WorldWideScience

Sample records for single wavelength double

  1. Single-photon generator for optical telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, T; Sakuma, Y; Hirose, S; Takemoto, K; Yokoyama, N; Miyazawa, T; Takatsu, M; Arakawa, Y

    2006-01-01

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulses from a single InAs/InP quantum dot in telecommunication bands (1.3-1.55 μm: higher transmittance through an optical fiber). First we prepared InAs quantum dots on InP (0 0 1) substrates in a low-pressure MOCVD by using a so-called InP 'double-cap' procedure. The quantum dots have well-controlled photo emission wavelength in the telecommunication bands. We also developed a single-photon emitter in which quantum dots were embedded. Numerical simulation designed the emitter to realize efficient injection of the emitted photons into a single-mode optical fiber. Using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss technique has proved that the photons through the fiber were single photons

  2. Tunable dual-wavelength actively Q-switched Er/Yb double-clad fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Sánchez, M; Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Kuzin, E A; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; González-García, A; Maya-Ordoñez, F; Pottiez, O; Flores-Rosas, A

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a dual-wavelength tunable actively Q-switched fiber laser using 3 m of Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped fiber as the gain medium. For wavelength tuning we used a tunable Hi-Bi FBG having two reflection wavelengths separated by 0.4 nm. The laser emits a dual-wavelength signal that is tunable in a range of 11.8 nm. Laser operation can be switched between single and double wavelength emission. The laser operates at repetition rates from 30 to 110 kHz with pulse durations of 280 ns and pulse energies near 0.5 μJ. (letter)

  3. Single- and double energy N{sup +} ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten–tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N{sup +} ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N{sup +} ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  4. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  5. Microscopic single-crystal refractometry as a function of wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The refractive indices of crystal fragments 50--200 μm in size can be measured for light wavelengths between 365 and 1100 nm with a spindle-stage refractometer. Established methods from optical crystallograpy are used to orient a crystal on the microscope spindle stage and then to match its refractive index to an immersion fluid. The refractive index of the fluid for the wavelength of light and matching temperature is determined by comparison of a reference crystal on a second spindle axis with the fluid under the match conditions. Investigations of new nonlinear-optical crystals admirably demonstrate the advantages of measuring the refractive index to ± 0.0004 in small single crystals

  6. Single Photon Double Ionization of Atomic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Madhushani; Gorczyca, Thomas; Ballance, Connor; Stolte, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Single photon double ionization cross sections are calculated using an R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method which was recently applied by Gorczyca et al. for the double photoionization of helium. With the convergence of these theoretical calculations for the simple case of helium, we extend this methodology to consider the more complex case of oxygen double photoionization. We compare our calculated results with recent measurements at the Advanced Light Source, as well as earlier experimental measurements. Our RMPS results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental measurements, but there exist outstanding discrepancies to be addressed. This project is supported by NASA APRA award NNX17AD41G.

  7. Tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex generation in fiber and its application in frequency-doubled vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Wei, Keyan; Wang, Heng; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Huang, Ligang; Mei, Ting; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-01-01

    We present a method for tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex pulse generation by using an acoustically-induced fiber grating (AIFG). The AIFG-driven mode conversion characteristic was activated via a shear-mode piezoelectric transducer that excels in excitation efficiency of acoustic flexural wave and mechanical stability. The linearly-polarized ±1-order picosecond vortex pulse was experimentally generated via AIFG with a uniform coupling efficiency of ∼98.4% from the fundamental mode to the ±1-order vortex mode within the wavelength range 1540 nm ∼ 1560 nm. The topological charge and the linearly-polarized characteristic of the picosecond vortex pulse were verified by examination of the off-axial interference and the polarization angle-dependent intensity, respectively. Furthermore, the picosecond vortex pulse with wavelength tunability was input to a nonlinear BBO crystal to generate a frequency-doubled ±2-order vortex in the wavelength range 770 nm ∼ 780 nm. This technology provides a convenient apparatus for generating a picosecond vortex pulse and the frequency-doubled vortex with wavelength tunability.

  8. Doubly Resonant Photonic Antenna for Single Infrared Quantum Dot Imaging at Telecommunication Wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Lefier, Yannick; Suarez, Miguel Angel; Mivelle, Mathieu; Salut, Roland; Merolla, Jean-Marc; Grosjean, Thierry

    2017-04-12

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have drawn strong interest in the past for their high prospects in scientific, medical, and industrial applications. However, the full characterization of these quantum emitters is currently restricted to the visible wavelengths, and it remains a key challenge to optically probe single CQDs operating in the infrared spectral domain, which is targeted by a growing number of applications. Here, we report the first experimental detection and imaging at room temperature of single infrared CQDs operating at telecommunication wavelengths. Imaging was done with a doubly resonant bowtie nanoaperture antenna (BNA) written at the end of a fiber nanoprobe, whose resonances spectrally fit the CQD absorption and emission wavelengths. Direct near-field characterization of PbS CQDs reveal individual nanocrystals with a spatial resolution of 75 nm (λ/20) together with their intrinsic 2D dipolar free-space emission properties and exciton dynamics (blinking phenomenon). Because the doubly resonant BNA is strongly transmissive at both the CQD absorption and the emission wavelengths, we are able to perform all-fiber nanoimaging with a standard 20% efficiency InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD). The detection efficiency is predicted to be 3000 fold larger than with a conventional circular aperture tip of the same transmission area. Double resonance BNA fiber probes thus offer the possibility of exploring extreme light-matter interaction in low band gap CQDs with current plug-and-play detection techniques, opening up new avenues in the fields of infrared light-emitting devices, photodetectors, telecommunications, bioimaging, and quantum information technology.

  9. Double wavelength differential absorption as a technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger, Vladimir V.; Zybin, Alexander V.; Niemax, Kay; Kuritsyn, Yuri A.; Bolshov, Mikhail A.

    2005-08-01

    The double-wavelength differential molecular absorption technique with diode lasers is proposed for sensitive detection of functional status of breast tissues. The method is based on the measurement of the transmitted intensity differences of the two beams of diode lasers tuned to selected wavelengths within a broad absorption band of a human breast tissue within 700 - 800 nm spectral range. The strategy for the optimum selection of the diode laser wavelengths and initial adjustment of the detection scheme is developed. The method is demonstrated by the detection of the relative concentrations of two dyes, the optical properties of which are similar to those of a mixture of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. The results of the first clinical tests of the proposed technique are briefly described.

  10. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  11. Construction of a single/multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz by use of wavelength conversion in a high-nonlinearity DSF-NOLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Yujun, Qian; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber.......A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber....

  12. Double-bootstrap methods that use a single double-bootstrap simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jinyuan; Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We show that, when the double bootstrap is used to improve performance of bootstrap methods for bias correction, techniques based on using a single double-bootstrap sample for each single-bootstrap sample can be particularly effective. In particular, they produce third-order accuracy for much less computational expense than is required by conventional double-bootstrap methods. However, this improved level of performance is not available for the single double-bootstrap methods that have been s...

  13. Single-mask double-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Torres, George; Gupta, Puneet

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes shift-trim double patterning lithography (ST-DPL), a cost-effective method for achieving 2× pitchrelaxation with a single photomask (especially at polysilicon layer). The mask is re-used for the second exposure by applying a translational mask-shift. Extra printed features are then removed using a non-critical trim exposure. The viability of ST-DPL is demonstrated. The proposed method has many advantages with virtually no area overhead (DPL, (2) reduces overlay errors between the two patterns and can virtually eliminate it in some process implementations, (3) alleviates the bimodal problem in doublepatterning, and (4) enhances throughput of first-rate scanners. We implement a small 45nm standard-cell library and small benchmark designs with ST-DPL to illustrate its viability.

  14. A segmented scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, J.; Fessler, H.; Freund, P.; Gebauer, H. J.; Polakos, P.; Pretzl, K. P.; Schouten, T.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.

    1984-09-01

    The construction and performance of a prototype scintillator lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout is described. The calorimeter is divided into 4 individual cells, each consisting of 44 layers of 3 mm lead plus 1 cm thick scintillator. The edges of each scintillator plate are covered by acrylic bars doped with a wavelength shifting material. The light produced in each scintillator plate is first converted in these bars and then converted a second time in a set of acrylic rods, which run longitudinally through the calorimeter along the corners of each calorimeter cell. A photomultiplier is attached to each of these rods at the back end of the calorimeter. The energy resolution obtained with incident electrons in the energy range of 2-30 GeV is σ/ E = 0.12/√ E. The uniformity of response across the front face of each cell was measured. Showers within each cell can be localised with an accuracy of better than σ = 7 mm.

  15. A segmented scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fent, J.; Fessler, H.; Freund, P.; Gebauer, H.J.; Polakos, P.; Pretzl, K.P.; Schouten, T.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.

    1982-11-01

    The construction and performance of a prototype scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout is described. The calorimeter is divided into 4 individual cells each consisting of 44 layers of 3 mm lead plus 1 cm thick scintillator. The edges of each scintillator plate are covered by acrylic bars doped with a wavelength shifting material. The light produced in each scintillator plate is first converted in these bars, then converted a second time in a set of acrylic rods which run longitudinally through the calorimeter along the corners of each calorimeter cell. A photomultiplier is attached to each of these rods at the back end of the calorimeter. The energy resolution obtained with incident electrons in the energy range of 2-30 GeV is sigma/E = 0.12/√E. The uniformity of response across the front face of each cell was measured. Showers within each cell can be localised with an accuracy of better than sigma = 7 mm. (orig.)

  16. Narrow band wavelength selective filter using grating assisted single ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhathan, P., E-mail: PPrabhathan@ntu.edu.sg; Murukeshan, V. M. [Centre for Optical and Laser Engineering (COLE), School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15

    This paper illustrates a filter configuration which uses a single ring resonator of larger radius connected to a grating resonator at its drop port to achieve single wavelength selectivity and switching property with spectral features suitable for on-chip wavelength selection applications. The proposed configuration is expected to find applications in silicon photonics devices such as, on-chip external cavity lasers and multi analytic label-free biosensors. The grating resonator has been designed for a high Q-factor, high transmittivity, and minimum loss so that the wavelength selectivity of the device is improved. The proof-of-concept device has been demonstrated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform through electron beam lithography and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. The transmission spectrum shows narrow band single wavelength selection and switching property with a high Free Spectral Range (FSR) ∼60 nm and side band rejection ratio >15 dB.

  17. On Spectral Invariance of Single Scattering Albedo for Weakly Absorbing Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The single scattering albedo omega (sub 0 lambda) in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the total extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength A and droplet size r. In this presentation we will show that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio omega (sub 0 lambda)(r). The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo omega (sub 0 lambda) via one known spectrum omega (sub 0 lambda)(r(sub o)). We will provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. In addition to water droplets, similar linear relationships were found for the single scattering albedo of non-spherical ice crystals. The single scattering albedo $\\omega _ {0\\lambda }$ in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the total extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, and thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength $\\lambda $ and droplet size $r$. We show that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio $\\omega _ {0\\lambda } (r)$/$\\omega _ {0\\lambda } (r_{0})$ of two single scattering albedo spectra for two different droplet sizes is a linear function of $\\omega _{0\\lambda }(r)$. The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo $\\omega_{0\\lambda }(r)$ via one known spectrum $\\omega_{0\\lambda }(r_{0})$. We provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. Similar linear relationships characterize the single scattering albedo of non-spherical ice crystals.

  18. Efficient 525 nm laser generation in single or double resonant cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shilong; Han, Zhenhai; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yinhai; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Shi, Baosen

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a study into highly efficient sum frequency generation from 792 and 1556 nm wavelength light to 525 nm wavelength light using either a single or double resonant ring cavity based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). By optimizing the cavity's parameters, the maximum power achieved for the resultant 525 nm laser was 263 and 373 mW for the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 8 and 77% for converting 1556 nm photons to 525 nm photons with the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The measured intra-cavity single pass conversion efficiency for both configurations was about 5%. The performances of the sum frequency generation in these two configurations was studied and compared in detail. This work will provide guidelines for optimizing the generation of sum frequency generated laser light for a variety of configurations. The high conversion efficiency achieved in this work will help pave the way for frequency up-conversion of non-classical quantum states, such as the squeezed vacuum and single photon states. The proposed green laser source will be used in our future experiments, which includes a plan to generate two-color entangled photon pairs and achieve the frequency down-conversion of single photons carrying orbital angular momentum.

  19. Optical transmission through a polarization preserving single mode optical fiber at two Ar(+) laser wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of two Ar(+) laser wavelengths through a twenty meter Panda type Polarization Preserving Single Mode Optical Fiber (PPSMOF) were measured. The measurements were done with both single and multi-longitudinal mode radiation. In the single longitudinal mode case, a degrading Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) is observed as a backward scattering loss. By choosing an optimum coupling system and manipulating the input polarization, the threshold of the SBS onset can be raised and the transmission efficiency can be increased.

  20. Reproductive performance of single and double artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de la recherche était de contribuer à l'amélioration de la performance reproductive des porcs en Ouganda, en déterminant la qualité du sperme de verrats communautaires tel qu'affectée par les traits des verrats et en comparant les performances des inséminations simple et double. Les éjaculats (n = 36) de verrats ...

  1. Single- and double-charge exchange at low pion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of pion single- and double-charge exchange reactions at incident energies of 25 to 65 MeV leading to isobaric analog states, and in the case of double-charge exchange leading to the ground state of the residual nucleus. The crucial role of the higher nuclear transparency at low pion energies for the analysis of the data in terms of single and double scattering is demonstrated. The large effects on double-charge exchange produced by the spatial correlations in nuclear wave functions are evident. The data on 1f 7/2 nuclei at 35 MeV are used to establish the general validity of a shell-model-based two-amplitude model for these transitions. Recent measurements of the energy dependence between 25 and 65 MeV of double-charge exchange cross sections at forward angles are presented and discussed. 33 refs., 19 figs

  2. Speckle noise reduction in single-shot holographic two-wavelength contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agour, Mostafa; Klattenhoff, Reiner; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2017-05-01

    We present an experimental configuration that enables form measurement from a single-shot camera exposure. It combines two-wavelength contouring with spatial multiplexing synthetic-aperture digital holography. The synthetic-aperture in this work is formed by simultaneously illuminating the test object from two different angles. The two illumination directions and the two-wavelength contouring result in four holograms which are spatially multiplexed on a single camera target avoiding unwanted cross-interference between them by means of coherence gating. In contrast to standard holographic contouring methods, the proposed technique reduces speckle decorrelation noise and enables single shot form measurement. To demonstrate this technique, the shape of a micro cold drawing part is determined.

  3. Double domain wavelength multiplexed Fizeau interferometer with high resolution dynamic sensing and absolute length detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Julián; Arenas, Gustavo F.; Duchowicz, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present a simple photonic instrument that has the ability of measuring positions, distances and vibrations with very high resolution by means of two Fizeau interferometers (FI), both using the same optical fiber end as a probe tip itself. On the one hand we have a time domain FI powered with a 1310 nm laser and monitored by an InGaAs detector providing displacement information with resolution around a tenth of nm but regardless of the absolute position of object and of the displacement sense. On the other, a spectral domain FI version based on a super luminescent source (SLED) centred at 800 nm with bandwidth of nearly 40 nm is analysed in real time by means of a digital spectrometer. Each spectrum is acquired in a very small time interval and provides information of both length of the cavity as well as its correct sense of evolution. Resolution of this system is lower than its complementary temporal case, but distance and sense measurements are absolute and can be determined successfully by adequate processing of spectral signal.Both interferometers are optically coupled to a single fiber optic probe and are wavelength modulated.Therefore, combination of both sensors results in a new one which allows the correct knowledge of an object or surfaces under test, i.e. a high resolution of displacement data plus its absolute position and true sense of movement.

  4. Wavelength switchable flat-top all-fiber comb filter based on a double-loop Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ai-Ping; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Cui, Hu

    2010-03-15

    A wavelength switchable all-fiber comb filter with flat-top spectral response based on a double-loop Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed flat-top filter consists of a rotatable polarizer and a double-loop M-Z interferometer composed of two fiber couplers with a polarization controller (PC) in the first loop. In the theoretical analysis, when the second coupler of the M-Z interferometer is a non-3dB one, with proper settings of the polarization state of the input light and the PC, the wavelength switchable comb filter with flat-top passband can be obtained. Theoretical prediction was verified by experimental demonstration. The measured 1 dB bandwidth was 0.51 nm with a channel spacing of 0.98 nm, indicating that the flat-top passband of 1 dB bandwidth extends to about 50% of the comb spacing.

  5. EXTENSION OF THE INVERSE ADDING-DOUBLING METHOD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING COEFFICIENTS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.

  6. Generalization from Single Cases and the Concept of Double Dialogicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    The present paper addresses how the concept of double-dialogicality may contribute to our understanding of how to generalize from single cases. Various attempts have been made within qualitative social research to define how generalization is possible from single cases. One problem with generaliz......The present paper addresses how the concept of double-dialogicality may contribute to our understanding of how to generalize from single cases. Various attempts have been made within qualitative social research to define how generalization is possible from single cases. One problem...... in this. In social interactions, persons draw on culturally available resources without which communicative meaning would be impossible. Double dialogicality as introduced by Per Linell helps to understand this relation and allows for identifying the general in the unique....

  7. Macromolecular X-ray structure determination using weak, single-wavelength anomalous data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkóczi, Gábor; McCoy, Airlie J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.; Holton, James M.; Read, Randy J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2014-12-22

    We describe a likelihood-based method for determining the substructure of anomalously scattering atoms in macromolecular crystals that allows successful structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) X-ray analysis with weak anomalous signal. With the use of partial models and electron density maps in searches for anomalously scattering atoms, testing of alternative values of parameters and parallelized automated model-building, this method has the potential to extend the applicability of the SAD method in challenging cases.

  8. Characterization of Plant Growth under Single-Wavelength Laser Light Using the Model Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Indoor horticulture offers a promising solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available lighting is suboptimal, therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. Lasers are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Besides, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plants. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that laser-grown plants can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteomic data show that the singlewavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture. Furthermore, stomatal movement partly determines the plant productivity and stress management. Abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure by promoting net K+-efflux from guard cells through outwardrectifying K+ (K+ out) channels to regulate plant water homeostasis. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ (ATGORK) channel is a direct target for ABA in the regulation of stomatal aperture and hence gas exchange and transpiration. Addition of (±)-ABA, but not the biologically inactive (−)-isomer, increases K+ out channel activity in Vicia faba guard cell protoplast. A similar ABA

  9. Constraining the double gluon distribution by the single gluon distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Lewandowska, Emilia; Serino, Mirko [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Snyder, Zachary [Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Staśto, Anna M., E-mail: astasto@phys.psu.edu [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-11-12

    We show how to consistently construct initial conditions for the QCD evolution equations for double parton distribution functions in the pure gluon case. We use to momentum sum rule for this purpose and a specific form of the known single gluon distribution function in the MSTW parameterization. The resulting double gluon distribution satisfies exactly the momentum sum rule and is parameter free. We also study numerically its evolution with a hard scale and show the approximate factorization into product of two single gluon distributions at small values of x, whereas at large values of x the factorization is always violated in agreement with the sum rule.

  10. Coulomb problem on single- and double-wall cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinega, Alexei; Voronova, Nina; Lozovik, Yurii

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the energies of ground and excited states of two opposite charge carriers confined on a single- or double-wall cylindrical surface. A nontrivial dependence of excited state energies on cylinder radius value (for the case of a single-wall cylinder) is found, and the explanation of this behavior is based on symmetry properties of the corresponding wavefunctions. The crossover from a one-dimensional problem to a two-dimensional one with increase of the radius value is discussed in detail. For the double-wall cylinder, we obtain and analyze the dependence of ground state energy on interwall distance and ratio between particle masses. (paper)

  11. Molecular single photon double K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F.; Nakano, M.; Tashiro, M.; Grozdanov, T.P.; Žitnik, M.; Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Shigemasa, E.; Iwayama, H.; Hikosaka, Y.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I.H.; Kouchi, N.; Ito, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied single photon double K-shell ionization of small molecules (N 2 , CO, C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3), …) and the Auger decay of the resulting double core hole (DCH) molecular ions thanks to multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer. The relative cross-sections for single-site (K −2 ) and two-site (K −1 K −1 ) double K-shell ionization with respect to single K-shell (K −1 ) ionization have been measured that gives important information on the mechanisms of single photon double ionization. The spectroscopy of two-site (K −1 K −1 ) DCH states in the C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3) series shows important chemical shifts due to a strong dependence on the C-C bond length. In addition, the complete cascade Auger decay following single site (K −2 ) ionization has been obtained

  12. Comprehensive Wavelengths, Energy Levels, and Hyperfine Structure Parameters of Singly-Ionized Iron-Group Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy

  13. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theoretical methods. They stated that the available published data were slightly contra- dictory and according to Kozlov [6], a large number of 3d 94s24p terms are .... brief outline of the method of calculation is given below. ..... ing qualitative features of contribution of 3d shell to single and double ionization cross sections.

  14. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems ... Jain International Residential School, Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara Dist., Karnataka 562 112, India. Room No 425, SH-3 Ashoka University, Near Rai Police ...

  15. Neutron Larmor diffraction with double and single precession arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, A.A.; Rekveldt, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    A review is given of double and single arm Larmor diffraction. With the former a lattice-spacing resolution down to 10-6 can be obtained. The latter is a good high-resolution alternative if the sample or sample environment disturbs the magnetic field, e.g. ferromagnetic samples or applied magnetic

  16. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is concluded that the ionization of 3d shell contributes partly to single ionization and partly to double ionization. The results so obtained show reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. Author Affiliations. L K Jha1. Department of Physics, L N T College, Muzaffarpur 842 002, India. Dates. Manuscript received ...

  17. Single- and double-island ferromagnetic single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Weymann, I.; Wisniewska, J.; Kowalik, M.; Kunert, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic transport in a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor has been considered theoretically in the sequential tunneling regime. The device consists of two external leads and one or two islands as the central part, connected to the leads by tunneling barriers. External gates are additionally attached to the islands. Generally, the two external electrodes and the islands can be ferromagnetic with arbitrary orientation of the corresponding magnetic moments. We have carried out detailed theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics and spin-valve magnetoresistance in the limit of fast spin relaxation on the islands. Asymmetry in tunneling probabilities of spin-majority and spin-minority electrons leads to interesting features in the transport characteristics, like for instance magnetoresistance oscillations with the bias and gate voltages, negative differential resistance, and others

  18. A novel single-cavity three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer for atmospheric aerosol research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Linke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectral light-absorbing behavior of carbonaceous aerosols varies depending on the chemical composition and structure of the particles. A new single-cavity three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer was developed and characterized for measuring absorption coefficients at three wavelengths across the visible spectral range. In laboratory studies, several types of soot with different organic content were generated by a diffusion flame burner and were investigated for changes in mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC values, absorption and scattering Ångström exponents (αabs and αsca, and single scattering albedo (ω. By increasing the organic carbonaceous (OC content of the aerosol from 50 to 90 % of the total carbonaceous mass, for 660 nm nearly no change of MAC was found with increasing OC content. In contrast, for 532 nm a significant increase, and for 445 nm a strong increase of MAC was found with increasing OC content of the aerosol. Depending on the OC content, the Ångström exponents of absorption and scattering as well as the single scattering albedo increased. These laboratory results were compared to a field study at a traffic-dominated urban site, which was also influenced by residential wood combustion. For this site a daily average value of αabs(445–660 of 1.9 was found.

  19. On single and double soft behaviors in NLSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Luo, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the single and double soft behaviors of tree level off-shell currents and on-shell amplitudes in nonlinear sigma model (NLSM). We first propose and prove the leading soft behavior of the tree level currents with a single soft particle. In the on-shell limit, this single soft emission becomes the Adler’s zero. Then we establish the leading and subleading soft behaviors of tree level currents with two adjacent soft particles. With a careful analysis of the on-shell limit, we obtain the double soft behaviors of on-shell amplitudes where the two soft particles are adjacent to each other. By applying Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) relation, we further obtain the leading and subleading behaviors of amplitudes with two nonadjacent soft particles.

  20. Dealing with double trouble: consequences of single and double herbivory in Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, V.; Tytgat, T.O.G.; Graaf, de R.M.; Kalia, V.; Reddy, A.S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2013-01-01

    In their natural environment, plants are often attacked simultaneously by many insect species. The specificity of induced plant responses that is reported after single herbivore attacks may be compromised under double herbivory and this may influence later arriving herbivores. The present study

  1. Optical access network using centralized light source, single-mode fiber + broad wavelength window multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Scott S.-H.; Kim, Jaedon; Gutierrez, David; Achten, Frank

    2006-08-01

    Access networks based on a single-mode fiber (SMF) using a centralized light source (CLS) have attracted much attention recently due to their wavelength management flexibility and potential for cost reduction at customers' premises. Future networks, in addition, are likely to contain segments of multimode fiber (MMF), whose core dimension is relatively large in comparison with its single-mode counterpart, substantially reducing fiber alignment constraints and the subsequent network construction and installation cost. In this study, a CLS-based passive optical network (PON) is proposed, which will use a new generation of high-performance MMF optimized for a broad wavelength transmission window spanning from 1300to1550 nm, with a bandwidth distance product (BDP) of 40 Gbit/s-km. The proposed architecture is implemented in a test bed, and its performance is verified by bit error ratio (BER) measurement. Results show that we can implement high-performance CLS-based PONs containing both an SMF and an MMF infrastructure, simultaneously.

  2. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Ng, Tien Khee; Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  3. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  4. Generalization from Single Cases and the Concept of Double Dialogicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    with generalization in psychology is that any human activity and sense making is situated/occasioned and all psychological phenomenon are hence unique. However, they are not arbitrary but dialogically intertwined with socio-cultural traditions of sense making and acting. Discursive practices play a pivotal role...... in this. In social interactions, persons draw on culturally available resources without which communicative meaning would be impossible. Double dialogicality as introduced by Per Linell helps to understand this relation and allows for identifying the general in the unique.......The present paper addresses how the concept of double-dialogicality may contribute to our understanding of how to generalize from single cases. Various attempts have been made within qualitative social research to define how generalization is possible from single cases. One problem...

  5. Neutron Larmor diffraction with double and single precession arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Well, A. A.; Rekveldt, M. T.

    2017-06-01

    A review is given of double and single arm Larmor diffraction. With the former a lattice-spacing resolution down to 10-6 can be obtained. The latter is a good high-resolution alternative if the sample or sample environment disturbs the magnetic field, e.g. ferromagnetic samples or applied magnetic fields. By choosing the tilt angle of the precession fields the optimum resolution can be set at a scattering angle at choice. The resolution for both single-crystal and polycrystalline samples is discussed in depth and is compared with conventional neutron-diffraction techniques.

  6. First observation of two-electron one-photon transitions in single-photon K-shell double ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoszowska, J; Dousse, J-Cl; Szlachetko, J; Kayser, Y; Cao, W; Jagodziński, P; Kavčič, M; Nowak, S H

    2011-07-29

    Experimental evidence for the correlated two-electron one-photon transitions (1s(-2)→2s(-1)2p(-1)) following single-photon K-shell double ionization is reported. The double K-shell vacancy states in solid Mg, Al, and Si were produced by means of monochromatized synchrotron radiation, and the two-electron one-photon radiative transitions were observed by using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer. The two-electron one-photon transition energies and the branching ratios of the radiative one-electron to two-electron transitions were determined and compared to available perturbation theory predictions and configuration interaction calculations.

  7. Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2010-01-01

    We have generated a single-wavelength data signal with a data capacity of 5.1 Tbit/s. The enabling techniques to generate the data signal are optical time-division multiplexing up to a symbol rate of 1.28 Tbaud, differential quadrature phase shift keying as data format, and polarisation......-multiplexing. For the first time, error-free performance with a bit error rate less than 1e-9 is demonstrated for the 5.1 Tbit/s data signal. This is achieved in a back-to-back configuration using a direct detection receiver based on polarisation- and time-demultiplexing, delay-demodulation and balanced photo-detection....

  8. Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Mulvad, Hans Christian; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif K; Hu, Hao; Clausen, Anders T; Jensen, Jesper B; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2010-01-18

    We have generated a single-wavelength data signal with a data capacity of 5.1 Tbit/s. The enabling techniques to generate the data signal are optical time-division multiplexing up to a symbol rate of 1.28 Tbaud, differential quadrature phase shift keying as data format, and polarisation-multiplexing. For the first time, error-free performance with a bit error rate less than 10(-9) is demonstrated for the 5.1 Tbit/s data signal. This is achieved in a back-to-back configuration using a direct detection receiver based on polarisation- and time-demultiplexing, delay-demodulation and balanced photo-detection.

  9. Rapid Method for the Determination of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Levulinic Acid Using a Double-Wavelength UV Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on a rapid method for the determination of levulinic acid (LA and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF in acid hydrolyze system of glucose based on UV spectroscopy. It was found that HMF and LA have a maximum absorption at the wavelengths of 284 nm and 266 nm, respectively, in a water medium, and the absorptions of HMF and LA at 284 nm and 266 nm follow Beer’s law very well. However, it was found that a major spectral interference species will arise in the quantification of HMF and LA; nonetheless, this interference can be eliminated through the absorption treatment of charcoal. Therefore, both HMF and LA can be quantified with a double-wavelength technique. The repeatability of the method had a relative standard deviation of less than 4.47% for HMF and 2.25% for LA; the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.017 mmol/L for HMF and 4.68 mmol/L for LA, and the recovery ranged from 88% to 116% for HMF and from 94% to 105% for LA. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate. It is suitable to use in the research of the preparation of HMF and LA in biorefinery area.

  10. Rapid method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid using a double-wavelength UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Junke; Tang, Yanjun; Xue, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a rapid method for the determination of levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in acid hydrolyze system of glucose based on UV spectroscopy. It was found that HMF and LA have a maximum absorption at the wavelengths of 284 nm and 266 nm, respectively, in a water medium, and the absorptions of HMF and LA at 284 nm and 266 nm follow Beer's law very well. However, it was found that a major spectral interference species will arise in the quantification of HMF and LA; nonetheless, this interference can be eliminated through the absorption treatment of charcoal. Therefore, both HMF and LA can be quantified with a double-wavelength technique. The repeatability of the method had a relative standard deviation of less than 4.47% for HMF and 2.25% for LA; the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.017 mmol/L for HMF and 4.68 mmol/L for LA, and the recovery ranged from 88% to 116% for HMF and from 94% to 105% for LA. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate. It is suitable to use in the research of the preparation of HMF and LA in biorefinery area.

  11. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  12. All-optical NRZ wavelength conversion based on a single hybrid III-V/Si SOA and optical filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchen; Huang, Qiangsheng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Katumba, Andrew; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Weiqiang; Morthier, Geert; He, Jian-Jun; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-05

    We demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal based on cross-gain modulation in a single heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with an optical bandpass filter. The SOA is 500 μm long and consumes less than 250 mW electrical power. We experimentally demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s AOWC for both wavelength up and down conversion.

