as a natural material is heterogeneous. Rock material consists of minerals, crystals, cement, grains, and microcracks. Each component of rock has a different mechanical behavior under applied loading condition. Therefore, rock component distribution has an important effect on rock mechanical behavior, especially in the postpeak region. In this paper, the rock sample was studied by digital image processing (DIP, micromechanics, and statistical methods. Using image processing, volume fractions of the rock minerals composing the rock sample were evaluated precisely. The mechanical properties of the rock matrix were determined based on upscaling micromechanics. In order to consider the rock heterogeneities effect on mechanical behavior, the heterogeneity index was calculated in a framework of statistical method. A Weibull distribution function was fitted to the Young modulus distribution of minerals. Finally, statistical and Mohr–Coulomb strain-softening models were used simultaneously as a constitutive model in DEM code. The acoustic emission, strain energy release, and the effect of rock heterogeneities on the postpeak behavior process were investigated. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Deformation and fatigue behavior of hot dip galvanized coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurri, Carlos P.; Benavente, Raul G.; Roa, Isidoro S.; Carrasco, Claudia C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study of the effect of static and dynamic stresses on hot dip galvanized coatings on SAE 1020 steel substrates. Galvanizing was performed using baths maintained at 450 deg. C, the zinc containing 0.16% Ti and 0.02% Fe and with Al and Ni in the ranges 0-0.20% and 0-0.30%, respectively. Static three-point bend tests were conducted with applied stresses in the range 428-790 MPa. Dynamic bend-fatigue tests involved stresses in the range 228-578 MPa at a cyclic frequency of 0.25 Hz for up to 700 cycles. The total crack density in the coatings was measured before and after the tests using light optical and electron microscopy. The results showed that the crack density increased as the applied stress increased and crack propagation was promoted perpendicular to the substrate. The number of cycles had no effect on the crack density and propagation at stresses lower than 386 MPa. At higher stresses the number of applied cycles contributed only to crack propagation. It was concluded that the best bath composition for preventing fatigue crack propagation is one that minimized the formation of thinner brittle layers in the galvanized coatings

  5. Lipid dip-pen nanolithography on self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavutis, Martynas; Navikas, Vytautas; Rakickas, Tomas; Vaitekonis, Šarūnas; Valiokas, Ramūnas

    2016-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) with lipids as an ink enables functional micro/nanopatterning on different substrates at high process speeds. However, only a few studies have addressed the influence of the physicochemical properties of the surface on the structure and phase behavior of DPN-printed lipid assemblies. Therefore, by combining the scanning probe and optical imaging techniques in this work we have analyzed lipid microdomain formation on the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold as well-defined model surfaces that displayed hydrophilic (protein-repellent) or hydrophobic (protein-adhesive) characteristics. We have found that on the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAM the lipid ink transfer was fast (∼10 –1 μm 3 s −1 ), quasi-linear and it yielded unstable, sparsely packed lipid microspots. Contrary to this, on the methyl-terminated SAM the lipid transfer was ∼20 times slower, nonlinear, and the obtained stable dots of ∼1 μm in diameter consisted of lipid multilayers. Our comparative analysis indicated that the measured lipid transfer was consistent with the previously reported so-called polymer transfer model (Felts et al 2012, Nanotechnology 23 215301). Further on, by employing the observed distinct contrast in the DPN ink behavior we constructed confined lipid microdomains on pre-patterned SAMs, in which the lipids assembled either into monolayer or multilamellar phases. Such microdomains can be further utilized for lipid membrane mimetics in microarray and lab-on-a-chip device formats. (paper)

  6. Image mispositioning due to dipping TI media : a physical seismic modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, J.H.; Lawton, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    Physical modelling experiments were performed to study mispositioning of targets imaged beneath a dipping anisotropic overburden. The significance of the study is that many hydrocarbon resource exploration and development plays in different tectonic settings involve dipping clastic sequences which lie above the reservoir or target zone. In many areas in the Alberta foothills, dipping panels of relatively undeformed Wapiabi shales are found in abundance, overlying deep carbonate reservoirs. These experiments demonstrated the magnitude of the image mispositioning incurred by the use of an inappropriate isotropic processing code when velocity anisotropy was present in the overburden. It was shown that the lateral shift of an imaged target beneath a 1500 m thick, 45 degree dipping anisotropic overburden is significant. Zero-offset data showed a shift in the imaged location of 320 m in the updip direction of the dipping beds, while the shift on stacked time and depth migrated multichannel data was 300 m. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Effect of high dose SO2 and ethylene exposure on the structure of epicuticular wax of picea pungens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrie, J.; Berg, V.

    1994-01-01

    Conifers in polluted air generally exhibit accelerated degradation of epicuticular wax, but it is not clear whether the change is due to direct exposure to the pollutant or some other mechanism. Needles from blue spruce (Picea pungens) were exposed to sulfur dioxide or ethylene gas at 0 to 10,000 microliters per liter for 2 to 196 h; samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Neither gas caused changes in the wax crystals, although late in the growing season a fungal infestation was associated with degradation of wax structures. This supports hypotheses explaining accelerated epicuticular wax degradation by indirect effects of exposure to air pollutants. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  9. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  10. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  11. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joensuu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  12. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  13. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  14. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, Arecaceae in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the research ethnoecological, 73% of informants reported the occurrence of “a different kind of carnauba”, known as “white carnauba” phenotypically distinct from the “common carnauba wax” by presenting clear stipe, smaller fruits and absence of spines on the petiole, and is rare at the study site. Much of the informants observed phenological phases of carnauba wax, being consistent in stating that the species has fruits dispersed by bats. In ethnobotany, powder wax was cited by all as the most important product extracted from leaves of carnauba and the most used, followed by fruit, stem and root. Were still reported the division of work in the extraction of powder wax from the carnauba. The results of this research will contribute to knowledge of ethnobotanical and ethnoecological carnauba, supporting strategies for management and conservation of natural populations.

  15. Modeling the hydration process of bean grains coated with carnauba wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Almeida da Paixão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Edible waxes are widely used to maintain foodstuff until they are consumed. However, some products may be subjected to industrial procedures, such as hydration, prior to their consumption. Hydration of a material is a complex process, which aims to reconstitute the original characteristics of a product when in contact with a liquid phase. An important agricultural product that requires this procedure is beans. Thus, the purpose of this work is to study the hydration process of beans (cultivar BRSMG Majestoso in different temperatures and concentrations of carnauba wax, which is applied on the product surface. Beans with initial moisture content of 0.2015, 0.1972 and 0.1745 (d.b. corresponding to treatments 0 (witness, 1 (wax diluted in water in the ratio 1:1, and 2 (carnauba wax, without dilution were used. Later, these samples were imbibed in distilled water at temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC, for 15 h. The temperature and the carnauba wax influenced the water absorption rate. The Peleg model described satisfactory experimental data and the Mitscherlich model presented biased residual distribution. The constants C1 and C2 of the Peleg model exhibited opposite behaviors with increasing temperatures in the hydration process.

  16. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  17. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  19. GC-MS Metabolomics to Evaluate the Composition of Plant Cuticular Waxes for Four Triticum aestivum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent D. Lavergne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop, and biotic and abiotic stresses significantly impact grain yield. Wheat leaf and stem surface waxes are associated with traits of biological importance, including stress resistance. Past studies have characterized the composition of wheat cuticular waxes, however protocols can be relatively low-throughput and narrow in the range of metabolites detected. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics methods were utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of cuticular waxes in wheat leaves and stems. Further, waxes from four wheat cultivars were assayed to evaluate the potential for GC-MS metabolomics to describe wax composition attributed to differences in wheat genotype. A total of 263 putative compounds were detected and included 58 wax compounds that can be classified (e.g., alkanes and fatty acids. Many of the detected wax metabolites have known associations to important biological functions. Principal component analysis and ANOVA were used to evaluate metabolite distribution, which was attributed to both tissue type (leaf, stem and cultivar differences. Leaves contained more primary alcohols than stems such as 6-methylheptacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol. The metabolite data were validated using scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular wax crystals which detected wax tubules and platelets. Conan was the only cultivar to display alcohol-associated platelet-shaped crystals on its abaxial leaf surface. Taken together, application of GC-MS metabolomics enabled the characterization of cuticular wax content in wheat tissues and provided relative quantitative comparisons among sample types, thus contributing to the understanding of wax composition associated with important phenotypic traits in a major crop.

  20. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem.

  1. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok; Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy

  2. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok [Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy.

  3. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorset, Douglas L. [Electron Diffraction Department, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1999-06-07

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of 'bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene. (author)

  4. Low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics using a carnauba wax binder: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Nogueira, R.E.F.; Bezerra, A.C.; Santos, F.C. dos [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Centro de Tecnologia-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sousa, M.R. de; Acchar, W. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN-Campus Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Carnauba wax, a natural product from Northeastern Brazil, has found application in the processing of ceramics. However, the use of pure carnauba wax is not recommended due to its narrow melting range and poor mechanical properties. In the present work carnauba wax based organic vehicles with the addition of low-density polyethylene and stearic acid were developed for use in the low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics. Viscosimetric testing was employed for the determination of optimal composition of the organic vehicle. The optimal content of ceramic powder in the mixture was also determined. All the materials used are easily available in the Brazilian market. A simple ceramic part was injected at low pressures (0.6 MPa) using a semi-automatic injection molding machine. For this purpose a double cavity mold was designed and built. Preliminary results demonstrate the technical viability of the process using the organic vehicle developed. (orig.)

  5. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1999-06-01

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of `bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene.

  6. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  8. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 µm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. (technical note)

  9. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  10. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time. (author)

  11. Spin coated versus dip coated electrochromic tungsten oxide films: Structure, morphology, optical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, M.; Saxena, T.K.; Singh, D.P.; Sood, K.N.; Agnihotry, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel derived acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol encompassing 4 wt.% of oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) has been employed for the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films by spin coating and dip coating techniques, in view of smart window applications. The morphological and structural evolution of the as-deposited spin and dip coated films as a function of annealing temperature (250 and 500 o C) has been examined and compared by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A conspicuous feature of the dip coated film (annealed at 250 o C) is that its electrochromic and electrochemical properties ameliorate with cycling without degradation in contrast to the spin coated film for which these properties deteriorate under repetitive cycling. A comparative study of spin and dip coated nanostructured thin films (annealed at 250 o C) revealed a superior performance for the cycled dip coated film in terms of higher transmission modulation and coloration efficiency in solar and photopic regions, faster switching speed, higher electrochemical activity as well as charge storage capacity. While the dip coated film could endure 2500 color-bleach cycles, the spin coated film could sustain only a 1000 cycles. The better cycling stability of the dip coated film which is a repercussion of a balance between optimal water content, porosity and grain size hints at its potential for electrochromic window applications

  12. DIP1 modulates stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila through regulation of sisR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jing Ting; Akhbar, Farzanah; Ng, Amanda Yunn Ee; Tay, Mandy Li-Ian; Loi, Gladys Jing En; Pek, Jun Wei

    2017-10-02

    Stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs) are by-products of splicing and regulate gene expression. How sisRNAs are regulated is unclear. Here we report that a double-stranded RNA binding protein, Disco-interacting protein 1 (DIP1) regulates sisRNAs in Drosophila. DIP1 negatively regulates the abundance of sisR-1 and INE-1 sisRNAs. Fine-tuning of sisR-1 by DIP1 is important to maintain female germline stem cell homeostasis by modulating germline stem cell differentiation and niche adhesion. Drosophila DIP1 localizes to a nuclear body (satellite body) and associates with the fourth chromosome, which contains a very high density of INE-1 transposable element sequences that are processed into sisRNAs. DIP1 presumably acts outside the satellite bodies to regulate sisR-1, which is not on the fourth chromosome. Thus, our study identifies DIP1 as a sisRNA regulatory protein that controls germline stem cell self-renewal in Drosophila.Stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs) are by-products of splicing from introns with roles in embryonic development in Drosophila. Here, the authors show that the RNA binding protein DIP1 regulates sisRNAs in Drosophila, which is necessary for germline stem cell homeostasis.

  13. Hot-Dip Coating of Lead-free Aluminum on Steel Substrates with Ultrasonic Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hot-dip coating has been practically employed in manufacturing zinc alloy coated steel sheets. However, it is difficult to coat aluminum alloy on a bulky steel substrate without sufficient preheating, because a rapidly solidified layer containing gas babbles is formed on a substrate surface. A variety of iron-aluminides are also formed at the interface of a steel and aluminum hot-dip coating system, which is the main difficulty in joining of steel with aluminum. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to a steel substrate during hot-dip coating of aluminum alloy to control a rapidly solidified layer and a brittle reaction layer. Hot dipping of columnar steel substrates into molten aluminum alloy (Al-2.7 mass fraction Si-4.6 mass fraction Sn) was carried out through the use of a Langevin oscillator with resonant frequency of 19.5 kHz. The application of ultrasonic vibration is quite effective to control a rapidly solidified layer and a surface oxide layer from a substrate surface by the sonocapillary effect based on a cavitation phenomenon, so that the intimate contact is achieved at the beginning of hot-dip coating. The application of ultrasonic vibration to hot-dipping is effective to control a reaction layer with less than 5μm in thickness. An impact test exhibits that the good adhesive strength is approved in hot-dipped aluminum coatings with a thin reaction layer of approximately 5μm.