  13. Reviewer bias in single- versus double-blind peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Zhang, Min; Heavlin, William D

    2017-11-28

    Peer review may be "single-blind," in which reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of paper authors, or "double-blind," in which this information is hidden. Noting that computer science research often appears first or exclusively in peer-reviewed conferences rather than journals, we study these two reviewing models in the context of the 10th Association for Computing Machinery International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, a highly selective venue (15.6% acceptance rate) in which expert committee members review full-length submissions for acceptance. We present a controlled experiment in which four committee members review each paper. Two of these four reviewers are drawn from a pool of committee members with access to author information; the other two are drawn from a disjoint pool without such access. This information asymmetry persists through the process of bidding for papers, reviewing papers, and entering scores. Reviewers in the single-blind condition typically bid for 22% fewer papers and preferentially bid for papers from top universities and companies. Once papers are allocated to reviewers, single-blind reviewers are significantly more likely than their double-blind counterparts to recommend for acceptance papers from famous authors, top universities, and top companies. The estimated odds multipliers are tangible, at 1.63, 1.58, and 2.10, respectively. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  15. Efficient option valuation of single and double barrier options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Milev, Mariyan; Koleva-Petkova, Dessislava; Vladev, Veselin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an implementation of pricing algorithm for single and double barrier options using Mellin transformation with Maximum Entropy Inversion and its suitability for real-world applications. A detailed analysis of the applied algorithm is accompanied by implementation in C++ that is then compared to existing solutions in terms of efficiency and computational power. We then compare the applied method with existing closed-form solutions and well known methods of pricing barrier options that are based on finite differences.

  16. Single and Double Top Quark Production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; CDF, for the; collaborations, D0

    2010-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments have measured single and double top quark production in ppbar collisions at the Tevatron at a centre-of-mass energy of 1.96TeV. The applied methods are used to constrain properties of the top quark and to search for new physics. Several methods of signal to background separation and of the estimation of the background contributions are discussed. Experimental results using an integraged luminosity up to 5.3fb{sup -1} are presented.

  17. Quasi free mechanism in single photon double ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeffler, Markus; Stuck, Christian [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jahnke, Till; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Lenz, Ute; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jones, Mathew; Landers, Allen [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocke, Lew [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Double ionization of Helium by a single photon is widely believed to proceed through two mechanisms: knock-off (TS1) or shake-off, with the last one dominating at high photon energies. A new mechanism, termed ''Quasi Free Mechanism'' (QFM) was predicted 35 years ago by Amusia and coworkers, but escaped experimental observation till today. Here we provide the first proof of this mechanism using 800 eV photons from the Advanced Light Source. Fragments (electrons and ions) were measured in coincidence using momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). He{sup (}2+) ions with zero momentum were found - the fingerprint for the QFM.

  18. Simultaneous dual-wavelength-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography with single polygon mirror scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Youxin; Chang, Shoude; Murdock, Erroll; Flueraru, Costel

    2011-06-01

    We report a novel (to the best of our knowledge) simultaneous 1310/1550 two-wavelength band swept laser source and dual-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Synchronized dual-wavelength tuning is performed by using two laser cavities and narrowband wavelength filters with a single dual-window polygonal scanner. Measured average output powers of 60 and 27 mW have been achieved for the 1310 and 1550 nm bands, respectively, while the two wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1227 to 1387 nm for the 1310 nm band and from 1519 to 1581 nm for the 1550 nm band at an A-scan rate of 65 kHz. Broadband wavelength-division multiplexing is used for coupling two wavelengths into a common-path single-mode GRIN-lensed fiber probe to form dual-band common-path SS-OCT. Simultaneous OCT imaging at 1310 and 1550 nm is achieved. This technique allows for in vivo high-speed OCT imaging with potential application in functional (spectroscopic) investigations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. A comparison of waveform processing algorithms for single-wavelength LiDAR bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chisheng; Li, Qingquan; Liu, Yanxiong; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Peng; Ding, Xiaoli

    2015-03-01

    Due to the low-cost and lightweight units, single-wavelength LiDAR bathymetric systems are an ideal option for shallow-water (ASDF), Gaussian decomposition (GD), quadrilateral fitting (QF), Richardson-Lucy deconvolution (RLD), and Wiener filter deconvolution (WD). To date, most of these algorithms have previously only been applied in topographic LiDAR waveforms captured over land. A simulated dataset and an Optech Aquarius dataset were used to assess the algorithms, with the focus being on their capability of extracting the depth and the bottom response. The influences of a number of water and equipment parameters were also investigated by the use of a Monte Carlo method. The results showed that the RLD method had a superior performance in terms of a high detection rate and low errors in the retrieved depth and magnitude. The attenuation coefficient, noise level, water depth, and bottom reflectance had significant influences on the measurement error of the retrieved depth, while the effects of scan angle and water surface roughness were not so obvious.

  20. Optical Properties of Single- and Double-Functionalized Small Diamondoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarap, Chandra Shekar; Adhikari, Bibek; Meng, Sheng; Uhlig, Frank; Fyta, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The rational control of the electronic and optical properties of small functionalized diamond-like molecules, the diamondoids, is the focus of this work. Specifically, we investigate the single- and double- functionalization of the lower diamondoids, adamantane, diamantane, and triamantane with -NH 2 and -SH groups and extend the study to N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) functionalization. On the basis of electronic structure calculations, we predict a significant change in the optical properties of these functionalized diamondoids. Our computations reveal that -NH 2 functionalized diamondoids show UV photoluminescence similar to ideal diamondoids while -SH substituted diamondoids hinder the UV photoluminescence due to the labile nature of the S-H bond in the first excited state. This study also unveils that the UV photoluminescence nature of -NH 2 diamondoids is quenched upon additional functionalization with the -SH group. The double-functionalized derivative can, thus, serve as a sensitive probe for biomolecule binding and sensing environmental changes. The preserved intrinsic properties of the NHC and the ideal diamondoid in NHC-functionalized-diamondoids suggests its utilization in diamondoid-based self-assembled monolayers (SAM), whose UV-photoluminescent signal would be determined entirely by the functionalized diamondoids. Our study aims to pave the path for tuning the properties of diamondoids through a selective choice of the type and number of functional groups. This will aid the realization of optoelectronic devices involving, for example, large-area SAM layers or diamondoid-functionalized electrodes.

  1. Increase in data capacity utilising dimensions of wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation using a single laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of optical networks while have the objective of lowering the total consumed energy per bit is challenging. By exploiting several dimensions, i.e. wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation simultaneously, a single laser can offer formidable capacity pe...

  2. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  3. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bruce; Caldwell, Bruce A

    2009-02-01

    Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls receiving no supplemental phosphorus. This stimulation of cyanolichens by phosphorus has direct relevance to community and population ecology of lichens, including improving models of lichen performance in relation to air quality, improving forest management practices affecting old-growth associated cyanolichens, and understanding the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens on the landscape. Phosphorus may be as important a stimulant to cyanobacterial-rich lichen communities as it is to cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. AIP Single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Roberto; Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Single and double di ff raction dissociation at the LHC is studied in a factorizable Regge-pole model, dominated by a Pomeron pole exchange in the t channel. While the contribution from secondary reggeon exchanges at the LHC is negligible, they are indispensable to match the lower-energy, ISR and FNAL data. To this end we append to the leading Pomeron exchange an e ff ective reggeon. The main emphasis in our study is on the nucleon resonances in missing masses, that are accounted for by a dual model of the inelastic pP → M X vertex, similar to the DIS structure function, known from HERA, with a non-linear nucleon, N ∗ trajectory in the direct, M 2 X channel. Regge factorization and its breakdown due to a renormalization factor, tempering the energy rise is discussed.

  5. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  6. Single shot, double differential spectral measurements of inverse Compton scattering in the nonlinear regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sakai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inverse Compton scattering (ICS is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K-edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.

  7. Spectrophotometric resonant measurement of wavelength phase dispersion on femtosecond laser cavities and single elements during their fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhshtab, Michael A.

    1996-02-01

    A spectrophotometric reflection technique and measurement results of wavelength phase dispersion on femtosecond laser cavities and distinct elements are reported. In contrast to novel frequency-domain and interferometric Fourier-transform methods, the proposed reflection-based measurement procedure maintains a notably high sensitivity while studying either cavities or single elements. Resolved phase spectrums are evaluated using a standard spectrophotometer with a single-beam reflection attachment.

  8. Offset configurations for single- and double-strand DNA inside single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mansoor H; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding research area, and it is believed that the unique properties of molecules at the nano-scale will prove to be of substantial benefit to mankind, especially so in medicine and electronics. Here we use applied mathematical modelling exploiting the basic principles of mechanics and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential function together with the continuum approximation, which assumes that intermolecular interactions can be approximated by average atomic surface densities. We consider the equilibrium offset positions for both single-strand and double-strand DNA molecules inside a single-walled carbon nanotube, and we predict offset positions with reference to the cross-section of the carbon nanotube. For the double-strand DNA, the potential energy is determined for the general case for any helical phase angle ϕ, but we also consider a special case when ϕ = π, which leads to a substantial simplification in the analytical expression for the energy. As might be expected, our results confirm that the global minimum energy positions for a single-strand DNA molecule and a double-strand DNA molecule will lie off axis and they become closer to the tube wall as the radius of the tube increases.

  9. Single- and multi-wavelength laser operation of a diode-pumped ND:GGG single crystal around 1.33 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yongjie; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Moncorgé, Richard

    2015-06-01

    We report on the first continuous-wave laser operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG single crystal at several emission wavelengths in the 1.33 μm spectral domain. Multi-wavelength laser operation at 1324, 1331 and 1337 nm with a maximum laser output power of 1.83 W and a laser slope efficiency of 28.9% for an output coupler transmission of 2.2% is obtained in the free-running regime. By inserting and tilting a 0.1-mm BK7 glass etalon to modulate the losses inside the laser cavity, single wavelength lasing at 1324 nm and 1347 nm are also achieved with maximum output powers of about 0.77 W and 0.41 W as well as laser slope efficiencies of 15.2% and 12.6%, respectively. Further increasing the pump power, based on the position of the etalon leading to the single laser wavelength operation at 1347 nm, stable dual-wavelength laser operation is demonstrated at 1337 and 1347 nm with a maximum output power of 0.61 W.

  10. Monomer dynamics in single- and double-stranded DNA coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothova, J.; Brutovsky, B.; Lisy, V.

    2007-09-01

    In our paper (Tothova et al., Czech. J. Phys. 55, 221 (2005)), the first observation of the kinetics of individual polymer monomers using the fluorescence correlation technique (R. Shusterman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 048303 (2004)) has been interpreted within the bead-spring theory. Optimizing the joint Rouse-Zimm model to the experimental data, the phenomenological parameters for the statistical-mechanical description of the universal behavior of double- and single-stranded DNA and the dominant types of their dynamics have been determined. Recently, these data have been corrected (R. Shusterman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 029901 (2007)). In the present work, the fits of the theory to the new data are given. The main conclusions of our preceding paper remain unchanged but some of the polymer parameters have changed. The new data allow a significantly better agreement with the theory than the previous ones. Our calculations confirm that dsDNA follows mainly the classical Zimm-type kinetics rather than the Rouse one as it was proposed by Shusterman et al. Single-stranded DNA also behaves predominantly as the Zimm polymer. To support these conclusions, we analyze the draining effects on the monomer dynamics and the applicability of simple “universal” laws, according to which the monomer mean square displacement scales with the time as t1/2 and t2/3 for the Rouse and Zimm polymers, respectively.

  11. Single field double inflation and primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, K.; Marzola, L.; Raidal, M.; Veermäe, H., E-mail: kristjan.kannike@cern.ch, E-mail: luca.marzola@cern.ch, E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch, E-mail: hardi.veermae@cern.ch [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of scalar-tensor theories, we study the conditions that allow single field inflation dynamics on small cosmological scales to significantly differ from that of the large scales probed by the observations of cosmic microwave background. The resulting single field double inflation scenario is characterised by two consequent inflation eras, usually separated by a period where the slow-roll approximation fails. At large field values the dynamics of the inflaton is dominated by the interplay between its non-minimal coupling to gravity and the radiative corrections to the inflaton self-coupling. For small field values the potential is, instead, dominated by a polynomial that results in a hilltop inflation. Without relying on the slow-roll approximation, which is invalidated by the appearance of the intermediate stage, we propose a concrete model that matches the current measurements of inflationary observables and employs the freedom granted by the framework on small cosmological scales to give rise to a sizeable population of primordial black holes generated by large curvature fluctuations. We find that these features generally require a potential with a local minimum. We show that the associated primordial black hole mass function is only approximately lognormal.

  12. Single- and dual-wavelength laser pulses induced modification in 10×(Al/Ti)/Si multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salatić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Petrović, S., E-mail: spetro@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Peruško, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Čekada, M.; Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pantelić, D.; Jelenković, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Experimental and numerical study of laser-induced ablation and micro-sized crater formation. • Dual-wavelength pulses induce creation of wider and deeper craters due to synergies of two processes. • Sunflower-like structure formed by dual-wavelength pulses at low irradiance. • Numerical model of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation for complex (Al/Ti)/Si system has been developed. - Abstract: The surface morphology of the ablation craters created in the multilayer 10×(Al/Ti)/Si system by nanosecond laser pulses at single- and dual wavelength has been studied experimentally and numerically. A complex multilayer thin film including ten (Al/Ti) bilayers deposited by ion sputtering on Si(1 0 0) substrate to a total thickness of 260 nm were illuminated at different laser irradiance in the range 0.25–3.5 × 10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2}. Single pulse laser irradiation was done at normal incidence in air, with the single wavelength, either at 532 nm or 1064 nm or with both laser light simultaneously in the ratio of 1:10 for energy per pulse between second harmonic and 1064 nm. Most of the absorbed laser energy was rapidly transformed into heat, producing intensive modifications of composition and morphology on the sample surface. The results show an increase in surface roughness, formation of specific nanostructures, appearance of hydrodynamic features and ablation of surface material with crater formation. Applying a small fraction (10%) of the second harmonic in dual-wavelength pulses, a modification of the 10×(Al/Ti)/Si system by a single laser pulse was reflected in the formation of wider and/or deeper craters. Numerical calculations show that the main physical mechanism in ablation process is normal evaporation without phase explosion. The calculated and experimental results agree relatively well for the whole irradiance range, what makes the model applicable to complex Al/Ti multilayer systems.

  13. On Spectral Invariance of Single Scattering Albedo for Water Droplets and Ice Crystals at Weakly Absorbing Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, J. Christine; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    The single scattering albedo omega(sub O lambda) in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength lambda and droplet size r. This note shows that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio omega(sub O lambda)(r)/omega(sub O lambda)(r (sub O)) of two single scattering albedo spectra is a linear function of omega(sub O lambda)(r). The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo spectrum omega(sub O lambda)(r) via one known spectrum omega(sub O lambda)(r (sub O)). We provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. Similar linear relationships were found for the single scattering albedo spectra of non-spherical ice crystals.

  14. Transfer in motion discrimination learning was no greater in double training than in single training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinfeng; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Yifeng; Liu, Zili

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the controversy regarding double training in motion discrimination learning. We collected data from 43 participants in a motion direction discrimination learning task with either double training (i.e., training plus exposure) or single training (i.e., no exposure). By pooling these data with those in the literature, we had data in double training from 28 participants and in single training from 36 participants. We found that, in double training, the transfer along the exposed direction was less than that along the trained direction, indicating incomplete transfer. Importantly, the transfer in double training was not reliably greater than that in single training.

  15. Double versus single renal allografts from aged donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, A; Morales, J M; Herrero, J C; Praga, M; Morales, E; Hernández, E; Ortuño, T; Rodício, J L; Martínez, M A; Usera, G; Díaz, R; Polo, G; Aguirre, F; Leiva, O

    2000-05-27

    The age limit of the cadaver kidney donors is increasing in response to the growing demand for renal transplantation. Simultaneous double kidney transplantation (SDKT) with kidneys obtained from elderly adults has been proposed to increase the transplantation number and improve its results. However, if SDKT is performed when there are no clear indications, a negative effect could be produced on the total number of transplanted patients as both kidneys would be used for only one recipient. In December 1996 we designed a transplantation protocol to be able to extend the selection of cadaver kidney donors with normal serum creatinine levels without establishing any age limit. A pregraft renal biopsy was always performed to analyze the glomerulosclerosis (GE) percentage whenever the donors were 60 years of age or older. A SDKT was performed in a single recipient when the donor age was 75 years or older or when the donors between 60 and 74 years old had a GE rate of more than 15%. On the contrary, a single kidney transplantation was performed in two different recipients for kidneys from donors between 60 and 74 years of age with a GE rate of less than 15%. Kidneys having GE rates of more than 50% were discarded for transplantation. Donor kidneys from subjects younger than 60 years of age were always used for a single kidney transplantation. Based on the above mentioned protocol, from December 1996 to May 1998, 181 patients received a kidney transplantation in our hospital. These patients were divided into three groups: group I which included the SDKT recipients (n=21), group II or single kidney recipients from 60- to 74-year-old donors (n=40), and group III or recipients from actuarial patient survival (100, 95, and 98%, respectively) or graft survival rates (95, 90, and 93%, respectively). The 6-month serum creatinine levels were excellent in the three groups, although there were significant differences between groups I and II (1.6+/-0.3 vs. 1.9+/-0.6 mg/dl, P75 years

  16. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-01-01

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. (paper)

  17. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-10-11

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  18. Single versus double flap approach in periodontal regenerative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Hebert, Eric; Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    to compare the outcomes of a regenerative strategy based on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB, 0.3 mg/ml) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the treatment of intraosseous defects accessed with the Single Flap Approach (SFA) versus Double Flap Approach based on papilla preservation techniques (DFA). Fifteen and 13 defects, randomly assigned to SFA or DFA, respectively, were grafted with rhPDGF-BB + β-TCP. Probing parameters were assessed before and 6 months after surgery. Pain (VAS(pain)) was self-reported using a visual analogue scale. Twelve SFA sites and DFA 6 sites showed complete flap closure at 2 weeks post-surgery. No significant differences in 6-month changes in probing parameters and radiographic defect fill were found between groups. Significantly lower VAS(pain) was observed in SFA group compared to DFA group at day +1, +2 and +6. A significantly greater number of analgesics were consumed in the DFA group compared to the SFA group at day +1. When combined with rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP, the SFA may result in similar clinical outcomes, better quality of early wound healing, and lower pain and consumption of analgesics during the first postoperative days compared to the DFA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Delayed Consensus Problem for Single and Double Integrator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Velasco-Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis of the consensus problem for networks of agents constituted by single and double integrator systems. It is assumed that the communication among agents is affected by a constant time-delay. Previous and numerous analysis of the problem shows that the maximum communication time-delay that can be introduced to the network without affecting the consensus of the group of the agents depends on the considered topology. In this work, a control scheme that is based on the estimation of future states of the agents and that allows increasing the magnitude of a possible time-delay affecting the communication channels is proposed. How the proposed delay compensation strategy is independent of the network topology in the sense that the maximum allowable time-delay that could be supported by the network depends on a design parameter and not on the maximum eigenvalue of the corresponding Laplacian matrix is shown. It is formally proven that, under the proposed prediction scheme, the consensus of the group can be achieved by improving the maximum time-delay bounds previously reported in the literature. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  20. Detection of gastritis by single- and double-contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''

  1. A high resolution optical vector network analyzer based on a wideband and wavelength-tunable optical single-sideband modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenzhou; Pan, Shilong; Yao, Jianping

    2012-03-12

    A high resolution optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) implemented based on a wideband and wavelength-tunable optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The OSSB modulation is achieved using a phase modulator and a tunable optical filter with a passband having two steep edges and a flat top. Wideband and wavelength-tunable OSSB modulation is achieved. The incorporation of the OSSB modulator into the OVNA is experimentally evaluated. The measurement of the magnitude and phase response of an ultra-narrow-band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and that of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a single-mode fiber is performed. A measurement resolution as high as 78 kHz is achieved.

  2. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  3. Single perturbative splitting diagrams in double parton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a specific class of graph that can potentially contribute to the proton-proton double parton scattering (DPS) cross section. These are the `2v1' or `single perturbative splitting' graphs, in which two `nonperturbatively generated' ladders interact with two ladders that have been generated via a perturbative 1 → 2 branching process. Using a detailed calculation, we confirm the result written down originally by Ryskin and Snigirev — namely, that the 2v1 graphs in which the two nonperturbatively generated ladders do not interact with one another do contribute to the leading order proton-proton DPS cross section, albeit with a different geometrical prefactor to the one that applies to the `2v2'/`zero perturbative splitting' graphs. We then show that 2v1 graphs in which the `nonperturbatively generated' ladders exchange partons with one another also contribute to the leading order proton-proton DPS cross section, provided that this `crosstalk' occurs at a lower scale than the 1 → 2 branching on the other side of the graph. Due to the preference in the 2v1 graphs for the x value at which the branching occurs, and crosstalk ceases, to be very much larger than the x values at the hard scale, the effect of crosstalk interactions is likely to be a decrease in the 2v1 cross section except at exceedingly small x values (≲ 10-6). At moderate x values ≃ 10-3 -10-2, the x value at the splitting is in the region ≃ 10-1 where PDFs do not change much with scale, and the effect of crosstalk interactions is likely to be small. We give an explicit formula for the contribution from the 2v1 graphs to the DPS cross section, and combine this with a suggestion that we made in a previous publication, that the `double perturbative splitting'/`1v1' graphs should be completely removed from the DPS cross section, to obtain a formula for the DPS cross section. It is pointed out that there are two potentially concerning features in this equation, that

  4. Characterization of single particle aerosols by elastic light scattering at multiple wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, P. A.; Hart, M. B.; Jain, V.; Tucker, J. E.; Eversole, J. D.

    2018-03-01

    We describe a system to characterize individual aerosol particles using stable and repeatable measurement of elastic light scattering. The method employs a linear electrodynamic quadrupole (LEQ) particle trap. Charged particles, continuously injected by electrospray into this system, are confined to move vertically along the stability line in the center of the LEQ past a point where they are optically interrogated. Light scattered in the near forward direction was measured at three different wavelengths using time-division multiplexed collinear laser beams. We validated our method by comparing measured silica microsphere data for four selected diameters (0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 μm) to a model of collected scattered light intensities based upon Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Scattered light measurements at the different wavelengths are correlated, allowing us to distinguish and classify inhomogeneous particles.

  5. Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and first climatology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collaud Coen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering and absorption coefficients have been measured continuously at several wavelengths since March 2001 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch (3580ma.s.l.. From these data, the wavelength dependences of the Ångström exponent and particularly of the single scattering albedo are determined. While the exponent of the single scattering albedo usually increases with wavelength, it decreases with wavelength during Saharan dust events (SDE due to the greater size of the mineral aerosol particles and their different chemical composition. This change in the sign of the single scattering exponent turns out to be a sensitive means for detecting Saharan dust events. The occurrence of SDE detected by this new method was confirmed by visual inspection of filter colors and by studying long-range back-trajectories. An examination of SDE over a 22-month period shows that SDE are more frequent during the March-June period as well as during October and November. The trajectory analysis indicated a mean traveling time of 96.5h, with the most important source countries situated in the northern and north-western part of the Saharan desert. Most of the SDE do not lead to a detectable increase of the 48-h total suspended particulate matter (TSP concentration at the Jungfraujoch. During Saharan dust events, the average contribution of this dust to hourly TSP at the Jungfraujoch is 16µg/m3, which corresponds to an annual mean of 0.8µg/m3 or 24% of TSP.

  6. Langmuir monolayers composed of single and double tail sulfobetaine lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Gavin; Gee, Anthony P; Arnold, Thomas; Edler, Karen J; Lewis, Simon E

    2016-07-15

    Owing to structural similarities between sulfobetaine lipids and phospholipids it should be possible to form stable Langmuir monolayers from long tail sulfobetaines. By modification of the density of lipid tail group (number of carbon chains) it should also be possible to modulate the two-dimensional phase behaviour of these lipids and thereby compare with that of equivalent phospholipids. Potentially this could enable the use of such lipids for the wide array of applications that currently use phospholipids. The benefit of using sulfobetaine lipids is that they can be synthesised by a one-step reaction from cheap and readily available starting materials and will degrade via different pathways than natural lipids. The molecular architecture of the lipid can be easily modified allowing the design of lipids for specific purposes. In addition the reversal of the charge within the sulfobetaine head group relative to the charge orientation in phospholipids may modify behaviour and thereby allow for novel uses of these surfactants. Stable Langmuir monolayers were formed composed of single and double tailed sulfobetaine lipids. Surface pressure-area isotherm, Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-ray and neutron reflectometry measurements were conducted to measure the two-dimensional phase behaviour and out-of-plane structure of the monolayers as a function of molecular area. Sulfobetaine lipids are able to form stable Langmuir monolayers with two dimensional phase behaviour analogous to that seen for the well-studied phospholipids. Changing the number of carbon tail groups on the lipid from one to two promotes the existence of a liquid condensed phase due to increased Van der Waals interactions between the tail groups. Thus the structure of the monolayers appears to be defined by the relative sizes of the head and tail groups in a predictable way. However, the presence of sub-phase ions has little effect on the monolayer structure, behaviour that is surprisingly different to

  7. X rays coincident with single and double capture in F8,9+ + C collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Tanis, J. A.; Simon, A.; Warczak, A.

    2012-11-01

    X rays emitted from fluorine in single and double capture collisions with carbon have been studied. Fluorine K-x-ray emission and radiative electron capture have been observed with differences depending on the initial projectile charge state (F9+ or F8+) and whether single or double capture occurs. These origins of these differences are considered.

  8. Development of Visible-Wavelength MALDI Cell Mass Spectrometry for High-Efficiency Single-Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; He, Qing; Huang, Xi; Wang, Jiyun; Peng, Wen-Ping; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-12-06

    Mass is a fundamental physical property of an individual cell, from which is revealed the cell growth, cycle, and activity. Taking advantage of cell mass spectrometry (CMS), accurate mass measurement of a charged single cell has been achieved. However, with the increasing demand for high-efficiency single-cell analysis in biology, the limited throughput and inefficient cell desorption/ionization of the CMS inevitably become important issues. To address the challenge, a state of the art visible-wavelength matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) CMS was developed. The employed transmission mode laser ablation and fast evaporation sample preparation enabled the visible-wavelength MALDI to be soft enough and to generate intact charged cells for mass measurement. By using resorufin as matrix, ten sorts of cells, viz., red blood cells (RBCs), Jurkat (JK), CCRF-CEM, SNU-5, BGC-803, MCF-7, L-O2, 293T, Hep G2, and A549 cells, have been successfully analyzed. It was found that the desorption/ionization efficiency of visible-wavelength MALDI was at least 3-fold higher than that of conventional laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) and relevant to the suspension/adherent property of analyzed cells. Based on the measured mass, different cell types in either the individual or mixed state can be differentiated successfully.

  9. Control over the resonance wavelength of fibre Bragg gratings using resistive coatings based on single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, Yu. G.; Medvedkov, O. I.; Vasil'ev, S. A.; Kopylova, D. S.; Yakovlev, V. Ya.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that a thin resistive coating based on single-wall carbon nanotubes applied to the lateral surface of an optical fibre allows it to be uniformly heated up to a temperature of ∼ 400 \\circ{\\text{C}} without damage to the coating. Using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) as an example, we assess the efficiency of resonance wavelength thermal tuning and examine frequency characteristics that can be achieved using such coating. In particular, we show that the resonance wavelength of the FBG can be tuned over 3.2 {\\text{nm}} with an efficiency of 8.7 {\\text{nm}} {\\text{W}}-1 and time constant of ∼ 0.4 {\\text{s}}.

  10. SINGLE AND DOUBLE IMPRINTED POLYMER FOR SELECTIVE RECOGNITION OF Cd(II IONS IN AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Birlik ÖZKÜTÜK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of a new single and double-imprinted polymeric material for the separation of Cd(II ions in aqueous solutions. Chitosan has choosen as the Cd(II metal complexing big polymer for single and double imprinted polymers. In the synthesis of single imprinted polymer, Cd(II-complexed chitosan has crosslinked by epichlorohydrin. In the synthesis of double imprinted polymer, Cd(II-complexed chitosan was reacted with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. Then, the polymeric beads have crosslinked with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS. The imprinted cadmium ions have removed from the polymeric matrix by 0.1M HNO3 (to prepare Cd(II templates. Optimum pH for rebinding of Cd(II on the single and double-imprinted polymers was 7.0. Equilibrium binding time and sorbent capacity have been found as 120 and 60 min, 342 and 172 mg g-1 for single and double imprinted polymers, respectively. In selectivity studies, it has been found that double imprinted results in increased affinity of the material toward Cd(II ion over other competitor metal ions with the same charge. The prepared single and double-imprinted polymers have repeatedly used and regenerated for thirty times without a significant decrease in polymer binding affinities.

  11. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  12. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  13. Wavelength resolved neutron transmission analysis to identify single crystal particles in historical metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzagli, E.; Grazzi, F.; Salvemini, F.; Scherillo, A.; Sato, H.; Shinohara, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Tremsin, A.; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The phase composition and the microstructure of four ferrous Japanese arrows of the Edo period (17th-19th century) has been determined through two complementary neutron techniques: Position-sensitive wavelength-resolved neutron transmission analysis (PS-WRNTA) and time-of-flight neutron diffraction (ToF-ND). Standard ToF-ND technique has been applied by using the INES diffractometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source in the UK, while the innovative PS-WRNTA one has been performed at the J-PARC neutron source on the BL-10 NOBORU beam line using the high spatial high time resolution neutron imaging detector. With ToF-ND we were able to reach information about the quantitative distribution of the metal and non-metal phases, the texture level, the strain level and the domain size of each of the samples, which are important parameters to gain knowledge about the technological level of the Japanese weapon. Starting from this base of data, the more complex PS-WRNTA has been applied to the same samples. This experimental technique exploits the presence of the so-called Bragg edges, in the time-of-flight spectrum of neutrons transmitted through crystalline materials, to map the microstructural properties of samples. The two techniques are non-invasive and can be easily applied to archaeometry for an accurate microstructure mapping of metal and ceramic artifacts.

  14. Inexpensive Home-Made Single Wavelength Ellipsometer (λ = 633 nm) for Measuring the Optical Constant of Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, L. Z.; Megasari, K.; Suharyadi, E.; Anugraha, R.; Abraha, K.; Santoso, I.

    2017-05-01

    Inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry with RAE (Rotating Analyser Ellipsometer) configuration has been developed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is an optical measurement technique which is based on the measurement of the change of the phase difference (Δ) and the amplitude ratio (ψ) between p and s linear polarized of reflected (or transmitted) light. Our RAE configuration system composed of polarizer, sample, analyzer, detector, and He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm) that acted as the monochromatic light source. To test the reliability of our SE system, we measure the optical constant of Au bulk and Cr (30 nm thick) film. The optical constant and the thickness were extracted by employing the pseudo-dielectric function and numerical inversion which is based on the secant method, the ψ and Δ of our SE data which is modelled by Fresnel equation. From the extraction using the secant method we obtain the optical constant of the Au bulk sample with n = 0.11 to 0.22 and k = 3.26 to 3.37 which is close to that of using pseudo-dielectric method. We obtain the same result for Cr film with n = 3.66 to 3.81 and k = 5.32 to 5.38 which is close to the result from reference. These results show that our inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry instrument and the extraction method are reliable for determining the optical constant of nanostructured materials.

  15. Surface topography acquisition method for double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces based on dual-probe wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-10-02

    This paper proposes an approach to measure double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces based on dual-probe wavelength scanning interferometry (DPWSI). The principle and mathematical model is discussed and the measurement system is calibrated with a combination of standard step-height samples for both probes vertical calibrations and a specially designed calibration artefact for building up the space coordinate relationship of the dual-probe measurement system. The topography of the specially designed artefact is acquired by combining the measurement results with white light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for reference. The relative location of the two probes is then determined with 3D registration algorithm. Experimental validation of the approach is provided and the results show that the method is able to measure double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces with nanometer vertical resolution and micrometer lateral resolution.

  16. Error-free 5.1 Tbit/s data generation on a single-wavelength channel using a 1.28 Tbaud symbol rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a record bit rate of 5.1 Tbit/s on a single wavelength using a 1.28 Tbaud OTDM symbol rate, DQPSK data-modulation, and polarisation-multiplexing. Error-free performance (BER......We demonstrate a record bit rate of 5.1 Tbit/s on a single wavelength using a 1.28 Tbaud OTDM symbol rate, DQPSK data-modulation, and polarisation-multiplexing. Error-free performance (BER...

  17. Chiral transformation: From single nanowire to double helix

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2011-12-21

    We report a new type of water-soluble ultrathin Au-Ag alloy nanowire (NW), which exhibits unprecedented behavior in a colloidal solution. Upon growth of a thin metal (Pd, Pt, or Au) layer, the NW winds around itself to give a metallic double helix. We propose that the winding originates from the chirality within the as-synthesized Au-Ag NWs, which were induced to untwist upon metal deposition. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Single Pixel, Single Band Microstrip Antenna for Sub-Millimeter Wavelength Detection Using Transition Edge Superconducting Bolometric Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Cynthia; Bock, Jamie J.; Day, Peter K.; Goldin, Alexey; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    We are developing a single pixel antenna coupled bolometric detector as a precursor to the SAMBA (Superconducting Antenna-coupled Multi-frequency Bolometric Array) instrument. Our device consists of a dual slot microstrip antenna coupled to an Al/Ti/Au voltage-biased transition edge superconducting bolometer (TES). The coupling architecture involves propagating the signal along superconducting microstrip lines and terminating the lines at a normal metal resistor on a thermally isolated island. The device, which is inherently polarization sensitive, is optimized to for 100GHz band measurements, ideal for future implementation as an astronomical sub-millimeter instrument. We will present recent tests of these single pixel detectors.

  19. COMPARISON OF DOUBLE AND SINGLE PIERCING PROCESS IN SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE MANUFACTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Chihiro, HAYASHI; Tomio, YAMAKAWA; Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.; Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation work was made on the influence of the piercing process on the rotary forging effects, redundant shear deformations and power consumption. In this work, a study was made to compare the double and single piercing process with reference to the Mannesmann piercing mill and the cone-type piercing mill developed by the authors. If the conventional double piercing process employing the Mannesmann piercing mill is replaced by the single piercing process employing the cone-type pierci...

  20. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  1. Wavelength-selectable and steady single-mode erbium-doped fiber multiple ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a stable and selectable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode output, a multiple ring architecture is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we design a passively quadruple-ring structure in the cavity of an EDF laser to produce a Vernier effect with a mode filter for suppressing the multimode spikes significantly. In addition, the output performance and stability of the proposed EDF ring laser are discussed.

  2. Single and double long pulse laser ablation of aluminum induced in air and water ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of aluminum target by single and double pulse (∼ 5 ns delay) in ambient air and distilled water • Comparing with air, in ambient water, plasma confinement results in higher crater depth. • In comparison with single pulse laser ablation, the absorption of the laser pulse energy is higher for double pulse regime. • As a result of ablated material expansion, the crater depth is decreased if the target is placed at lower depth. - Abstract: In this paper, single pulse and double pulse laser ablation of an aluminum target in two interaction ambient was investigated experimentally. The interaction was performed by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser beam in air and four depths (i.e. 9, 13, 17, and 21 mm) of distilled water ambient. The irradiation was carried out in single and collinear double pulse configurations in both air and liquid ambient. Crater geometry (depth and diameter) was measured by an optical microscope. The results indicated that the crater geometry strongly depends on both single pulse and double pulse configurations and interaction ambient. In single pulse regime, the crater diameter is higher for all water depths compared to that of air. However, the crater depth, depend on water depth, is higher or lower than the crater depth in air. In double pulse laser ablation, there are greater values for both crater diameters and crater depths in the water.

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation of silver foil with single and double pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available /apsusc r ablation of silver foil with single and double pulses, Appl. Surf. D.E. Roberts et al. / Applied Surface Science xxx (2009) xxx–xxx2 G Model APSUSC-19322; No of Pages 9 pulses used for ablation. While there has been much overlap in the aims... value r ablation of silver foil with single and double pulses, Appl. Surf. ; lon D.E. Roberts et al. / Applied Surface Science xxx (2009) xxx–xxx 3 G Model APSUSC-19322; No of Pages 9 Fig. 1. Surface temperature versus time calculated for double...

  4. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  5. Stable double helical iodine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Zhen [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning, 121001 (China); Liu, Chun-Jian [College of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, 121000 (China); Lv, Hang [Institute of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, 121000 (China); Liu, Bing-Bing, E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China)

    2016-08-12

    The helicity of stable double helical iodine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied by calculating the systematic interaction energy. Our results present clear images of stable double helical structures inside SWCNTs. The optimum helical radius and helical angle increase and decrease with increasing diameter, respectively. The tube's diameter plays a leading role in the helicity of encapsulated structures, while the tube's chirality may induce different metastable structures. This study indicates that the observed double helical iodine chains in experiments are not necessarily the optimum structures, but may also be metastable structures. - Highlights: • The stable double helical iodine chain inside single-walled carbon nanotubes is proposed. • The influence of tube's diameter and chirality on the stability of encapsulated iodine chains is studied. • The metastable double helical structures may be co-existence with the stable structure but not in the same tubes.

  6. Optical properties measurement of laser coagulated tissues with double integrating sphere and inverse Monte Carlo technique in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-03-01

    In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.

  7. Fast and robust automatic calibration for single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography based on speckle displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Davood; Bergström, Per; Hällstig, Emil; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe a fast and robust automatic single-shot dual-wavelength holographic calibration method that can be used for online shape measurement applications. We present a model of the correction in two terms for each lobe, one to compensate the systematic errors caused by off-axis angles and the other for the curvature of the reference waves, respectively. Each hologram is calibrated independently without a need for an iterative procedure or information of the experimental set-up. The calibration parameters are extracted directly from speckle displacements between different reconstruction planes. The parameters can be defined as any fraction of a pixel to avoid the effect of quantization. Using the speckle displacements, problems associated with phase wrapping is avoided. The procedure is shown to give a shape accuracy of 34 μm using a synthetic wavelength of 1.1 mm for a measurement on a cylindrical test object with a trace over a field of view of 18  mm×18  mm.

  8. Single-molecule spectromicroscopy: a route towards sub-wavelength refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikushina, T A; Gladush, M G; Gorshelev, A A; Naumov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a novel approach for spatially resolved probing of local fluctuations of the refractive index n in solids by means of single-molecule (SM) spectroscopy. It is based on the dependence T1(n) of the effective radiative lifetime T1 of dye centres in solids on n due to the local-field effects. Detection of SM zero-phonon lines at low temperatures gives the values of the SM natural spectral linewidth (which is inversely proportional to T1) and makes it possible to reveal the distribution of the local n values in solids. Here we demonstrate this possibility on the example of amorphous polyethylene and polycrystalline naphthalene doped with terrylene. In particular, we show that the obtained distributions of lifetime limited spectral linewidths of terrylene molecules embedded into these matrices are due to the spatial fluctuations of the refractive index local values.

  9. Telecommunication Wavelength-Band Single-Photon Emission from Single Large InAs Quantum Dots Nucleated on Low-Density Seed Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.

  10. Double minimum creep of single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    WU, X.; Wollgramm, P.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Kostka, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, JUN (2016), s. 242-260 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Single crystal Ni-base superalloys * Primary creep * Transmission electron microscopy * Dislocations * Stacking fault s Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  11. Middle latency response correlates of single and double deviant stimuli in a multi-feature paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althen, H; Huotilainen, M; Grimm, S; Escera, C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test single and double deviance-related modulations of the middle latency response (MLR) and the applicability of the optimum-2 multi-feature paradigm. The MLR and the MMN to frequency, intensity and double-feature deviants of an optimum-2 multi-feature paradigm and the MMN to double-feature deviants of an oddball paradigm were recorded in young adults. Double deviants elicited significant enhancements of the Nb and Pb MLR waves compared with the waves elicited by standard stimuli. These enhancements equalled approximately the sum of the numerical amplitude differences elicited by the single deviants. In contrast, the MMN to double deviants did not show such additivity. MMNs elicited by double deviants of the multi-feature and the oddball paradigm showed no significant difference in amplitude or latency. The optimum-2 multi-feature paradigm is suitable for recording double deviance-related modulations of the MLR. Interspersed intensity and frequency deviants in the standard trace of the optimum-2 condition multi-feature paradigm did not weaken the double MMN. The optimum-2 multi-feature paradigm could be especially beneficial for clinical studies on early deviance-related modulations in the MLR, due to its optimized utilization of the recording time. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer in IVF in relation to female age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loendersloot, Laura L.; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; van Wely, Madelon; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available, as compared to double embryo transfer in relation to female age. Study design: We used a decision tree model to evaluate the costs

  13. The Ku Heterodimer and the Metabolism of Single-Ended DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Balestrini (Alessia); D. Ristic (Dejan); I. Dionne (Isabelle); X.Z. Liu (Xiao); C. Wyman (Claire); R.J. Wellinger (Raymund); J.H.J. Petrini (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSingle-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s) of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the

  14. Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji

    We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The

  15. Single-photon emission correlated to double-electron capture by bare ions: background processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Warczak, A.; Simon, A.; Tanis, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Radiative single- and double-electron capture are one-step processes where a single target electron or two target electrons, respectively, are captured to a bound state of a highly charged projectile with the simultaneous emission of a single photon. In ion-atom collisions, several background processes are likely to contribute to these processes and may interfere with the measured x-rays due to radiative single and double capture. In this study, possible contributions from radiative electron capture to the continuum, secondary electron bremsstrahlung, the two-step process of independent double radiative electron capture, as well as radiative- combined with nonradiative-electron capture are taken into account based on our analysis of the data for 2.21 MeV u-1 F9+ ions colliding with a thin carbon foil.

  16. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    case of electron impact single ionization of In·. In order to obtain satisfactory agree- ment with experimental data, the contribution of the electrons of 4d shells to the ionization cross sections was added at only one half of its calculated value. Use of only half of the d-shell contributions was first proposed by Rogers et al [8] and ...

  17. High throughput production of single core double emulsions in a parallelized microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Mark B; Abate, Adam R; Rotem, Assaf; Holtze, Christian; Weitz, David A

    2012-02-21

    Double emulsions are useful templates for microcapsules and complex particles, but no method yet exists for making double emulsions with both high uniformity and high throughput. We present a parallel numbering-up design for microfluidic double emulsion devices, which combines the excellent control of microfluidics with throughput suitable for mass production. We demonstrate the design with devices incorporating up to 15 dropmaker units in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional array, producing single-core double emulsion drops at rates over 1 kg day(-1) and with diameter variation less than 6%. This design provides a route to integrating hundreds of dropmakers or more in a single chip, facilitating industrial-scale production rates of many tons per year.

  18. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE VERSUS DOUBLE LAYER CLOSURE ON LOWER SEGMENT CAESAREAN SCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtirekha Mohapatra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are few issues in modern obstetrics that have been as controversial as management of a woman with a prior caesarean delivery. Hence, it is required to have evidence based correct practice of this surgical procedure. Healing of the uterine incision and the strength of the scar should be the most important consideration. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of technique of uterine closure (Single Layer vs. Double Layer on subsequent pregnancies and to find out, which technique has a better maternal and neonatal outcome by strengthening the scar. MATERIALS AND METHODS 500 cases of previous caesarean section pregnancies were taken, 250 from single layer closure group and 250 from double layer closure group. The mode of delivery during present pregnancy was noted. Integrity of scar, thickness of scar, presence of adhesion were documented. The neonates were observed. Results were compared so as to draw an inference about the better method. RESULTS Mean age between the two groups were similar. Majority did not have history of premature rupture of membrane during previous pregnancy. Postoperative complications were more when double layer closure of uterine scar was done in index surgery. Interpregnancy gap of <3 years was more commonly present in double layer closure group (52.8% in double layer versus 34.8% in single layer. Single layer had more scar tenderness (21.2%, thinned out scars (34.6%, incomplete ruptures (7.1% and complete ruptures (2.8% than double layer closure group. Neonatal outcomes were not statistically different in both the groups. CONCLUSION Double layer uterine closure seems to have better impact on scar integrity as compared to single layer uterine closure.

  20. Immune response of gilts to single and double infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijangwad, Anchalee; Stott, Christopher James; Temeeyasen, Gun; Senasuthum, Raweewan; Chongcharoen, Wanchai; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2017-07-01

    Immune response of gilts following single and double infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at gilt acclimatization and prepartum were investigated. One hundred PEDV-naïve gilts were divided into two groups: negative (Neg) and feedback (FB) groups. Antibody responses in serum, colostrum, and milk samples were measured by IgG/IgA ELISA and virus neutralization assay (VN). Fecal shedding was investigated using RT-PCR. In summary, a single infection at gilt acclimatization resulted in slightly increased serum antibody titers as determined by VN assay and IgG ELISA, but not by IgA ELISA. Viral RNA was detected in fecal samples up to 6 days post-exposure. A double infection at prepartum resulted in significantly increased IgA and VN titers in milk samples compared to the single-infection group. No fecal shedding was detected following the double infection.

  1. Single and double pass solar air heaters with wire mesh as packing bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldabbagh, L.B.Y.; Egelioglu, F. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Magosa, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Ilkan, M. [School of Computing and Tecnology, Eastern Mediterranean University, Magosa, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    The thermal performances of single and double pass solar air heaters with steel wire mesh layers are used instead of a flat absorber plate are investigated experimentally. The effects of mass flow rate of air on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. The results indicate that the efficiency increases with increasing the mass flow rate for the range of the flow rate used in this work between 0.012 and 0.038 kg/s. For the same flow rate, the efficiency of the double pass is found to be higher than the single pass by 34-45%. Moreover, the maximum efficiencies obtained for the single and the double pass air collectors are 45.93 and 83.65% respectively for the mass flow rate of 0.038 kg/s. Comparison of the results of a packed bed collector with those of a conventional collector shows a substantial enhancement in the thermal efficiency. (author)

  2. Double versus single intensive phototherapy with LEDs in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donneborg, M L; Vandborg, P K; Hansen, B M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether double phototherapy reduces total serum bilirubin concentration faster than single light during intensive phototherapy with high levels of irradiance using light-emitting diodes. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-three infants with gestational age ⩾33 weeks and uncomplicated...... hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to either double (n=41) or single phototherapy (n=42) for 24 h. The mean irradiance was 64.8 μW cm-2 nm-1 from above and 39 μW cm-2 nm-1 from below. RESULTS: The percentage decreases of total serum bilirubin after 12 h of double vs single phototherapy were (mean (95% confidence...... phototherapy increasing spectral power by increasing the irradiated body surface area, the efficacy of phototherapy is improved....

  3. Experimental studies of dispersive double reflections excited in cylindrically bent perfect-crystal slabs at a constant neutron wavelength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Šaroun, Jan; Davydov, Vadim; Em, V.; Seong, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 98-105 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0654 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : RESIDUAL STRAIN-STRESS INSTRUMENT * MULTIPLE BRAGG-REFLECTIONS * SINGLE-CRYSTAL Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2012

  4. Plasmon resonance in single- and double-layer CVD graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Di; Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting Fung

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015.......Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015....

  5. Refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows; Sanierung von einfach- und doppeltverglasten Fenstern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Erb, M.

    2001-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the research program on the efficient use of energy in buildings takes a look at the refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows. Topics examined include the assessment of window frame condition and the addition of seals as a cost-effective measure. Replacement of the window panes with various single and double glazing as well the installation of such glazing with special coatings is discussed. Further topics examined include the grey energy involved and noise protection aspects.

  6. Superconducting single-photon detectors designed for operation at 1.55-μm telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milostnaya, I; Korneev, A; Rubtsova, I; Seleznev, V; Minaeva, O; Chulkova, G; Okunev, O; Voronov, B; Smirnov, K; Gol'tsman, G; Slysz, W; Wegrzecki, M; Guziewicz, M; Bar, J; Gorska, M; Pearlman, A; Kitaygorsky, J; Cross, A; Sobolewski, Roman

    2006-01-01

    We report on our progress in development of superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), specifically designed for secure high-speed quantum communications. The SSPDs consist of NbN-based meander nanostructures and operate at liquid helium temperatures. In general, our devices are capable of GHz-rate photon counting in a spectral range from visible light to mid-infrared. The device jitter is 18 ps and dark counts can reach negligibly small levels. The quantum efficiency (QE) of our best SSPDs for visible-light photons approaches a saturation level of ∼30-40%, which is limited by the NbN film absorption. For the infrared range (1.55μm), QE is ∼6% at 4.2 K, but it can be significantly improved by reduction of the operation temperature to the 2-K level, when QE reaches ∼20% for 1.55-μm photons. In order to further enhance the SSPD efficiency at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, we have integrated our detectors with optical cavities, aiming to increase the effective interaction of the photon with the superconducting meander and, therefore, increase the QE. A successful effort was made to fabricate an advanced SSPD structure with an optical microcavity optimized for absorption of 1.55 μm photons. The design consisted of a quarter-wave dielectric layer, combined with a metallic mirror. Early tests performed on relatively low-QE devices integrated with microcavities, showed that the QE value at the resonator maximum (1.55-μm wavelength) was of the factor 3-to-4 higher than that for a nonresonant SSPD. Independently, we have successfully coupled our SSPDs to single-mode optical fibers. The completed receivers, inserted into a liquid-helium transport dewar, reached ∼1% system QE for 1.55 μm photons. The SSPD receivers that are fiber-coupled and, simultaneously, integrated with resonators are expected to be the ultimate photon counters for optical quantum communications

  7. Double and triple entanglement in a single neutron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdösi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Single-neutron interferometry is used in various experiments to study the foundations of quantum mechanics. The drawback of this technique, however, is that the contrast of neutron interferometers is very prone to disturbances, in particular, temperature variations. In order to achieve very low degrading of the contrast, we develop new devices to manipulate the neutron-s spin and energy in the interferometer. These devices open the door for quantum state generation with much higher fidelities than it has been possible so far in neutron interferometry. Spin rotators with time-dependent (radio-frequency (RF)) field change both spin and energy. We improve our RF spin-rotators for the interferometer by equipping them with miniature Helmholtz coils, which allows to adjust the energy shift due to each RF coil independently. This is essential for the generation of certain quantum states. This improvement is made possible by a new coil cooling method. Furthermore, we also develop new Larmor precession accelerators and decelerators that do not consume energy and hence do not produce heat at all. We demonstrate two applications of the new spin and energy manipulators by generating bi- and tripartite entanglement between the neutron's spin, energy and path degrees of freedom in the interferometer: we succeed in generating a Bell-like state and GHZ- and W-like states. For Bell state generation we also introduce a convenient spin preparation scheme that uses our Larmor precession manipulator. We achieve a considerably more significant violation of a Bell-like inequality than with the previous method, thus further confirming quantum contextuality. With our RF spin rotators we achieve for the GHZ- and W-like states fidelities between 95 and 99%. (author) [de

  8. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G. [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Afonina, Zhanna A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-03-15

    Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) can provide cellular and molecular structural information on various biological samples. However, the detailed interpretation of tomograms reconstructed from single-tilt data tends to suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and artefacts caused by some systematically missing angular views. While these can be overcome by sub-tomogram averaging, they remain limiting for the analysis of unique structures. Double-tilt ET can improve the tomogram quality by acquiring a second tilt series after an in-plane rotation, but its usage is not widespread yet because it is considered technically demanding and it is rarely used under cryo conditions. Here we show that double-tilt cryo-ET improves the quality of 3D reconstructions so significantly that even single particle analysis can be envisaged despite of the intrinsically low image contrast obtained from frozen-hydrated specimens. This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries. The improved tomograms favour the faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging and allow a better 3D classification using multivariate statistical analysis. Our study of single particles and molecular assemblies within polysomes illustrates that the dual-axis approach is particularly useful for cryo applications of ET, both for unique objects and for structures that can be classified and averaged. - Highlights: ► Double-tilt cryo-ET improves 3D reconstructions thus making single particle analysis possible. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET data favour a faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging. ► Individual ribosomes were reconstructed from single-tilt, partial/ full double-tilt geometries. ► Double-tilt cryo-ET facilitates analysis of larger molecular assemblies such as in cell sections. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET is applicable to unique objects and to structures that can be

  9. Correlation effects beyond coupled cluster singles and doubles approximation through Fock matrix dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Rahul; Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-11-28

    We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n 5 additional cost. Due to the inclusion of higher rank excitations via the Fock matrix dressing, this method is a natural improvement over conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles approximation, and this method would be demonstrated via applications on some challenging systems. This highly promising scheme has a conceptually simple structure which is also easily generalizable to a multi-reference coupled cluster scheme for treating strong degeneracy. We shall demonstrate that this method is a natural lowest order perturbative approximation to the recently developed iterative n-body excitation inclusive coupled cluster singles and doubles scheme [R. Maitra et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074103 (2017)].

  10. Correlation effects beyond coupled cluster singles and doubles approximation through Fock matrix dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Rahul; Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-11-01

    We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n5 additional cost. Due to the inclusion of higher rank excitations via the Fock matrix dressing, this method is a natural improvement over conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles approximation, and this method would be demonstrated via applications on some challenging systems. This highly promising scheme has a conceptually simple structure which is also easily generalizable to a multi-reference coupled cluster scheme for treating strong degeneracy. We shall demonstrate that this method is a natural lowest order perturbative approximation to the recently developed iterative n-body excitation inclusive coupled cluster singles and doubles scheme [R. Maitra et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074103 (2017)].

  11. Single Layered Versus Double Layered Intestinal Anastomosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Surendra; Rath, Pratap Kumar; Behera, Tapas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal anastomosis is one of the most common procedures being performed in oesophagogastric, hepatobiliary, bariatric, small bowel and colorectal surgery; however, the safety and efficacy of single layer or double layer anastomotic technique is still unclear. Aim To assess and compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of single layered versus double layered intestinal anastomosis. Materials and Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled comparative study comprised of patients who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to undergo either single layered extra-mucosal anastomosis (Group-A) or double layered intestinal anastomosis (Group-B). Primary outcome measures included average time taken for anastomosis, postoperative complications, mean duration of hospital stay and cost of suture material used; secondary outcome measures assessed the postoperative return of bowel function. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and student t-test. Results A total of 97 participants were randomized. Fifty patients were allocated to single layered extramucosal continuous anastomosis (Group-A) and 47 patients to double layered anastomosis (Group-B). The patients in each group were well matched for age, sex and diagnosis. The mean time taken for anastomosis (15.12±2.27 minutes in Group-A versus 24.38±2.26 minutes in Group-B) and the length of hospital stay (5.90±1.43 days in Group-A versus 7.29±1.89 days in Group-B) was significantly shorter in Group-A {p-value anastomosis. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that single layered extramucosal continuous intestinal anastomosis is equally safe and perhaps more cost effective than the conventional double layered method and may represent the optimal choice for routine surgical practice. PMID:28764239

  12. Widely tunable single-/dual-wavelength fiber lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth and high OSNR using high quality passive subring cavity and novel tuning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Yan, Fengping; Zhao, Ziwei; Su, Hongxin; Yao, X Steve

    2016-08-22

    High stability single- and dual-wavelength compound cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with ultra-narrow linewidth, high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and widely tunable range are demonstrated. Different from using traditional cascaded Type-1/Type-2 fiber rings as secondary cavities, we nest a Type-1 ring inside a Type-2 ring to form a passive subring cavity to achieve single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) lasing with ultra-narrow linewidth for the first time. We also show that the SLM lasing stability can be further improved by inserting a length of polarization maintaining fiber in the Type-2 ring. Using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and two superimposed FBGs as mode restricting elements, respectively, we obtain a single-wavelength EDFL with a linewidth as narrow as 715 Hz and an OSNR as high as 73 dB, and a dual-wavelength EDFL with linewidths less than 1 kHz and OSNRs higher than 68 dB for both lasing wavelengths. Finally, by employing a novel self-designed strain adjustment device capable of applying both the compression and tension forces to the FBGs for wavelength tuning, we achieve the tuning range larger than 10 nm for both of the EDFLs.

  13. Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2014-01-01

    Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation is calculated for the LHC energies from a dual-Regge model, dominated by a Pomeron Regge pole exchange. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the low missing mass Mx region. The diffractionly excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single- and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given. The model predicts a possible turn-down of the cross section towards, t -> 0 in a region probably accessible in future experiments in the nearly forward direction. The present work is a continuation and extension (e.g. with double diffraction) of a previous work using the dual Regge approach.

  14. Application of Computer Program Carsim for Modelling Single and Double Lane Change Manoeuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the possibilities of using computer aided modelling programs for developing new cars to achieve better dynamical properties of control over vehicles. The article shortly reviews the behaviour of young and experienced drivers and models describing it. The paper covers the process of turning car steering wheel, considers acceptable values of lateral acceleration comfortable for a car driver and all car passengers and presents computer aided modelling program CarSim used for displaying single and double lane change manoeuvres at various speeds on dry asphalt. The given charts, including data about steering wheel angle and lateral acceleration values indicate single and double lane change manoeuvres performed by a car. Also, the values of longitudinal and lateral forces of each wheel during the double lane change manoeuvre are provided.

  15. Mast Quadrant-assisted Minimally Invasive Modified Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Incision Versus Double Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Lei Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of minimally invasive techniques is to make every effort to reduce tissue damage. Certainly, reducing skin incision is an important part of these techniques. This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of Mast Quadrant-assisted modified transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF with a small single posterior median incision. Methods: During the period of March 2011 to March 2012, 34 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease underwent the minimally invasive modified TLIF assisted by Mast Quadrant with a small single posterior median incision (single incision group. The cases in this group were compared to 37 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease in the double incision group. The perioperative conditions of patients in these two groups were statistically analyzed and compared. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores, Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores, and sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators before operation and 3, 12 months postoperation were compared. Results: A total of 31 and 35 cases in the single incision and double incision groups, respectively, completed at least 12 months of systemic follow-up. The differences in perioperative conditions between the two groups were not statistically significant. The incision length of the single incision group was significantly shorter than that of the double incision group (P < 0.01. The ODI and VAS scores of patients in both groups improved significantly at 3 and 12 months postoperation. However, these two indicators at 3 and 12 months postoperation and the sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators at 3 months postoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions: Mast Quadrant-assisted modified TLIF with a small single posterior median incision has excellent clinical feasibility compared to minimally invasive TLIF with a double paramedian incision.

  16. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean. 2. Determination of single scattering albedo at two wavelengths for different aerosol types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Meloni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical properties were retrieved from direct and diffuse spectral irradiance measurements made by a multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR at the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001–September 2003. In a companion paper (Pace et al., 2006 the aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent were used together with airmass backward trajectories to identify and classify different aerosol types. The MFRSR diffuse-to-direct ratio (DDR at 415.6 nm and 868.7 nm for aerosol classified as 'biomass burning-urban/industrial', originating primarily from the European continent, and desert dust, originating from the Sahara, is used in this study to estimate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA. A detailed radiative transfer model is initialised with the measured aerosol optical depth; calculations are performed at the two wavelengths varying the SSA values until the modelled DDR matches the MFRSR observations. Sensitivity studies are performed to estimate how uncertainties on AOD, DDR, asymmetry factor (g, and surface albedo influence the retrieved SSA values. The results show that a 3% variation of AOD or DDR produce a change of about 0.02 in the retrieved SSA value at 415.6 and 868.7 nm; a ±0.06 variation of the asymmetry factor g produces a change of the estimated SSA of <0.04 at 415.6 nm, and <0.06 at 868.7 nm; finally, an increase of the assumed surface albedo of 0.05 causes very small changes (0.01–0.02 in the retrieved SSA. The calculations show that the SSA of desert dust (DD increases with wavelength, from 0.81±0.05 at 415.6 nm to 0.94±0.05 at 868.7 nm; on the contrary, the SSA of urban/industrial (UN aerosols decreases from 0.96±0.02 at 415.6 nm to 0.87±0.07 at 868.7 nm; the SSA of biomass burning (BB particles is 0.82±0.04 at 415.6 nm and 0.80±0.05 at 868.7 nm. Episodes of UN aerosols occur usually in June and July; long lasting BB aerosol episodes

  17. Single-Tailed Lipidoids Enhance the Transfection Activity of Their Double-Tailed Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihang; Li, Linxian; Chen, Qing; Su, Yi; Levkin, Pavel A; Davidson, Gary

    2016-01-11

    Cationic lipid-like molecules (lipidoids) are widely used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Nearly all lipidoids developed to date employ double-tail or multiple-tail structures for transfection. Single-tail lipidoids are seldom considered for transfection as they have low efficiency in gene delivery. So far, there is no detailed study on the contribution to transfection efficiency of single-tail lipidoids when combined with standard double-tail lipidoids. Here, we use combinatorial chemistry to synthesize 17 double-tail and 17 single-tail lipidoids using thiol-yne and thiol-ene click chemistry, respectively. HEK 293T cells were used to analyze transfection efficiency by fluorescence microscopy and calculated based on the percentage of cells transfected. The size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular DNA delivery and trafficking was further examined using confocal microscopy. Our study shows that combining single with double-tail lipidoids increases uptake of lipoplexes, as well as cellular transfection efficiency.

  18. Accuracy of Single-Step versus 2-Step Double-Mix Impression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Herrera, Francyle Simões

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the accuracy of dies obtained from single-step and 2-step double-mix impressions. Material and Methods. Impressions (n = 10) of a stainless steel die simulating a complete crown preparation were performed using a polyether (Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body) and a vinyl...

  19. Comparison of the accuracy of the calibration model on the double and single integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the calibration model for the single and double integrating sphere systems are compared for a white light system. A calibration model is created from a matrix of samples with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients...