  14. A set of 14 DIP-SNP markers to detect unbalanced DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhizhen; Liu, Jinding; Wang, Jiaqi; Chen, Deqing; Liu, Zidong; Shi, Jie; Li, Zeqin; Li, Wenyan; Zhang, Gengqian; Du, Bing

    2018-03-04

    Unbalanced DNA mixture is still a difficult problem for forensic practice. DIP-STRs are useful markers for detection of minor DNA but they are not widespread in the human genome and having long amplicons. In this study, we proposed a novel type of genetic marker, termed DIP-SNP. DIP-SNP refers to the combination of INDEL and SNP in less than 300bp length of human genome. The multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay were established for 14 DIP-SNP markers in a Chinese Han population from Shanxi, China. This novel compound marker allows detection of the minor DNA contributor with sensitivity from 1:50 to 1:1000 in a DNA mixture of any gender with 1 ng-10 ng DNA template. Most of the DIP-SNP markers had a relatively high probability of informative alleles with an average I value of 0.33. In all, we proposed DIP-SNP as a novel kind of genetic marker for detection of minor contributor from unbalanced DNA mixture and established the detection method by associating the multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay. DIP-SNP polymorphisms are promising markers for forensic or clinical mixture examination because they are shorter, widespread and higher sensitive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Waxing and Waning of Forests: Late Quaternary Biogeography of Lake Malawi, Southeast Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, S.; Lézine, A. M.; Vincens, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    African ecosystems are at great risk due to climate and land-use change. Despite the status of several of these regions as biodiversity hotspots, long-standing ideas about African ecology and biogeography have been unable to be tested until now due to lack of sufficiently long records. Here, we present the first long, continuous terrestrial record of vegetation from Lake Malawi, East Africa which goes back to the early Late Quaternary, permitting us to investigate changes in physiognomy and forest composition over many transitions. In this record, we observe eight phases of forest expansion and collapse. Although diversity is much greater during forest phases, composition varies little from phase to phase. Very high abundances of afromontane taxa suggest frequent widespread colonization of the lowlands by modern high elevation trees. Although there are clear successional stages within each forest such that turnover is great within a single phase, among forest samples between phases, there is little dissimilarity. Each forest phase is interrupted by rapid decline of arboreal taxa and expansion of semi-arid grasslands or woodlands whose composition varies greatly from phase to phase. The variable composition of the more open phases, all occurring during arid periods, is likely dynamically linked to thresholds in regional hydrology associated with lake level and moisture recycling within the watershed. This vegetation is unlike any found at Malawi today, with assemblages suggesting strong Somali-Masai affinities. Furthermore, nearly all semi-arid assemblages contain small abundances of forest taxa typically growing in areas with wetter edaphic conditions, suggesting that moist lowland gallery forests were present but restricted to waterways during exceptionally arid times. The waxing and waning of forests throughout this interval has important implications for early human biogeography across Africa as well as disturbance regimes that are crucial for the maintenance of

  16. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  17. Trapping dynamics of diindenoperylene (DIP) in self-assembled monolayers using molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2011-07-01

    All-atom Molecular Dynamics simulation methods employing a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (Molecular Mechanics 3), demonstrate the propensity for diindenoperylene (DIP) molecules to insert between molecules of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) during a deposition process intended to grow a thin film of this organic semiconductor molecule onto the surface of self-assembled monolayers. The tendency to insert between SAM molecules is fairly prevalent at normal growth temperatures and conditions, but is most strongly dependent on the density and the nature of the SAM. We posit the existence of an optimal density to favor surface adsorption over insertion for this system. DIP is less likely to insert in fluorinated SAMs, like FOTS (fluorooctatrichlorosilane), than its unfluorinated analog, OTS (octatrichlorosilane). It is also less likely to insert between shorter SAMs (e.g., less insertion in OTS than ODTS (octadecyltrichlorosilane)). Very short length, surface-coating molecules, like HDMS (hexamethyldisilazane), are more likely to scatter energetic incoming DIP molecules with little insertion on first impact (depending on the incident energy of the DIP molecule). Grazing angles of incidence of the depositing molecules generally favor surface adsorption, at least in the limit of low coverage, but are shown to be dependent on the nature of the SAM. The validity of these predictions is confirmed by comparison of the predicted sticking coefficients of DIP at a variety of incident energies on OTS, ODTS, and FOTS SAMs with results obtained experimentally by Desai et al. (2010) [23]. The simulation predictions of the tendency of DIP to insert can be explained, in large part, in terms of binding energies between SAM and DIP molecules. However, we note that entropic and stochastic events play a role in the deposition outcomes. Preliminary studies of multiple deposition events, emulating growth, show an unexpected diffusion of DIP molecules inserted within the

  18. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon, E-mail: jkkim@kau.ac.kr

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  19. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  20. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDT is the most promising way to clean up DDT residues found in the environment. In this paper, a bacterium designated as wax, which was capable of co-metabolizing DDT with other carbon sources, was isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil sample by an enrichment culture technique. The new isolate was identified as a member of the Pseudoxanthomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In the presence of 100 mg l-1 glucose, the wax strain could degrade over 95% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 20 mg l-1, in 72 hours, and could degrade over 60% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 100 mg l-1, in 144 hours. The wax strain had the highest degradation efficiency among all of the documented DDT-degrading bacteria. The wax strain could efficiently degrade DDT at temperatures ranging from 20 to 37ºC, and with initial pH values ranging from 7 to 9. The bacterium could also simultaneously co-metabolize 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDD, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichlorethylene (DDE, and other organochlorine compounds. The wax strain could also completely remove 20 mg kg-1 of DDT from both sterile and non-sterile soils in 20 days. This study demonstrates the significant potential use of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax for the bioremediation of DDT in the environment.

  2. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  3. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  4. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  5. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  6. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses Due to Voltage Dips in Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Santos-Martin, David; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2011-01-01

    stresses transients that may have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of drivetrain system due to voltage dips. A rainflow cycle counting method for the stress history during the voltage dip event, analyses mean and amplitudes of the counted cycles, their occurrence moment and time of duration.......Voltage dips due to electrical grid faults generate transients of the generator electromagnetic torque which result in significant high stresses and noticeable vibrations for the wind turbine mechanical system. These events may also have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of important...

  7. Efficiency dip observed with InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Kunyu; Lin, G. J.; Wu, Yuhrenn; Tsai, Menglun; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-01-01

    The dip of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is observed on In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells upon the increase of incident optical power density. With indium composition increased to 25%, the EQE dip becomes much less noticeable. The composition dependence of EQE dip is ascribed to the competition between radiative recombination and photocurrent generation in the active region, which are dictated by quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and composition fluctuation in the MQWs.

  8. Assessment of the impact of dipped guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with dipped profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than dipped tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with dipped tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.

  9. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  10. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover

  11. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903). Carnauba wax (E 903) is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of ca...

  12. Evaluation of experimental data for wax and diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The Leverage statistical approach is herein applied for evaluation of experimental data of the paraffin waxes/diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems. The calculation steps of this algorithm consist of determination of the statistical Hat matrix, sketching the Williams Plot, and calculation......-Santiago and Teja correlations are used to calculate/estimate the solubility of paraffin waxes (including n-C24H50 to n-C33H68) and diamondoids (adamantane and diamantane) in carbon dioxide/ethane gases, respectively. It can be interpreted from the obtained results that the applied equations for calculation...

  13. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  14. Investigation of Dip-Coating Parameters Effect on The Performance of Alumina-Polydimethylsiloxane Nanofiltration Membranes for Desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hadi Yousefi; Mohamad Mehdi Zerafat; Majid Shokri Doodeji; Samad Sabbaghi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of dip-coating parameters on the performance of Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes for water desalination. Ceramic supports used in this work were prepared with a 340 nm average pore size and 34% total porosity. The aim is to determine optimum conditions of dipping time, PDMS concentration, and withdrawal speed in order to achieve high rejection and flux values. Dip-coating parameters were considered as dipping time (60 - 120 s...

  15. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  16. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves : Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, MHA; Piersma, T; Damste, JSS; Dekker, Marlèn H.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  17. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  18. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  19. Fabrication of an Anisotropic Superhydrophobic Polymer Surface Using Compression Molding and Dip Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Min Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a single crystal diamond tool, was used to fabricate a mold with microscale directional patterns of triangular cross-sectional shape for good moldability, and the patterns were duplicated on a flat thermoplastic polymer plate by compression molding for the mass production of an anisotropic wetting polymer surface. Anisotropic wetting was observed only with microscale patterns, but the sliding of water could not be achieved because of the pinning effect of the micro-structure. Therefore, an additional dip coating process with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecythricholosilanes, and TiO2 nanoparticles was applied for a small sliding angle with nanoscale patterns and a low surface energy. The anisotropic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and the surface morphology and anisotropic wetting behaviors were investigated. The suggested fabrication method can be used to mass produce an anisotropic superhydrophobic polymer surface, demonstrating the feasibility of liquid shape control and transportation.

  20. Rapid Fabrication of Cell-Laden Alginate Hydrogel 3D Structures by Micro Dip-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh Tabriz, Atabak; Mills, Christopher G; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A; Shu, Wenmiao

    2017-01-01

    Development of a simple, straightforward 3D fabrication method to culture cells in 3D, without relying on any complex fabrication methods, remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe a new technique that allows fabrication of scalable 3D cell-laden hydrogel structures easily, without complex machinery: the technique can be done using only apparatus already available in a typical cell biology laboratory. The fabrication method involves micro dip-coating of cell-laden hydrogels covering the surface of a metal bar, into the cross-linking reagents calcium chloride or barium chloride to form hollow tubular structures. This method can be used to form single layers with thickness ranging from 126 to 220 µm or multilayered tubular structures. This fabrication method uses alginate hydrogel as the primary biomaterial and a secondary biomaterial can be added depending on the desired application. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method, with survival rate over 75% immediately after fabrication and normal responsiveness of cells within these tubular structures using mouse dermal embryonic fibroblast cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells containing a tetracycline-responsive, red fluorescent protein (tHEK cells).

  1. Large magnetoresistance dips and perfect spin-valley filter induced by topological phase transitions in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prarokijjak, Worasak; Soodchomshom, Bumned

    2018-04-01

    Spin-valley transport and magnetoresistance are investigated in silicene-based N/TB/N/TB/N junction where N and TB are normal silicene and topological barriers. The topological phase transitions in TB's are controlled by electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. As a result, we find that by applying electric and exchange fields, four groups of spin-valley currents are perfectly filtered, directly induced by topological phase transitions. Control of currents, carried by single, double and triple channels of spin-valley electrons in silicene junction, may be achievable by adjusting magnitudes of electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. We may identify that the key factor behind the spin-valley current filtered at the transition points may be due to zero and non-zero Chern numbers. Electrons that are allowed to transport at the transition points must obey zero-Chern number which is equivalent to zero mass and zero-Berry's curvature, while electrons with non-zero Chern number are perfectly suppressed. Very large magnetoresistance dips are found directly induced by topological phase transition points. Our study also discusses the effect of spin-valley dependent Hall conductivity at the transition points on ballistic transport and reveals the potential of silicene as a topological material for spin-valleytronics.

  2. Catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures containing aluminum chloride and bromide. [Wax obtained in the process of dewaxing lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Oizumi, K; Tamai, Y

    1983-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/ (aluminum chloride) and AlBr/sub 3/ (aluminum bromide) was investigated in an atmospheric semi-batch reactor at low temperatures of 100 to 160/sup 0/C. The cracking rate was proportional to the amount of unreacted wax. The conversion at 135/sup 0/C reached 25 wt % under typical reaction conditions. About 95 wt % of the cracking products consisted of isobutane, 2-methylbutane, and methylpentanes, ca. 50% of these isoparaffins being isobutane. The difference in cracking activity between this catalyst and a solid acid catalyst is discussed based on the product distribution. Hardly any reaction took place without HCl, which shows that the presence of HCl is essential for this cracking. The cracking rate increased sharply with an increase in the amount of the catalyst. The rate did not depend on the composition of the AlCl/sub 3//sup -/ AlBr/sub 3/ catalyst, but the product distribution did depend on it and the content of the gasoline fraction in the products increased with an increase in the concentration of AlBr/sub 3/. The cracking residue was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the cracking reaction probably occurs heterogeneously at the interface between the liquid wax and the molten catalyst. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Optical properties of titanium di-oxide thin films prepared by dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayari; Rahman, Kazi Hasibur; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method on ITO coated glass substrate. The sol was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 90°C. The sol was then used to make TiO2 films by dip coating. After dip coating the rest of the sol was dried at 100°C to make TiO2 powder. Thin films were made by varying the number of dipping cycles and were annealed at 500°C. XRD study was carried out for powder samples that confirms the formation of anatase phase. Transmission spectra of thin films show sharp rise in the violet-ultraviolet transition region and a maximum transmittance of ˜60%. Band gap of the prepared films varies from 3.15 eV to 3.22 eV.

  4. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence for volcanic passive margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    Multi-channel seismic reflection profiles across the southwest continental margin of India (SWCMI) show presence of westerly dipping seismic reflectors beneath sedimentary strata along the western flank of the Laccadive Ridge-northernmost part...

  5. The role of parents, friends and teachers in adolescents' cigarette smoking and tombak dipping in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Nwaru, Bright I; Ginawi, Ibrahim; Pisani, Paola; Hakama, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To assess the influence of smoking and tombak (local smokeless tobacco) dipping by parents, teachers and friends on cigarette smoking and tombak dipping by school-going Sudanese adolescents. This was a school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005-2006. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. A total of 4277 Sudanese school-going adolescents (aged 11-17 years) from 23 schools who completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire on the use of tobacco products. Main outcome measures were self-reported tobacco use during the previous month defined current tobacco use. Ever smoking, tombak dipping and other tobacco products were also considered as outcomes. After adjusting for sex, age and school grade, adolescents' smoking habits were strongly associated with the habit in their parents and friends and, more weakly, with tombak dipping by teachers. When adjusted for each other, the association with smoking in friends was unaffected and remained significant (prevalence OR (POR) of having ever smoked was 1.94, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.29; OR of being current smoker was 3.77, 95% CI 2.80 to 5.07). Tobacco smoking in friends was positively associated with adolescents ever tombak dipping (POR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.33) and current dipping (OR 3.33, 95% CI 2.20 to 5.05). The association with parental habits was reduced but still significantly elevated. Tombak dipping by teachers was only associated with adolescents ever tobacco smoking. Tobacco use by parents, teachers and friends was associated with adolescents' tobacco habits. The influence of friends was the strongest. In developing programmes against adolescents' tobacco habits, there is need to target the influence of these 'significant others'. Sudan needs to develop and implement comprehensive anti-smoking and anti-tombak dipping legislation to reduce the growing prevalence of such habits.