  20. A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying

    1992-08-01

    A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%

  1. Understanding the similarity in thermophoresis between single- and double-stranded DNA or RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Maren; Herzog, Mario; Greiss, Ferdinand; Wolff, Manuel; Braun, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Thermophoresis is the movement of molecules in a temperature gradient. For aqueous solutions its microscopic basis is debated. Understanding thermophoresis for this case is, however, important since it proved very useful to detect the binding affinity of biomolecules and since thermophoresis could have played an important role in early molecular evolution. Here we discuss why the thermophoresis of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides - DNA and RNA - is surprisingly similar. This finding is understood by comparing the spherical capacitor model for single-stranded species with the case of a rod-shaped model for double-stranded oligonucleotides. The approach describes thermophoresis of DNA and RNA with fitted effective charges consistent with electrophoresis measurements and explains the similarity between single- and double-stranded species. We could not confirm the sign change for the thermophoresis of single- versus double-stranded DNA in crowded solutions containing polyethylene glycol [Y. T. Maeda, T. Tlusty, and A. Libchaber, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 17972 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1215764109], but find a salt-independent offset while the Debye length dependence still satisfies the capacitor model. Overall, the analysis documents the continuous progress in the microscopic understanding of thermophoresis.

  2. Reliability in Single, Double and N2R Ring Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Pedersen, L.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    This paper studies the properties of single, double and N2R ring network structures during link errors. The structure of the network infrastructure must be redesigned in order to fulfil the requirements of services using the Internet in the future; hence, N2R structures have been suggested. N2R s...

  3. Changes in behaviour and body weight following a single or double social defeat in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Daan, S.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the consequences of a single and double social conflict on various behaviours and body weight in rats were studied. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for one hour, either once, or twice at the same

  4. Comparison of double-acting and single-acting synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hsu, S.S.; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Chou, C.-C.; Chen, C. C.; Wang, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 203, December (2013), s. 291-299 ISSN 0924-4247 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * double-acting & single acting machines * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.09.005

  5. Measurement uncertainty in single, double and triple isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen

    2012-02-15

    Triple IDMS has been applied for the first time to the quantification of element concentrations. It has been compared with single and double IDMS obtained on the same sample set in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of triple IDMS over single and double IDMS as an analytical reference procedure. The measurement results of single, double and triple IDMS are indistinguishable, considering rounding due to the individual measurement uncertainties. As expected, the relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) achieved with double IDMS (0.08%) are dramatically smaller than those obtained with single IDMS (1.4%). Triple IDMS yields the smallest relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2, 0.077%) unfortunately at the expense of a much higher workload. Nevertheless triple IDMS has the huge advantage that the isotope ratio of the spike does not need to be determined. Elements with high memory effects, highly enriched spikes or highest metrological requirements may be typical applications for triple IDMS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A compact multi-wavelength optoacoustic system based on high-power diode lasers for characterization of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; de Varona, Omar; Escudero, Pedro; Carpintero del Barrio, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela Rivera, Horacio

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, Optoacoustic Imaging (OAI), or Optoacoustic Tomography (OAT), has evolved as a novel imaging technique based on the generation of ultrasound waves with laser light. OAI may become a valid alternative to techniques currently used for the detection of diseases at their early stages. It has been shown that OAI combines the high contrast of optical imaging techniques with high spatial resolution of ultrasound systems in deep tissues. In this way, the use of nontoxic biodegradable contrast agents that mark the presence of diseases in near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths range (0.75-1.4 um) has been considered. The presence of carcinomas and harmful microorganisms can be revealed by means of the fluorescence effect exhibited by biopolymer nanoparticles. A different approach is to use carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which are a contrast agent in NIR range due to their absorption characteristics in the range between 800 to 1200 nm. We report a multi-wavelength (870 and 905 nm) laser diode-based optoacoustic (OA) system generating ultrasound signals from a double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) solution arranged inside a tissue-like phantom, mimicking the scattering of a biological soft tissue. Optoacoustic signals obtained with DWCNTs inclusions within a tissue-like phantom are compared with the case of ink-filled inclusions, with the aim to assess their absorption. These measurements are done at both 870 and 905 nm, by using high power laser diodes as light sources. The results show that the absorption is relatively high when the inclusion is filled with ink and appreciable with DWCNTs.

  7. Switching behavior of double-decker single molecule magnets on a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yingshuang; Schwoebel, Joerg; Hoffmann, Germar; Brede, Jens; Wiesendanger, Roland [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Dillulo, Andrew [Ohio University, Athens (United States); Klyatskaya, Svetlana [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ruben, Mario [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-07-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMM) are most promising materials for spin based molecular electronics. Due to their large magnetic anisotropy stabilized by inside chemical bonds, SMM can potentially be used for information storage at the single molecule level. For applications, it is of importance to adsorb the SMM onto surfaces and to study their subsequent conformational, electronic and magnetic properties. We have investigated the adsorption behavior of Tb and Dy based double-decker SMM on an Ir(111) surface with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. It is found that Tb double-decker molecules bind tightly to the Ir(111) surface. By resonantly injecting tunneling electrons into its LUMO or HOMO state, the Tb double-decker molecule can be switched from a four-lobed structure to an eight-lobed structure. After switching, energy positions of the HOMO and LUMO states both shift closer to the Fermi level. Dy double-decker molecules also exhibit the same switching properties on the Ir(111) surface. The switching behavior of the molecules is tentatively attributed to a conformational change of the double-decker molecular frame.

  8. Sensitivity of single and double contrast barium enema in the detection of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivansalo, M.; Laitinen, S.; Oulu Univ.

    1984-01-01

    The preoperative barium enema of the 188 colorectal carcinoma patients operated at the Oulu University Central Hospital (Finland) during 1977-1982 were examined retrospectively. Altogether 112 single contrast studies and 87 double contrast studies had been made on these patients. The single contrast barium enemas had resulted in a correct diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma in 93 cases (sensitivity 83%). The correct diagnosis in the double contrast studies numbered 71 (sensitivity 82%). Most of the overlooked carcinomas were located in the caecum, in the sigmoid or the rectum. Most of the errors made in the single contrast studies were due to detection errors and poor evacuation. The most common failures in double contrast enemas were detection errors and nonvisualisation of the sigmoid. The authors recommend use of the double contrast technique and suggest that the two methods of barium enema be used to complement each other. A false negative diagnosis delayed the operation of the colorectal carcinoma patients by 2.2 months (median). (orig.) [de

  9. Sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction crystal structure of a pheromone-binding protein from the honeybee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigue, Audrey; Gruez, Arnaud; Briand, Loïc; Blon, Florence; Bézirard, Valérie; Walsh, Martin; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian

    2004-02-06

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are small helical proteins ( approximately 13-17 kDa) present in several sensory organs from moth and other insect species. They are involved in the transport of pheromones from the sensillar lymph to the olfactory receptors. We report here the crystal structure of a PBP (Amel-ASP1) originating from the honey-bee (Apis mellifera) antennae and expressed as recombinant protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Crystals of Amel-ASP1 were obtained at pH 5.5 using the nano-drops technique of crystallization with a novel optimization procedure, and the structure was solved initially with the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur anomalous dispersion. The structure of Amel-ASP1 has been refined at 1.6-A resolution. Its fold is roughly similar to that of other PBP/odorant binding proteins, presenting six helices and three disulfide bridges. Contrary to the PBPs from Bombyx mori (Sandler, B. H., Nikonova, L., Leal, W. S., and Clardy, J. (2000) Chem. Biol. 7, 143-151) and Leucophea maderae (Lartigue, A., Gruez, A., Spinelli, S., Riviere, S., Brossut, R., Tegoni, M., and Cambillau, C. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 30213-30218), the extended C terminus folds into the protein and forms a wall of the internal hydrophobic cavity. Its backbone groups establish two hydrogen bonds with a serendipitous ligand, n-butyl-benzene-sulfonamide, an additive used in plastics. This mode of binding might, however, mimic that used by one of the pheromonal blend components and illustrates the binding versatility of PBPs.

  10. Fabrication of double-dot single-electron transistor in silicon nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Mingyu; Kaizawa, Takuya; Arita, Masashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan); Fujiwara, Akira; Ono, Yukinori [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, 243-0198 (Japan); Inokawa, Hiroshi [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka Univ., 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu, 432-8011 (Japan); Choi, Jung-Bum [Physics and Research Institute of NanoScience and Technology, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Takahashi, Yasuo, E-mail: y-taka@nano.ist.hokudai.ac.j [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple method for fabricating Si single-electron transistors (SET) with coupled dots by means of a pattern-dependent-oxidation (PADOX) method. The PADOX method is known to convert a small one-dimensional Si wire formed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate into a SET automatically. We fabricated a double-dot Si SET when we oxidized specially designed Si nanowires formed on SOI substrates. We analyzed the measured electrical characteristics by fitting the measurement and simulation results and confirmed the double-dot formation and the position of the two dots in the Si wire.

  11. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bin; Feng, Suchun; Liu, Zhibo; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-09-22

    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on polarization-maintaining chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (PM-CMFBG) filter is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, the CMFBG inscribed on the PM fiber is applied for the wavelength-tunable and-switchable dual-wavelength laser. The PM-CMFBG filter with ultra-narrow transmission band (0.1 pm) and a uniform polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable single polarization SLM operation is guaranteed by the PM-CMFBG filter and polarization controller. A tuning range of about 0.25 nm with about 0.075 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform PM-FBG. Meanwhile, the linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximate 6.5 and 7.1 kHz with a 20 dB linewidth, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximate 325 Hz and 355 Hz FWHM.

  12. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  13. Comparative study of the double-K -shell-vacancy production in single- and double-electron-capture decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkevich, S. S.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Karpeshin, F. F.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Background: A double-K -electron capture is a rare nuclear-atomic process in which two K electrons are captured simultaneously from the atomic shell. A "hollow atom" is created as a result of this process. In single-K -shell electron-capture decays, there is a small probability that the second electron in the K shell is excited to an unoccupied level or can (mostly) be ejected to the continuum. In either case, a double vacancy is created in the K shell. The relaxation of the double-K -shell vacancy, accompanied by the emission of two K -fluorescence photons, makes it possible to perform experimental studies of such rare processes with the large-volume proportional gas chamber. Purpose: The purpose of the present analysis is to estimate a double-K -shell vacancy creation probability per K -shell electron capture PK K of 81Kr, as well as to measure the half-life of 78Kr relative to 2 ν 2 K capture. Method: Time-resolving current pulse from the large low-background proportional counter (LPC), filled with the krypton sample, was applied to detect triple coincidences of "shaked" electrons and two fluorescence photons. Results: The number of K -shell vacancies per the K -electron capture, produced as a result of the shake-off process, has been measured for the decay of 81Kr. The probability for this decay was found to be PK K=(5.7 ±0.8 ) ×10-5 with a systematic error of (ΔPKK) syst=±0.4 ×10-5 . For the 78Kr(2 ν 2 K ) decay, the comparative study of single- and double-capture decays allowed us to obtain the signal-to-background ratio up to 15/1. The half-life T1/2 2 ν 2 K(g .s .→g .s .) =[1 .9-0.7+1.3(stat) ±0.3 (syst) ] ×1022 y is determined from the analysis of data that have been accumulated over 782 days of live measurements in the experiment that used samples consisted of 170.6 g of 78Kr. Conclusions: The data collected during low background measurements using the LPC were analyzed to search the rare atomic and nuclear processes. We have determined PKK

  14. Retrocausation acting in the single-electron double-slit interference experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkyo, Noboru

    The single electron double-slit interference experiment is given a time-symmetric interpretation and visualization in terms of the intermediate amplitude of transition between the particle source and the detection point. It is seen that the retarded (causal) amplitude of the electron wave expanding from the source shows an advanced (retrocausal) bifurcation and merging in passing through the double-slit and converges towards the detection point as if guided by the advanced (retrocausal) wave from the detected electron. An experiment is proposed to confirm the causation-retrocausation symmetry of the electron behavior by observing the insensitivity of the interference pattern to non-magnetic obstacles placed in the shadows of the retarded and advanced waves appearing on the rear and front sides of the double-slit.

  15. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  16. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T.; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.154101] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  17. Is double-gloving really protective? A comparison between the glove perforation rate among perioperative nurses with single and double gloves during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue Ping; Wong, Po Ming; Li, Yi; Or, Peggy Pui Lai

    2012-08-01

    Surgical teams rely on surgical gloves as a barrier to protect themselves against blood-borne pathogenic infections during surgery. Double-gloving is adopted by surgeons to tackle the problem of glove perforation. Nevertheless, double-gloving is not practiced commonly by operating room nurses and there are only limited studies about double-gloving that targets only perioperative nurses. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of double-gloving in protecting perioperative nurses by comparing the frequency of glove perforation between single-gloving and double-gloving groups. A prospective and randomized study was performed. Nurses were assigned randomly to single-gloved and double-gloved groups for comparison of the glove perforation rate. Water-leakage and air-inflation tests were used to detect glove perforation. Glove perforations was detected in 10 of 112 sets of single-gloves (8.9%) and 12 of 106 sets of outer gloves in the double-gloved group (11.3%). There was no inner double-glove perforation (0%). Glove perforations were found in 6 and 4 of the 112 sets of single-gloves for the first assistants (5.36%) and the scrub nurses (3.57%), and 5 and 7 of 106 sets of outer gloves in the double-gloved group for the first assistants (4.72%) and the scrub nurses (6.60%), respectively. The average occurrence of perforation was 69.8 minutes (range, 20-110 min) after the beginning of surgery. The sites of perforation were localized mostly on the left middle finger (42%) and the left ring finger (33.3%). Based on the findings of the study, double-gloving is indeed effective in protecting operating room nurses against blood-borne pathogen exposure. It should be introduced as a routine practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Ku heterodimer and the metabolism of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Ristic, Dejan; Dionne, Isabelle; Liu, Xiao Z; Wyman, Claire; Wellinger, Raymund J; Petrini, John H J

    2013-06-27

    Single-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s) of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the influence of the Ku heterodimer and Mre11 nuclease activity on processing of single-ended DSBs. Separation-of-function alleles of yku70 were derived that phenocopy Ku deficiency with respect to single-ended DSBs but remain proficient for NHEJ. The Ku mutants fail to regulate Exo1 activity, and bypass the requirement for Mre11 nuclease activity in the repair of camptothecin-induced single-ended DSBs. Ku mutants exhibited reduced affinity for DNA ends, manifest as both reduced end engagement and enhanced probability of diffusing inward on linear DNA. This study reveals an interplay between Ku and Mre11 in the metabolism of single-ended DSBs that is distinct from repair pathway choice at double-ended DSBs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Ku Heterodimer and the Metabolism of Single-Ended DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Balestrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the influence of the Ku heterodimer and Mre11 nuclease activity on processing of single-ended DSBs. Separation-of-function alleles of yku70 were derived that phenocopy Ku deficiency with respect to single-ended DSBs but remain proficient for NHEJ. The Ku mutants fail to regulate Exo1 activity, and bypass the requirement for Mre11 nuclease activity in the repair of camptothecin-induced single-ended DSBs. Ku mutants exhibited reduced affinity for DNA ends, manifest as both reduced end engagement and enhanced probability of diffusing inward on linear DNA. This study reveals an interplay between Ku and Mre11 in the metabolism of single-ended DSBs that is distinct from repair pathway choice at double-ended DSBs.

  20. Numerical simulations of single and double ionization of H2 in short intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Rescattering is the dominant process leading to double ionization in atoms and molecules interacting with linearly polarized laser pulses with wavelengths around 800 nm and in an intensity regime of 10 14 to 10 15 W/cm 2 . Using numerical integrations of the two-electron Schroedinger equation of the Hydrogen molecule in appropriate reduced dimensions two mechanisms, namely correlated emission of the electrons and excitation followed by field ionization after rescattering, could be identified and characterized. With the help of a planar model in reduced dimensions these mechanisms were quantitatively compared by their dependence on the molecular alignment with respect to the polarization axis. Two additional mechanisms, which are also related to rescattering, could be identified as well. (orig.)

  1. LIDAR forest inventory with single-tree, double- and single-phase procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Parker; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data at 0.5- to 2-m postings were used with doublesample, stratified inventory procedures involving single-tree attribute relationships in mixed, natural, and planted species stands to yield sampling errors (one-half the confidence interval expressed as a percentage of the mean) ranging from ±2.1 percent to ±11.5...

  2. Evolution between self-assembled single and double ring-like nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J H; Wang, Zh M; Abuwaar, Z Y; Strom, N W; Salamo, G J

    2006-01-01

    The evolution between lattice-matched GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As single and double ring-like nanostructures is studied, with an emphasis on the construction and destruction of the observed outer ring. Using droplet epitaxy, this was achieved by directly controlling the Ga surface diffusion on GaAs(100). Double ring-like nanostructures were observed at relatively low temperatures under a fixed As 4 flux (beam equivalent pressure (BEP) of 6.4 μTorr) and at a fixed temperature under a high As 4 flux. The construction of the outer ring can be controlled through surface diffusion by varying the substrate temperature or the As 4 flux. Single ring-like nanostructures were realized both at relatively high temperatures under a fixed As 4 flux, and at low temperatures under a relatively low As 4 flux

  3. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double-negative...... detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  4. Double and single ionization of helium by 58-keV X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielberger, L.; Buslaps, T.; Braeuning, H.; Gemmell, D.S.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1996-03-01

    We have measured the ratio of cross sections for double to single ionization of helium by Compton scattering, R c =σ c ++ /σ c + at a photon energy of 58 keV using Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy. We find a value R c =(0.84 -11 +08 )% that is in agreement with the asymptotic limits predicted by Andersson and Burgdoerfer (Phys. Rev. A 50, R2810 (1994)) and Suric et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 790 (1994)). (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, D; Carmona, J U; Pastor, J; Iborra, A; Viñals, L; Martínez, P; Bach, E; Prades, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets. Whole blood samples were collected from clinically normal horses and processed by use of single and double centrifugation tube methods to obtain four platelet concentrates (PCs): PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D, which were analyzed using a flow cytometry hematology system for hemogram and additional platelet parameters (mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, mean platelet component concentration, mean platelet component distribution width). Concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta(1)) were determined in all the samples. Platelet concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 45%, 44%, 71%, and 21% higher, respectively, compared to the same values for citrated whole blood samples. TGF-beta(1) concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 38%, 44%, 44%, and 37% higher, respectively, compared to citrated whole blood sample values. In conclusion, the single and double centrifugation tube methods are reliable methods for concentrating equine platelets and for obtaining potentially therapeutic TGF-beta(1) levels.

  6. Squeezing survival and transfer in single and double electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, J L; Hou, B P; Wang, S J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the propagation and storage of a squeezed vacuum as the probe light in a collection of N four-level tripod configuration atoms under the condition of single or double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The squeezing of the probe light is well preserved in both the single transparency channel and the double transparency one. On the other hand, the effects of the ground state dephasing rates on the propagation and storage of the squeezed vacuum are investigated. It is found that the maximum squeezing at the transparency points is suppressed by the dephasing rates in single or double EIT. Meanwhile, the mapping of the squeezing of the probe light onto the atomic ground coherences or onto the two atomic dark-state polaritons is also studied. In the absence of the Langevin atomic noise, the quasi-ideal squeezing transfer between the squeezed vacuum and the atomic ground coherences or the dark-state polaritons can be realized in such a system. When considering the Langevin atomic noise, the quantum characteristics of the atomic coherences at resonance are submerged by the Langevin noise, while in the scenario of the dark-state polariton, it is found that squeezing transfer onto one polariton is damaged, but the squeezing transfer onto the other polariton survives even in the presence of the Langevin noise.

  7. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of single and double pass Aluminum AA6061 friction stir weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, N H; Shah, L H; Ishak, M

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of single pass (SP), double sided pass (DSP) and normal double pass (NDP) method on friction stir welding of aluminum AA6061. Two pieces of AA6061 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using conventional milling machine. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 800 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1200 rpm, respectively. The welding speed is fixed to 100 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Tensile test and Vickers hardness test were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen. Mechanical property analysis results indicate that at low rotational speeds, defects such as surface lack of fill and tunneling in the welded area can be observed. Vickers hardness of specimens however did not vary much when rotational speed is varied. Welded specimens using single pass method shows higher tensile strength and hardness value compared to both double pass methods up to 180.61 MPa. Moreover, DSP showed better tensile test and hardness test compared to NDP method. The optimum parameters were found to be single pass method with 1200 rpm of rotational speed. Therefore economically sound to only perform SP method to obtain maximum tensile strength for AA6061 FSW with thickness of 6 mm. (paper)

  8. [Transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles for pediatric hydrocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin-Chun; Xue, Wen-Yong; Li, Suo-Lin; Lu, Bao-Sai; Jia, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Ping; DU, Lei; Li, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-09-01

    To compare the clinical effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles with that of traditional open surgery in the treatment of hydrocele in children. We retrospectively analyzed 35 cases (54 sides) of pediatric hydrocele treated by transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles (laparoscopy group). We recorded the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, scrotal edema, and postoperative complications and compared them with those of another 46 cases (58 sides) treated by traditional open surgery (open surgery group) during the same period. The laparoscopy group showed a significantly shorter operation time, less intraoperative blood loss, milder scrotal edema, and fewer hospital days than the open surgery group (all P0.05). Subcutaneous emphysema developed in 2 patients in the laparoscopy group, which disappeared after 1-3 days of oxygen inhalation and other symptomatic treatment, while scrotal hematoma occurred in 1 and incision fat liquefaction in 2 patients in the open surgery group 3 days postoperatively, which healed after debridement suture and daily dressing, respectively. The patients were followed up for 3-6 months, which revealed no late complications in the laparoscopy group but 1 case of unilateral recurrence and 2 cases of offside recurrence in the open surgery group, all cured by laparoscopic internal ring ligation. Transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles is superior to traditional open surgery for the treatment of pediatric hydrocele and therefore deserves clinical generalization.

  9. Repair and gamma radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in the kinetics of repair of γ-radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of E. coli cells showed that double-strand DNA breaks are rejoined by the following two ways. The first way is conditioned by repair of single-strand breaks and represents the repair of ''oblique'' double-strand breaks in DNA, whereas the second way is conditioned by functioning of the recombination mechanisms and, to all appearance, represents the repair of ''direct'' double-strand breaks in DNA

  10. Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single SOA at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Moon-Youn; Kim, Seung-Hwan

    2011-10-24

    In this study, we demonstrated a wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR, FD-OCT). The wavelength-swept laser was constructed with an external line-cavity based on a Littman configuration. An optical wavelength selection filter consisted of a grating, a telescope, and a polygon scanner. Before constructing the optical wavelength selection filter, we observed that the optical power, the spectrum bandwidth, and the center wavelength of the SOA were affected by the temperature of the thermoelectric (TE) cooler in the SOA mount as well as the applied current. Therefore, to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range, we adjusted the temperature of the TE cooler in the SOA mount. When the temperature in the TE cooler was 9 °C, our swept source had a tuning range of 142 nm and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 121.5 nm at 18 kHz. The measured instantaneous spectral bandwidth (δλ) is 0.085 nm, which was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution bandwidth of 0.06 nm. This value corresponds to an imaging depth of 3.1 mm in air. Additionally, the averaged optical power of our swept source was 8.2 mW. In UHR, FD/SS-OCT using our swept laser, the measured axial resolution was 4.0 μm in air corresponding to 2.9 μm in tissue (n = 1.35). The sensitivity was measured to be 93.1 dB at a depth of 100 μm. Finally, we obtained retinal images (macular and optic disk) and a corneal image. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostell, Per; Roos, Arne; Rönnow, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    A multipurpose instrument for the measurement of reflectance and transmittance versus angle of incidence for both specular and diffuse samples in the solar wavelength range has been constructed and evaluated. The instrument operates in the single-beam mode and uses a common light source for three experimental setups. Two integrating spheres, 20 cm in diameter, are used for diffuse transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance sphere can be turned around an axis through the sample to vary the angle of incidence. The reflectance sphere uses a center mounted sample and a special feature is the position of the detector, which is mounted on the sample holder at the center of the sphere. This way the detector always sees the same part of the sphere wall and no light can reach the detector directly from the sample. The third setup is an absolute instrument for specular samples. It uses a small averaging sphere as a detector. The detector is mounted on an arm which rotates around the center of the sample, and it can thus pick up both the reflected and transmitted beams including all multiply reflected components. The averaging sphere detector is insensitive to small side shifts of the detected beams and no multiple reflections between detector and optical system occur. In this report a number of calibration procedures are presented for the three experimental setups and models for the calculation of correct transmittance and reflectance values from measured data are presented. It is shown that for integrating sphere measurements, the geometry of the sphere and the diffusivity of the sample as well as the sphere wall reflectance and port losses are important factors that influence the result. For the center mounted configuration these factors are particularly important and special emphasis is given to the evaluation of the reflectance sphere model. All three instrument setups are calibrated using certified reference materials and nonscattering mirrors and

  12. Study on the fragmentation of granite due to the impact of single particle and double particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Impact Drilling (PID is a novel method to improve the rate of penetration (ROP. In order to further improve the performance of PID, an investigation into the effect of single and double particles: (1 diameter; (2 initial velocity; (3 distance; and (4 angle of incidence was undertaken to investigate their effects on broken volume and penetration depth into hard brittle rock. For this purpose, the laboratory experiment of single particle impact rock was employed. Meanwhile, based on the LS-DYNA, a new finite element (FE simulation of the PID, including single and double particles impact rock, has been presented. The 3-dimensional (3D, aix-symmetric, dynamic-explicit, Lagrangian model has been considered in this simulation. And the Elastic and Holmquist Johnson Cook (HJC material behaviors have been used for particles and rocks, respectively. The FE simulation results of single particle impacting rock are good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, in this article the optimal impact parameters, including diameter, initial velocity, distance and the angle of incidence, are obtained in PID.

  13. Single molecule fluorescence imaging as a technique for barium tagging in neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J. P.; McDonald, A. D.; Nygren, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Background rejection is key to success for future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. To achieve sensitivity to effective Majorana lifetimes of ~ 1028 years, backgrounds must be controlled to better than 0.1 count per ton per year, beyond the reach of any present technology. In this paper we propose a new method to identify the birth of the barium daughter ion in the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The method adapts Single Molecule Fluorescent Imaging, a technique from biochemistry research with demonstrated single ion sensitivity. We explore possible SMFI dyes suitable for the problem of barium ion detection in high pressure xenon gas, and develop a fiber-coupled sensing system with which we can detect the presence of bulk Ba++ ions remotely. We show that our sensor produces signal-to-background ratios as high as 85 in response to Ba++ ions when operated in aqueous solution. We then describe the next stage of this R&D program, which will be to demonstrate chelation and fluorescence in xenon gas. If a successful barium ion tag can be developed using SMFI adapted for high pressure xenon gas detectors, the first essentially zero background, ton-scale neutrinoless double beta decay technology could be realized.

  14. Effect of Single and Double Pass Arc Welding on HAZ of High Carbon Steel Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Abdul Hasan Atiyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of heat affected zone width for multi high carbon steel joint in case of single and double pass arc welded have been studied. These measurements are carried out in accompanying of hardness and microstructural observations. Knowing that, high carbon steel has a poor weld ability and most of welding processes are carried out for repairing components. It is found that a preheating was a very important parameter in identifying the width of heat-affected zone. Preheating the joint at 450°C was found to gives less width heat affected zone (i.e.5.93mm in the case of single pass welding practices. While, in the case of double pass welding, the heat affected zone becomes wider because the excessive heating during welding cycle. The double pass welding has coarsening the structure of first pass. Microscopic observations indicated that the structure of HAZ of high carbon steel was mainly lath martensite (ML under the condition of lower weld heat input. 

  15. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser using an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filter and a low-gain semiconductor optical amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Liang, Sheng

    2010-12-20

    We present a stable and switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser. In the ring cavity, an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating serves as an ultranarrow dual-wavelength passband filter, a semiconductor optical amplifier biased in the low-gain regime reduces the gain competition of the two wavelengths, and a feedback fiber loop acts as a mode filter to guarantee a stable single-longitudinal-mode operation. Two lasing lines with a wavelength separation of approximately 0.1 nm are obtained experimentally. A microwave signal at 12.51 GHz is demonstrated by beating the dual wavelengths at a photodetector.

  16. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian Günther

    2015-01-01

    even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes......¨dinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can...... not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics....

  17. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Chistiakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms.

  18. Threshold behavior in single-photon double ionization of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z. X.; Moberg, R.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1995-12-01

    The threshold behavior of the single-photon double-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen has been studied using vacuum uv radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. The double-ionization cross section appears to follow a power law Eα (where E is the kinetic energy of the two electrons) from its threshold to about 2.0 eV above with an exponent α=1.08+/-0.03, which is consistent with Wannier's theoretical value of 1.056. The cross section also shows the influence of the doubly excited 2s2p3nln'l' (n,n'>~3) neutral states, among which the first three converge to the 2s2p3(5So)4p(6Po) ionic state of oxygen.

  19. Ultraclean single, double, and triple carbon nanotube quantum dots with recessed Re bottom gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minkyung; Schindele, Jens; Nau, Stefan; Weiss, Markus; Baumgartner, Andreas; Schoenenberger, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Ultraclean carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that are free from disorder provide a promising platform to manipulate single electron or hole spins for quantum information. Here, we demonstrate that ultraclean single, double, and triple quantum dots (QDs) can be formed reliably in a CNT by a straightforward fabrication technique. The QDs are electrostatically defined in the CNT by closely spaced metallic bottom gates deposited in trenches in Silicon dioxide by sputter deposition of Re. The carbon nanotubes are then grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) across the trenches and contacted using conventional electron beam lithography. The devices exhibit reproducibly the characteristics of ultraclean QDs behavior even after the subsequent electron beam lithography and chemical processing steps. We demonstrate the high quality using CNT devices with two narrow bottom gates and one global back gate. Tunable by the gate voltages, the device can be operated in four different regimes: i) fully p-type with ballistic transport between the outermost contacts (over a length of 700 nm), ii) clean n-type single QD behavior where a QD can be induced by either the left or the right bottom gate, iii) n-type double QD and iv) triple bipolar QD where the middle QD has opposite doping (p-type). Research at Basel is supported by the NCCR-Nano, NCCR-QIST, ERC project QUEST, and FP7 project SE2ND.

  20. Towards strong light-matter coupling at the single-resonator level with sub-wavelength mid-infrared nano-antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malerba, M.; De Angelis, F., E-mail: francesco.deangelis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Ongarello, T.; Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Colombelli, R., E-mail: raffaele.colombelli@u-psud.fr [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N Orsay), CNRS UMR9001, Univ. Paris Sud, Univ. Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-07-11

    We report a crucial step towards single-object cavity electrodynamics in the mid-infrared spectral range using resonators that borrow functionalities from antennas. Room-temperature strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated in the mid-infrared between an intersubband transition and an extremely reduced number of sub-wavelength resonators. By exploiting 3D plasmonic nano-antennas featuring an out-of-plane geometry, we observed strong light-matter coupling in a very low number of resonators: only 16, more than 100 times better than what reported to date in this spectral range. The modal volume addressed by each nano-antenna is sub-wavelength-sized and it encompasses only ≈4400 electrons.

  1. New insights on single-stranded versus double-stranded DNA library preparation for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Carøe, Christian; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    An innovative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library preparation method has sparked great interest among ancient DNA (aDNA) researchers, especially after reports of endogenous DNA content increases >20-fold in some samples. To investigate the behavior of this method, we generated ssDNA...... and conventional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) libraries from 23 ancient and historic plant and animal specimens. We found ssDNA library preparation substantially increased endogenous content when dsDNA libraries contained...

  2. Simultaneous measurement of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients with a single arm double interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenegueti, Jose Francisco Miras; Andrade, Acacio A; Pilla, Viviane; Zilio, Sergio Carlos

    2017-01-09

    A low-cost single arm double interferometer was developed for the concurrent measurement of linear thermal expansion (α) and thermo-optic (dn/dT) coefficients of transparent samples with plane and parallel surfaces. Owing to its common-path optical arrangement, the device is compact and stable, and allows the simultaneous measurement of interferences arising from a low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon and from a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer. The method was demonstrated with measurements of solid (silica, BK7, SF6) and liquid (water, ethanol and acetone) samples.

  3. Double ferromagnetism in single-crystal Gd-Y-Lu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Oka, M.; Legvold, S.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetization, electrical resistivity, specific-heat and thermal-expansion measurements have been made on Gd-Y-Lu single crystals. Low isofield magnetization data for the a-axis sample of Gd 75 Y/sub 17.5/ Lu/sub 7.5/ exhibit two different Curie-Weiss regimes, which suggests double ferromagnetism. Electrical resistivity, specific-heat, and thermal-expansion data show two anomalies at the transition temperatures. The anomaly at 231.5 K shows a lambda-type second-order phase transition and the anomaly at 223 K shows a sharp spike first-order phase transition

  4. Perbedaan Kekuatan Tarik Perlekatan Antara Resin Komposit Dan Permukaan Gigi Dengan Aplikasi Single, Double, Dan Triple Sistem Adhesif

    OpenAIRE

    Rizka Vila Putri

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kekuatan tarik perlekatan antara resin komposit danpermukaan gigi dengan aplikasi single, double dan triple sistem adhesif. Sampel berjumlah 30 buah gigi premolar yang diekstraksi untuk keperluan ortodonti, terdiri atas tiga ke1ompok perlakuan, yaitu kelompok I diberikan aplikasi single dari one-step self-etch adhesive, kelompok II diberikan aplikasi double dari one-step self-etch adhesive, dan kelompok III diberikan aplikasi triple dari...

  5. Induction and repair of double- and single-strand DNA breaks in bacteriophage lambda superinfecting Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, E.; Krisch, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Induction and repair of double-and single-strand DNA breaks have been measured after decays of 125 I and 3 H incorporated into the DNA and after external irradiation with 4 MeV electrons. For the decay experiments, cells of wild type Escherichia coli K-12 were superinfected with bacteriophage lambda DNA labelled with 5'-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine or with (methyl- 3 H)thymidine and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Aliquots were thawed at intervals and lysed at neutral pH, and the phage DNA was assayed for double- and single-strand breakage by neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. The gradients used allowed measurements of both kinds of breaks in the same gradient. Decays of 125 I induced 0.39 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. No repair of either break type could be detected. Each 3 H disintegration caused 0.20 single-strand breaks and very few double-strand breaks. The single-strand breaks were rapidly rejoined after the cells were thawed. For irradiation with 4 MeV electrons, cells of wild type E. coli K-12 were superinfected with phage lambda and suspended in growth medium. Irradiation induced 42 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. The rates of break induction were 6.75 x 10 -14 (double-strand breaks) and 2.82 x 10 -12 (single-strand breaks) per rad and per dalton. The single-strand breaks were rapidly repaired upon incubation whereas the double-strand breaks seemed to remain unrepaired. It is concluded that double-strand breaks in superinfecting bacteriophage lambda DNA are repaired to a very small extent, if at all. (Author)

  6. Toward single-material multilayer interference mid-infrared filters with sub-wavelength structures for cryogenic infrared astronomical missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitsubo, Hironobu; Wada, Takehiko; Mita, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    We are trying to develop high performance mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) optical filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling toward cryogenic infrared astronomical space missions. Multilayer interference filters enable us to design a wide variety of spectral response by controlling refractive index and thickness of each layer, however, in longer MIR and FIR (30-300μm) wavelength regions, there are a few optical materials known to have both good transparency and physical robustness, which makes difficult to realize high performance filters because of limited refractive index values. It is also difficult to deposit thick layers required for MIR/FIR multilayer filters by conventional method. Furthermore, multilayer interference filters are realized by thin film coatings having different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), which makes filters fragile for thermal cycling. To clear these problems, we introduce sub-wavelength structures (SWS) for controlling the refractive index. Then, only one material is necessary for fabricating filters, which enables us to fabricate filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling. In 30-300μm wavelength regions silicon is very suitable for filter material because not only silicon has little absorption and physical robustness but also SWS are easily fabricated by micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. As a first step, we have fabricated anti-reflection SWS layer on silicon wafers to demonstrate the refractive index control by simple SWS (periodic cylindrical holes on a silicon wafer). Comparing measured transmittance with both effective medium approximation (EMA) theory and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation, we confirm that the refractive control of SWS layer is verified.

  7. Combined holography and thermography in a single sensor through image-plane holography at thermal infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marc P; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Alexeenko, Igor; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Vollheim, Birgit; Lopez, Ion; Jorge, Iagoba; Rochet, Jonathan; Osten, Wolfgang

    2014-10-20

    Holographic interferometry in the thermal wavelengths range, combining a CO(2) laser and digital hologram recording with a microbolometer array based camera, allows simultaneously capturing temperature and surface shape information about objects. This is due to the fact that the holograms are affected by the thermal background emitted by objects at room temperature. We explain the setup and the processing of data which allows decoupling the two types of information. This natural data fusion can be advantageously used in a variety of nondestructive testing applications.

  8. Multi-wavelength Praseodymium fiber laser using stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Aidit, S. N.; Tiu, Z. C.

    2018-02-01

    A multi-wavelength Brillouin Praseodymium fiber laser (MWBPFL) operating at 1300 nm region is demonstrated based on the hybrid scheme by utilizing Brillouin gain medium and Praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber as linear gain medium. A 15 μm air gap is incorporated into the cavity to allow the switching of Brillouin frequency spacing from double to single spacing. Under the Brillouin pump of 8 dBm and the 1020 nm pump power of 567.2 mW, 36 Stokes lines with a wavelength spacing of 0.16 nm and 24 Stokes lines with a wavelength spacing of 0.08 nm are achieved. The wavelength tunability of 8 nm is realized for both MWBPFLs by shifting the Brillouin pump wavelength. The MWBPFLs exhibit an excellent stability in the number of generated Stokes and power level over one-hour period.

  9. Fully differential single-photon double ionization of neon and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Frank; Martin, Fernando; Rescigno, Thomas; McCurdy, C.

    2013-05-01

    Double photoionization of neon and argon differ significantly from helium in that three different final state couplings of the residual double ion (1 S , 1 D , and 3 P) are possible and greatly impact the observed angular distributions, but the multi-electron nature of such targets makes ab initio theoretical treatments of this correlated process a challenge. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) have been calculated for single photon double ionization of these heavier rare gases at various photon energies by utilizing an expanded frozen-core treatment to represent the remaining N - 2 target electrons of the residual ion. The resulting angular distributions are compared with and show significant agreement with existing experimental data. Work supported by U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the MICINN Projects No. FIS2010-15127, No. ACI2008-0777,No. CSD 2007-00010, and ERC Advanced Grant 290853.

  10. Single and Triple Differential Cross Sections for DoublePhotoionization of H-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Frank L.; Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno,Thomas N.

    2007-02-15

    The hydride anion H- would not be bound in the absence ofelectron correlation. Electron correlation drives the doublephotoionization process and, thus should impact double photoionizationresults most strongly for H-. We present fully differential crosssections for the three-body breakup of H- by single photon absorption.The absolute triple-differential and single-differential cross sectionswere yielded by ab initio calculations making use of exterior complexscaling within a discrete variable representation partialwave basis.Results calculated at photon energies of 18eV and 30eV are compared withreported cross sections for helium calculated at 20eV above the doubleionization threshold. These comparisons show a clear signature of initialstate correlation that differentiate the He and H- cases.

  11. Molecular basis of proton uptake in single and double mutants of cytochrome c oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Rowan M; Caplan, David; Pomes, Regis [Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Fadda, Elisa, E-mail: pomes@sickkids.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Galway (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, utilizes the reduction of dioxygen into water to pump protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The principal pathway of proton uptake into the enzyme, the D channel, is a 2.5 nm long channel-like cavity named after a conserved, negatively charged aspartic acid (D) residue thought to help recruiting protons to its entrance (D132 in the first subunit of the S. sphaeroides enzyme). The single-point mutation of D132 to asparagine (N), a neutral residue, abolishes enzyme activity. Conversely, replacing conserved N139, one-third into the D channel, by D, induces a decoupled phenotype, whereby oxygen reduction proceeds but not proton pumping. Intriguingly, the double mutant D132N/N139D, which conserves the charge of the D channel, restores the wild-type phenotype. We use molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic calculations to examine the structural and physical basis for the coupling of proton pumping and oxygen chemistry in single and double N139D mutants. The potential of mean force for the conformational isomerization of N139 and N139D side chains reveals the presence of three rotamers, one of which faces the channel entrance. This out-facing conformer is metastable in the wild-type and in the N139D single mutant, but predominant in the double mutant thanks to the loss of electrostatic repulsion with the carboxylate group of D132. The effects of mutations and conformational isomerization on the pKa of E286, an essential proton-shuttling residue located at the top of the D channel, are shown to be consistent with the electrostatic control of proton pumping proposed recently (Fadda et al 2008 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1777 277-84). Taken together, these results suggest that preserving the spatial distribution of charges at the entrance of the D channel is necessary to guarantee both the uptake and the relay of protons to the active site of the enzyme. These findings highlight the interplay

  12. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  13. Single- and double-slit collimating effects on fast-atom diffraction spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E.

    2016-09-01

    Diffraction patterns produced by fast He atoms grazingly impinging on a LiF(0 0 1) surface are investigated focusing on the influence of the beam collimation. Single- and double-slit collimating devices situated in front of the beam source are considered. To describe the scattering process we use the Surface Initial Value Representation (SIVR) approximation, which is a semi-quantum approach that incorporates a realistic description of the initial wave packet in terms of the collimating parameters. Our initial wave-packet model is based on the Van Cittert–Zernike theorem. For a single-slit collimation the width of the collimating aperture controls the shape of the azimuthal angle distribution, making different interference mechanisms visible, while the length of the slit affects the polar angle distribution. Additionally, we found that by means of a double-slit collimation it might be possible to obtain a wide polar angle distribution, which is associated with a large spread of the initial momentum perpendicular to the surface, derived from the uncertainty principle. It might be used as a simple way to probe the surface potential for different normal energies.

  14. Features of the incorporation of single and double based powders within emulsion explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. B.; Mendes, R.; Tavares, B.; Louro, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, features of the thermal and detonation behaviour of compositions resulting from the mixture of single and double based powders within ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are shown. Those features are portrayed through results of thermodynamic-equilibrium calculations of the detonation velocity, the chemical compatibility assessment through differential thermal analysis [DTA] and thermo gravimetric analysis [TGA], the experimental determination of the detonation velocity and a comparative evaluation of the shock sensitivity using a modified version of the "gap-test". DTA/TGA results for the compositions and for the individual components overlap until the beginning of the thermal decomposition which is an indication of the absence of formation of any new chemical species and so of the compatibility of the components of the compositions. After the beginning of the thermal decomposition it can be seen that the rate of mass loss is much higher for the compositions with powder than for the one with sole emulsion explosive. Both, theoretical and experimental, values of the detonation velocity have been shown to be higher for the powdered compositions than for the sole emulsion explosive. Shock sensitivity assessments have ended-up with a slightly bigger sensitivity for the compositions with double based powder when compared to the single based compositions or to the sole emulsion.

  15. Features of the Valorization of Single and Double Based Powders for Codetonation in Emulsion Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jose; Mendes, Ricardo; Tavares, Bruno; Louro, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    In this work, features of the thermal and detonation behavior of compositions resulting from the mixture of single and double based gun powder within ammonium nitrate (AN) based emulsion explosives are shown. That includes results of thermodynamic-equilibrium calculations of the detonation velocity, the chemical compatibility assessment through differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and thermo gravimetric analysis [TGA], the experimental determination of the detonation velocity and a comparative evaluation of the shock sensitivity using a modified version of the ``gap-test''. DSC/TGA results for the compositions and for the individual components overlap until the beginning of the thermal decomposition which is an indication of the absence of formation of any new chemical specimens and so of the capability of the composition components. After the beginning of the thermal decomposition it can be seen that the rate of mass loss is much higher for the compositions with gun powder than for the sole emulsion explosive. Both, theoretical and experimental, values of the detonation velocity have shown to be higher for the powdered compositions than for the pure emulsion explosive. Shock sensitivity assessment have ended-up with a slightly bigger sensitivity for the compositions with double based gun powder when compared to the single based compositions or to the pure emulsion.

  16. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, pplyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  17. Performance evaluation of single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomri, R. [Constantine Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Genie Climatique

    2009-07-01

    Desalination of sea or brackish water can be used to produce potable water. The distillation process is the most developed and widely used technique for seawater desalination. The distillation of sea or brackish water can be achieved by using a thermal energy source. Among the many options to improve the energy efficiency of desalination plants is the absorption heat transformer, which is a device that can deliver heat at a higher temperature than the temperature of the fluid by which it is fed. Absorption heat transformer systems are attractive for using waste heat from industrial processes and renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy. This paper presented a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination. In order to simulate the performance of these combination systems, mathematical models were developed for a single absorption heat transformer and a double absorption heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide solution. A model was also developed for the overall desalination system. For the two systems, an identical heat source temperature was used to simulate the heat input to an absorption heat transformer. Energy and exergy analysis of the two systems were performed. Simulation results were used to examine and to compare the influence of the absorber temperature on the energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and water production of the two systems. 19 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Momentum spectra for single and double electron ionization of He in relativistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    The complete momentum spectra for single and double ionization of He by 1GeV/u (β=0.88) U 92+ have been investigated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method corrected for the relativistic projectile. The 1/r 12 electron-electron interaction has been included in the post-collision region for double ionization to incorporate the effects of both the nuclear-electron and electron-electron ionizing interactions, and to access the effects of electron correlation in the electron spectra. Experimental measurements were able to determine the longitudinal momentum spectra for single ionization; these observations are in accordance with the theoretical predictions for the three-body momentum balance between projectile, recoil ion, and ionized electron. In particular, the Lorentz contraction of the Coulomb interaction of the projectile manifests itself in the decrease of the post-collision interaction of the projectile with the electron and recoil ion, causing them to recoil back-to-back as in the case for a short electromagnetic pulse. This feature is clearly displayed in both the theoretical and experimental longitudinal momentum spectra, and by comparing to calculations that are performed at the same collision speed but do not include the relativistic potentials. Moreover, collision plane spectra of the three particles demonstrate that the momenta of the recoil ion and ionized electron are preferentially equal, and opposite, to each other. The electron spectra for double ionization show that the inclusion of the electron-electron interaction in the post-collision regime partitions the combined ionization momentum of the electrons so that the electrons are preferentially emitted in opposite azimuthal angles to one another. This is in contrast to calculations made assuming independent electrons. (orig.)

  19. Anatomic Double Bundle single tunnel Foreign Material Free ACL-Reconstruction - a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Gernot

    2011-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two bundles, the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral bundle (PM). Double bundle reconstructions appear to give better rotational stability. The usual technique is to make two tunnels in the femur and two in the tibia. This is difficult and in small knees may not even be possible. We have developed a foreign material free press fit fixation for double bundle ACL reconstruction using a single femoral tunnel ((R)). This is based on the ALL PRESS FIT ACL reconstruction. It is suitable for the most common medium and, otherwise difficult, small sizes of knees. Using diamond edged wet grinding hollow reamers, bone cylinders in different diameters are harvested from the implantation tunnels of the tibia and femur and used for the press fit fixation. Using the press fit technique the graft is first fixed in tibia. It is then similarly fixed under tension in the femoral side with the knee in 120 degree flexion. This is called Bottom To Top Fixation (BTT). On extending the knee the graft tension is self adapting. Depending on the size of the individual knee, the diameter of the femoral bone plug is varied from 8 to 13 mm to achieve an anatomic spread with a double bundle-like insertion. The tibia tunnel can be applied with two 7 or 8 mm diameter tunnels overlapping to a semi oval tunnel between 10 to 13 mm. Since May 2003 we have carried out ACL-reconstructions with Hamstring grafts without foreign material using the ALL PRESS FIT technique. Initially, an 8 mm press fit fixation was used proximally with good results. Since April 2008, the range of diameters was increased up to 13 mm. The results of the Lachman tests have been good to excellent. Results of the Pivot shift test suggested more stability with femoral broader diameters of 9,5 to 13 mm. The foreign material free fixation of ham-string in the ALL PRESS FIT Bottom To Top Fixation is a successful method for ACL Reconstruction. The Diamond Instruments and tubed guiding

  20. Electron impact experimental study of single and double ionisation of atoms and small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naja, A.

    2008-11-01

    (e,2e) and (e,3e) experiments constitute a privileged tool for studying the dynamics of electron impact single and double ionization of small systems, and more generally for contributing to the understanding of the N-body interaction problem. In this work, we have performed such experiments in an unexplored kinematical regime where the momentum transferred to the residual ion is large, so that the ion plays a major role in the interaction process. The experimental results are compared to those of the most sophisticated theoretical models. We have measured the triply differential cross sections (TDCS) for single ionization of He and H 2 . Their comparison allowed showing the presence for the H 2 molecule of Young type quantal interference effects. We then discuss TDCS measurements for Ne and N 2 ionized either on an outer or an inner orbital. The results show the importance of the post collisional interactions and the role played by the nucleus. Finally, we study the competition between different ionization processes of argon: (e,2e) single ionization of the inner 2p shell on the one hand, and a direct (3p -2 ) (e,3e) double ionization or an indirect one via the Auger process implying the 2p shell, on the other hand. Under the chosen kinematics, these processes may compete or interfere with each other. The emphasis is put on their respective contribution, particularly for the Auger effect. Several structures observed in the angular distribution of the (e,3e) cross section are attributed to different ionization mechanisms. (author)

  1. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- and Double-Leg Jump Landings in the Sagittal and Frontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    Double-leg forward or drop-jump landing activities are typically used to screen for high-risk movement strategies and to determine the success of neuromuscular injury prevention programs. However, research suggests that these tasks that occur primarily in the sagittal plane may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during unilateral foot contact or non-sagittal plane movements that are characteristic of many multidirectional sports. To examine the extent to which lower extremity biomechanics measured during a jump landing on a double leg (DL) after a sagittal plane (SAG) movement is representative of biomechanics measured during single-leg (SL) or frontal plane (FRONT) jump landing tasks. Controlled laboratory study. Lower extremity biomechanics were measured in 15 recreationally active females (mean age [±SD], 19.4 ± 2.1 years; mean height, 163.3 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 61.1 ± 7.1 kg) while performing SAGDL, SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL jump landing tasks. Repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in lower extremity biomechanics between the 4 tasks, and linear regressions examined the extent to which an individual's biomechanics during SAGDL were representative of their biomechanics during SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics differed by condition, with the SAGDL task generally eliciting greater hip and knee flexion angles and lower hip and knee forces than the other tasks (P plane jump landing tasks used to screen for ACL injury risk and the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during single-leg activities. These results support further investigation of single-leg multidirectional landings to identify high-risk movement strategies in female athletes playing multidirectional sports.

  2. Repair of ultraviolet light damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as studied with double- and single-stranded incoming DNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszenman-Pereyra, D.; Hieda, K.

    1992-01-01

    Purified double- and single-stranded DNAs of the autonomously replicating vector M13RK9-T were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) in vitro and introduced into competent whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Incoming double-stranded DNA was more sensitive to UV in excision repair-deficient rad2-1 cells than in proficient repair RAD + cells, while single-stranded DNA exhibited high sensitivity in both host cells. The results indicate that in yeast there is no effective rescue of UV-incoming single-stranded DNA by excision repair or other constitutive dark repair processes

  3. 3D finite element analysis of immediate loading of single wide versus double implants for replacing mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikar R Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered.

  4. 3D finite element analysis of immediate loading of single wide versus double implants for replacing mandibular molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shrikar R.; Karthikeyan, I.; Gaddale, Reetika

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method) models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N) in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered. PMID:24554890

  5. Single-Step Assembly of Multi-Modal Imaging Nanocarriers: MRI and Long-Wavelength Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Nathalie M.; Gindy, Marian E.; Calero-DdelC, Victoria L.; Wolfson, Theodore; Pagels, Robert F.; Adler, Derek; Gao, Dayuan; Li, Shike; Wang, Ruobing; Zevon, Margot; Yao, Nan; Pacheco, Carlos; Therien, Michael J.; Rinaldi, Carlos; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    MRI and NIR-active, multi-modal Composite NanoCarriers (CNCs) are prepared using a simple, one-step process, Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP). The FNP process allows for the independent control of the hydrodynamic diameter, co-core excipient and NIR dye loading, and iron oxide-based nanocrystal (IONC) content of the CNCs. In the controlled precipitation process, 10 nm IONCs are encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized CNCs to make biocompatible T2 contrast agents. By adjusting the formulation, CNC size is tuned between 80 and 360 nm. Holding the CNC size constant at an intensity weighted average diameter of 99 ± 3 nm (PDI width 28 nm), the particle relaxivity varies linearly with encapsulated IONC content ranging from 66 to 533 mM-1s-1 for CNCs formulated with 4 to 16 wt% IONC. To demonstrate the use of CNCs as in vivo MRI contrast agents, CNCs are surface functionalized with liver targeting hydroxyl groups. The CNCs enable the detection of 0.8 mm3 non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mice livers via MRI. Incorporating the hydrophobic, NIR dye PZn3 into CNCs enables complementary visualization with long-wavelength fluorescence at 800 nm. In vivo imaging demonstrates the ability of CNCs to act both as MRI and fluorescent imaging agents. PMID:25925128

  6. Meas.of the Ratio Between Double and Single Ionization of Helium for Antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to measure the ratio between double and single ionization of helium by antiprotons in the energy range $>$~3~MeV. Comparison with already existing proton data will yield information on the mechanisms for double ionization, which could not be extracted from previous comparisons between ratios measured for equivelocity electrons and protons. The most basic information to be obtained from an antiproton experiment will be the amount of correlation existing between the two electrons in the ground-state helium atom.\\\\ \\\\ The equipment consists of a gas cell, which employs slow-ion collection via the so-called condenser-plate method for the absolute sum of partial-ionization cross sections and determination of the relative contribution of multiple charged ions by TOF. The gas cell has movable entrance and exit slits and a grid system to account for secondary emission from the collection of slow ions. Together with a field of 800~V/cm in the collision region, the potentials of the TOF sp...

  7. Rapid single-flux quantum control of the energy potential in a double SQUID qubit circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio; Leoni, Roberto; Torrioli, Guido; Carelli, Pasquale; Cosmelli, Carlo; Khabipov, Marat; Zorin, Alexander B; Balashov, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development and test of an integrated system composed of a flux qubit and a rapid single-flux quantum (RSFQ) circuit that allows qubit manipulation. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of control electronics integrated on the same chip as the qubit, in view of the application in quantum computation with superconducting devices. RSFQ logic relies on the storage and transmission of magnetic flux quanta and can be profitably used with superconducting qubits because of the speed, scalability, compatibility with the qubit fabrication process and low temperature environment. While standard RSFQ circuitry is well assessed, the application to quantum computing requires a complete rescaling of parameter values, in order to preserve the qubit coherence and reduce the power dissipation. In the system presented in this paper, the qubit role is played by a superconducting loop interrupted by a small dc SQUID, usually called a double SQUID, which behaves as a tunable rf-SQUID. Its energy potential has the shape of a double well, with the barrier between the wells controlled by magnetic flux applied to the inner dc SQUID. Here for the first time we report measurements at a base temperature of 370 mK in which flux control pulses with desired characteristics were supplied by a RSFQ circuit fabricated using non-standard parameters in the same chip as the qubit

  8. Double-stranded DNA dissociates into single strands when dragged into a poor solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuxun; Yu, Jin; Kühner, Ferdinand; Schulten, Klaus; Gaub, Hermann E

    2007-11-28

    DNA displays a richness of biologically relevant supramolecular structures, which depend on both sequence and ambient conditions. The effect of dragging double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from water into poor solvent on the double-stranded structure is still unclear because of condensation. Here, we employed single molecule techniques based on atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the change in structure and mechanics of DNA during the ambient change. We found that the two strands are split apart when the dsDNA is pulled at one strand from water into a poor solvent. The findings were corroborated by MD simulations where dsDNA was dragged from water into poor solvent, revealing details of the strand separation at the water/poor solvent interface. Because the structure of DNA is of high polarity, all poor solvents show a relatively low polarity. We speculate that the principle of spontaneous unwinding/splitting of dsDNA by providing a low-polarity (in other word, hydrophobic) micro-environment is exploited as one of the catalysis mechanisms of helicases.

  9. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  10. Single- versus double-bundle suture button reconstruction of the forearm interosseous membrane for the chronic Essex-Lopresti lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Kearns, Kenneth A; Culp, Randall W; Osterman, A Lee; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-10-06

    Reconstruction of the ruptured interosseous membrane (IOM) is critical to restore forearm stability for the chronic Essex-Lopresti injury. Positive outcomes have been reported following IOM reconstruction with a single-bundle suture button (Mini-Tightrope) construct, although recent work suggests that double-bundle Mini-TightRope ® IOM reconstruction is biomechanically superior. The purpose of this study was to determine whether double-bundle Mini-TightRope ® reconstruction of the forearm IOM results in superior clinical outcomes to the single-bundle technique. Five patients with chronic Essex-Lopresti injuries treated with double-bundle Mini-TightRope ® IOM reconstruction were matched to five patients treated with single-bundle Mini-TightRope ® reconstruction. Improvement in clinical examination measures and patient-reported outcomes was compared between the groups. Results were good to excellent in all 10 patients. At final follow-up, forearm rotation was significantly better in the single-bundle group, while maintenance of ulnar variance was better in the double-bundle group. No significant differences were noted between the two groups for any other numerical outcomes, and no complications occurred. These findings suggest that while IOM reconstruction with a double-bundle Mini-TightRope ® construct results in greater resistance to proximal migration of the radius in the intermediate term, there is a modest concomitant loss of forearm rotation when compared to single-bundle reconstruction. Therapeutic Level IV.

  11. Single-photon emission associated with double electron capture in F9 ++C collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Simon, A.; Tanis, J. A.; Warczak, A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC), the one-step process occurring in ion-atom collisions, has been investigated for bare fluorine ions colliding with carbon. RDEC is completed when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of a projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. This work is a follow-up to our earlier measurement of RDEC for bare oxygen projectiles, thus providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields in both cases and allowing for the comparison between the two collision systems as well as with available theoretical studies. The most significant mechanisms of x-ray emission that may contribute to the RDEC energy region as background processes are also addressed.

  12. Experimental and simulation studies on a single pass, double duct solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi (Ghana); Rajakaruna, H. [De Montfort Univ., School of Engineering and Technology, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    A mathematical model of a single pass, double duct solar air heater (SPDDSAH) is described. The model provides a design tool capable of predicting: incident solar radiation, heat transfer coefficients, mean air flow rates, mean air temperature and relative humidity at the exit. Results from the simulation are presented and compared with experimental ones obtained on a full scale air heater and a small scale laboratory one. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured values is demonstrated. Predicted results from a parametric study are also presented. It is shown that significant improvement in the SPDDSAH performance can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the collector parameters and the top to bottom channel depth ratio of the two ducts. The air mass flow rate is shown to be the dominant factor in determining the overall efficiency of the heater. (Author)

  13. The Comparison of Engineering Properties Between Single and Double Layer Porous Asphalt made of Packing Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman M. Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available is paper presents the comparison of engineering properties between single and double layer porous asphalt (SLPA and DLPA made of packing gradation. Three nominal maximum aggregate sizes (NMAS were tested each made up of 10, 14, and 20 mm for SLPA. While for the DLPA with 30, 20, and 15 mm top layer are made of 10 and 14 mm NMAS, with a base layer of 20 mm NMAS. Total thickness of all mixes is 70 mm. Binders used are 60/70 penetration base bitumen and polymer binder styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. The result shows that the properties of SLPA mix namely permeability and resistance to abrasion loss decreases when the NMAS in SLPA decreases. The abrasion loss of DLPA mixes increases when the porous asphalt top layer thickness decreases, while drainage time value decreases. However, SLPA with 20 mm NMAS exhibits higher abrasion loss compared to all DLPA mixes.

  14. A compact model for single material double work function gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyong, Zheng; Wei, Zhang; Tailong, Xu; Yuehua, Dai; Junning, Chen

    2013-09-01

    An analytical surface potential model for the single material double work function gate (SMDWG) MOSFET is developed based on the exact resultant solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation. The model includes the effects of drain biases, gate oxide thickness, different combinations of S-gate and D-gate length and values of substrate doping concentration. More attention has been paid to seeking to explain the attributes of the SMDWG MOSFET, such as suppressing drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), accelerating carrier drift velocity and device speed. The model is verified by comparison to the simulated results using the device simulator MEDICI. The accuracy of the results obtained using our analytical model is verified using numerical simulations. The model not only offers the physical insight into device physics but also provides the basic designing guideline for the device.

  15. Longitudinal double spin asymmetries in single hadron quasi-real photoproduction at high $p_T$

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Chang, W-C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr , M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; von Harrach, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jörg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matoušek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Montuenga, P; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nový, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pešek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rychter, A; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Selyunin, A; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    We measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries $A_{LL}$ for single hadron muo-production off protons and deuterons at photon virtuality $Q^2$ < 1(GeV/$\\it c$)$^2$ for transverse hadron momenta $p_T$ in the range 0.7 GeV/$\\it c$ to 4 GeV/$\\it c$ . They were determined using COMPASS data taken with a polarised muon beam of 160 GeV/$\\it c$ or 200 GeV/$\\it c$ impinging on polarised $\\mathrm{{}^6LiD}$ or $\\mathrm{NH_3}$ targets. The experimental asymmetries are compared to next-to-leading order pQCD calculations, and are sensitive to the gluon polarisation $\\Delta G$ inside the nucleon in the range of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons $0.05 < x_g < 0.2$.

  16. Longitudinal double spin asymmetries in single hadron quasi-real photoproduction at high pT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries ALL for single hadron muoproduction off protons and deuterons at photon virtuality Q2<1(GeV/c2 for transverse hadron momenta pT in the range 1 GeV/c to 4 GeV/c. They were determined using COMPASS data taken with a polarised muon beam of 160 GeV/c or 200 GeV/c impinging on polarised 6LiD or NH3 targets. The experimental asymmetries are compared to next-to-leading order pQCD calculations, and are sensitive to the gluon polarisation ΔG inside the nucleon in the range of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons 0.05

  17. Visualization of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at the Single-Molecule Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynan, William S.; Li, Shuyi; Mernaugh, Raymond; Wragg, Stephanie; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2003-03-27

    Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation is universal. The signature injury from ionizing radiation exposure is induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The first line of defense against DSBs is direct ligation of broken DNA ends via the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Because even a relatively high environmental exposure induces only a few DSBs per cell, our current understanding of the response to this exposure is limited by the ability to measure DSB repair events reliably in situ at a single-molecule level. To address this need, we have taken advantage of biological amplification, measuring relocalization of proteins and detection of protein phosphorylation as a surrogate for detection of broken ends themselves. We describe the use of specific antibodies to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of repair of very small numbers of DSBs in human cells by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway.