  6. Mitigation of voltage dip and power system oscillations damping using dual STATCOM for grid connected DFIG

    OpenAIRE

    D.V.N. Ananth; G.V. Nagesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    During grid fault, transmission lines reach its thermal limit and lose its capability to transfer. If this fault current enters generator terminals, it will lead to dip in stator voltage and consequently produces torque and real power oscillations. This further affects in the form of internal heat in rotor windings and finally damages the generator. A new control strategy is proposed to limit fault current using dual STATCOM, which will damp power oscillations and mitigate the voltage dip due...

  7. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  8. Dip Phenomenon in High-Curved Turbulent Flows and Application of Entropy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Termini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of velocity profile in turbulent open channels is a difficult task due to the significant effects of the secondary flow. The present paper investigates the mechanism of the velocity-dip phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum velocity appears to be below the free surface. Previous studies conducted in straight channels relate the mechanism of the velocity-dip phenomenon to secondary flow induced by anisotropy of turbulence. This work focuses on high-curved channels where the secondary motion, which is also induced by the channel’s curvature, evolves along the bend. The width-to-depth ratio, B/h, is one of the most important parameters that are affecting the secondary motion entity. In particular, the present study aims to investigate the evolution of the velocity-dip along the bend for two values of the width-to-depth ratio and the applicability of the entropic model for the dip-phenomenon estimation. The results show that the velocity-dip is more accentuated for low values of the width-to-depth ratio, where the secondary motion plays a fundamental role in the distribution of the downstream flow velocity, although the velocity-dip is also present when the aspect ratio is higher than 10. Furthermore, the velocity profiles that were estimated by applying the entropic model are in good agreement with the measured ones, especially for B/h < 10.

  9. Effect of Zeolite Treatment on the Blooming Behavior of Paraffin Wax in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blooming behavior of paraffin wax in natural rubber (NR composites was studied as function of zeolite treatment. Three types of zeolite treatment were treated as factors: acid activation using hydrochloric acid (HCl solution, ion exchange using tetradecyldimethyl amine (TDA chloride salt, and organic modification using glycerol monostearate (GMS. The zeolite was treated according to a 23 full factorial design of experiment. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of treated zeolite. Treated zeolite was applied as filler to NR composites deliberately compounded with high amount of paraff in wax. The amount of bloomed wax in surface of NR composite sheets was monitored with time at 50oC. Results show the bloom amount to be linear with the square root of time. NR composites reinforced with untreated, acid-activated, and ion-exchanged zeolite fillers indicate reduction in wax blooming as compared to unfilled NR. The bloom rate (slope and initial bloom (y-intercept were determined from the experimental plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows the bloom rate to be signif icantly increased when zeolite fillers are treated with GMS. Meanwhile, initial bloom was significantly enhanced when zeolite fillers are treated with TDA chloride salt and GMS. The significant increase in bloom rate and initial bloom can be attributed to the softening of the NR matrix at high amounts of TDA chloride salt and GMS.

  10. Thermodynamics Prediction of Wax Precipitation in Black Oil Using Regular Solution Model and Plus Fraction Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of wax/solid paraffin during production, transportation, and processing of crude oil is a serious problem. It is essential to have a reliable model to predict the wax appearance temperature and the amount of solid precipitated at different conditions. This paper presents a work to predict the solid precipitation based on solid-liquid equilibrium with regular solution-molecular thermodynamic theory and characterization of the crude oil plus fraction. Due to the differences of solubility characteristics between solid and liquid phase, the solubility parameters of liquid and solid phase are calculated by a modified model. The heat capacity change between solid and liquid phase is considered and estimated in the thermodynamic model. An activity coefficient based thermodynamic method combined with two characteristic methods to calculate wax precipitation in crude oil, especially heavy oil, has been tested with experimental data. The results show that the wax appearance temperature and the amount of weight precipitated can be predicted well with the experimental data.

  11. Morphology evaluation of biodegradable copolyesters based on dimerized fatty acid studied by DSC, SAXS and WAXS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozlowska, A.; Gromadzki, Daniel; El Fray, M.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 85-88 ISSN 1230-3666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : multiblock copolymers * DSC * WAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2008

  12. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  13. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, K.; Cvačka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2014), s. 628-638 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * lipids * lithium attachment * MALDI matrix * waxes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2014

  14. Clustering of comb and propolis waxes based on the distribution of aliphatic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodio Angela R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition data for 41 samples of propolis waxes and 9 samples of comb waxes of Apis mellifera collected mainly in Brazil were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. For chemometrical analysis, the distribution of hydrocarbons and residues of alcohols and carboxylic acids of monoesters were considered. The clustering obtained revealed chemical affinities and differences not previously grasped by simple eye-inspection of the data. No consistent differences were detected between comb and propolis waxes. These and previous results suggest that hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, aliphatic alcohols and esters from both comb and propolis waxes are bee-produced compounds and, hence, the differences detected between one and another region are dependent on genetic factors related to the insects rather than the local flora. The samples analyzed were split into two main clusters, one of them comprising exclusively material collected in the State of São Paulo. The results are discussed with respect to the africanization of honeybees that first took place in that State and therefrom irradiated to other parts of Brazil.

  15. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  16. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  17. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  18. In vitro and In vivo Characterisation of Piroxicam-Loaded Dika Wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate piroxicam-loaded lipospheres and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo properties. Method: Piroxicam-loaded lipospheres were prepared by hot homogenization technique using dika wax and Phospholipon® 90G (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) as the lipid matrix. Characterisation, based on particle size

  19. 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments of four dammarane triterpenoids from carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysne, Juliana de Brito; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Assunção, Marcus Vinícius; Uchoa, Daniel E de Andrade; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2006-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of carnauba wax led to the isolation of three new dammarane triterpenoids 1, 2 and 4, together with the known triterpene 3. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with published data for closely related compounds. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Simulation of temperature-pressure profiles and wax deposition in gas-lift wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevic Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-lift is an artificial lift method in which gas is injected down the tubing- -casing annulus and enters the production tubing through the gas-lift valves to reduce the hydrostatic pressure of the formation fluid column. The gas changes pressure, temperature and fluid composition profiles throughout the production tubing string. Temperature and pressure drop along with the fluid composition changes throughout the tubing string can lead to wax, asphaltenes and inorganic salts deposition, increased emulsion stability and hydrate formation. This paper presents a new model that can sucesfully simulate temperature and pressure profiles and fluid composition changes in oil well that operates by means of gas-lift. This new model includes a pipe-in-pipe segment (production tubing inside production casing, countercurrent flow of gas-lift gas and producing fluid, heat exchange between gas-lift gas and the surrounding ambient – ground; and gas-lift gas with the fluid in the tubing. The model enables a better understanding of the multiphase fluid flow up the production tubing. Model was used to get insight into severity and locations of wax deposition. The obtained information on wax deposition can be used to plan the frequency and depth of wax removing operations. Model was developed using Aspen HYSYS software.

  1. Plumage reflectance is not affected by preen wax composition in red knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J; Korsten, P

    It has recently been shown that sandpipers (Scolopacidae) abruptly switch the chemical composition of their preen gland secretions from mono- to diester waxes just before the period of courtship. The timing and context of the shift suggested that diesters could provide a visible quality signal

  2. Wax co-cracking synergism of high density polyethylene to alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Motawie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to understand the thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE and their combined co-cracking using different ratios of HDPE and petroleum wax under nitrogen atmosphere. We have conducted the experiments using HDPE as the raw material and petroleum wax as co-feed by at 400 and 450 °C reaction temperatures. The product distribution was noted along with reaction time of 0.5–3 h for the degradation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA technique was used to measure the weight change of the feedstock as a function of temperature and time. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to determine the degradation temperature. Products were characterized using gas chromatography (GC and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, some other standard physical methods were used to determine the main properties of the liquid products. Results show that the mixed plastic-wax samples could be converted into gases, gasoline, and middle distillate depending upon the composition of feed polymer/wax ratio. It was found that the products mostly consisted of paraffin and olefin compounds, with carbon numbers of C1–C4, C5–C9 and C10–C19 in the case of gases, gasoline and middle distillate respectively.

  3. Cross-linking of LDPE/wax blends by using dicumyl peroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Krupa

    They are not soluble in many solvents due to their high crystallinity, but they ... macroradical formation via thermal decomposition of organic peroxides.6,7,8 A ... as potential applications of LDPE/wax blends are concerned, lower viscosity of ...

  4. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  8. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gong, Xiuqing; Li, Shunbo; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips including: silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives, etc. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components

  9. The influence of vegetation on the transport pathways and residence time of surface water on the deltaic islands of Wax Lake Delta, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliver, E. A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal deltas of the world are vital ecosystems that disproportionately support the world's population and biological productivity. Recent studies indicate vegetation may have significant influence on the development and structure of the deltaic islands composing these deltas. However, there is little convincing data drawn from natural systems. Here we present a 2D numerical modeling study of the interaction of surface water flow and vegetation on Wax lake Delta, LA, USA. We use a seamless digital elevation model (DEM) of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) as the initial topographic condition. The deltaic island elevation data for the DEM is derived from LiDAR data, while the channel and delta front bathymetry is derived from single and multi-beam data. The upstream boundary conditions are set by discharge data from the USGS gauge located in the Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA and the downstream water level boundary condition comes from tidal data from the NOAA gauge located in the Atchafalaya Delta at Amerada Pass, LA. The deltaic islands in our seamless DEM are populated by two general vegetation communities of different canopy density and height: a subaerial-intermediate community and a subaqueous community. In our study we explore how variations in discharge coming into the delta and extent of the general vegetation communities at different times of the year influence the transport pathways and residence time of surface water on the levees and within the interdistributary wetlands of the deltaic islands. A better understanding of vegetation's influence on these elements of deltaic island development and organization could prove valuable for informing design of wetland restoration projects.

  10. Effect of hot-dip galvanizing processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Wang, Min-li; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Shen-gen

    2017-12-01

    A C-Mn dual-phase steel was soaked at 800°C for 90 s and then either rapidly cooled to 450°C and held for 30 s (process A) or rapidly cooled to 350°C and then reheated to 450°C (process B) to simulate the hot-dip galvanizing process. The influence of the hot-dip galvanizing process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel (DP600) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. The results showed that, in the case of process A, the microstructure of DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, and a small amount of bainite. The granular bainite was formed in the hot-dip galvanizing stage, and martensite islands were formed in the final cooling stage after hot-dip galvanizing. By contrast, in the case of process B, the microstructure of the DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, bainite, and cementite. In addition, compared with the yield strength (YS) of the DP600 annealed by process A, that for the DP600 annealed by process B increased by approximately 50 MPa because of the tempering of the martensite formed during rapid cooling. The work-hardening coefficient ( n value) of the DP600 steel annealed by process B clearly decreased because the increase of the YS affected the computation result for the n value. However, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation ( A 80) of the DP600 annealed by process B exhibited less variation compared with those of the DP600 annealed by process A. Therefore, DP600 with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties (YS = 362 MPa, UTS = 638 MPa, A 80 = 24.3%, n = 0.17) was obtained via process A.

  11. Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    Sedimentary plant wax 2H/1H ratios are important tools for understanding hydroclimate and environmental changes, but large spatial and temporal uncertainties exist about transport mechanisms from ecosystem to sediments. To assess atmospheric pathways, we collected aerosol samples for two years at four locations within a ∼60 km radius in northern Switzerland. We measured n-alkane distributions and 2H/1H ratios in these samples, and from local plants, leaf litter, and soil, as well as surface sediment from six nearby lakes. Increased concentrations and 2H depletion of long odd chain n-alkanes in early summer aerosols indicate that most wax aerosol production occurred shortly after leaf unfolding, when plants synthesize waxes in large quantities. During autumn and winter, aerosols were characterized by degraded n-alkanes lacking chain length preferences diagnostic of recent biosynthesis, and 2H/1H values that were in some cases more than 100‰ higher than growing season values. Despite these seasonal shifts, modeled deposition-weighted average 2H/1H values of long odd chain n-alkanes primarily reflected summer values. This was corroborated by n-alkane 2H/1H values in lake sediments, which were similar to deposition-weighted aerosol values at five of six sites. Atmospheric deposition rates for plant n-alkanes on land were ∼20% of accumulation rates in lakes, suggesting a role for direct deposition to lakes or coastal oceans near similar production sources, and likely a larger role for deposition on land and transport in river systems. This mechanism allows mobilization and transport of large quantities of recently produced waxes as fine-grained material to low energy sedimentation sites over short timescales, even in areas with limited topography. Widespread atmospheric transfer well before leaf senescence also highlights the importance of the isotopic composition of early season source water used to synthesize waxes for the geologic record.

  12. A review on wax printed microfluidic paper-based devices for international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundemir, S; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K

    2017-07-01

    Paper-based microfluidics has attracted attention for the last ten years due to its advantages such as low sample volume requirement, ease of use, portability, high sensitivity, and no necessity to well-equipped laboratory equipment and well-trained manpower. These characteristics have made paper platforms a promising alternative for a variety of applications such as clinical diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological substances. Among the wide range of fabrication methods for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices ( μ PADs), the wax printing method is suitable for high throughput production and requires only a commercial printer and a heating source to fabricate complex two or three-dimensional structures for multipurpose systems. μ PADs can be used by anyone for in situ diagnosis and analysis; therefore, wax printed μ PADs are promising especially in resource limited environments where people cannot get sensitive and fast diagnosis of their serious health problems and where food, water, and related products are not able to be screened for toxic elements. This review paper is focused on the applications of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated by the wax printing technique and used for international health. Besides presenting the current limitations and advantages, the future directions of this technology including the commercial aspects are discussed. As a conclusion, the wax printing technology continues to overcome the current limitations and to be one of the promising fabrication techniques. In the near future, with the increase of the current interest of the industrial companies on the paper-based technology, the wax-printed paper-based platforms are expected to take place especially in the healthcare industry.