  18. Single-photon emission associated with double electron capture in F9+ + C collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Elkafrawy, Tamer; Tanis, John A; Warczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC), the one-step process occurring in ion-atom collisions, has been investigated for bare fluorine ions colliding with carbon. RDEC is completed when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of a projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. This work is a follow-up to our earlier measurement of RDEC for bare oxygen projectiles, thus providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields in both cases and allowing for the comparison between the two collision systems as well as with available theoretical studies. The most significant mechanisms of x-ray emission that may contribute to the RDEC energy region as background processes are also addressed.

  19. Dynamics of the single and double ionization of helium in fast proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1991-08-01

    A new experimental approach, designed to measure differential ionisation and electron capture cross sections for relativistic heavy ion beams, has been developed and was used to investigate dynamic mechanisms of Helium single and double ionisation in collisions with fast protons. Detailed insight into the dynamics of the ionisation process has been obtained. The experimental results prove, that the many-body momentum exchange between all particles involved, the projectile and target nucleus as well as the emitted electrons, has to be incorporated in order to correctly describe the ionisation collision dynamics. For the proton on Helium collision system the transverse momenta of projectile and recoil-ion were found to be of comparable magnitude only for very close collisions and large scattering angles above 1 mrad, which contribute less than 3% to the total ionisation cross section. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Single and double charge transfer in Be/sup 4+/+He collisions: A molecular (Feshbach) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1986-12-01

    In recent articles, we pointed out the fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of processes involving a multicharged ion and hydrogen or helium atoms, which is the (formal) autoionizing character of the molecular channels, and we reported a (new) implementation of the Feshbach method to calculate the molecular energies and couplings. In the present work we use the wave functions calculated with this Feshbach method for the BeHe/sup 4+/ quasimolecule, introduce a common translation factor in the formalism, and calculate the single and double charge-exchange cross sections in Be/sup 4+/+He(1s/sup 2/) collisions for impact energies 0.2--20 keV/amu. The mechanisms of the processes are discussed in detail.

  1. Realization of single and double axial InSb-GaSb heterostructure nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalamestani, Sepideh Gorji [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Ek, Martin [Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Dick, Kimberly A. [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-03-15

    Heteroepitaxial growth of III-Sb nanowires allows for the formation of various interesting complex structures and enables the combination of their remarkable properties. In this Letter, we investigate the heteroepitaxial growth of Au-seeded InSb and GaSb nanowires using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We demonstrate successful single and double axial InSb-GaSb heterostructures in both directions. The formation properties of the grown nanowires including the compositional change of the particle and the interface sharpness are further discussed. In addition, the decomposition of InSb and GaSb segments and their side facet evolution are explained. XEDS compositional line scans overlaid on STEM HAADF image along the InSb-GaSb-InSb nanowire indicating sharp interface from GaSb to InSb segment and graded interface in the opposite direction. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  3. Frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by gamma irradiation in single, double and triple dwarf wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhonukshe, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Induced mutation studies were carried with three dwarf wheat varieties viz., ''Sonalika'', ''Chhoti Lerma'' and ''Hira'', considered to be single, double and trible dwarfs, respectively. Gamma-rays were used as a source of irradiation. Frequency of chlorophyll mutations were comparatively low and the spectrum was narrow. Chlorophyll mutations were altogether absent in the variety ''Sonalika''. A very wide spectrum of viable mutations affecting stem, leaf, ear growth habit, maturity and fertility characteristics was observed in the M 2 . The cumulative frequency of all the mutants together was quite high, which varied with the varieties. There were varietal differences in the composition and width of the spectrum induced by gamma-rays. The dwarf mutants having desirable leaf and spike characters were isolated in all the three varieties. (author)

  4. Longitudinal polar optical phonons in InN/GaN single and double het- erostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardali, Sukru; Tiras, Engin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey); Gunes, Mustafa; Balkan, Naci [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Ajagunna, Adebowale Olufunso; Iliopoulos, Eleftherios; Georgakilas, Alexandros [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH and Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion-Crete (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    Longitudinal optical phonon energy in InN epi-layers has been determined independently from the Raman spectroscopy and temperature dependent Hall mobility measurements. Raman spectroscopy technique can be used to obtain directly the LO energy where LO phonon scattering dominates transport at high temperature. Moreover, the Hall mobility is determined by the scattering of electrons with LO phonons so the data for the temperature dependence of Hall mobility have been used to calculate the effective energy of longitudinal optical phonons.The samples investigated were (i) single heterojunction InN with thicknesses of 1.08, 2.07 and 4.7 {mu}m grown onto a 40 nm GaN buffer and (ii) GaN/InN/AlN double heterojunction samples with InN thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 {mu}m. Hall Effect measurements were carried out as a function of temperature in the range between T = 1.7 and 275 K at fixed magnetic and electric fields. The Raman spectra were obtained at room temperature. In the experiments, the 532 nm line of a nitrogen laser was used as the excitation source and the light was incident onto the samples along of the growth direction (c-axis). The results, obtained from the two independent techniques suggest the following: (1) LO phonon energies obtained from momentum relaxation experiments are generally slightly higher than those obtained from the Raman spectra. (2) LO phonon energy for the single heterojunctions does not depend on the InN thickness. (3) In double heterostructures, with smaller InN thicknesses and hence with increased strain, LO phonon energy increases by 3% (experimental accuracy is < 1%) when the InN layer thickness increases from 400 to 800 nm (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Tsunamigenic Earthquakes at Along-dip Double Segmentation and Along-strike Single Segmentation near Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Koyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A distinct difference of the earthquake activity in megathrust subduction zones is pointed out, concerning seismic segmentations in the vicinity of Japan—that is, the apparent distribution of earthquake hypocenters characterized by Along-dip Double Segmentation (ADDS and Along-strike Single Segmentation (ASSS. ADDS is double aligned seismic-segmentation of trench-ward seismic segments along the Japan Trench and island-ward seismic segments along the Pacific coast of the Japan Islands. The 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake of Mw9.0 occurred in ADDS. In the meantime, the subduction zone along the Nankai Trough, the western part of Japan, is the source region of a multiple rupture of seismic segments by the 1707 Houei earthquake, the greatest earthquake in the history of Japan. This subduction zone is narrow under the Japan Islands, which is composed of single aligned seismic-segmentation side by side along the Nankai Trough, which is typical of ASSS. Looking at the world seismicity, the 1960 and 2010 Chile megathrusts, for example, occurred in ASSS, whereas the 1952 Kamchatka and the 1964 Alaska megathrusts occurred in ADDS. These megathrusts in ADDS result from the rupture of strong asperity in the trench-ward seismic segments. Since the asperity of earthquakes in ASSS is concentrated in the shallow part of subduction zones and the asperity of frequent earthquakes in ADDS is in deeper parts of the island-ward seismic segments than those of ASSS, there must be a difference in tsunami excitations due to earthquakes in ADDS and ASSS. An analysis was made in detail of tsunami and seismic excitations of earthquakes in the vicinity of Japan. Tsunami heights of ASSS earthquakes are about two times larger than those of ADDS earthquakes with the same value of seismic moment. The reason for this different tsunami excitation is also considered in relation to the seismic segmentations of ADDS and ASSS.

  6. Single mode wavelength control of modulated AlGaAs lasers with external and internal etalon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Single mode lasing without mode hops has been obtained for VSIS and CSP laser diodes with an external etalon attached to the laser's front facet for up to an 8 C range CW and a 4 C range pulsed, with .07 nm/C tuning. Tests of thin tapered-thickness (TTT) laser diodes show CW and pulsed single mode lasing over 10 C and 2 C ranges, respectively, with .08 nm/C tuning. An analysis of the TTT structure reveals the equivalent of an internal etalon. The time-resolved pulsed behavior for both types of lasers show single mode lasing within the proper temperature ranges with minor modes present only early in the optical pulse, if at all. The external etalon produces noticeable interference fringes in the farfield pattern, while those of the TTT lasers are smooth. Ongoing CW lifetest results indicate stability to within one longitudinal mode after a few hundred hours of operation, along with at least several thousand hours lifetime.

  7. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  8. Local cooling effect on perforation rates comparing the 980-1470 nm laser wavelengths used with endovenous laser ablation: double blind in vitro experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, I A; Dumantepe, M; Yurdakul, I; Kehlibar, T; Ozler, A

    2014-03-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (EVLA) is fast gaining acceptance as an alternative to open surgery for the treatment of saphenous vein incompetence. The method of action of these techniques is based on heat, making tumescence anaesthesia necessity. Heat-induced complications may occur with inadequate application of tumescent anaesthesia. Our hypothesis was, local cooling effect of tumescent anaesthesia on tunica adventitia might be kept undamaged from disruption due to the thermal injury. We experimented with two popular laser wavelengths (980 and 1470 nm) and with two different thermal media (+4 and +24) in vitro for perforation. Twenty different 12 cm length vein pieces were numbered randomly to set up four groups of the experiment. Endovenous laser procedures were applied in same manner in a unique design test tube with same energy density per pieces on same duration (10 W/second) (linear endovenous energy density 60 J/cm). Procedure video was recorded for macroscopic perforations. All postprocedure vein segments were examined microscopically. Activities of both wavelengths were much better in cold medium (P laser was better than that of 980 nm in cold environment (P = 0.0136). It can be commented that reducing the ambient temperature is more beneficial than modifying the laser wavelength on perforation rates. Therefore we suppose tumescent anaesthesia temperature is effective on perforation independently from the wavelengths or type of the laser fibre.

  9. Modeling of Single Event Transients With Dual Double-Exponential Current Sources: Implications for Logic Cell Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dolores A.; Robinson, William H.; Wilcox, Ian Z.; Limbrick, Daniel B.; Black, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    Single event effects (SEE) are a reliability concern for modern microelectronics. Bit corruptions can be caused by single event upsets (SEUs) in the storage cells or by sampling single event transients (SETs) from a logic path. An accurate prediction of soft error susceptibility from SETs requires good models to convert collected charge into compact descriptions of the current injection process. This paper describes a simple, yet effective, method to model the current waveform resulting from a charge collection event for SET circuit simulations. The model uses two double-exponential current sources in parallel, and the results illustrate why a conventional model based on one double-exponential source can be incomplete. A small set of logic cells with varying input conditions, drive strength, and output loading are simulated to extract the parameters for the dual double-exponential current sources. The parameters are based upon both the node capacitance and the restoring current (i.e., drive strength) of the logic cell.

  10. Double-blind double-dummy crossover comparison of the effect of a single dose of cimetidine and trithiozine on gastric secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacciante, F; Benvenuti, C; Citone, G; Montesani, C; Ribotta, G

    1980-01-01

    Twelve patients with duodenal ulcer were admitted to a double-blind double-dummy single dose study in which the H2-receptor antagonist effect of Cimetidine and the activity of Trithiozine, endowed with an unknown mechanism, on gastric acid secretion were compared. For the balanced incomplete block design each patient received two out of four treatments. The single doses tested were 200 and 400 mg of both drugs. Cimetidine reduced all the parameters investigated, while Trithiozine increased basal acid output and acid concentration and did not affect maximal and peak acid output, basal and maximal volume and maximal acid concentration. The multiple range comparison between mean adjusted differences of the four doses were significantly in favour of Cimetidine, except for PAO, basal volume and basal acid concentration, despite the remarkable percent difference between Cimetidine and Trithiozine. In this study, Cimetidine confirmed its inhibitory properties, and Trithiozine did not appear to be an antisecretory agent.

  11. A comparative study of the laser induce breakdown spectroscopy in single- and double-pulse laser geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Duixiong; Su Maogen; Dong Chenzhong; Wen Guanhong; Cao Xiangnian

    2013-01-01

    A time resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (LIBS) was used for the investigation of emission signal enhancement on double-pulse LIBS. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on aluminium-based alloys. The plasma emission signals were recorded by spectrometer with ICCD detector. Spectral response calibration was performed by using deuterium and tungsten halogen lamps. Time evolution of the plasma temperature and electron density was investigated in SP and DP experiments. Based on the investigation of plasma parameters, the enhancements of emission line intensities were investigated, and the mechanisms of it were discussed. (author)

  12. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Single wavelength light-mediated, synergistic bimodal cancer photoablation and amplified photothermal performance by graphene/gold nanostar/photosensitizer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunhui; Li, Dan; Wang, Lianhui; Guan, Xiaotian; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Hong; Li, Shun; Liu, Yiyao

    2017-04-15

    Light-triggered nanotheranostics opens a fascinating but challenging avenue to achieve simultaneous and highly efficient anticancer outcomes for multimodal therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Herein, a multifunctional phototheranostics based on a photosensitizer-assembled graphene/gold nanostar hybrid (GO/AuNS-PEG) was developed for cancer synergistic photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) as well as effective photothermal imaging. The stable and biocompatible GO/AuNS-PEG composite displayed a high photothermal conversion efficiency due to the enhanced optical absorbance of both graphene and gold nanostars in the near-infrared (NIR) range. By tuning the absorption wavelength of GO/AuNS-PEG to that of Chlorin e6 (Ce6), GO/AuNS-PEG/Ce6 completely eliminated the EMT6 xenograft tumors by the tremendous synergistic anticancer efficiency of simultaneous PDT and PTT under a single NIR laser irradiation (660nm) in vivo. The underlying mechanism may be the enhanced cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of GO/AuNS-PEG/Ce6 and the subsequent photodestruction of the lysosomal membrane and mitochondria. Moreover, GO/AuNS-PEG/Ce6 exhibited negligible side-effects on the body and other organs. These results demonstrate that the graphene/gold nanostar nanoconstruct provides a versatile and reliable integrated platform for the photo-controlled cancer theragnostic applications. This work demonstrated the application of graphene-Au Nanostars hybridized system (denoted as GO/AuNS-PEG) in single wavelength laser induced synergistic photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) and effective cancer photothermal/fluorescence multimode imaging. GO/AuNS-PEG showed excellent biocompatibility and high dual-enhanced photothermal efficiency under the near-infrared laser irradiation that was very promise for deep tumor imaging. By combining with the photosensitizer Chlorin e6, both in vitro and in vivo data confirmed the efficient photoablation of the EMT6 tumors through the

  14. 4D super-resolution microscopy with conventional fluorophores and single wavelength excitation in optically thick cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baddeley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical super-resolution imaging of fluorescently stained biological samples is rapidly becoming an important tool to investigate protein distribution at the molecular scale. It is therefore important to develop practical super-resolution methods that allow capturing the full three-dimensional nature of biological systems and also can visualize multiple protein species in the same sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the use of a combination of conventional near-infrared dyes, such as Alexa 647, Alexa 680 and Alexa 750, all excited with a 671 nm diode laser, enables 3D multi-colour super-resolution imaging of complex biological samples. Optically thick samples, including human tissue sections, cardiac rat myocytes and densely grown neuronal cultures were imaged with lateral resolutions of ∼15 nm (std. dev. while reducing marker cross-talk to <1%. Using astigmatism an axial resolution of ∼65 nm (std. dev. was routinely achieved. The number of marker species that can be distinguished depends on the mean photon number of single molecule events. With the typical photon yields from Alexa 680 of ∼2000 up to 5 markers may in principle be resolved with <2% crosstalk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach is based entirely on the use of conventional, commercially available markers and requires only a single laser. It provides a very straightforward way to investigate biological samples at the nanometre scale and should help establish practical 4D super-resolution microscopy as a routine research tool in many laboratories.

  15. Multi-wavelength emission from a single InGaN/GaN nanorod analyzed by cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Kusch, Gunnar

    2018-01-23

    Multiple luminescence peaks emitted by a single InGaN/GaN quantum-well(QW) nanorod, extending from the blue to the red, were analysed by a combination of electron microscope based imaging techniques. Utilizing the capability of cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging it was possible to investigate spatial variations in the luminescence properties on a nanoscale. The high optical quality of a single GaN nanorod was demonstrated, evidenced by a narrow band-edge peak and the absence of any luminescence associated with the yellow defect band. Additionally two spatially confined broad luminescence bands were observed, consisting of multiple peaks ranging from 395 nm to 480 nm and 490 nm to 650 nm. The lower energy band originates from broad c-plane QWs located at the apex of the nanorod and the higher energy band from the semipolar QWs on the pyramidal nanorod tip. Comparing the experimentally observed peak positions with peak positions obtained from plane wave modelling and 3D finite difference time domain(FDTD) modelling shows modulation of the nanorod luminescence by cavity modes. By studying the influence of these modes we demonstrate that this can be exploited as an additional parameter in engineering the emission profile of LEDs.

  16. Heterogeneity within AML with CEBPA mutations; only CEBPA double mutations, but not single CEBPA mutations are associated with favourable prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pabst, T; Eyholzer, M; Fos, J; Mueller, B U

    2009-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) mutations in AML are associated with favourable prognosis and are divided into N- and C-terminal mutations. The majority of AML patients have both types of mutations. We assessed the prognostic significance of single (n=7) and double (n=12) CEBPA mutations among 224 AML patients. Double CEBPA mutations conferred a decisively favourable overall (P=0.006) and disease-free survival (P=0.013). However, clinical outcome of patients with single CEBPA mut...

  17. Surprising Performance for Vibrational Frequencies of the Distinguishable Clusters with Singles and Doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empir...

  18. Simultaneous multi-wavelength ultraviolet excited single-phase white light emitting phosphor Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenzhen; Liu, Guanghui; Ni, Jia; Liu, Wanlu; Liu, Qian

    2018-05-01

    A kind of novel compound Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu simultaneously activated by different-valence Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions has been successfully synthesized. The existence of Ti4+-O2- charge transfer (CT) transitions in Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu is proved by the photoluminescence spectra and first principle calculations, and the Ti4+ ions come from the impurities in commercial ZrO2 raw materials. Under the excitation of multi-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (λEX = 392, 260, 180 nm), Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu (x = 0.15) can directly emit nearly white light. The coexistence of multiple luminescent centers and the energy transfer among Zr4+-O2- CT state, Ti4+-O2- CT state, Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions play important roles in the white light emission. Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu (x = 0.15) has good thermal stability, in particular, the intensity of emission spectrum (λEX = 392 nm) at 150 °C is ∼96% of that at room temperature. In general, the multi-wavelength ultraviolet-excited single-phase white light emitting phosphor Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu possesses a promise for applications in white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), agriculture, medicine and other photonic fields.

  19. Dynamics of 1.55 μm Wavelength Single-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Output under External Optical Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Hon Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the temporal dynamics of the laser output spectrum and polarization state of 1.55 μm wavelength single-mode (SM vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs induced by external optical beam injection. Injection of an external continuous-wave laser beam to a gain-switched SM VCSEL near the resonance wavelength corresponding to its main polarization-mode output was critical for improvement of its laser pulse generation characteristics, such as pulse timing-jitter reduction, linewidth narrowing, pulse amplitude enhancement, and pulse width shortening. Pulse injection of pulse width shorter than the cavity photon lifetime into the SM VCSEL in the orthogonal polarization direction with respect to its main polarization mode caused temporal delay of the polarization recovery after polarization switching (PS, and its delay was found to be the minimum at an optimized bias current. Polarization-mode bistability was observed even in the laser output of an SM VCSEL of a standard circularly cylindrical shape and used for all-optical flip-flop operations with set and reset injection pulses of very low pulse energy of order of the 3.5~4.5 fJ.

  20. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Goto, Takahiro; Kou, Rai; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC) generation with a Si-wire waveguide (SWG). We precisely controlled the SWG width so that the group velocity becomes flat over a wide wavelength range. By adjusting the SWG length, we could reduce the optical losses due to two-photon absorption and pulse propagation. In addition, for efficient coupling between the laser pulse and waveguide, we fabricated a two-step inverse taper at both ends of the SWG. Using a 600-nm-wide SWG, we were able to generate a broadband SC spectrum at wavelengths from 1060 to 2200 nm at a -40 dB level with only 50-pJ laser energy from an Er-doped fiber laser oscillator. We found that we can generate an on-chip broadband SC spectrum with an SWG with a length even as small as 1.7 mm.

  1. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  2. Solar-powered single-and double-effect directly air-cooled LiBr–H2O absorption prototype built as a single unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; González-Gil, A.; Palacios, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a novel solar cooling air-cooled absorption prototype for buildings. • The solution (LiB r –H 2 O) and the refrigerant (H 2 O) are cooled directly by air. • The cooling is produced from solar energy when operates in single-effect mode. • If the demand is not met the prototype is able to operate in double-effect mode. - Abstract: This work describes an installation in Madrid, Spain, designed to test a new solar-powered air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. This installation essentially consists of a-48 m 2 field of flat-plate solar collectors, a 1500-L hot water storage tank and a single and-double effect air-cooled lithium bromide absorption prototype. Designed and built by our research group, this prototype is able to operate either as a single-effect unit (4.5 kW) or as a double-effect unit (7 kW). In operation as single-effect mode, the prototype is driven by solar energy, whereas in operation as a double effect mode, an external energy source may be used. The prototype’s evaporator is connected to a fan-coil placed inside an 80-m 2 laboratory that represent the average size of a Spanish housing unit. In August 2009, the cooling system was tested in the single-effect operation mode. The results show that the system is able to meet approximately 65% of the laboratory’s seasonal cooling demand, although 100% may be reached for a few days. The prototype can also operate in double-effect mode to meet the cooling demand. In that case, the prototype is fed by thermal oil, which is warmed until it reaches the process temperature in the high-temperature generator. The prototype can operate in either single-effect mode or in double-effect mode or can also operate simultaneously both modes using the components common to both modes, namely, the absorber, evaporator, condenser, solution pumps and control equipment. This paper reports the experimental results from the prototype operating separately in single-effect and

  3. A compounded rare-earth iron garnet single crystal exhibiting stable Faraday rotation against wavelength and temperature variation in the 1.55 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.C.; Huang, M.; Li Miao

    2006-01-01

    The Bi, Tb and Yb partially substituted iron garnet bulk single crystals of Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 were grown by using Bi 2 O 3 /B 2 O 3 as flux and accelerated crucible rotation technique for single-crystal growth. Faraday rotation (FR) spectra showed that the specific FR of the (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 )Fe 5 O 12 crystal under magnetic field at saturation was measured to be about -1617 o /cm at λ=1.55 μm, Faraday rotation wavelength coefficient (FWC, 0.009%/nm) in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.62 μm and Faraday rotation temperature coefficient (FTC, 3.92x10 -5 /K) at λ=1.55 μm were even smaller than that of YIG. It is proven that through combining two types of Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets with opposite FWC and FTC signs, the compound rare-earth iron garnets with low FWC and FTC may be obtained due to the compensation effect. The saturation magnetization of (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 ) Fe 5 O 12 crystal is 0.48x10 6 A/M and is also much smaller than that of YIG. We have found empirically that there is a simple relationship between the FR θ f (x) and Bi content x for Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 , which is given by θ f (x)=(-2759x+400) o /cm

  4. Double tuning a single input probe for heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy at low field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanki, Sasidhar; Colon, Raul D.; Moore, Jay; Waddell, Kevin W.

    2012-10-01

    Applications of PASADENA in biomedicine are continuing to emerge due to recent demonstrations that hyperpolarized metabolic substrates and the corresponding reaction products persist sufficiently long to be detected in vivo. Biomedical applications of PASADENA typically differ from their basic science counterparts in that the polarization endowed by addition of parahydrogen is usually transferred from nascent protons to coupled storage nuclei for subsequent detection on a higher field imaging instrument. These pre-imaging preparations usually take place at low field, but commercial spectrometers capable of heteronuclear pulsed NMR at frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz are scarce though, in comparison to single channel consoles in that field regime. Reported here is a probe circuit that can be used in conjunction with a phase and amplitude modulation scheme we have developed called PANORAMIC (Precession And Nutation for Observing Rotations At Multiple Intervals about the Carrier), that expands a single channel console capability to double or generally multiple resonance with minimal hardware modifications. The demands of this application are geared towards uniform preparation, and since the hyperpolarized molecules are being detected externally at high field, detection sensitivity is secondary to applied field uniformity over a large reaction volume to accommodate heterogeneous chemistry of gas molecules at a liquid interface. The probe circuit was therefore configured with a large (40 mL) Helmholtz sample coil for uniformity, and double-tuned to the Larmor precession frequencies of 13C/1H (128/510 kHz) within a custom solenoidal electromagnet at a static field of 12 mT. Traditional (on-resonant) as well as PANORAMIC NMR signals with signal to noise ratios of approximately 75 have been routinely acquired with this probe and spectrometer setup from 1024 repetitions on the high frequency channel. The proton excitation pulse width was 240 μs at 6.31 W

  5. Impact of brown and clear carbon on light absorption enhancement, single scatter albedo and absorption wavelength dependence of black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of clear coatings on atmospheric black carbon (BC particles is known to enhance the magnitude of light absorption by the BC cores. Based on calculations using core/shell Mie theory, we demonstrate that the enhancement of light absorption (EAbs by atmospheric black carbon (BC when it is coated in mildly absorbing material (CBrown is reduced relative to the enhancement induced by non-absorbing coatings (CClear. This reduction, sensitive to both the CBrown coating thickness and imaginary refractive index (RI, can be up to 50% for 400 nm radiation and 25% averaged across the visible radiation spectrum for reasonable core/shell diameters. The enhanced direct radiative forcing possible due to the enhancement effect of CClear is therefore reduced if the coating is absorbing. Additionally, the need to explicitly treat BC as an internal, as opposed to external, mixture with CBrown is shown to be important to the calculated single scatter albedo only when models treat BC as large spherical cores (>50 nm. For smaller BC cores (or fractal agglomerates consideration of the BC and CBrown as an external mixture leads to relatively small errors in the particle single scatter albedo of <0.03. It has often been assumed that observation of an absorption Angström exponent (AAE>1 indicates absorption by a non-BC aerosol. Here, it is shown that BC cores coated in CClear can reasonably have an AAE of up to 1.6, a result that complicates the attribution of observed light absorption to CBrown within ambient particles. However, an AAE<1.6 does not exclude the possibility of CBrown; rather CBrown cannot be confidently assigned unless AAE>1.6. Comparison of these model

  6. A comparative study of microstructure and mechanical properties between friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Saeid, T., E-mail: saeid@sut.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    This study was done in order to compare the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys. The microstructure of the joints were examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, tensile test and fractography were applied to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. The results showed that the grain size of the stir zone in the double phase joint was smaller than that of the single phase alloy. In comparison with base metals, both of the joints contained high density of dislocations with a qualitatively similar texture. However, the dislocation density of the double phase joint was somewhat lower than that of the single phase one. Moreover, the joints had higher tensile strength, lower elongation and less ductile fracture compared to their base metals due to their finer grain size and higher dislocation density. The double phase joint had higher strength and lower elongation than single phase joint due to the effect of the second phase.

  7. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  8. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  9. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface...

  10. Single versus double intrauterine insemination in stimulated cycles for subfertile couples : a systematic review based on a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, AEP; Heineman, MJ; Cohlen, BJ

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this review was to determine, from the best available evidence, the difference in outcome using single versus double intrauterine insemination (IUI) in stimulated cycles for subfertile couples. METHODS: The principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility

  11. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document

  12. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F.J.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  13. Single-Bundle Versus Double-Bundle Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-Analysis-Does Anatomy Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, Carola F. Van; Kopf, Sebastian; Irrgang, James J.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Bhandari, Mohit; Fu, Freddie H.; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction leads to better restoration of anterior and rotational laxity and range of motion than single-bundle reconstruction. Methods: A search was performed in the Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases. All

  14. The single chest tube versus double chest tube application after pulmonary lobectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Compared with the double chest tube, the single chest tube significantly decreases amount of drainage, duration of chest tube drainage, pain score, the number of patients who need thoracentesis, and cost. Although there is convincing evidence to confirm the results mentioned herein, they still need to be confirmed by large-sample, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials.

  15. Transistor Clamped Five-Level Inverter using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM Technique for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam

    2017-01-01

    supplies or capacitor banks. To design the proposed five level inverter five numbers of power control switches and eight diodes are required. The proposed inverter circuitry is investigated by using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM (NIDRSC PWM) Technique in terms of harmonics content...

  16. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-09-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Siq+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u Oq+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  17. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  18. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  19. Double vs single internal thoracic artery harvesting in diabetic patients: role in perioperative infection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parolari Alessandro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the role in the onset of surgical site infections of bilateral internal thoracic arteries harvesting in patients with decompensated preoperative glycemia. Methods 81 consecutive patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus underwent elective CABG harvesting single or double internal thoracic arteries. Single left ITA was harvested in 41 patients (Group 1, 50.6%, BITAs were harvested in 40 (Group 2, 49.4%. The major clinical end points analyzed in this study were infection rate, type of infection, duration of infection, infection relapse rate and total hospital length of stay. Results Five patients developed sternal SSI in the perioperative period, 2 in group 1 and 3 in group 2 without significant difference. All sternal SSIs were superficial with no sternal dehiscence. The development of infection from the time of surgery took 18.5 ± 2.1 and 7.3 ± 3.0 days for Groups 1 and 2 respectively. The infections were treated with wound irrigation and debridement, and with VAC therapy as well as with antibiotics. The VAC system was removed after a mean of 12.8 ± 5.1 days, when sterilization was achieved. The overall survival estimate at 1 year was 98.7%. Only BMI was a significant predictor of SSI using multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis (Odds Ratio: 1.34; 95%Conficdence Interval: 1.02–1.83; p value: 0.04. In the model, the use of BITA was not an independent predictor of SSI. Conclusion CABG with bilateral pedicled ITAs grafting could be performed safely even in diabetics with poor preoperative glycaemic control.

  20. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, M.T. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, D.F. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk; Melling, A. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Roberts, D. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Laasch, H.-U. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sukumar, S. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree.

  1. How to obtain the adhesive strength for double lap joint by using single lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, N. A.; Li, R.; Sano, Y.; Takase, Y.; Takaki, R.; Miyazaki, T.

    2017-05-01

    The testing method of adhesive strength of lap joint is prescribed in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS K6850). However, it has been reported that the strength of double lap joint (DLJ) is about two times larger than the one of single lap joint (SLJ). Therefore, suitable testing method has been required from industries. In this study, the equivalent conditions of strength for SLJ and DLJ are investigated in terms of the intensity of singular stress field (ISSF) appearing at the interface end. First, in order to minimize the bend effect for SLJ, the effect of the specimen geometry on ISSF and deformation angle at the interface corner is considered under the same adhesive geometry and load P. It is found that the minimum ISSF of SLJ can be obtained when the adherend thickness t 1 is large enough, and the deformation angle at interface corner is also smallest when adherend thickness t 1 is large enough. Therefore, it is necessary to use the specimen with thicker adherend thickness. Then, the equivalent conditions of strength for SLJ and DLJ is investigated by changing adherend thickness. The results show that the strength of the DLJ in JIS ( t 1 = 1.5mm) can be obtained by using the SLJ with adherend thickness t 1 = 7mm. When the adherend thickness t 1 ≥ 25mm, the strength of SLJ is nearly equal to that of DLJ.

  2. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, M.T.; Martin, D.F.; Melling, A.; Roberts, D.; Laasch, H.-U.; Sukumar, S.; Morris, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree

  3. Four-jet production in single- and double-parton scattering within high-energy factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciula, Rafal; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Szczurek, Antoni [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów,ul. Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszów (Poland); Hameren, Andreas van [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-04-28

    We perform a first study of 4-jet production in a complete high-energy factorization (HEF) framework. We include and discuss contributions from both single-parton scattering (SPS) and double-parton scattering (DPS). The calculations are performed for kinematical situations relevant for two experimental measurements (ATLAS and CMS) at the LHC. We compare our results to those reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for different sets of kinematical cuts. The results of the HEF approach are compared with their counterparts for collinear factorization. For symmetric cuts the DPS HEF result is considerably smaller than the one obtained with collinear factorization. The mechanism leading to this difference is of kinematical nature. We conclude that an analysis of inclusive 4-jet production with asymmetric p{sub T}-cuts below 50 GeV would be useful to enhance the DPS contribution relative to the SPS contribution. In contrast to the collinear approach, the HEF approach nicely describes the distribution of the ΔS variable, which involves all four jets and their angular correlations.

  4. Readout of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianping; Ouyang Shihua; You, J Q; Lam, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot (DQD) and its readout via a quantum point contact (QPC). We model the system microscopically and derive rate equations for the reduced electron density matrix of the DQD. Two cases with one and two electrons in the DQD are studied. In the one-electron case, with different Zeeman splittings in the two dots, the electron spin states are distinctly characterized by a constant and an oscillatory current through the QPC. In the two-electron case, the readout of the spin state of the electron in one of the dots called the qubit dot is essentially similar after considering hyperfine interactions between the electrons and the nuclear spins of the host materials and a uniform magnetic field applied to the DQD. Moreover, to ensure that an electron is properly injected into the qubit dot, we propose to determine the success of the electron injection from the variations of the QPC current after applying an oscillating magnetic field to the qubit dot

  5. Formal Uncertainty and Dispersion of Single and Double Difference Models for GNSS-Based Attitude Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Yu, Chao; Dong, Danan; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zhiren; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Zhengqi

    2017-02-20

    With multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers, the single difference (SD) between two antennas is able to eliminate both satellite and receiver clock error, thus it becomes necessary to reconsider the equivalency problem between the SD and double difference (DD) models. In this paper, we quantitatively compared the formal uncertainties and dispersions between multiple SD models and the DD model, and also carried out static and kinematic short baseline experiments. The theoretical and experimental results show that under a non-common clock scheme the SD and DD model are equivalent. Under a common clock scheme, if we estimate stochastic uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) parameters every epoch, this SD model is still equivalent to the DD model, but if we estimate only one UPD parameter for all epochs or take it as a known constant, the SD (here called SD2) and DD models are no longer equivalent. For the vertical component of baseline solutions, the formal uncertainties of the SD2 model are two times smaller than those of the DD model, and the dispersions of the SD2 model are even more than twice smaller than those of the DD model. In addition, to obtain baseline solutions, the SD2 model requires a minimum of three satellites, while the DD model requires a minimum of four satellites, which makes the SD2 more advantageous in attitude determination under sheltered environments.

  6. Indiscernible Benefit of Double-Unit Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children: A Single-Center Experience From Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kam Sze; Leung, Alex Wing Kwan; Lee, Vincent; Cheng, Frankie Wai Tsoi; Shing, Matthew Ming Kong; Pong, Henry Nga Hin; Leung, Ting Fan; Yuen, Patrick Man Pan; Li, Chi Kong

    2016-01-01

    Double-unit umbilical cord blood (DU-UCB) may extend the use of UCB transplantation and improve clinical outcomes. Data in the literature show that single-unit dominance happened in a vast majority of recipients, and the mechanism is unknown. We examined the clinical relevance and engraftment kinetics of DU-UCB transplant in 65 consecutive children who underwent unrelated single-unit (n = 25) and double-unit (n = 40) UCB transplantation for various hematological malignancies (n = 45) and nonmalignant disorders (n = 20). Our result showed no discernible benefit to children receiving double-unit transplant over those receiving single-unit transplant when the total nucleated cell (TNC) doses are ≥2.5 × 10(7)/kg, in terms of the hastening of the engraftment of neutrophils and platelets, reduction of nonengraftment, disease recurrence, early mortality, and graft-versus-host disease, despite significantly higher numbers of TNCs in double units. Further analyses demonstrated that the phenomena were not associated with underlying disease, duration of UCB storage, postthaw viability, HLA disparity, ABO incompatibility, gender, or doses of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, CD3(+) cells, or colony-forming units. Engrafting units in DU-UCB transplants were notably associated with higher CD34(+) cell dose. Chimerism studies demonstrated that single-unit dominance started before neutrophil engraftment in DU-UCB transplants. Data from the study suggested no advantage of infusing double-unit UCB, if an adequately dosed single-unit UCB is available. Successful prediction of the dominant graft would optimize algorithms of UCB selection and maximize the long-term engraftment of chosen units.

  7. Double Centrifugation Versus Single Centrifugation of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Sinus Floor Elevation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thiago Altro; Aloise, Antonio Carlos; Orosz, José Eduardo; de Mello E Oliveira, Rafael; de Carvalho, Paulo; Pelegrine, André Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the regenerative results of the addition of bone marrow aspirate concentrate, using a single or double centrifugation protocol, to a xenogeneic bone graft in sinus floor elevation. Using a randomized, controlled pilot study design in 15 consecutive patients, sinus floor elevation procedures were performed with a xenogenous bone graft alone (control group, CG) or associated with bone marrow aspirate concentrate obtained by single centrifugation (single centrifugation group, SCG) or double centrifugation (double centrifugation group, DCG). In the patients in the single and double centrifugation groups, bone marrow was harvested from the iliac bone. Six months after the grafting procedures, bone biopsy specimens were obtained during implant placement and were analyzed by histomorphometry. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a great amount of vital mineralized tissue in SCG followed by DCG when compared with the CG (38.44 ± 12.34%, 34.63 ± 9.84%, and 27.30 ± 5.55%, respectively). SCG and DCG presented smaller amounts of nonvital mineralized tissue when compared with the CG (13.70 ± 7.50%, 19.63 ± 8.35%, and 22.79 ± 9.60%, respectively), thus presenting higher levels of resorption. Although these differences were not statistically significant (P > .05), a tendency toward bone gain in the experimental groups (SCG and DCG) was found. All groups (SCG, DCG, and CG) showed similar levels of nonmineralized tissue (47.87 ± 6.31%, 45.73 ± 7.33%, and 49.90 ± 7.64%, respectively). This pilot study indicates that the clinical use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate, obtained by either a single or double centrifugation process, combined with a xenograft for maxillary sinus elevation seems to result in more adequate bone repair. However, clinical trials with a larger number of patients are required.

  8. Photoluminescence and structural properties of unintentional single and double InGaSb/GaSb quantum wells grown by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahia, Chinedu Christian; Tile, Ngcali; Botha, Johannes R.; Olivier, E. J.

    2018-04-01

    The structural and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of InGaSb quantum well (QW) structures grown on GaSb substrate (100) using atmospheric pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. Both structures (single and double-InGaSb QWs) were inadvertently formed during an attempt to grow capped InSb/GaSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, 10 K PL peak energies at 735 meV and 740 meV are suggested to be emissions from the single and double QWs, respectively. These lines exhibit red shifts, accompanied by a reduction in their full-widths at half-maximum (FWHM) as the excitation power decreases. The presence of a GaSb spacer in the double QW was found to increase the strength of the PL emission, which consequently gives rise to a reduced blue-shift and broadening of the PL emission line observed for the double QW with an increase in laser power, while the low thermal activation energy for the quenching of the PL from the double QW is attributed to the existence of threading dislocations, as seen in the bright field TEM image for this sample.

  9. Sonographic Guidance for Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Blocks: Single vs. Double Injection Cluster Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ju; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Wol Seon; Chung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Mi Geum

    2017-09-01

    The cluster approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SC-BPB) can be easily performed but may result in asymmetric local anesthetic (LA) spread. The authors hypothesized that the use of a cluster approach in each of the 2 planes would achieve better 3-dimensional LA distribution than the traditional single cluster approach. The purpose of the present study was to compare a double injection (DI) in 2 planes (one injection in each plane) with the traditional single injection (SI) cluster approach for ultrasound-guided SC-BPB. A randomized, controlled trial. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center. In the SI group (n = 18), 30 mL of LA was injected into the main neural cluster after penetrating the brachial plexus sheath laterally. In the DI group (n = 18), the needle penetrated the sheath in a downward direction at the first skin puncture, and 15 mL of LA was injected, and at the second skin puncture (behind the initial puncture site), the needle penetrated the sheath in an upward direction, and 15 mL was again injected. Ultrasound-guided SC-BPB was evaluated from immediately after the block every 5 minutes to 30 minutes by sensory and motor testing. The main outcome variables were procedural time; onset time (time for complete sensory and motor block of the median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves); and rate of blockage of all 4 nerves. Procedure times (medians [interquartile range]) were similar in the DI and SI groups (5.5 [4.75 - 8] vs. 5 [4 - 7] minutes, respectively; P = 0.137). Block onset time in the DI group was not significantly different from that in the SI group (10 [5 - 17.5] vs. 20 [6.25 - 30] minutes, P = 0.142). However, the rate of blockage of all 4 nerves was significantly higher in the DI group (94% vs. 67%, P = 0.035). Although the results of this study indicate LA distribution in the DI group was more evenly spread within brachial plexus sheaths than in the SI group, this was not

  10. The effect of double versus single oscillating exercise devices on trunk and limb muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C; Basset, Fabien A; Behm, David G

    2013-08-01

    Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. TWELVE MALE SUBJECTS PERFORMED THREE INTERVENTIONS USING BOTH DEVICES UNDER RANDOMIZED CONDITIONS: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. A DOD demonstrated greater muscular activity for trunk and shoulder muscle

  11. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wierer

    Full Text Available In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption and the single-stranded (after disruption DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure.

  12. Analyses of Short Channel Effects of Single-Gate and Double-Gate Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatollah Sarvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short channel effects of single-gate and double-gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs are studied based on the atomistic pz orbital model for the Hamiltonian of graphene nanoribbon using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. A tight-binding Hamiltonian with an atomistic pz orbital basis set is used to describe the atomistic details in the channel of the GNRFETs. We have investigated the vital short channel effect parameters such as Ion and Ioff, the threshold voltage, the subthreshold swing, and the drain induced barrier lowering versus the channel length and oxide thickness of the GNRFETs in detail. The gate capacitance and the transconductance of both devices are also computed in order to calculate the intrinsic cut-off frequency and switching delay of GNRFETs. Furthermore, the effects of doping of the channel on the threshold voltage and the frequency response of the double-gate GNRFET are discussed. We have shown that the single-gate GNRFET suffers more from short channel effects if compared with those of the double-gate structure; however, both devices have nearly the same cut-off frequency in the range of terahertz. This work provides a collection of data comparing different features of short channel effects of the single gate with those of the double gate GNRFETs. The results give a very good insight into the devices and are very useful for their digital applications.

  13. Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Rothstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize in ...

  14. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, T.A.; Eendebak, P.T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the

  15. Development of laser diode-pumped solid state green laser for the pumping of wavelength tunable laser. 2. Development of double-pass Nd:YAG MOPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yoichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-06-01

    The characteristics of a LD pumped zigzag slab YAG laser double-pass amplification is studied. The amplified laser power of 43W in IR is obtained, and the energy extraction efficiency from Nd:YAG crystals 40%. The electrical efficiency is 3.7%. The green power is 19W by using a KTP crystal, with the conversion efficiency of 46%. In this condition, electrical energy efficiency is 1.4%. We also study the quality of the laser beam, and shows that the M{sup 2} of the laser beam is around 1.5 at high average power condition. (author)

  16. Gamma-ray induced double-strand breaks in DNA resulting from randomly-inflicted single-strand breaks: temporal local denaturation, a new radiation phenomenon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der

    1978-01-01

    The induction of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA by γ-rays has been measured. The maximum number of nucleotide paris (a) between two independently induced single-strand breaks in opposite strands of the DNA which cannot prevent the occurrence of a double-strand break was found to amount to

  17. Single and double inclusive forward jet production at the LHC at s=7 and 13 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bury

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a description of the transverse momentum spectrum of single inclusive forward jets produced at the LHC, at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 13 TeV, using the high energy factorization (HEF framework. We subsequently study double inclusive forward jet production and, in particular, we calculate contributions to azimuthal angle distributions coming from double parton scattering. We also compare our results for double inclusive jet production to those obtained with the Pythia Monte Carlo generator. This comparison confirms that the HEF resummation acts like an initial state parton shower. It also points towards the need to include final state radiation effects in the HEF formalism.

  18. Large-sub(pT) production of single and double photons in proton-proton and pion-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Argonne National Lab., IL; Braaten, E.; Field, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamic (QCD) predictions are made for the large transverse momentum production of single and double photons in proton-proton, proton-antiproton, and pion-proton collisions. In π - p collisions at center-of-mass energy W=27.4 GeV and psub(T)=4.0 GeV, it is estimated that about 0.3% of the 90 0 single photon triggers will be balanced on the 'away-side' by a single photon with roughly the same transverse momentum. In π + p collisions this fraction drops to about 0.09%. These fractions increase with psub(T). In addition to the pure QED annihilation term qanti q -> γγ, it is found that the QCD-induced subprocess gg -> γγ provides an important source of double photons. Photon bremsstrahlung contributions are also examined. Experimental study of the systematics of single and double photon production in hadron-hadron collisions will provide information on the size of the strong interaction coupling constant, αsub(s)(Q), and on the charges of the quarks. Knowledge of the gluon distributions within hadrons and of the effective transverse momentum of partons in hadrons can also be gained. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous Double Eyelid Blepharoplasty and Ptosis Correction with a Single-Knot, Continuous, Nonincisional Technique: A Five-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jung-Woo; Byeon, Jun Hee; Shim, Hyung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Double eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most popular facial cosmetic surgeries performed in patients with Asian eyelids. Although most patients choose to undergo blepharoplasty for cosmetic purposes, rather than functional reasons, these patients frequently present with concomitant mild-to-moderate blepharoptosis. Performing nonincisional double eyelid surgery without correcting the ptosis tends to lead to unsatisfactory results. The authors introduce our new method for simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis during double eyelid blepharoplasty. For 5 years, the authors have performed a single-knot continuous nonincisional technique for simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis during double eyelid blepharoplasty. The medical charts of 127 patients (254 eyelids) were retrospectively reviewed. Müller muscle tagging suture was utilized to achieve the accurate amount of Müller tucking during the surgery. There was a statistically significant difference between pretreatment MRD1 (1.62 ± 0.57 mm), and postoperative MRD1 (3.97 ± 0.81 mm; P < .001, Wilcoxon signed rank test, nonparametric paired comparison). The mean duration of surgery for both eyelids was 14.8 minutes (range, 14.1-19.7 minutes), and the mean extent of Müller muscle tucking was 7.8 mm (range, 6.0-10.0 mm). The majority of patients showed favorable results during long-term follow-up, with minimal complications. There are no previously published articles documenting simultaneous double eyelid blepharoplasty and ptosis correction, using a single-knot continuous nonincisional technique. The authors suggest our simple and effective method is a good option for double eyelid blepharoplasty in cases with mild-to-moderate blepharoptosis.' LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Extending the wavelength range of single-emitter diode lasers for medical and sensing applications: 12xx-nm quantum dots, 2000-nm wells, > 5000-nm cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Paul; Patterson, Steve; Elim, Sandrio; Zhang, Shiguo; Bougher, Mike; Patterson, Jason; Das, Suhit; Dong, Weimin; Grimshaw, Mike; Wang, Jun; Wise, Damian; DeFranza, Mark; Bell, Jake; Farmer, Jason; DeVito, Mark; Martinsen, Rob; Kovsh, Alexey; Toor, Fatima; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2007-02-01

    Diode lasers supply high power densities at wavelengths from 635-nm to 2000-nm, with different applications enabled by providing this power at different wavelengths. As the range of available wavelengths broadens, many novel medical and atmospheric applications are enabled. Traditional quantum well lasers provide high performance in the range 635- nm to 1100-nm range for GaAs-based devices and 1280-nm to 2000-nm for InP, leaving a notable gap in the 1100 to 1280-nm range. There are many important medical and sensing applications in this range and quantum dots produced using Stranski-Krastanow self-organized MBE growth on GaAs substrates provide an alternative high performance solution. We present results confirming broad area quantum dot lasers can deliver high optical powers of 16-W per emitter and high power conversion efficiency of 35% in this wavelength range. In addition, there are growing applications for high power sources in wavelengths > 1500-nm. We present a brief review of our current performance status in this wavelength range, both with conventional quantum wells in the 1500-nm to 2500-nm range and MOCVD grown quantum cascade lasers for wavelengths > 4000-nm. At each wavelength, we review the designs that deliver this performance, prospects for increased performance and the potential for further broadening the availability of novel wavelengths for high power applications.

  1. Single and double polymerase chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in tissue culture and sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, H; Brock, K V; Potgieter, L N

    1993-04-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of cattle and has been reported in other ruminants. It is also frequently present in laboratory and biological materials as an adventitious agent. This virus is difficult to detect in some specimens, especially in the presence of specific antibody and when the virus is present in low concentrations. In this paper, we describe a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify virus sequences from infected cell culture and a nested double PCR to detect small concentrations of several virus strains in sera. Total cellular RNA was extracted from cell cultures infected with the cytopathic strain 72 and noncytopathic strain 2724 of BVDV. Ten different genomic sequences along the length of the viral RNA ranging in size from 397 to 1,016 base pairs (bp) were successfully amplified by PCR. A 404-bp probe made from amplified product from the 3' end hybridized specifically with the RNA of several BVDV strains blotted on nylon filters. Viral RNA was extracted from serum and amplified using 2 sets of degenerate nested primers designed from the 3' end of the viral genome in a double PCR protocol. Double amplification of the viral sequences greatly enhanced the sensitivity of the detection of many strains present in serum. Advantages of using double PCR over single PCR and virus isolation is discussed.

  2. Antenatal and postnatal sonographic imaging findings of a single ventricle presenting as double outlet right ventricle with rudimentary left ventricle and single atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donboklang Lynser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Single ventricle is a rare finding and usually of left ventricular morphology. We present here interesting antenatal and postnatal echocardiographic findings of a baby having a rare single ventricle of right ventricular morphology with double outlet. Antenatally we saw a large ventricular septal defect indistinguishable from a single ventricle with left to right ventricular ratio of 1:1. Postnatally we saw a single ventricle having the outlets for both the main pulmonary artery and aortic root. The left ventricle is collapse with a rudimentary morphology possibly due to changes in hemodynamics after birth and absent of outlet from it.

  3. Analysis of Signal-to-Crosstalk Ratio Variations due to Four-Wave Mixing in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems Implemented with Standard Single-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Eser KARLIK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, variation of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio (SXR due to effects of four-wave mixing (FWM has been analyzed on center channels of 5-, 7-, 9-channel dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM systems implemented with G.652 standard single-mode fibers (SSMFs for 12.5 GHz, 25 GHz, 50 GHz and 100 GHz equal channel spacing values. Center channels on such systems are the most severely impacted channels by FWM. Therefore, results obtained are the worst-case values for the DWDM system performance and important for system design. Simulations have been performed for systems using three different commercially available SMFs having different design parameter values for chromatic dispersion, dispersion slope, nonlinearity coefficient and attenuation coefficient which are all in the scope of the G.652 Recommendation of Telecommunication Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T for SSMFs. In those simulations, under the impact of FWM, variation of SXR with variations in input powers, channel spacings and link lengths have been observed. Simulation results display the combined effect of the optical fiber and system design parameters on FWM performance of DWDM systems and give important clues for not only long-haul but also access network implementations of DWDM systems.

  4. CW frequency doubling of 1029 nm radiation using single pass bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Candela, Y.; Wallerand, J. P.; Acef, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 311, 15 January (2013), s. 239-244 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : IR laser * second harmonic generation * waveguide and bulk crystals * periodically poled lithium niobate * 1029 nm wavelength Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013

  5. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  6. Modeling of the I V characteristics of single and double barrier tunneling diodes using A k · p band model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, D.; Patil, M.; Chen, J.; Agarwala, S.; Kumar, N. S.; Morkoc, H.

    1989-11-01

    We model the I-V characteristics of single and double barrier tunneling diodes using the complex band structure of the tunneling barrier obtained from a k · p band model. Band-bending is calculated by solving two coupled 1-D Poisson's equations with a classical potential in the accumulation region. The transfer matrix method is used for the calculation of the transmission probability of the tunneling electron whose complex k-vector is obtained from the band structure. An energy dependent density of states effective mass which is also calculated from the band structure is used. I-V characteristics for In 0.53Ga 0.47As/In 0.52Al 0.48As/In 0.53Ga 0.47As single and double barrier tunneling diodes obtained from this model agree quantitatively with experiment.

  7. Addendum to "Monomer motion in single- and double-stranded DNA coils" [arXiv: cond-mat/0509399

    OpenAIRE

    Tothova, J.; Brutovsky, B.; Lisy, V.

    2007-01-01

    In our work [J. Tothova et al., cond-mat/0509399] the first observation of the kinetics of individual polymer monomers using the fluorescence correlation technique [R. Shusterman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 048303 (2004)] has been interpreted within the joint Rouse-Zimm theory. Optimizing the theory to the experimental data the phenomenological parameters for the statistical-mechanical description of the universal behavior of double- and single-stranded DNA and the dominant types of their dy...

  8. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN) 6 3− /menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN) 6 3− generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system

  9. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Yasufumi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ino, Kosuke [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-09

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−}/menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−} generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system.

  10. Tunable All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Cascaded SHG/DFG in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide Using a Single CW Control Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Wang, Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) in a Ti:PPLN waveguide is demonstrated. Error-free performances with negligible power penalty are achieved for the wavelength...

  11. Correction for the Hematocrit Bias in Dried Blood Spot Analysis Using a Nondestructive, Single-Wavelength Reflectance-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capiau, Sara; Wilk, Leah S; De Kesel, Pieter M M; Aalders, Maurice C G; Stove, Christophe P

    2018-02-06

    The hematocrit (Hct) effect is one of the most important hurdles currently preventing more widespread implementation of quantitative dried blood spot (DBS) analysis in a routine context. Indeed, the Hct may affect both the accuracy of DBS methods as well as the interpretation of DBS-based results. We previously developed a method to determine the Hct of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content using noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Despite the ease with which the analysis can be performed (i.e., mere scanning of the DBS) and the good results that were obtained, the method did require a complicated algorithm to derive the total hemoglobin content from the DBS's reflectance spectrum. As the total hemoglobin was calculated as the sum of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome, the three main hemoglobin derivatives formed in DBS upon aging, the reflectance spectrum needed to be unmixed to determine the quantity of each of these derivatives. We now simplified the method by only using the reflectance at a single wavelength, located at a quasi-isosbestic point in the reflectance curve. At this wavelength, assuming 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the aging reaction, the reflectance is insensitive to the hemoglobin degradation and only scales with the total amount of hemoglobin and, hence, the Hct. This simplified method was successfully validated. At each quality control level as well as at the limits of quantitation (i.e., 0.20 and 0.67) bias, intra- and interday imprecision were within 10%. Method reproducibility was excellent based on incurred sample reanalysis and surpassed the reproducibility of the original method. Furthermore, the influence of the volume spotted, the measurement location within the spot, as well as storage time and temperature were evaluated, showing no relevant impact of these parameters. Application to 233 patient samples revealed a good correlation between the Hct determined on whole blood and the predicted Hct determined on venous DBS. The

  12. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD). The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images

  13. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-07-24

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD).The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images.

  14. Effect of giant plasmon excitations in single and double ionization of C60 in fast heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Kelkar, A.; Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-04-01

    Single and multiple ionization of C60 in collisions with highly charged fast oxygen ions have been studied using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. The dependence of multiple-ionization cross sections on projectile charge state (qp) was found to be drastically different from those for an atomic target, such as Ne. A model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance explains quite well the observed qp dependence for the single- and-double-ionization cross sections. But the same model deviates for triple and quadruple ionizations.

  15. Analysis and parameter identification for characteristic equations of single- and double-effect absorption chillers by means of multivariable regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; López-Villada, Jesús; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2010-01-01

    of the characteristic equation method developed by Kühn and Ziegler (2005) is the simplest and that it provides similar or better accuracy than the other approach. This selected approach has been used to fit catalogue and experimental data of single-effect chillers and has been extended to double-effect commercial......Two approaches to the characteristic equation method have been compared in order to find a simple model that best describes the performance of thermal chillers. After comparing the results obtained using experimental data from a single-effect absorption chiller, we concluded that the adaptation...

  16. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Tomohiro, E-mail: tkita@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  17. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range

  18. Case presentation of two patients using diagonal platform-switched double implants for maxillary single-first-molar replacement as the alternative of a single-tooth implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yasunori; Ito, Koji; Komatsu, Shinichi; Saito, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    A single-tooth implant restoration is generally performed for maxillary single-first-molar replacement. If the interdental space between the second premolar and the second molar is large enough, a double-implant placement can be performed to avoid creating mesiodistal cantilever and to distribute occlusal loading forces.If there is not adequate space for a double-implant placement to be performed mesiodistally along the crest of the alveolar ridge line, they should be placed along a diagonal line offset lingually to increase the space. This procedure has two primary advantages. First, greater stability is provided by a double-implant placement. Resistance to lateral forces (palatal-buccal) is much stronger than two implants placed along the alveolar crest ridge line. Residual palatal and buccal bone can provide support against occlusal forces, provided that there is adequate residual bone in these regions.If anatomical conditions are favorable, the placement of two diagonal implants in the palatal and buccal residual bones can be a rational procedure.We report on two typical patients. The progress of these patients was followed using computed tomography for 7 and 6 years, respectively.

  19. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis for breast cancer screening: double reading versus single + CAD reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Kawai, Masaaki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) increases breast cancer detection, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown for breast cancer screening in Japan. We aimed to determine whether screening mammography diagnosed by one physician using CAD is cost-effective when compared with the standard double reading by two physicians. We established our model with a decision tree and Markov model concept based on feasible screening and clinical pathways, combined with prognosis of the health state transition of breast cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis between double reading by two readers and single reading with CAD by one reader was performed from a social perspective in terms of the expected cost, life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The hypothetical population comprised 50-year-old female breast cancer screening examinees. Only direct medical costs related to breast cancer screening and treatment were considered. One simulation cycle was 2 years, and the annual discount rate was 3 %. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of the model and input data. Single reading with CAD increased expected costs by 2,704 yen and extended life expectancy by 0.0087 years compared with double reading. The ICER was 310,805 yen per life year gained, which is below the threshold. Sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the number of breast cancer screening examinees greatly affected the results. Single reading using CAD in mammography screening is more cost-effective than double reading, although the results are highly sensitive to the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the numbers of examinees.

  1. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Umeda Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.

  2. Double and multiple chromosomal aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions: A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Subramaniyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize double and multiple aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions (SAB. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of cytogenetics data obtained by culturing/harvesting products of the conception material at our center from 2006 to 2009 was performed. The abnormal cytogenetic results, maternal age, gestational age, and previous pregnancy history were recorded and compared. Results: Double and multiple aneuploidies are rare, however, a high percentage of double (4.6% and multiple (0.4% chromosomal aneuploidies were observed in our study of 1502 cases of SAB. Of 1502 cases of SAB evaluated, 70 cases (4.6% showed double aneuploidy, whereas 6 cases (0.4% had multiple aneuploidies. The chromosomes most frequently involved in double aneuploidy in the decreasing order were 21, 16, ± X, 22, 18, 13, and 15. The most frequent chromosome combinations observed were: Loss of X/21 (8.5%, 21/22 (4.4%, 16/21 (4.4%, and 7/16 (4.4%. The chromosome combinations in multiple aneuploidy included trisomy of chromosomes X/5/8, 8/20/22, 16/20/22, 14/21/22, and loss of X with 21/21 and 7/21. These abnormalities were significantly observed in women between the age group 40-44 years (59.2%. A high success rate (94% of obtaining metaphase cells was observed in this study mainly due to the use of direct and long-term cultures. Conclusions: We observed a high percentage of double (4.6% and multiple (0.4% aneuploidies, frequently involving the acrocentic chromosomes 13, 15, 21, and 22 and nonacrocentric chromosomes X, 16, and 18.

  3. Use of analyte-modulated modal power distribution in multimode optical fibers for simultaneous single-wavelength evanescent-wave refractometry and spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, R A; Ruddy, V P; Hieftje, G M

    1999-11-01

    A new method is described for the simultaneous determination of absorbance and refractive index of a sample medium. The method is based on measurement of the analyte-modulated modal power distribution (MPD) in a multimode waveguide. In turn, the MPD is quantified by the far-field spatial pattern and intensity of light, i.e., the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern (registered on a CCD camera), that emerges from a multimode optical fiber. Operationally, light that is sent down the fiber interacts with the surrounding analyte-containing medium by means of the evanescent wave at the fiber boundary. The light flux in the propagating beam and the internal reflection angles within the fiber are both affected by optical absorption connected with the analyte and by the refractive index of the analyte-containing medium. In turn, these angles are reflected in the angular divergence of the beam as it leaves the fiber. As a result, the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of that beam yields two parameters that can, together, be used to deduce refractive index and absorbance. This MPD based detection offers important advantages over traditional evanescent-wave detection strategies which rely on recording only the total transmitted optical power or its lost fraction. First, simultaneous determination of sample refractive index and absorbance is possible at a single probe wavelength. Second, the sensitivity of refractometric and absorption measurements can be controlled simply, either by adjusting the distance between the end face of the fiber and the CCD detector or by monitoring selected modal groups at the fiber output. As a demonstration of these capabilities, several weakly absorbing solutions were examined, with refractive indices in the range from 1.3330 to 1.4553 and with absorption coefficients in the range 0-16 cm-1. The new detection strategy is likely to be important in applications in which sample coloration varies and when it is necessary to compensate for variations in the

  4. Characterization of the nanostructure of complexes formed by single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides with a cationic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2010-12-02

    We report the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to characterize the nanostructure of complexes formed by either single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides with a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) in aqueous solution (1 mM Li(2)SO(4)). For single-stranded oligonucleotides 5'-A(20)-3' and 5'-CCCCATTCTAGCAGCCCGGG-3', both the appearance of two Bragg peaks (at 0.14 and 0.28 Å(-1)) in SAXS spectra with a spacing of 1:2 and form factor fits to SANS spectra are consistent with the presence of multilamellar vesicles (with, on average, 6-9 layers with a periodicity of 45-48 Å). Some samples showed evidence of an additional Bragg peak (at 0.20 Å(-1)) associated with periodic packing (with a periodicity of 31 Å) of the oligonucleotides within the lamellae of the nanostructure. The nucleotide composition of the single-stranded oligonucleotides was also found to impact the number and size of the complexes formed with CTAB. In contrast to 5'-A(20)-3' and 5'-CCCCATTCTAGCAGCCCGGG-3', 5'-T(20)-3' did not change the state of aggregation of CTAB (globular micelles) over a wide range of oligonucleotide:CTAB charge ratios. These results support the proposition that hydrophobic interactions, as well as electrostatics, play a central role in the formation of complexes between cationic amphiphiles and single-stranded oligonucleotides and thus give rise to nanostructures that depend on nucleotide composition. In contrast to the single-stranded oligonucleotides, for double-stranded oligonucleotides mixed with CTAB, three Bragg peaks (0.13, 0.23, and 0.25 Å(-1)) in SAXS spectra with a spacing ratio of 1:√3:√4 and characteristic changes in SANS spectra indicate formation of a hexagonal nanostructure. Also, the composition of the double-stranded oligonucleotides did not measurably impact the nanostructure of complexes formed with CTAB, suggesting that electrostatic

  5. Longitudinal double spin asymmetries in single hadron quasi-real photoproduction at high p(T)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekapm, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d´Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Yu.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Šulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 753, FEB 10 (2016), s. 573-579 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : COMPASS * deep inelastic scattering * double spin asymmetry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  6. Improvement of Energy Density in Single Stator Interior Permanent Magnet Using Double Stator Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Nor Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the energy density improvement using magnetic circuit analysis of the interior permanent magnet motor. The leakage flux from the conventional structure is improved with modified magnetic circuit to improve the energy and thereby the torque value. This is approached with a double stator structure design. The proposed structure is investigated with two design variations, namely, the double stator with thin pole shoe and the double stator with thick pole shoe motors. Variations in the mechanical parameters of the all the developed models are analyzed through the finite element analysis tool. In all investigations the magnetic source is fixed in both the permanent magnet volume and coil magnetomotive force, respectively, as 400 mm3 per each pole and 480 Ampere turns per pole. From the analysis the best fit magnetic structure based on the torque characteristics is derived and is fabricated for the same volume as that of the conventional structure for performance evaluations. It is found out that there is improvement on the motor constant square density for the proposed improved magnetic circuit through the best fit double stator with thick pole shoe by about 83.66% greater than that of the conventional structure.