  13. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  14. Experimental analysis, modeling and simulation of a solar energy accumulator with paraffin wax as PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.; Henríquez-Vargas, L.; Aravena, R.; Sepúlveda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of paraffin wax thermal conductivity using soft drink can stripes. • Thermal analysis and simulations results agree well with experimental data. • Increase in accumulator thermal efficiencies through addition of external aluminum stripes. • Proposed accumulator allows up to 13,000 kJ of energy storage. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Promising results obtained in a prototype heat exchanger encouraged the construction of this unit 6 times bigger. We experimentally evaluated and model a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 300 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 59.25 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes. The effect of adding 2.75 kg of aluminum fins for enhancing heat transfer from the outer surface of the cans to the circulant air was experimentally analyzed. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in about 4 h. The accumulated energy in form of latent heat (about 13,000 kJ) allowed to increase the temperature of 0.040 kg/s of circulant air in at least 20 °C during a period of 2.5 h. For an air mass rate of 0.018 kg/s the period was extended practically to 5 h. The accumulator thermal analysis was presented and a subsequent numerical simulation with Matlab was performed to compare with the experimental results obtaining good agreement specially for higher air mass flow rates. The low cost accumulator presented is of simple construction and will allow extended use of solar energy for applications such as drying processes or household calefaction system.

  15. Associations of Blood Pressure Dipping Patterns With Left Ventricular Mass and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Caughey, Melissa C; Tanner, Rikki M; Booth, John N; Diaz, Keith M; Anstey, D Edmund; Sims, Mario; Ravenell, Joseph; Muntner, Paul; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-04-05

    Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP), including nondipping patterns, assessed using ambulatory BP monitoring, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk among white and Asian adults. We examined the associations of BP dipping patterns (dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping) with cardiovascular target organ damage (left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy), among participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black population-based cohort. Analyses included 1015 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring and had echocardiography data from the baseline visit. Participants were categorized based on the nighttime to daytime systolic BP ratio into 3 patterns: dipping pattern (≤0.90), nondipping pattern (>0.90 to ≤1.00), and reverse dipping pattern (>1.00). The prevalence of dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping patterns was 33.6%, 48.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. In a fully adjusted model, which included antihypertensive medication use and clinic and daytime systolic BP, the mean differences in left ventricular mass index between reverse dipping pattern versus dipping pattern was 8.3±2.1 g/m 2 ( P pattern versus dipping pattern was -1.0±1.6 g/m 2 ( P =0.536). Compared with participants with a dipping pattern, the prevalence ratio for having left ventricular hypertrophy was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.05-2.58) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63-1.97) for those with a reverse dipping pattern and nondipping pattern, respectively. In this population-based study of blacks, a reverse dipping pattern was associated with increased left ventricular mass index and a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Identification of a reverse dipping pattern on ambulatory BP monitoring may help identify black at increased risk for cardiovascular target organ damage. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  17. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  18. Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Dating Reveals the Age Distribution of Plant-Wax Biomarkers Exported to the Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; French, K. L.; Hein, C. J.; Haghipour, N.; Wacker, L.; Kudrass, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of leaf-wax compounds preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments has been widely used to reconstruct terrestrial paleo-environments. However, the timescales of plant-wax storage in continental reservoirs before riverine export are not well known, representing a key uncertainty in paleo-environment studies. We couple numerical models with bulk and leaf-wax fatty acid organic 13C and 14C signatures hosted in a high-deposition-rate sediment core from the Bengal shelf canyon in order to estimate storage timescales within the Ganges-Brahmaputra catchment area. The fatty acid 14C record reveals a muted nuclear weapons bomb spike, requiring that the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system exports a mixture of young and old (pre-aged) leaf-wax compounds. According to numerical simulations, 79-83% of the leaf-wax fatty acids in this core are sourced from continental reservoirs that store organic carbon on an average of 1000-1200 calendar years, while the remainder has an average age of 15 years. These results demonstrate that a majority of the leaf-wax compounds produced in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin was stored in soils, floodplains, and wetlands prior to its export to the Bengal Fan. We will discuss the implications of these findings for plant-wax based paleoenvironmental records.

  19. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  1. Design and properties of a cryogenic dip-stick scanning tunneling microscope with capacitive coarse approach control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, R; Hänke, T; Baumann, D; Kaiser, M; Nag, P K; Voigtländer, R; Lindackers, D; Büchner, B; Hess, C

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, setup, and operation of a new dip-stick scanning tunneling microscope. Its special design allows measurements in the temperature range from 4.7 K up to room temperature, where cryogenic vacuum conditions are maintained during the measurement. The system fits into every (4)He vessel with a bore of 50 mm, e.g., a transport dewar or a magnet bath cryostat. The microscope is equipped with a cleaving mechanism for cleaving single crystals in the whole temperature range and under cryogenic vacuum conditions. For the tip approach, a capacitive automated coarse approach is implemented. We present test measurements on the charge density wave system 2H-NbSe2 and the superconductor LiFeAs which demonstrate scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy data acquisition with high stability, high spatial resolution at variable temperatures and in high magnetic fields.

  2. Leaf surface wax is a source of plant methane formation under UV radiation and in the presence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Rolsted, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    to this, we demonstrated that the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission is independent of leaf area index above unity. Further, we observed that the presence of O2 in the atmosphere was necessary for achieving the highest rates of CH4 emission. Methane formation from leaf surface wax is supposedly a two...... investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiationinduced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation...

  3. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  4. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  5. Persistence of lindane in model cattle dips in sub-tropical climate of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Menon, P.; Agarwal, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Persistence of lindane in model cattle dips under field conditions in the sub-tropical climate of Delhi was studied. In one set of experiments two model dips were utilized and filled with 200 L of water and treated with 2.37 MBq of 14 C-labelled and 4 g unlabelled lindane each. The radioactivity in water samples at zero time was estimated and considered to be 100 % (744 dpm/mL) which declined to 17.5 % (132 dpm/mL) 180 d after the treatment in Dip 1 (control dip). In the second dip 50 g of cowdung and soil were added 28 d after treatment and subsequently every time before sampling. The results in both the dips were similar indicating no effect of soil and cowdung on the persistence of lindane in the dips. The half life of lindane in water was 101 days. Lindane was extracted from water by hexane in the presence of methanol. The efficiency of this procedure was 99+ %. The main metabolises of lindane in water, identified by HPLC, were 1, 2, 4- trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and an unknown compound. In another experiment, 50 L of water was added to one dip which was treated with 2.90 MBq of 14 C-labelled and 1 g unlabelled lindane in 25 ml acetone. The cattle dip was recharged at monthly intervals with about 10 % of the initially applied lindane (290 kBq of 14 C labelled and 100 mg unlabelled lindane in 25 mL acetone). Soil and cow dung were added as in the first experiment. The concentration of lindane declined rapidly to 11.69 % (1.9 μg/mL, 425 dpm/mL) after the third recharge. The main metabolite was 1,2,4- trichlorobenzene which accounted for about 21 % after first and second recharge. The effect of pH ranging from 5 to 9 was also investigated. The dissipation appeared to be faster at pH 8 and comparatively slower at pH 6. (author)

  6. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Rdige National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conasauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 L of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  7. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conassauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 liters of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  8. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Migration velocity analysis using a transversely isotropic medium with tilt normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, T.

    2010-06-13

    A transversely isotropic model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TTI model. Though this model, in some cases, can not be represented physically like in the case of conflicting dips, it handles all dips with the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. It provides a process in which areas that meet this feature is handled properly. We use efficient downward continuation algorithms that utilizes the reflection features of such a model. For lateral inhomogeneity, phase shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity, because unlike the general TTI case the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. We also equip these continuation algorithms with tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity. We test this model on synthetic data of general TTI nature and show its resilience even couping with complex models like the recently released anisotropic BP model.

  10. Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults, Boudinage and Ductile Shear at Rifted Passive Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C. N.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Jolivet, L.; Ballard, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Deep structures resulting from the rifting of the continental crust are now well imaged by seismic profiles. We present a series of recent industrial profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear of the base of the crust and low-angle detachment faulting. Along both magma-rich and magma-poor rifted margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust. Large-scale shallow dipping shear zones are identified with a top-to-the-continent sense of shear. This sense of shear is consistent with the activity of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) that accommodate the extension in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for an oceanward migration of the deformation and of the associated syn-tectonic deposits (sediments and/or volcanics). We discuss the origin of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures that seem to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from several locations (Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea…), and discuss their rifting histories that differ from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults.

  11. Characterization of edible coatings consisting of pea starch, whey protein isolate, and Carnauba wax and their effects on oil rancidity and sensory properties of walnuts and pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Ismail, Khalid; Han, Jung H; Chee, Grace W

    2012-02-01

    Edible coatings made of whey protein isolate (WPI), pea starch (PS), and their combinations with carnauba wax (CW) were prepared and characterized. WPI combined with CW formed stable emulsion while PS with CW formed unstable emulsion and both formulations produced non-homogeneous films. Addition of PS to WPI: CW combination at the ratio of 1:1:1, respectively, resulted in stable emulsion and homogenous films. The emulsion PS: WPI: CW (1:1:2) was stable and formed a continuous film but had less homogenous droplets size distribution when compared to 1:1:1 film. Combined films had a reduced tensile strength and elongation compared to single component films. WPI : CW (1:1) films had higher elastic modulus than the WPI films, but the modulus reduced by the addition of PS. All the coating formulations were effective in preventing oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of walnuts and pine nuts stored at 25 °C throughout the storage (12 d) but were less effective at 50 °C. Increasing the concentration of CW from 1:1:1 to 1:1:2 in PS: WPI: CW formulation did not contribute in further prevention of oil rancidity at 25 °C. Using of PS: WPI: CW (1:1:1) coating on both nuts significantly (P carnauba wax reduced the oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of the nuts and improved sensory characteristics. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Influence of dipping cycles on physical, optical, and electrical properties of Cu 2 NiSnS 4 : Direct solution dip coating for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Talysa R.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Direct solution coating technique has emerged as a promising economically viable process for earth abundant chalcogenide absorber materials for photovoltaic applications. Here, direct ethanol based dip coating of earth abundant Cu2NiSnS4 (CNTS) films on soda lime glass (SLG), molybdenum coated glass (Mo), and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass (FTO) substrates is investigated. The structural and morphological properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films coated on SLG, FTO, and Mo substrates are reported. The influence of dipping cycles on composition and optoelectronic properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films deposited on SLG substrate is presented. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis reveal how changes in thickness and elemental composition affect morphology and optoelectronic properties. The obtained absorption coefficient, optical bandgap, resistivity and mobility of pre - annealed and sulfurized films are found to be 104 cm-1, 1.5 eV, 0.48 Ocm, 3.4 cm2/Vs and 104 cm-1, 1.29 eV, 0.14 Ocm, 11.0 cm2/Vs, respectively. These properties are well suited for photovoltaic applications and lead to the conclusion that the direct ethanol based dip coating can be an alternative economically viable process for the fabrication of earth abundant CNTS absorber layers for thin film solar cells.

  13. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Henrik Øder; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-01-01

    to test if bedtime dosing (BD) versus morning dosing (MD) of the ACE inhibitor enalapril would affect the 24-hour BP profile in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), CAN and non-dipping. SETTING: Secondary healthcare unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 normoalbuminuric patients with T1D with CAN...... and non-dipping were included, consisting of mixed gender and Caucasian origin. Mean±SD age, glycosylated haemoglobin and diabetes duration were 60±7 years, 7.9±0.7% (62±7 mmol/mol) and 36±11 years. INTERVENTIONS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study, the patients were......OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm are independent cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes and associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal BP and coronary artery disease have been demonstrated. We aimed...

  14. Numerical prediction of a dip effect in the critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khawaja, U.; Benkraouda, M.; Obaidat, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on the properties of the critical current density in systems with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. The density of the pinning sites was kept fixed while the density of vortices, pinning strength, and temperature were varied several times. At zero temperature, we have observed a substantial dip in the critical current density that occurs only at a fixed value of the vortex density and for specific values of pinning strength. We have found that the occurrence of the dip depends mainly on the initial positions of the vortices with respect to the positions of the pinning sites. At the dip, we have found that the interstitial vortices form moving channels leading to the observed drop in the critical current density

  15. Detecting Power Voltage Dips using Tracking Filters - A Comparison against Kalman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU, I.-R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due of its significant economical impact, Power-Quality (PQ analysis is an important domain today. Severe voltage distortions affect the consumers and disturb their activity. They may be caused by short circuits (in this case the voltage drops significantly or by varying loads (with a smaller drop. These two types are the PQ currently issues. Monitoring these phenomena (called dips or sags require powerful techniques. Digital Signal Processing (DSP algorithms are currently employed to fulfill this task. Discrete Wavelet Transforms, (and variants, Kalman filters, and S-Transform are currently proposed by researchers to detect voltage dips. This paper introduces and examines a new tool to detect voltage dips: the so-called tracking filters. Discovered and tested during the cold war, they can estimate a parameter of interest one-step-ahead based on the previously observed values. Two filters are implemented. Their performance is assessed by comparison against the Kalman filter?s results.

  16. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. - Tubular wax on the pine needle surface reflects changes/differences in industrial emissions

  17. Optimization of Factors Affecting Beauveria bassiana Fungus Ability in Control of Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. by Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Heidari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stored product pests are a major problem in the storage of agricultural products that cause damage from harvest until consumption. Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. is one of the most important pests of stored products and beehives. The most common method to control this pest in many countries is use of chemical compounds. However, these compounds have disadvantages such as pesticide residues in wax, the development of resistance in pest and irreversible effects on the environment and humans. The use of insect pathogenic fungi due to its low risk on mammals and natural enemies can be a good alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Response surface methodology (RSM is a statistical technique that is employed to optimize processes that are affected by several variables. This technique uses regression analysis to obtain optimal equations to estimate the values. Using this method, while maintaining the quality in the experiments, the number of those could be reduced. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate response surface methodology to determine the effect of optimum lethal level of concentration of B. bassiana conidia, temperature as well as humidity variables on the mortality of fifth instar larvae of greater wax moth. Materials and Methods: Wax moth-eating insects were raised in plastic containers containing artificial food and old black wax at 30 ± 1 ° C and a relative humidity of 85 ± 1 % and photoperiod of 14:10 h (L: D. Isolation of insect pathogenic fungus B. bassiana was done by using Galleria Bait Method (GBM. For this purpose, after preparation of the fungus suspension from the infected larvae, 1 ml volume of the suspension was transferred to the water-agar 1.2% and then sealed petri dishes incubated at 30 ° C for three days. After identifying the single colony and formation of pure isolates, microscopic slides were prepared and eventually recovered isolates were recognized as B. bassiana. The

  18. Designing maleic anhydride-{alpha}-olifin copolymeric combs as wax crystal growth nucleators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Hemant P. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Kiranbala; Bharambe, D.P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 001 (India); Agrawal, K.S. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Polytechnic, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Nagar, A. [MH ASSET, ONGC, Mumbai (India)

    2010-09-15

    Modification of the wax crystal habit is of great practical interest during transportation and processing of crude oil at low temperature. Various pour point depressant (PPD) additives can facilitate this modification by different mechanisms. Comb shaped polymer additives are known to depress the pour point of crude oil by providing different nucleation sites for the precipitation of wax. This paper describes performance based design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of comb shaped polymeric diesters. Copolymers of maleic anhydride with different unsaturated C{sub 22} esters were synthesized and copolymers then reacted with two unsaturated fatty alcohols. All products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Rheological properties of crude (with and without additive) were studied by Advance Rheometer AR-500. In this study the additive based on oleic acid was evaluated as good PPD and rheology modifier. (author)

  19. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  20. Comparison of ossification of demineralized bone, hydroxyapatite, Gelfoam, and bone wax in cranial defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Ahmed, O F; Neth, D; Reger, S; Zins, J

    1996-09-01

    Demineralized bone allografts in the repair of calvarial defects are compared with other common bone fillers. This study uses a video-digitizing radiographic analysis of calvarial defect ossification to determine calcification of bone defects and its relation to postoperative clinical examination and regional controls. The postoperative clinical results at 3 months demonstrated that bony healing was greatest in bur holes filled with demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite. Radiographic analysis demonstrated calcification of demineralized bone-filled defects compared to bone wax- and Gelfoam-filled regions. Hydroxyapatite granules are radiographically dense, thus not allowing accurate measurement of true bone healing. The results suggest that demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite provide better structural support via bone healing to defined calvarial defects than do Gelfoam and bone wax.

  1. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Wax Mixtures Obtained From Recycling of Patterns Used in Precision Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.

  3. The importance of being Florentine: a journey around the world for wax anatomical Venuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This article reconstructs the 19th century history of events regarding a few female wax anatomical models made in Florence. More or less faithful copies of those housed in Florence's Museum of Physics and Natural History, these models were destined for display in temporary exhibitions. In their travels through Europe and the United States, they transformed the expression "Florentine Venus" into a sort of brand name used to label and offer respectability to pieces of widely varying quality.

  4. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMaadeed, M.A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Labidi, Sami [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Krupa, Igor [QAPCO Polymer Chair, Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Karkri, Mustapha [Université Paris-Est CERTES, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2015-01-20

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  5. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Labidi, Sami; Krupa, Igor; Karkri, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  6. Diagnosis of lymphoma in paraffin wax sections by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Y; Nanba, E; Inui, S; Tanigawa, T; Ichihara, K

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry can be used to diagnose malignant lymphoma. METHODS: Paraffin wax embedded tissue sections from 31 patients with malignant lymphoma were analysed by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry using standard protocols. RESULTS: Nested PCR amplification of 1 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in B cell lymphoma; PCR amplification of 10 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in T cell lymphoma. Twenty seven (87%) samples w...

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  8. Real-time monitoring and measurement of wax deposition in pipelines via non-invasive electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock Sow Mei, Irene; Ismail, Idris; Shafquet, Areeba; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic analysis of the behavior of waxy crude oil in pipelines is important to permit appropriate corrective actions to be taken to remediate the wax deposit layer before pipelines are entirely plugged. In this study, a non-invasive/non-intrusive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system has been applied to provide real-time visualization of the formation of paraffin waxes and to measure the amount of wax fraction from the Malay Basin waxy crude oil sample under the static condition. Analogous expressions to estimate the wax fraction of the waxy crude oil across the temperatures range of 30-50 °C was obtained by using Otsu’s and Kuo’s threshold algorithms. Otsu’s method suggested that the wax fraction can be estimated by the correlation coefficient β =0.0459{{T}3}-5.3535{{T}2}+200.36T-2353.7 while Kuo’s method provides a similar correlation with β =0.0741{{T}3}-8.4915{{T}2}+314.96T-3721.2 . These correlations show good agreements with the results which are obtained from the conventional weighting method. This study suggested that Kuo’s threshold algorithm is more promising when integrated into the ECT system compared to Otsu’s algorithm because the former provides higher accuracy wax fraction measurement results below the wax appearance temperature for waxy crude oil. This study is significant because it serves as a preliminary investigation for the application of ECT in the oil and gas industry for online measurement and detection of wax fraction without causing disturbance to the process flow.

  9. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  10. Diversification of Intermetallic Zn Phases Growth on Steel During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzynkiewicz S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The steel substrate formed as the result of oxy-acetylene cutting (OAB was treated differently - using: softening annealing, grinding and electro-polishing. Investigations were focused on the influence of additional processing on the structure and corrosion resistance of the deposited zinc coating. The hot - dip Zn galvanizing process was conducted in industrial conditions. Parameters were fixed: temperature 457 °C, dipping time 150 s. The coating thickness diversification dependent on the sub-surface steel structure was analysed and compared to the previous results. The correlation between conducted treatment and coatings morphology was determined.

  11. Second dip as a signature of ultrahigh energy proton interactions with cosmic microwave background radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinsky, V; Gazizov, A; Kachelrieb, M

    2006-12-08

    We discuss as a new signature for the interaction of extragalactic ultrahigh energy protons with cosmic microwave background radiation a spectral feature located at E= 6.3 x 10(19) eV in the form of a narrow and shallow dip. It is produced by the interference of e+e(-)-pair and pion production. We show that this dip and, in particular, its position are almost model-independent. Its observation by future ultrahigh energy cosmic ray detectors may give the conclusive confirmation that an observed steepening of the spectrum is caused by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect.

  12. The preparation and characterization of Bi-2212 film on Ag substrate by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yang; Zhao Liang; Li Pei; Qu Timing; Huang Yong; Han Zhenghe

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the processing parameters and resulting critical current densities of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x thick films on Ag substrate. Bi-2212 tapes and wires are prepared by dip-coating method. It is found that parameters during partial melting (maximum process temperature T max and solidification temperature T s ) have strong influences on the transition temperature T c . The 0.5 mm diameter dip-coated wire can carry 4000 A/cm 2 critical current in 77 K, self field. Post-annealing on different temperatures and atmospheres are studied as well to obtain varied T c samples

  13. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  14. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Trimethylamine (fishy odor) adsorption by biomaterials: effect of fatty acids, alkanes, and aromatic compounds in waxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-03-02

    Thirteen plant leaf materials were selected to be applied as dried biomaterial adsorbents for polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) adsorption. Biomaterial adsorbents were efficient in adsorbing gaseous TMA up to 100% of total TMA (100 ppm) within 24 h. Sansevieria trifasciata is the most effective plant leaf material while Plerocarpus indicus was the least effective in TMA adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) was found to be lower potential adsorbent to adsorb TMA when compared to biomaterial adsorbents. As adsorption data, the Langmuir isotherm supported that the gaseous TMA adsorbed monolayer on the adsorbent surface and was followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Wax extracted from plant leaf could also adsorb gaseous TMA up to 69% of total TMA within 24 h. Another 27-63% of TMA was adsorbed by cellulose and lignin that naturally occur in high amounts in plant leaf. Subsequently, the composition appearing in biomaterial wax showed a large quantity of short-chain fatty acids (≤C18) especially octadecanoic acid (C18), and short-chain alkanes (C12-C18) as well as total aromatic components dominated in the wax, which affected TMA adsorption. Hence, it has been demonstrated that plant biomaterial is a superior biosorbent for TMA removal.

  16. Application of carnauba-based wax maintains postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating compositional changes in the quality of 'Ortanique' tangor after coating with the carnauba-based waxes Aruá Tropical® or Star Light®. The storage conditions studied simulated those of local marketing (22 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5% RH. Non-destructive analysis, mass loss, peel color, and sensory evaluation, were performed upon coating and every three days up to the fifteenth day of storage. Destructive analysis, peel moisture content, chlorophyll of the peel, pulp color, juice content, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio, were performed upon coating and every four days up to the sixteenth day of storage. The assay was conducted using an entirely randomized design, with three replications (destructive analyses or ten replications (non-destructive analyses, in a split plot scheme. Wax-coating, especially Aruá Tropical®, maintained fruit freshness by reducing mass loss and peel dehydration and retaining green color. Peel moisture content, chlorophyll content, and juice content had lower rates in the wax coated fruits. Puncture force, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio varied vary little over the course of storage. Sensory evaluation showed that the application of Aruá Tropical keeps 'Ortanique' tangor fresher for 6 days longer for commercialization.

  17. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  18. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  19. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  20. Flow and linear coefficient of thermal expansion of four types of Base Plate waxes compared with ADA standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzavi A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Waxes have a lot of applications in dentistry. Such materials are of thermoplastic type that undergoes deformation in different temperatures. Two important properties of base plate waxes are flow and their coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Recently, different institutions, inside the country, produce dentistry waxes, while they have not been standardized. Consequently, consumers' dissatisfaction are observed. In this research, the two above- mentioned factors were compared between three kinds of Iranian waxes with Cavex that is foreign production, based on test number 24 of ADA. To measure the flow rate in the temperatures of 23, 37 and 45°c, Wilcoxon statistical analysis was used. The results showed that in 23°c, the flow rate of Cavex and Azardent waxes met ADA standards; however, it was not true for two others types. In 37°c, the flow of none of the waxes was standardized and in 45°c their flow was acceptable, moreover, thermal expansion coefficient, for Cavex and Azardent types, was based on ADA standard.

  1. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures.

  2. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  3. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  4. Development of the cuticular wax during growth of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maarseveen, Clare; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to monitor cuticular wax accumulation during leaf development of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Leaves expanded linearly until they were 40-60 d old. Wax coverages of leaves on the third node increased steadily during initial leaf development, from 6.5 microg x cm(-2) on day 22 to 15.3 microg x cm(-2) on day 53, and then levelled off. Triterpenoids dominated the wax mixture throughout leaf development, but decreased from 74 to 40-45% in mature leaves, while very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives increased from 19 to 39-44%. The major VLCFA derivatives were alkanes, accompanied by fatty acids, primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkyl esters. In all compound classes, either C(34) or C(33) homologs predominated during leaf development. Eight different triterpenoids were identified, with glutinol constituting 70% of the fraction, and friedelin (20%) and germanicol (10%) as further major components of the young leaf wax. The glutinol percentage decreased, while the relative amounts of epifriedelanol and glutanol increased during development. Various leaf pairs upwards from the third node showed similar growth patterns and developmental time courses of cuticular wax amounts and composition. Based on these surface chemical analyses, the relative activities of biosynthetic pathways leading to various wax components can be assessed.

  5. Modelling the KIC8462852 light curves: compatibility of the dips and secular dimming with an exocomet interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.; Kennedy, G. M.; Boyajian, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper shows how the dips and secular dimming in the KIC8462852 light curve can originate in circumstellar material distributed around a single elliptical orbit (e.g. exocomets). The expected thermal emission and wavelength dependent dimming is derived for different orbital parameters and geometries, including dust that is optically thick to stellar radiation, and for a size distribution of dust with realistic optical properties. We first consider dust distributed evenly around the orbit, then show how to derive its uneven distribution from the optical light curve and to predict light curves at different wavelengths. The fractional luminosity of an even distribution is approximately the level of dimming times stellar radius divided by distance from the star at transit. Non-detection of dust thermal emission for KIC8462852 thus provides a lower limit on the transit distance to complement the 0.6 au upper limit imposed by 0.4 d dips. Unless the dust distribution is optically thick, the putative 16 per cent century-long secular dimming must have disappeared before the WISE 12 μm measurement in 2010, and subsequent 4.5 μm observations require transits at >0.05 au. However, self-absorption of thermal emission removes these constraints for opaque dust distributions. The passage of dust clumps through pericentre is predicted to cause infrared brightening lasting tens of days and dimming during transit, such that total flux received decreases at wavelengths dimming levels than seen for KIC8462852 are more common in the Galactic population and may be detected in future transit surveys.

  6. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, N.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238 U, 232 Th and 235 U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is

  7. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Natalia; Legarda, Fernando; Herranz, Margarita; Idoeta, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the silicaceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This

  8. Thermal Stress and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Ceramics Stalk Having Protuberance Dipping into Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra; Li, Wenbin; Takase, Yasushi; Ogura, Hiroki; Higashi, Yusuke

    Low pressure die casting is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The low pressure die casting process plays an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. In the low pressure die casting process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal, by means of a pressurized gas, to rise into a ceramic tube having protuberance, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube, called stalk, has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to reduce the risk of fracture that may happen due to the thermal stresses. In this paper, thermo-fluid analysis is performed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficient. The finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the crucible with varying dipping speeds. It is found that the stalk with or without protuberance should be dipped into the crucible slowly to reduce the thermal stress.

  9. Three Least-Squares Minimization Approaches to Interpret Gravity Data Due to Dipping Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, E. M.; Essa, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    We have developed three different least-squares minimization approaches to determine, successively, the depth, dip angle, and amplitude coefficient related to the thickness and density contrast of a buried dipping fault from first moving average residual gravity anomalies. By defining the zero-anomaly distance and the anomaly value at the origin of the moving average residual profile, the problem of depth determination is transformed into a constrained nonlinear gravity inversion. After estimating the depth of the fault, the dip angle is estimated by solving a nonlinear inverse problem. Finally, after estimating the depth and dip angle, the amplitude coefficient is determined using a linear equation. This method can be applied to residuals as well as to measured gravity data because it uses the moving average residual gravity anomalies to estimate the model parameters of the faulted structure. The proposed method was tested on noise-corrupted synthetic and real gravity data. In the case of the synthetic data, good results are obtained when errors are given in the zero-anomaly distance and the anomaly value at the origin, and even when the origin is determined approximately. In the case of practical data (Bouguer anomaly over Gazal fault, south Aswan, Egypt), the fault parameters obtained are in good agreement with the actual ones and with those given in the published literature.

  10. Active and reactive power control schemes for distributed generation systems under voltage dips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    During voltage dips continuous power delivery from distributed generation systems to the grid is desirable for the purpose of grid support. In order to facilitate the control of distributed generation systems adapted to the expected change of grid requirements, generalized power control schemes

  11. Corrosion behaviour of hot dip zinc and zinc-aluminium coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparative investigation of hot dip Zn–25Al alloy, Zn–55Al–Si and Zn coatings on steel was performed with attention to their corrosion performance in seawater. The results of 2-year exposure testing of these at Zhoushan test site are reported here. In tidal and immersion environments, Zn–25Al alloy coating is several ...

  12. Corrosion behaviour of hot dip zinc and zinc–aluminium coatings on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A comparative investigation of hot dip Zn–25Al alloy, Zn–55Al–Si and Zn coatings on steel was performed with attention to their corrosion performance in seawater. The results of 2-year exposure testing of these at Zhoushan test site are reported here. In tidal and immersion environments, Zn–25Al alloy coating is.

  13. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  14. Random Walk Model for the Growth of Monolayer in Dip Pen Nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Ha, S; Jang, J

    2013-01-01

    By using a simple random-walk model, we simulate the growth of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) pattern generated in dip pen nanolithography (DPN). In this model, the SAM pattern grows mainly via the serial pushing of molecules deposited from the tip. We examine various SAM patterns, such as lines, crosses, and letters by changing the tip scan speed.

  15. Migration using a transversely isotropic medium with symmetry normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Sava, P.

    2011-01-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TI (TTI) model. Although this model cannot be represented physically in all situations, for example, in the case of conflicting dips, it handles arbitrary reflector orientations under the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. Using this assumption, we obtain efficient downward continuation algorithms compared to the general TTI ones, by utilizing the reflection features of such a model. Phase-shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity using, for example, the split-step approach. This is possible because, unlike the general TTI case, the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. These features enable a process in which we can extract velocity information by including tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity model in the downward continuation process. We test this model on synthetic data corresponding to a general TTI medium and show its resilience. 2011 Tariq Alkhalifah and Paul Sava.

  16. Cultural differences in ant-dipping tool length between neighbouring chimpanzee communities at Kalinzu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-07-22

    Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities.

  17. Influence of joint dip angle on seismic behaviors of rock foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Li Shucai

    2012-01-01

    The seismic response of rock foundation to seismic loads is an important issue to the stability and safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the fact that the discontinuities like joints existing in the rock mass govern principally the deformation and failure behaviors of the rock mass, the influence of discontinuities on the seismic behaviors of rock mass remains as one of the fundamental problems in the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. In this study, the distinct element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) were adopted to investigate the seismic responses of rock foundation to a real seismic wave, taking into account the effect of joint dip angle on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation. In the DEM simulations, the intact rock has an amplification effect on the amplitudes of seismic waves, while the joints exhibit an attenuation effect on the seismic waves. In the FEM simulations, however, the attenuation effect of joints is not obvious. The dip angle of joints has strong effects on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation, in terms that different dip angles lead to obviously different deformation and horizontal stress in the rock foundation when subjected to seismic load. When the dip angle of joints is around 60deg, the seismic velocity, displacement and stress reach the maximums. Therefore, attentions need to be paid on this factor during the seismic design of nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome and a non-dipping blood pressure pattern in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kargili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and increased cardiovascular disease risk is still a controversial issue. In light of data documenting some common pathways or common end-points, the present study was undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between sleep blood pressure pattern disturbances and polycystic ovarian syndrome in young women. METHOD: The daytime and nighttime ambulatory blood pressures (BPs were determined for each subject, according to the actual waking and sleeping times recorded in their individual diaries, in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The study group comprised 168 women (mean age: 25.7±5.5 diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome, while the control group included 52 age- and BMI-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 26.1±5.4. When nocturnal BP declines very little or not at all, with the BP falling less than 10% during sleep compared with waking values, this pattern is classified as a non-dipping BP pattern. However, the non-dipping pattern of BP changes was significantly more common in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients compared to the control group (p<0.01. The prevalence of a non-dipping BP pattern was 43.4% (73 patients in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients and 3.9% (2 patients in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our cross-sectional study revealed that a non-dipping BP pattern is highly prevalent in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, even if they are young and non-obese.

  19. Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Dejiang; Fei, Lixun; Huang, Yue; Wu, Fang; Sun, Yiling; Shi, Jiayuan; Xiang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

  20. On the absence of multiple dips in diffraction of high energy hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki; Michalec, M.; Pallotta, M.

    1997-07-01

    An unorthodox insight into the structure of the geometrical Chou-Yang model explains the experimentally observed paradox of elastic diffraction of high energy hadrons without multiple dips. It is pointed out that the shadow scattering, away from the forward peak, is governed by small values of the coupling strength

  1. 29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for dipping and coating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The ventilation that you provide to a vapor area must keep the airborne concentration of any substance... Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids; (iii) ACGIH's “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of... Open-Surface Tanks, and NFPA 34-1966, Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible...

  2. Harvest maturity and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 13.5), cut to 1 cm thick slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 d...

  3. Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Closed-form analytical expressions for the displacements and the stresses at any point of a two-phase medium consisting of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space in welded contact with a homogeneous, orthotropic, perfectly elastic half-space due to a dip-slip fault of finite width located at an arbitrary ...

  4. Proposal for defining voltage dip-related responsibility sharing at a point of connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern customers use many electronics devices that are quite sensitive to the quality of power supply. Voltage dip is an important power quality (PQ) issue that can cause damage to various customers' devices and might lead to partial or complete interruption of the operation of an installation.

  5. A dip-slide test for bacteriuria in protein-calorie malnutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple dip-slide test was used to determine the incidence of bacteriuria in children suffering from protein-calorie malnutrition. Bacteriuria was found to be equally common in patients suffering from kwashiorkor and atrophic malnutrition and in a control group with normal nutritional status. The test is inexpensive and has a ...

  6. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  7. Non-dipping blood pressure patterns and arterial stiffness parameters in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Ergulu Esmen, Serpil

    2015-12-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis involving veins and arteries of various sizes. Non-dipping status, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity are important determinants of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated the non-dipping status and arterial stiffness in patients with Behcet's disease. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the vascular parameters of 96 patients with Behcet's disease (53% female) and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The non-dipping status and arterial distensibility were assessed using a Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph, an automatic oscillometric device. In total, 65.6% of 96 patients were systolic non-dippers, and 34.4% exhibited high augmentation indices. Ten percent of the control subjects were systolic non-dippers, and 11.7% exhibited high augmentation indices. Nocturnal decreases in systolic blood pressure correlated with central systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as nocturnal decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, non-dipper patients with Behcet's disease exhibited higher nocturnal cardiac outputs than did dipper patients with Behcet's disease. Augmentation index correlated negatively with C-reactive protein and correlated positively with both 24 h and nocturnal peripheral resistance, as well as 24 h pulse wave velocity. The patients with high augmentation indices exhibited lower creatinine clearance, as well as lower nocturnal cardiac outputs, higher 24 h peripheral resistance and higher 24 h pulse wave velocities. Non-dipping status and arterial stiffness may exacerbate the harmful cardiovascular effects of the other. In addition to conventional risk factors, non-dipping status and arterial stiffness should be examined during the follow-up evaluations of patients with Behcet's disease.

  8. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and evaluation of a heat exchanger that uses paraffin wax and recycled materials as solar energy accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Negrete, Daniela; Mahn, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of paraffin wax was improved with aluminum wool. • Aluminum wool surrounding the cans favored the energy recuperation from the wax. • The heat exchanger accumulated 3000 kJ energy. • The accumulated energy can be easily increased with larger units. • COMSOL simulated adequately the energy removal process from the cans. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Thermal conductivity of the systems was determined by two ways: directly using a thermal conductivimeter, and indirectly based on temperature profiles and on the analytical solution of a cylinder. We designed, built and evaluated a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 48 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 9.5 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in 3 h. The accumulated energy of 3000 kJ, allowed increasing the temperature of 3.5 m 3 /h air flow rate from 20 to 40 °C during a period of 2 h. This application will allow extending the use of solar energy in drying processes or could be used as household calefaction system. The progress of the phase change front in time during the energy discharge period was simulated with COMSOL, whereas the effect of the number of cans and thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax on the air temperature increase was simulated with MATLAB

  10. Discovery of Periodic Dips in the Brightest Hard X-Ray Source of M31 with EXTraS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Martino; Tiengo, Andrea; De Luca, Andrea; Salvetti, David; Saronni, Luca; Sidoli, Lara; Paizis, Adamantia; Salvaterra, Ruben; Belfiore, Andrea; Israel, Gianluca; Haberl, Frank; D’Agostino, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    We performed a search for eclipsing and dipping sources in the archive of the EXTraS project—a systematic characterization of the temporal behavior of XMM-Newton point sources. We discovered dips in the X-ray light curve of 3XMM J004232.1+411314, which has been recently associated with the hard X-ray source dominating the emission of M31. A systematic analysis of XMM-Newton observations revealed 13 dips in 40 observations (total exposure time of ∼0.8 Ms). Among them, four observations show two dips, separated by ∼4.01 hr. Dip depths and durations are variable. The dips occur only during low-luminosity states ({L}0.2{--12}< 1× {10}38 erg s‑1), while the source reaches {L}0.2{--12}∼ 2.8× {10}38 erg s‑1. We propose that this system is a new dipping low-mass X-ray binary in M31 seen at high inclination (60°–80°) the observed dipping periodicity is the orbital period of the system. A blue HST source within the Chandra error circle is the most likely optical counterpart of the accretion disk. The high luminosity of the system makes it the most luminous (not ULX) dipper known to date.

  11. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  12. Effect of emulsifier type and concentration, aqueous phase volume and wax ratio on physical, material and mechanical properties of water in oil lipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, A; Norton, J E; Norton, I T

    2013-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aims of this work were (i) to investigate the effect of emulsifier type (polymer vs. monomer, and saturated vs. unsaturated chain) and concentration on droplet size and (ii) to investigate the effect of wax ratio (carnauba wax, microcrystalline wax, paraffin wax and performalene) and aqueous phase volume on material properties (Young's modulus, point of fracture, elastic modulus and viscous modulus). Emulsion formation was achieved using a high shear mixer. Results showed that the saturated nature of the emulsifier had very little effect on droplet size, neither did the use of an emulsifier with a larger head group (droplet size ~18-25 μm). Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) resulted in emulsions with the smallest droplets (~3-5 μm), as expected from previous studies that show that it produces a thick elastic interface. The results also showed that both Young's modulus and point of fracture increase with increasing percentage of carnauba wax (following a power law dependency of 3), but decrease with increasing percentage of microcrystalline wax, suggesting that the carnauba wax is included in the overall wax network formed by the saturated components, whereas the microcrystalline wax forms irregular crystals that disrupt the overall wax crystal network. Young's modulus, elastic modulus and viscous modulus all decrease with increasing aqueous phase volume in the emulsions, although the slope of the decrease in elastic and viscous moduli is dependent on the addition of solid wax, as a result of strengthening the network. This work suggests the potential use for emulsions in lipstick applications, particularly when PGPR is used as an emulsifier, and with the addition of solid wax, as it increases network strength. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Particulate pollutants are capable to ‘degrade’ epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax ‘degradation’ or ‘erosion’, which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both ‘wax degradation’ and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially ‘degrades’ waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Highlights: • Demonstrated capability of particles to produce ‘wax degradation’. • Dynamics of particles on pine needles, shown by videos. • Salt particles sprayed on pine needles increased minimum epidermal conductance g min . • Results strongly suggest direct link between air pollution and drought tolerance. • Linkage between different types of forest decline is suggested. -- ‘Wax degradation’ on pine needles and increased minimum epidermal conductance (i.e. uncontrollable water loss) were created by particles, suggesting a link between air pollution and tree drought tolerance

  14. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  15. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  16. Non-Invasive Delivery of dsRNA into De-Waxed Tick Eggs by Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Newton; de Abreu, Leonardo Araujo; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert; Braz, Gloria Regina Cardoso; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was shown to be an efficient tool for validation of targets that may become anti-tick vaccine components. Here, we demonstrate the application of this approach in the validation of components of molecular signaling cascades, such as the Protein Kinase B (AKT) / Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) axis during tick embryogenesis. It was shown that heptane and hypochlorite treatment of tick eggs can remove wax, affecting corium integrity and but not embryo development. Evidence of AKT and GSK dsRNA delivery into de-waxed eggs of via electroporation is provided. Primers designed to amplify part of the dsRNA delivered into the electroporated eggs dsRNA confirmed its entry in eggs. In addition, it was shown that electroporation is able to deliver the fluorescent stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). To confirm gene silencing, a second set of primers was designed outside the dsRNA sequence of target gene. In this assay, the suppression of AKT and GSK transcripts (approximately 50% reduction in both genes) was demonstrated in 7-day-old eggs. Interestingly, silencing of GSK in 7-day-old eggs caused 25% reduction in hatching. Additionally, the effect of silencing AKT and GSK on embryo energy metabolism was evaluated. As expected, knockdown of AKT, which down regulates GSK, the suppressor of glycogen synthesis, decreased glycogen content in electroporated eggs. These data demonstrate that electroporation of de-waxed R. microplus eggs could be used for gene silencing in tick embryos, and improve the knowledge about arthropod embryogenesis. PMID:26091260

  17. The Preparation and Performances of Self-Dispersed Nanomicron Emulsified Wax Solid Lubricant Ewax for Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An oil-in-water nanomicron wax emulsion with oil phase content 45 wt% was prepared by using the emulsifying method of surfactant-in-oil. The optimum prepared condition is 85°C, 20 min, and 5 wt% complex emulsifiers. Then the abovementioned nanomicron emulsifying wax was immersed into a special water-soluble polymer in a certain percentage by the semidry technology. At last, a solidified self-dispersed nanomicron emulsified wax named as Ewax, a kind of solid lubricant for water based drilling fluid, was obtained after dried in the special soluble polymer containing emulsifying wax in low temperature. It is shown that the adhesion coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 73.5% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 77.6% when the produced Ewax sample was added to fresh water based drilling fluid at dosage 1.0 wt%. In comparison with other normal similar liquid products, Ewax not only has better performances of lubrication, filtration loss control property, heat resistance, and tolerance to salt and is environmentally friendly, but also can solve the problems of freezing in the winter and poor storage stability of liquid wax emulsion in oilfield applications.

  18. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  19. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchrotron WAXS and XANES studies of silica (SiO2) powders synthesized from Indonesian natural sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchlis, Khairanissa; Fauziyah, Nur Aini; Pratapa, Suminar; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Limpirat, Wanwisa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated polymorphic silica (SiO 2 ) powders using, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), laboratory X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The WAXS and XANES spectra were collected using synchrotron radiation at Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. The silica powders were obtained by processing silica sand from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Purification process of silica sand was done by magnetic separation and immersion with HCl. The purification step was needed to reduce impurity or undesirable non Si elements. Three polymorphs of silica were produced, i.e. amorphous phase (A), quartz (B), and cristobalite (C). WAXS profile for each phase was presented in terms of intensity vs. 2θ prior to analyses. Both XRD (λ CuKα =1.54056 Å) and WAXS (λ=1.09 Å) patttern show that (1) A sample contains no crystallites, (2) B sample is monophasic, contains only quartz, and (3) C sample contains cristobalite and trydimite. XRD quantitative analysis using Rietica gave 98,8 wt% cristobalite, while the associated WAXS data provided 98.7 wt% cristobalite. Si K-edge XANES spectra were measured at energy range 1840 to 1920 eV. Qualitatively, the pre-edge and edge features for all phases are similar, but their main peaks in the post-edge region are different. (paper)

  1. Photon correlation spectroscopic analysis of a natural electret material: Carnauba wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, G. A.; Russi, R.; Pires, A. S. T.; Mesquita, O. N.

    1981-02-01

    For the first time, photon correlation spectroscopy is applied to the study of an electret material. We show that the average self-diffusion parameter of Carnauba wax in liquid phase, from 85 to 170 °C can be written as D=D0+A exp[-ΔE/k(T-T0)], where D0=1.6×10-10 and A=20×10-10 cm2/sec, ΔE=82 cm-1 and T0=68 °C

  2. Evaluating sourcing and fluvial integration of plant wax biomarkers from the Peruvian Andes to Amazonian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.

    2017-12-01

    The carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions (respectively δ13C and δD) of plant wax biomarkers have been widely used to reconstruct past climate and environment. To understand how leaf waxes are sourced within a river catchment, and how their isotopic signature is transferred from source to sink, we study δ13C and δD of C29 n-alkanes and C30 n-alkanoic acids in the Madre de Dios River catchment along the eastern flank of the Peruvian Andes. We sampled soils across a 3.5km elevation transect and find gradients in δ13Cwax (ca. +1.5‰/km) and δDwax (ca. -10 ‰/km) similar to gradients in tree canopy leaves (Feakins et al., 2016 GCA; Wu et al., 2017 GCA). We also collected river suspended sediment samples along the Madre de Dios River and its tributaries, which together drain an area of 75,400 km2 and 6 km of elevation. We utilize soil data and a digital elevation model to construct isoscapes, delineate catchments for each river sampling location, predict river values assuming spatial uniform integration, and compare our predictions with observed values. Although both compounds generally follow isotopic gradients defined by catchment elevations, the dual isotope and compound-class comparison reveals additional processes. For C30 n-alkanoic acid we find an up to 1km lower-than-expected catchment signal, indicating degradation of upland contributions in transit and replacement with lowland inputs. In contrast, mountain-front river locations are susceptible to upland-biases (up to 1km higher sourcing) in C29 n-alkane sourcing, likely due to enhanced erosion and higher leaf wax stock in Andean soil compared to the lowland, and greater persistence of n-alkanes than n-alkanoic acids. For both compounds, the bias is eliminated with several hundred km of river transit across the floodplain. In one location, we identify significant petrogenic contamination of n-alkanes but not n-alkanoic acids. These results indicate the power in combining dual compound classes and

  3. Waxing Poetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project using the technique called "Batik" that incorporated watercolor painting with mixed media to appeal to students in a combined art class. Discusses how the students created their artworks and includes a list of materials and objectives. (CMK)

  4. Paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elborne, W

    1917-06-16

    Powdered, granulated, or finely divided paraffin is obtained by subjecting paraffin to a grinding, crushing, or disintegrating operation in the presence of an alcohol such as ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol (wood spirit), or methylated spirit. The alcohol is afterwards removed by a current of air and is recovered. The product can be used in conjunction with a heating-agent for producing smoke or vapor for use in warfare.

  5. Endothelial perturbation: a link between non-dipping and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Jeppesen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2007-01-01

    -six subjects, stratified to 4 gender-, age-, and duration-matched groups of 19 subjects each, were studied (group A: non-diabetic subjects; group B to D, type 2 diabetic subjects; group B: no retinopathy; group C: minimal background retinopathy; group D: diabetic maculopathy). All subjects underwent a 24-hour......Reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation ("non-dipping") is associated with both micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The relation between endothelial perturbation and diurnal BP variation in diabetic subjects has not previously been studied. Seventy...... to endothelial cell activation as well as with retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This finding suggests a possible mechanism linking non-dipping with microvascular complications in these subjects....

  6. Control of Polychaetes by Dipping Infected Pearl Oyster on Different Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dip treatment on pearl oysters (Pinctada maxima was conducted in different concentrations of saline water to eliminate boring polychaetes. Results shows that polychaetes leave the osyters which treated on saline water at 0 ppt, 45 ppt, and 60 ppt as long as 15 minutes each. It also shows that the oysters got high survival rate 7 days after the treatment. Key words : Polychaetes, pearl oyster, dipping, salinity   ABSTRAK Pengendalian polikaeta pengebor dengan menggunakan berbagai konsentrasi larutan garam telah dilakukan pada tiram mutiara (Pinctada maxima. Berdasarkan jumlah polikaeta yang keluar, hasil percobaan ini menunjukkan bahwa perendaman dengan konsentrasi garam 0 ppt. 45 ppt, dan 60 ppt selama 15 menit lebih efektif dibandingkan pada konsentrasi 15 dan 30 ppt. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup tiram mutiara yang diamati 7 hari setelah perendaman dalam larutan garam mencapai 100%. Kata kunci : Polikaeta. tiram mutiara, perendaman. salinitas

  7. Performance of Doubly-Fed Wind Power Generators During Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, N.; Chen, Zhe; Beltran, H.

    The growing of wind generation in Spain has forced its Transmission System Operator (TSO) to release new requirements that establish the amount of reactive power that a wind turbine has to supply to the grid during a voltage dip. Wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG......) can regulate easily the reactive power generated in steady state. However, difficulties appear when reactive power has to be generated during voltage dips. Simulations have been carried out in order to check whether DFIG wind turbines can fulfill the reactive power requirements. Protection system...... commonly employed with DFIG in order to achieve ride-through capabilities including crowbar plays an important role to meet the requirements together with grid-side converter. Resistance associated with the crowbar and its connection duration are crucial at the beginning of the fault. Grid-side converter...

  8. Numerical analysis of the effects induced by normal faults and dip angles on rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lishuai; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Peipeng; Zheng, Pengqiang; Xu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    The study of mining effects under the influences of a normal fault and its dip angle is significant for the prediction and prevention of rock bursts. Based on the geological conditions of panel 2301N in a coalmine, the evolution laws of the strata behaviors of the working face affected by a fault and the instability of the fault induced by mining operations with the working face of the footwall and hanging wall advancing towards a normal fault are studied using UDEC numerical simulation. The mechanism that induces rock burst is revealed, and the influence characteristics of the fault dip angle are analyzed. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by conducting a case study regarding the microseismic events. The results of this study serve as a reference for the prediction of rock bursts and their classification into hazardous areas under similar conditions.

  9. Pengaruh teat dipping menggunakan dekok daun kersen (Muntingia calabura L. terhadap tingkat kejadian mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Kurniawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was carried out in Sidomulyo Village, Jabung, Malang Regen-cy from April 6th to May 6th, 2013. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influ-ence of Kersen leaf (Muntingia calabura L extract to reduce mastitis incidents. The materials used in this study were 15 Friesian Holstein crossbreed lactating dairy cows, chemical antiseptic, and Kersen leaf extract. The study used experiment Randomized Block Design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The result shows that Kersen leaf extract was significantly (p>0.05 able to reduce mastitis incidents particularly 20% of Kersen leaf extract composition. The study suggests that Kersen leaf extract can be used as an effective substance in dipping solution for dairy cows Mastitis control program. Keywords: Kersen leaf extract, mastitis, teat dipping, dairy cows

  10. THE MANUFACUTE OF GLOVES USING RVNRL: PARAMETERS OF the COAGULANT DIPPING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D. CHIRINOS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical gloves were manufactured using the RVNRL process. A fractional factorial design at two levels showed that five parameters of the coagulant dipping process which were studied independent. Coagulant concentration and dwell time in the radiovulcanized latex presented major main effects while the temperature of the former before dipping into the radiovulcanized latex and the flow time of the radiovulcanized latex on the former surface presented opposite main effects. The withdrawal rate of the former from the radiovulcanized latex did not change glove thickness. The mathematical correlation between the estimates of thickness and the significant main effects of coded variables was = 0.212 + 0.025x1 + 0.019x2. This optimized equation allowed reproduction of a surgical glove thickness in the range of 0.157 to 0.291mm, which is considered acceptable by international standard specification.

  11. Physics properties of TiO_2 films produced by dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teloeken, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Tabarelli, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) as a photocatalyst to produce hydrogen has been of great interest because of their chemical stability, low cost and non-toxicity. TiO_2 occurs in three different crystal forms: rutile, anatase and brokita. Among these, the anatase phase generally exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior, while the rutile phase is the most stable. Among the various techniques of deposition, dip-coating technique produces films with good photocatalytic properties, using simple and inexpensive equipment. In this work TiO_2 films were obtained by dip-coating. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, contact angle measurements and photocurrent. The microstructure and physical properties were evaluated in relation of the temperature and the addition of an additive. (author)

  12. Large area nano-patterning /writing on gold substrate using dip - pen nanolithography (DPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Vishwakarma, Amit; Agarwal, Pankaj B.; Pesala, Bala; Agarwal, Ajay

    2014-10-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN) is utilized to pattern large area (50μmX50μm) gold substrate for application in fabricating Nano-gratings. For Nano-writing 16-MHA ink coated AFM tip was prepared using double dipping procedure. Gold substrate is fabricated on thermally grown SiO2 substrate by depositing ˜5 nm titanium layer followed by ˜30nm gold using DC pulse sputtering. The gratings were designed using period of 800nm and 25% duty cycle. Acquired AFM images indicate that as the AFM tip proceeds for nano-writing, line width decreases from 190nm to 100nm. This occurs probably due to depreciation of 16-MHA molecules in AFM tip as writing proceeds.

  13. Powdering of Hot-dip Galvannealed steel using Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Jang, Y. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, S. I.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hot-dip galvannealed steel has been increased due to it high corrosion resistance, paintability, and formability in automotive industry. Coating of Hot-dip galvannealed steel consists of various Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds. Since the coating is hard and therefore it is very brittle, the surface of steel sheet is easy to be ruptured during second manufacturing processing. This is called as powdering. Hence, various research have been carried out to prohibit powdering for improving the quality of GA steel during second manufacturing processing. This paper performed finite element analysis to evaluate local powdering and compared FEA results with V-bending test. The effects of punch radius and coating strength on the powdering was examined

  14. Filmes de titânio-silício preparados por "spin" e "dip-coating"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Eduardo J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the preparation of luminescent materials, consisting of Eu3+ ions entrapped in a titanium matrix, in the forma of a thin film, using the sol-gel process, are described. The films were obtained from sols prepared with TEOS and TEOT, in the presence of acetylacetone as the hidrolysis-retarding agent, using the dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The influence of these techniques on the films based on titanium and silicon are presented. The Eu3+ was used as a luminescent probe. The films have been characterized by luminescence, reflection and transmittance. The thickness of the films could be related to the preparation procedure. Transparent thin films have been prepared by dip-coating technique.

  15. Steep-dip seismic imaging of the shallow San Andreas fault near Parkfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J A; Catchings, R D; St Clair, K C; Rymer, M J; Okaya, D A; Carney, B J

    2001-11-16

    Seismic reflection and refraction images illuminate the San Andreas Fault to a depth of 1 kilometer. The prestack depth-migrated reflection image contains near-vertical reflections aligned with the active fault trace. The fault is vertical in the upper 0.5 kilometer, then dips about 70 degrees to the southwest to at least 1 kilometer subsurface. This dip reconciles the difference between the computed locations of earthquakes and the surface fault trace. The seismic velocity cross section shows strong lateral variations. Relatively low velocity (10 to 30%), high electrical conductivity, and low density indicate a 1-kilometer-wide vertical wedge of porous sediment or fractured rock immediately southwest of the active fault trace.

  16. Titanium-silicon films prepared by spin and dip-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for the preparation of luminescent materials, consisting of Eu 3+ ions entrapped in a titanium matrix, in the form of a thin film, using the sol-gel process, are described. The films were obtained from sols prepared with TEOS and TEOT, in the presence of acetylacetone as the hydrolysis-retarding agent, using the dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The influence of these techniques on the films based on titanium and silicon are presented. The Eu 3+ was used as a luminescent probe. The films have been characterized by luminescence, reflection and transmittance. The thickness of the films could be related to the preparation procedure. Transparent thin films have been prepared by dip-coating technique. (author)

  17. A new design of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous voltage dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurusu, T; Ono, M; Ogata, H; Tosaka, T; Senda, I; Nomura, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous dips and some experimental results. The technical key point of this work is the design of a NbTi coil composed of a monolith NbTi/Cu wire for DC application. In order to cover the disadvantages of the monolith wire, some solutions have been proposed and tested using a fullscale test coil. Experimental results show the validity of the design concept of the SMES coil

  18. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  19. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo

    2016-10-31

    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  20. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  1. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2012-01-01

    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  2. Water Activated Graphene Oxide Transfer Using Wax Printed Membranes for Fast Patterning of a Touch Sensitive Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Pires, Luis; Mayorga-Martínez, Carmen C; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Montón, Helena; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-26

    We demonstrate a graphene oxide printing technology using wax printed membranes for the fast patterning and water activation transfer using pressure based mechanisms. The wax printed membranes have 50 μm resolution, longtime stability and infinite shaping capability. The use of these membranes complemented with the vacuum filtration of graphene oxide provides the control over the thickness. Our demonstration provides a solvent free methodology for printing graphene oxide devices in all shapes and all substrates using the roll-to-roll automatized mechanism present in the wax printing machine. Graphene oxide was transferred over a wide variety of substrates as textile or PET in between others. Finally, we developed a touch switch sensing device integrated in a LED electronic circuit.

  3. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Goukh, A. A.; Shattir, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  4. Two bifunctional enzymes from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum: biochemical characterization of wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity catalyzing wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Mao, Zejing; Luo, Ling; Wan, Xia; Huang, Fenghong; Gong, Yangmin

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT). This bifunctional WS/DGAT enzyme is also a key enzyme in biotechnological production of liquid WE via engineering of plants and microorganisms. To date, knowledge about this class of biologically and biotechnologically important enzymes is mainly from biochemical characterization of WS/DGATs from Arabidopsis, jojoba and some bacteria that can synthesize both TAGs and WEs intracellularly, whereas little is known about WS/DGATs from eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two bifunctional WS/DGAT enzymes (designated TrWSD4 and TrWSD5) from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum . Both TrWSD4 and TrWSD5 comprise a WS-like acyl-CoA acyltransferase domain and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) have substantial WS and lower DGAT activity. They exhibit WS activity towards various-chain-length saturated and polyunsaturated acyl-CoAs and fatty alcohols ranging from C 10 to C 18 . TrWSD4 displays WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.14 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 1.46 × 10 5  M -1  s -1 for lauroyl-CoA (C 12:0 ) in the presence of 100 μM hexadecanol, while TrWSD5 exhibits WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.96 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 9.83 × 10 4  M -1  s -1 for decanoyl-CoA (C 10:0 ) under the same reaction condition. Both WS/DGAT enzymes have the highest WS activity at 37 and 47

  5. The Association of Pediatric Obesity With Nocturnal Non-Dipping on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macumber, Ian R; Weiss, Noel S; Halbach, Susan M; Hanevold, Coral D; Flynn, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been linked with abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) in adults, which in turn is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. There are few data regarding abnormal dipping status in the obese pediatric population. The goal of this study was to further describe the relationship between obesity and non-dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a database of patients aged 5-21 years who had undergone 24-hour ABPM at Seattle Children's Hospital from January 2008 through May 2014. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI 15th-85th percentile) and obese (BMI >95th percentile) groups. Compared to lean subjects (n = 161), obese subjects (n = 247) had a prevalence ratio (PR) for non-dipping of 2.15, adjusted for race (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-3.42). Increasing severity of obesity was not further associated with nocturnal non-dipping. Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (PR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.71-1.44). These results suggest that in children, just as in adults, obesity is related to a relatively decreased dipping in nocturnal BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-08

    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  7. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne van Rooijen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information. Results show that across adolescence, there are improvements in emotion recognition from the eyes and in empathizing abilities. These improvements did not show a dip, but are more plateau-like. The gaze cueing effect did not change over adolescence. We only observed sex differences in empathizing abilities, with girls showing higher scores than boys. Based on these results it appears that gonadal hormones are not exerting a unified influence on higher levels of social information processing. Further research should also explore changes in (visual information processing around puberty onset to find a more fitted explanation for changes in social behavior across adolescence.

  8. Electrochemical behaviour of silica basic hybrid coatings deposited on stainless steel by dipping and EPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Y.; Duran, A.; Damborenea, J.J.; Conde, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterisation of the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel (AISI 304) substrates coated by dipping and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from a sol-gel basic sol. Particulate silica sols (labelled NaSi) were prepared by basic catalysis from ethyltriethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and sodium hydroxide. Coatings between 2 and 10 μm were prepared by using concentrated and diluted sols by dipping and EPD process and the corrosion behaviour of the coated substrates were studied through potentiodynamic and impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS). Potentiodynamic studies of coatings produced by dipping reveal a strong dependence of the protective properties with the concentration of the sol. This behaviour was confirmed by EIS showing that only the coatings obtained from concentrated sol present enough protective properties. On the contrary, EPD coatings prepared from diluted NaSi sol showed an excellent corrosion resistance, maintaining a pure capacitive behaviour for long periods of immersion. EPD deposition is thus proposed as a good alternative method for obtaining thicker and denser coatings with good protective properties from dilute and stable sols

  9. Impact of the Converter Control Strategies on the Drive Train of Wind Turbine during Voltage Dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of converter control strategies on the drive train of wind turbines during voltage dips is investigated in this paper using a full electromechanical model. Aerodynamics and tower vibration are taken into consideration by means of a simulation program, named FAST. Detailed gearbox and electrical subsystems are represented in MATLAB. The dynamic response of electromagnetic torque and its impact on the mechanical variables are the concern in this paper and the response of electrical variables is less discussed. From the mechanical aspects, the effect of rising power recovery speed and unsymmetrical voltage dips are analyzed on the basis of the dynamic response of the high-speed shaft (HSS. A comparison of the impact on the drive train is made for two converter control strategies during small voltage dips. Through the analysis of torque, speed and tower vibration, the results indicate that both power recovery speed and the sudden torque sag have a significant impact on drive trains, and the effects depend on the different control strategies. Moreover, resonance might be excited on the drive train by an unbalanced voltage.

  10. Influence of hot water dip and gamma irradiation on postharvest fungal decay of Galia melons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai-Golan, R.; Padova, R.; Ross, I.; Lapidot, M.; Copel, A.; Davidson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dipping Galia melons in hot water at 52 deg C for 5 min or at 55 deg for 2 min resulted in 12-15% decay (caused by Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Trichothecium roseum) during prolonged storage (12 d at 6 deg plus 3 d at 18 deg ) compared with 75% decay in untreated fruit or 60% decay in cold-water-dipped fruit. Irradiation at 0.5 or 1 kGy had no significant effect on decay development. However, combination of heat treatment with a 0.5 kGy dose prevented fungal growth, resulting in 5% decay during storage. Combinations of heating with 1 kGy irradiation gave no improvement in anti-fungal effect over treatment with 0.5 kGy and sometimes resulted in a decreased suppressive effect. Reducing the duration of dipping at 55 deg from 2 to 0.5 min, applied alone or in combination with irradiation, considerably reduced the anti-fungal effect of the treatment. The effective combined treatment resulted in 12-15% of slight peel damage, but all the fruits were regarded as marketable. No differences in fruit firmness were recorded among the treatments

  11. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1981-12-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

  12. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu; Lu, Jintang; Che, Chunshan; Kong, Gang; Xu, Qiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb 3Zn 4, The precipitated β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb 3Zn 4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  13. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shu, E-mail: shu.peng@mail.scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu Jintang; Che Chunshan; Kong Gang; Xu Qiaoyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4}, The precipitated {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  14. Viscous dipping, application to the capture of fluids in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechantre, Amandine; Michez, Denis; Damman, Pascal

    Some insects, birds and mammals use flower nectar as their energy resources. For this purpose, they developed specific skills to ingest viscous fluids. Depending on the sugar content, i.e., the viscosity, different strategies are observed in vivo. Indeed, butterflies use simple suction for low viscosity nectars; hummingbirds have a tongue made from two thin flexible sheets that bend to form a tube when immersed in a fluid; other animals exhibit in contrast complex papillary structures. We focus on this last method generally used for very viscous nectars. More specifically, bees and bats possess a tongue decorated with microstructures that, according to biologists, would be optimized for fluid capture by viscous dipping. In this talk, we will discuss this assumption by comparing physical models of viscous dipping to in vivo measurements. To mimic the tongue morphology, we used various rod shapes obtained by 3D printing. The influence of the type and size of lateral microstructures was then investigated and used to build a global framework describing viscous dipping for structured rods/tongues.

  15. Biochemical characterization and substrate specificity of jojoba fatty acyl-CoA reductase and jojoba wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Wax esters are used in industry for production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The only natural source of wax esters is jojoba oil. A much wider variety of industrial wax esters-containing oils can be generated through genetic engineering. Biotechnological production of tailor-made wax esters requires, however, a detailed substrate specificity of fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) and wax synthases (WS), the two enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis. In this study we have successfully characterized the substrate specificity of jojoba FAR and jojoba WS. The genes encoding both enzymes were expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activity of tested enzymes was confirmed by in vivo studies and in vitro assays using microsomal preparations from transgenic yeast. Jojoba FAR exhibited the highest in vitro activity toward 18:0-CoA followed by 20:1-CoA and 22:1-CoA. The activity toward other 11 tested acyl-CoAs was low or undetectable as with 18:2-CoA and 18:3-CoA. In assays characterizing jojoba WS combinations of 17 fatty alcohols with 14 acyl-CoAs were tested. The enzyme displayed the highest activity toward 14:0-CoA and 16:0-CoA in combination with C16-C20 alcohols as well as toward C18 acyl-CoAs in combination with C12-C16 alcohols. 20:1-CoA was efficiently utilized in combination with most of the tested alcohols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  17. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  18. The Biology and Control of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwadha, Charles A; Ong'amo, George O; Ndegwa, Paul N; Raina, Suresh K; Fombong, Ayuka T

    2017-06-09

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus , is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, and Apis cerana Fabricius . The greater wax moth larvae burrow into the edge of unsealed cells with pollen, bee brood, and honey through to the midrib of honeybee comb. Burrowing larvae leave behind masses of webs which causes galleriasis and later absconding of colonies. The damage caused by G. mellonella larvae is severe in tropical and sub-tropical regions, and is believed to be one of the contributing factors to the decline in both feral and wild honeybee populations. Previously, the pest was considered a nuisance in honeybee colonies, therefore, most studies have focused on the pest as a model for in vivo studies of toxicology and pathogenicity. It is currently widespread, especially in Africa, and the potential of transmitting honeybee viruses has raised legitimate concern, thus, there is need for more studies to find sustainable integrated management strategies. However, our knowledge of this pest is limited. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the biology, distribution, economic damage, and management options. In addition, we provide prospects that need consideration for better understanding and management of the pest.

  19. Applicability of low-melting-point microcrystalline wax to develop temperature-sensitive formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-10-30

    Low-melting-point substances are widely used to develop temperature-sensitive formulations. In this study, we focused on microcrystalline wax (MCW) as a low-melting-point substance. We evaluated the drug release behavior of wax matrix (WM) particles using various MCW under various temperature conditions. WM particles containing acetaminophen were prepared using a spray congealing technique. In the dissolution test at 37°C, WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs whose melting was starting at approx. 40°C (Hi-Mic-1045 or 1070) released the drug initially followed by the release of only a small amount. On the other hand, in the dissolution test at 20 and 25°C for WM particles containing Hi-Mic-1045 and at 20, 25, and 30°C for that containing Hi-Mic-1070, both WM particles showed faster drug release than at 37°C. The characteristic drug release suppression of WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs at 37°C was thought attributable to MCW melting, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Taken together, low-melting-point MCWs may be applicable to develop implantable temperature-sensitive formulations that drug release is accelerated by cooling at administered site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.