  7. Calculations of Q values in single- and double-charge-transfer collisions of highly charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Lin, C.D.; Toshima, N.

    1994-01-01

    Close-coupling calculations are carried out for the Q values for electron capture processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms over a broad range of energies. For single-capture processes the results for N 7+ +He and O 8+ +He collisions are in good agreement with the experimental data of Wu et al. [preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 50, 502 (1994)]. To compare with the experimental Q values for the transfer ionization (TI) and the true double-capture (TDC) processes, an independent-electron model was used to calculate double-electron-capture cross sections. By combining with the calculated average fluorescence yields, the theoretical Q values for TI and TDC processes are also found to be in fair agreement with the experimental data. We also compared the Q values calculated by the close-coupling method and by the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method

  8. A Parameter Study of Coupling Properties in Finite Element Models of Single-Stud Double-Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight building techniques are currently progressing fast and using such structures for multi-storey multi-family dwellings is becoming part of the industry standard. Partitions in lightweight buildings are often constructed as plates on frame structures made of either wood or steel. In any...... case the low frequency sound transmission is often an issue that needs attention. The present paper utilizes a finite element model of a single-stud double-plate panel structure to investigate how different couplings between the plates and the frame structure affect the direct sound transmission. Four...... and the load acts as a diffuse field on one side of the panel. The obtained results indicate that in order to accurately model sound transmission through a double-plate panel structure, the choice of coupling is an important factor....

  9. Raman spectroscopy of single nanoparticles in a double-nanohole optical tweezer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Steven; Al Balushi, Ahmed A; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal was observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification. (fast track communication)

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Single Nanoparticles in a Double-Nanohole Optical Tweezer System

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steven; Balushi, Ahmed A. Al; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal is observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparti...

  11. Testing single and double limb standing balance performance: comparison of COP path length evaluation between two devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Center of pressure (COP) path length evaluation was commonly applied to measure postural sway and usually obtained from gold standard force plates. Thus, we comparatively investigated the feasible and less-expensive GKS® balance system (GKS) with the Kistler® force platform (KIS). 34 non-specifically trained but active adults (14 males, 20 females, age: 25.4±4.8 years; weight: 69.3±12.3 kg; height: 1.75±0.09 m, sports activity: 5.8±3.6 hours per week) were randomly tested on both devices during double and single limb stance with opened and closed eyes. Irrespective of the analysed time frame, repeated measures analyses of variances revealed higher path length readings for GKS compared to KIS for 30 s (F=6.8, p=0.01) and 10 s (F=21.2, p=0.001). Large effect sizes of the COP path length differences between GKS and KIS decreased from easy tasks (double limb, eyes open; d(30-s)=2.55, d(10-s)=2.04) to the most severe task (single limb, eyes closed; d(30-s)=0.02, d(10-s)=0.23). According to Bland and Altman, the limits of agreements indicated a high random variability component (between 29%, double limb, eyes open and 67%, single limb, eyes closed). The overall intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) across all four standing balance tasks were moderate for the 30 s- (0.57) as well as the 10 s-analysis (0.65). In conclusion, the COP path length displacements obtained from the GKS balance system seem to differ with a considerable random variability from Kistler force platform data. Thus, measurements of the evaluated devices should not be used interchangeably. Further methodological investigations regarding balance measures seem warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline: Switching between single and double-well proton transfer through structural modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hristova, S; Dobrikov, G; Kamounah, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    and excited singlet state. We observed that the incorporation of electron acceptor substituents on position 7 of the HBQ backbone led to appearance of a keto tautomer in ground state and changes in the excited state potential energy surface. Both processes were strongly solvent dependent. In the ground state...... the equilibrium could be driven from the enol to the keto form by change of solvent. The theoretical calculations explain the substitution-determined transition from a single- to a double-well proton transfer mechanism...

  13. Effect of multiple plasmon excitation on single, double and multiple ionizations of C60 in collisions with fast highly charged Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Kumar, A; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the single and multiple ionizations of the C 60 molecule in collisions with fast Si q+ projectiles for various projectile charge states (q) between q = 6 and 14. The q-dependence of the ionization cross sections and their ratios is compared with the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR) model. The excellent qualitative agreement with the model in case of single and double ionizations and also a reasonable agreement with the triple (and to some extent with quadruple) ionization (without evaporation) yields signify dominant contributions of the single-, double- and triple-plasmon excitations on the single- and multiple-ionization process

  14. Effect of multiple plasmon excitation on single, double and multiple ionizations of C60 in collisions with fast highly charged Si ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Kumar, A.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated the single and multiple ionizations of the C60 molecule in collisions with fast Siq+ projectiles for various projectile charge states (q) between q = 6 and 14. The q-dependence of the ionization cross sections and their ratios is compared with the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR) model. The excellent qualitative agreement with the model in case of single and double ionizations and also a reasonable agreement with the triple (and to some extent with quadruple) ionization (without evaporation) yields signify dominant contributions of the single-, double- and triple-plasmon excitations on the single- and multiple-ionization process.

  15. Effect of multiple plasmon excitation on single, double and multiple ionizations of C{sub 60} in collisions with fast highly charged Si ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Kumar, A; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai -5 (India)

    2007-06-28

    We have investigated the single and multiple ionizations of the C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast Si{sup q+} projectiles for various projectile charge states (q) between q = 6 and 14. The q-dependence of the ionization cross sections and their ratios is compared with the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR) model. The excellent qualitative agreement with the model in case of single and double ionizations and also a reasonable agreement with the triple (and to some extent with quadruple) ionization (without evaporation) yields signify dominant contributions of the single-, double- and triple-plasmon excitations on the single- and multiple-ionization process.

  16. Single crystal growth and nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped STGS crystal for self-frequency-doubling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.

  17. Use of first-order diffraction wavelengths corresponding to dual-grating periodicities in a single fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous temperature and strain measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yam, Sui P; Brodzeli, Zourab; Rollinson, Claire M; Baxter, Greg W; Collins, Stephen F; Wade, Scott A

    2009-01-01

    A fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, fabricated using a phase mask with 536 nm uniform pitch, for simultaneous temperature and strain measurement is presented. Two peaks/dips occur, at 785 and 1552 nm, due to reflection/transmission at the Bragg wavelength and at twice the Bragg wavelength, and arising primarily from FBG periodicities associated with half the phase mask periodicity and the phase mask periodicity, respectively. This grating was simple to fabricate and by having greater reflectivity at 785 nm, compared with 1552 nm, it is better suited for long-distance operation compared with similar schemes where the greater fibre attenuation at 785 nm is a significant limitation

  18. String-nets, single and double-stranded quantum loop gases for non-Abelian anyons

    OpenAIRE

    Velenich, Andrea; Chamon, Claudio; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-01-01

    String-net condensation can give rise to non-Abelian anyons whereas loop condensation usually gives rise to Abelian anyons. It has been proposed that generalized quantum loop gases with non-orthogonal inner products can produce non-Abelian anyons. We detail an exact mapping between the string-net and the generalized loop models and explain how the non-orthogonal products arise. We also introduce a loop model of double-stranded nets where quantum loops with an orthogonal inner product and loca...

  19. Single-electron switching effect in graphene parallel-coupled double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, M.; Masubuchi, S.; Machida, T.

    2011-12-01

    We have fabricated parallel-coupled quantum dots on single-layer graphene. The tunnel coupling between the quantum dots can be tuned by a graphene in-plane gate. Owing to the tunnel coupling, the Coulomb blockade oscillation peaks exhibit periodic shifts as the number of electron in the non-conducting side-coupled QD is changed. The result suggests the observation of the single electron switching effect, which is a prerequisite for a single photon detection scheme using parallel-coupled quantum dots.

  20. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M

    2015-09-01

    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  1. Evidence that single-stranded DNA breaks are a normal feature of koala sperm chromatin, while double-stranded DNA breaks are indicative of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Yeng Peng; López-Fernández, Carmen; Arroyo, F; Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V; Gosalvez, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we have used single and double comet assays to differentiate between single- and double-stranded DNA damage in an effort to refine the interpretation of DNA damage in mature koala spermatozoa. We have also investigated the likelihood that single-stranded DNA breakage is part of the natural spermiogenic process in koalas, where its function would be the generation of structural bends in the DNA molecule so that appropriate packaging and compaction can occur. Koala spermatozoa were examined using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) and comet assays to investigate non-orthodox double-stranded DNA. Comet assays were conducted under 1) neutral conditions; and 2) neutral followed by alkaline conditions (double comet assay); the latter technique enabled simultaneous visualisation of both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks. Following the SCDt, there was a continuum of nuclear morphotypes, ranging from no apparent DNA fragmentation to those with highly dispersed and degraded chromatin. Dispersion morphotypes were mirrored by a similar diversity of comet morphologies that could be further differentiated using the double comet assay. The majority of koala spermatozoa had nuclei with DNA abasic-like residues that produced single-tailed comets following the double comet assay. The ubiquity of these residues suggests that constitutive alkali-labile sites are part of the structural configuration of the koala sperm nucleus. Spermatozoa with 'true' DNA fragmentation exhibited a continuum of comet morphologies, ranging from a more severe form of alkaline-susceptible DNA with a diffuse single tail to nuclei that exhibited both single- and double-stranded breaks with two comet tails.

  2. Intra-Species Bacterial Quorum Sensing Studied at Single Cell Level in a Double Droplet Trapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm T. S. Huck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the intra-species bacterial quorum sensing at the single cell level using a double droplet trapping system. Escherichia coli transformed to express the quorum sensing receptor protein, LasR, were encapsulated in microdroplets that were positioned adjacent to microdroplets containing the autoinducer, N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL. Functional activation of the LasR protein by diffusion of the OdDHL across the droplet interface was measured by monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP from a LasR-dependent promoter. A threshold concentration of OdDHL was found to induce production of quorum-sensing associated GFP by E. coli. Additionally, we demonstrated that LasR-dependent activation of GFP expression was also initiated when the adjacent droplets contained single E. coli transformed with the OdDHL synthase gene, LasI, representing a simple quorum sensing circuit between two droplets.

  3. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  4. Double-layer versus single-layer bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective randomized study with 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Zhenxiang; Yang, Jingwen

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of a randomized controlled trial of single-layer versus double-layer bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty-eight subjects who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with a BPTB allograft were prospectively randomized into two groups: single-layer reconstruction (n = 31) and double-layer reconstruction (n = 27). The following evaluation methods were used: clinical examination, KT-1000 arthrometer measurement, muscle strength, Tegner activity score, Lysholm score, subjective rating scale regarding patient satisfaction and sports performance level, graft retear, contralateral ACL tear, and additional meniscus surgery. Forty-eight subjects (24 in single-layer group and 24 in double-layer group) who were followed up for 3 years were evaluated. Preoperatively, there were no differences between the groups. At 3-year follow-up, the Lachman and pivot-shift test results were better in the double-layer group (P = 0.019 and P reconstruction, double-layer BPTB reconstruction was significantly better than single-layer reconstruction regarding anterior and rotational stability at 3-year follow-up. The results of KT measurements and the Lachman and pivot-shift tests were significantly better in the double-layer group, whereas there was no difference in the anterior drawer test results. The Tegner score was also better in the double-layer group; however, there were no differences in the other subjective findings.

  5. Whole field strain measurement in critical thin adhesive layer of single- and double-sided repaired CFRP panel using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfuddoja, Mohammad; Ramji, M.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, the behavior of thin adhesively layer in patch repaired carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) panel under tensile load is investigated experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The panel is made of Carbon/epoxy composite laminate and the stacking sequence in the panel is [0º]4. A circular hole of 10 mm diameter (d) is drilled at the center of the panel to mimic the case of low velocity impact damage removal. The panel with open hole is repaired with double sided (symmetrical) and single sided (unsymmetrical) rectangular patch made of same panel material having stacking sequence of [0º]3. Araldite 2011 is used for bonding the patch onto the panel over the damaged area. The global behavior of thin adhesive layer is examined by analyzing whole field strain distribution using DIC. Longitudinal, peel and shear strain field in both double and single sided repair configuration is studied and a compression is made between them. An estimate of shear transfer length which is an essential parameter in arriving at an appropriate overlap length in patch design is proposed from DIC and FEA. Damage development, failure mechanism and load displacement behavior is also investigated. The experimental results are compared with the numerical predictions.

  6. Optical planar waveguides in photo-thermal-refractive glasses fabricated by single- or double-energy carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Lv, Peng; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Ion implantation has demonstrated to be an efficient and reliable technique for the fabrication of optical waveguides in a diversity of transparent materials. Photo-thermal-refractive glass (PTR) is considered to be durable and stable holographic recording medium. Optical planar waveguide structures in the PTR glasses were formed, for the first time to our knowledge, by the C3+-ion implantation with single-energy (6.0 MeV) and double-energy (5.5+6.0 MeV), respectively. The process of the carbon ion implantation was simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter code. The morphologies of the waveguides were recorded by a microscope operating in transmission mode. The guided beam distributions of the waveguides were measured by the end-face coupling technique. Comparing with the single-energy implantation, the double-energy implantation improves the light confinement for the dark-mode spectrum. The guiding properties suggest that the carbon-implanted PTR glass waveguides have potential for the manufacture of photonic devices.

  7. Improved generation lifetime model for the electrical characterization of single- and double-gate SOI nMOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeti, M; Martino, J A; Simoen, E; Claeys, C

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a refined technique for the extraction of the generation lifetime in single- and double-gate partially depleted SOI nMOSFETs. The model presented in this paper, based on the drain current switch-off transients, takes into account the influence of the laterally non-uniform channel doping, caused by the presence of the halo implanted region, and the amount of charge controlled by the drain and source junctions on the floating body effect when the channel length is reduced. The obtained results for single-gate (SG) devices are compared with two-dimensional numerical simulations and experimental data, extracted for devices fabricated in a 0.1 µm SOI CMOS technology, showing excellent agreement. The improved model to determine the generation lifetime in double-gate (DG) devices beyond the considerations previously presented also consider the influence of the silicon layer thickness on the drain current transient. The extracted data through the improved model for DG devices were compared with measurements and two-dimensional numerical simulations of the SG devices also presenting a good adjustment with the channel length reduction and the same tendency with the silicon layer thickness variation

  8. Hybrid coupled cluster methods: combining active space coupled cluster methods with coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhuangfei; Shen, Jun; Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua

    2012-05-21

    Based on the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and a hybrid treatment of triples (CCSD(T)-h) method developed by us [J. Shen, E. Xu, Z. Kou, and S. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 114115 (2010); and ibid. 133, 234106 (2010); and ibid. 134, 044134 (2011)], we developed and implemented a new hybrid coupled cluster (CC) method, named CCSD(T)q-h, by combining CC singles and doubles, and active triples and quadruples (CCSDtq) with CCSD(T) to deal with the electronic structures of molecules with significant multireference character. These two hybrid CC methods can be solved with non-canonical and canonical MOs. With canonical MOs, the CCSD(T)-like equations in these two methods can be solved directly without iteration so that the storage of all triple excitation amplitudes can be avoided. A practical procedure to divide canonical MOs into active and inactive subsets is proposed. Numerical calculations demonstrated that CCSD(T)-h with canonical MOs can well reproduce the corresponding results obtained with non-canonical MOs. For three atom exchange reactions, we found that CCSD(T)-h can offer a significant improvement over the popular CCSD(T) method in describing the reaction barriers. For the bond-breaking processes in F(2) and H(2)O, our calculations demonstrated that CCSD(T)q-h is a good approximation to CCSDTQ over the entire bond dissociation processes.

  9. Strong spectral variation of biomass smoke light absorption and single scattering albedo observed with a novel dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Lewis; William P. Arnott; Hans Moosmuller; Cyle E. Wold

    2008-01-01

    A dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument operating at 405 and 870 nm was used during the 2006 Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment to measure light scattering and absorption by smoke from the combustion of a variety of biomass fuels. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering by reciprocal nephelometry within the instrument's acoustic resonator accompany...

  10. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies is demonstrated through the consideration of layered single and double hydroxides. New yet fundamental information is provided and it is evident that the crystal chemistry of the double hydroxide phases is much more straightforward than is apparent from the literature. Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH) 2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH) 2 ·mH 2 O phases

  11. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  12. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  13. Formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated ( 60 Co)Ex coli bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks, is investigated. The profiles of sedimentation of DNA Ex coli cells, irradiated at 0-2 deg C in the salt medium and in EDTA-borate buffer, are presented. It is shown that when irradiating cells in EDTA-borate buffer, the output of single- and double strand breaks in DNA is much higher than in the case of their irradiation in the minimum salt medium. The dependence of output of single-strand and double-strand breaks depending on the radiatier doze of E coli cells in the salt medium and EDTA-borate buffer, is studied. The supposition is made on the presence of a regulative interaction between the accumulation of DNA single-breaks and their repair with the formation of double-strand breaks. The functionating of fast and superfast repair processes considerably affects the formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of a bacterium cell. A considerable amount of double-breaks registered immediately after irradiation forms due to a close position of single-strand breaks on the opposite DNA strands

  14. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  15. String-nets, single- and double-stranded quantum loop gases for non-Abelian anyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velenich, Andrea; Chamon, Claudio [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen Xiaogang, E-mail: velenich@bu.ed [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-04-30

    String-nets and quantum loop gases are two prominent microscopic lattice models to describe topological phases. String-net condensation can give rise to both Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, whereas loop condensation usually produces Abelian anyons. It has been proposed, however, that generalized quantum loop gases with non-orthogonal inner products could support non-Abelian anyons. We detail an exact mapping between the string-net and these generalized loop models and explain how the non-orthogonal products arise. We also introduce an equivalent loop model of double-stranded nets where quantum loops with an orthogonal inner product and local interactions supports non-Abelian Fibonacci anyons. Finally, we emphasize the origin of the sign problem in systems with non-Abelian excitations and its consequences on the complexity of their ground state wavefunctions. (fast track communication)

  16. Optimization of a single-stage double-suction centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlavaj, A.; Morgut, M.; Jošt, D.; Nobile, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the objective of the optimization of a double-suction pump is the maximization of its hydraulic efficiency. The optimization is performed, by means of the modeFRONTIER optimization platform, in steps. At first, by means of a DOE (Design of Experiments) strategy, the design space is explored, using a parameterized CAD representation of the pump. Suitable metamodels (surrogates or Response Surfaces), which represent an economical alternative to the more expensive 3D CFD model, are built and tested. Among different metamodels, the evolutionary design, radial basis function and the stepwise regression models seem to be the most promising ones. Finally, the stepwise regression model, trained on a set of 200 designs and constructed with only five the most influential input design parameters, was chosen as a potentially applicable metamodel.

  17. Magnetic and transport properties of single and double perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuchet, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Due to their advantageous properties in terms of data retention, storage density and critical current density for Spin Transfer Torque (STT) switching, the magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy have become predominant in the developments for MRAM applications. The aim of this thesis is to improve the anisotropy and transport properties of such structures and to realize even more complex stacks such as perpendicular double junctions. Studies on the magnetic properties and Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements showed that to optimize the performances of the junctions, all the thicknesses of the different layers constituting the stack have to be adapted. To guaranty both a large TMR as well a strong perpendicular anisotropy, compromises are most of the time needed. Studies as a function of magnetic thickness enabled to extract the saturation magnetization, the critical thickness and the magnetic dead layer thickness both in the bottom reference and the top storage layer in structures capped with Ta. This type of junction could be tested electrically after patterning the sample into nano-pillars. Knowing that perpendicular anisotropy mostly arises at the metal/oxide interface, the Ta capping layer was replaced by a MgO one, leading to a huge increase in the anisotropy of the free layer. A second top reference was then added on such a stack to create functional perpendicular double junctions. CoFeB/insertion/CoFeB synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layers could be developed and were proved to be stable enough to replace the standard Co/Pt-based reference layers. (author) [fr

  18. Single-user MIMO system, Painlevé transcendents, and double scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Chen, Min; Blower, Gordon; Chen, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study a particular Painlevé V (denoted PV) that arises from multi-input-multi-output wireless communication systems. Such PV appears through its intimate relation with the Hankel determinant that describes the moment generating function (MGF) of the Shannon capacity. This originates through the multiplication of the Laguerre weight or the gamma density xαe-x, x > 0, for α > -1 by (1 + x/t)λ with t > 0 a scaling parameter. Here the λ parameter "generates" the Shannon capacity; see Chen, Y. and McKay, M. R. [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 58, 4594-4634 (2012)]. It was found that the MGF has an integral representation as a functional of y(t) and y'(t), where y(t) satisfies the "classical form" of PV. In this paper, we consider the situation where n, the number of transmit antennas, (or the size of the random matrix), tends to infinity and the signal-to-noise ratio, P, tends to infinity such that s = 4n2/P is finite. Under such double scaling, the MGF, effectively an infinite determinant, has an integral representation in terms of a "lesser" PIII. We also consider the situations where α =k +1 /2 ,k ∈N , and α ∈ {0, 1, 2, …}, λ ∈ {1, 2, …}, linking the relevant quantity to a solution of the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation in radial coordinates and a certain discrete Painlevé-II. From the large n asymptotic of the orthogonal polynomials, which appears naturally, we obtain the double scaled MGF for small and large s, together with the constant term in the large s expansion. With the aid of these, we derive a number of cumulants and find that the capacity distribution function is non-Gaussian.

  19. Design of dual ring wavelength filters for WDM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyadevaki, R.; Shanmuga sundar, D.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing plays a prime role in an optical communication due to its advantages such as easy network expansion, longer span lengths etc. In this work, photonic crystal based filters with the dual rings are proposed which act as band pass filters (BPF) and channel drop filter (CDF) that has found a massive applications in C and L-bands used for wavelength selection and noise filtering at erbium doped fiber amplifiers and dense wavelength division multiplexing operation. These filters are formulated on the square lattice with crystal rods of silicon material of refractive index 3.4 which are perforated on an air of refractive index 1. Dual ring double filters (band pass filter and channel drop filter) on single layout possess passing and dropping band of wavelengths in two distinct arrangements with entire band quality factors of 92.09523 & 505.263 and 124.85019 & 456.8633 for the pass and drop filters of initial setup and amended setup respectively. These filters have the high-quality factor with broad and narrow bandwidths of 16.8 nm & 3.04 nm and 12.85 nm & 3.3927 nm. Transmission spectra and band gap of the desired filters is analyzed using Optiwave software suite. Two dual ring filters incorporated on a single layout comprises the size of 15×11 μm which can also be used in the integrated photonic chips for the ultra-compact unification of devices.

  20. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  1. Assessment of low-scaling approximations to the equation of motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J; Caricato, Marco; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-10-28

    Methods for fast and reliable computation of electronic excitation energies are in short supply, and little is known about their systematic performance. This work reports a comparison of several low-scaling approximations to the equation of motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) and linear-response coupled cluster singles and doubles (LR-CCSD) equations with other single reference methods for computing the vertical electronic transition energies of 11 small organic molecules. The methods, including second order equation-of-motion many-body perturbation theory (EOM-MBPT2) and its partitioned variant, are compared to several valence and Rydberg singlet states. We find that the EOM-MBPT2 method was rarely more than a tenth of an eV from EOM-CCSD calculated energies, yet demonstrates a performance gain of nearly 30%. The partitioned equation-of-motion approach, P-EOM-MBPT2, which is an order of magnitude faster than EOM-CCSD, outperforms the CIS(D) and CC2 in the description of Rydberg states. CC2, on the other hand, excels at describing valence states where P-EOM-MBPT2 does not. The difference between the CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 can ultimately be traced back to how each method approximates EOM-CCSD and LR-CCSD. The results suggest that CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 are complementary: CC2 is best suited for the description of valence states while P-EOM-MBPT2 proves to be a superior O(N(5)) method for the description of Rydberg states.

  2. Substantial differences in bias between single-digest and double-digest RAD-seq libraries: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah P; Jones, Adam G

    2018-03-01

    The trade-offs of using single-digest vs. double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) protocols have been widely discussed. However, no direct empirical comparisons of the two methods have been conducted. Here, we sampled a single population of Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli) and genotyped 444 individuals using RAD-seq. Sixty individuals were subjected to single-digest RAD-seq (sdRAD-seq), and the remaining 384 individuals were genotyped using a double-digest RAD-seq (ddRAD-seq) protocol. We analysed the resulting Illumina sequencing data and compared the two genotyping methods when reads were analysed either together or separately. Coverage statistics, observed heterozygosity, and allele frequencies differed significantly between the two protocols, as did the results of selection components analysis. We also performed an in silico digestion of the Gulf pipefish genome and modelled five major sources of bias: PCR duplicates, polymorphic restriction sites, shearing bias, asymmetric sampling (i.e., genotyping fewer individuals with sdRAD-seq than with ddRAD-seq) and higher major allele frequencies. This combination of approaches allowed us to determine that polymorphic restriction sites, an asymmetric sampling scheme, mean allele frequencies and to some extent PCR duplicates all contribute to different estimates of allele frequencies between samples genotyped using sdRAD-seq versus ddRAD-seq. Our finding that sdRAD-seq and ddRAD-seq can result in different allele frequencies has implications for comparisons across studies and techniques that endeavour to identify genomewide signatures of evolutionary processes in natural populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Single versus double-layer uterine closure at cesarean: impact on lower uterine segment thickness at next pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Marceau, Chantale; Demers, Suzanne; Bujold, Emmanuel; Roberge, Stephanie; Gauthier, Robert J; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Girard, Mario; Chaillet, Nils; Boulvain, Michel; Jastrow, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Uterine rupture is a potential life-threatening complication during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. Single-layer closure of the uterus at cesarean delivery has been associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture compared with double-layer closure. Lower uterine segment thickness measurement by ultrasound has been used to evaluate the quality of the uterine scar after cesarean delivery and is associated with the risk of uterine rupture. To estimate the impact of previous uterine closure on lower uterine segment thickness. Women with a previous single low-transverse cesarean delivery were recruited at 34-38 weeks' gestation. Transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound evaluation of the lower uterine segment thickness was performed by a sonographer blinded to clinical data. Previous operative reports were reviewed to obtain the type of previous uterine closure. Third-trimester lower uterine segment thickness at the next pregnancy was compared according to the number of layers sutured and according to the type of thread for uterine closure, using weighted mean differences and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of 1613 women recruited, with operative reports available, 495 (31%) had a single-layer and 1118 (69%) had a double-layer closure. The mean third-trimester lower uterine segment thickness was 3.3 ± 1.3 mm and the proportion with lower uterine segment thickness cesarean delivery is associated with a thicker third-trimester lower uterine segment and a reduced risk of lower uterine segment thickness <2.0 mm in the next pregnancy. The type of thread for uterine closure has no significant impact on lower uterine segment thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wavelength dependence for the photoreactions of DNA-Psoralen monoadducts. 1. Photoreversal of monoadducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y.; Hearst, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the wavelength dependence for the photoreversal of a monoadducted psoralen derivative, HMT [4'(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen], in a single-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide (5'-GAAGCTACGAGC-3'). The psoralen was covalently attached to the thymidine residue in the oligonucleotide as either a furan-side monoadduct, which is formed through the cycloaddition between the 4',5' double bond of the psoralen and the 5,6 double bond of the thymidine, or a pyrone-side monoadduct, which is formed through the cycloaddition between the 3,4 double bond of the psoralen and the 5,6 double bond of the thymidine. As a comparison, they have also investigated the wavelength-dependent photoreversal of the isolated thymidine-HMT monoadducts. All photoreversal action spectra correlate with the extinction spectra of the isolate monoadducts. In the case of the pyrone-side monoadduct, two absorption bands contribute to the photoreversal with a quantum yield of 2 x 10 -2 at wavelengths below 250 nm and 7 x 10 -3 at wavelengths from 287 to 314 nm. The incorporation of the monoadduct into the DNA oligomer had little effect upon the photoreversal rate. For the furan-side monoadduct at least three absorption bands contribute to the photoreversal. The quantum yield varied from 5 x 10 -2 at wavelengths below 250 nm to 7 x 10 -4 at wavelengths between 295 and 365 nm. In contrast to the case of the pyrone-side monoadduct, the incorporation of the furan-side monoadduct into the DNA oligomer reduced the photoreversal rate constant at wavelengths above 285 nm

  5. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  6. Evaluation of cesarean scar after single- and double-layer hysterotomy closure: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Nur Betül; Çetin, Berna Aslan; Türkgeldi, Lale Susan; Yılmaz, Gökçe; Polat, İbrahim; Gedikbaşı, Ali

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to determine if there is a difference in the size of the cesarean scar defect using saline infusion sonography (SIS) performed on the postoperative third month in patients who underwent single- or double-layered unlocked closure of their uterine incision during their first cesarean delivery. This study was conducted as a prospective cross-sectional study between February 2015 and January 2016 in patients admitted to the labour ward of the Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital who subsequently underwent their first delivery by cesarean section. Patients with a previous history of cesarean delivery, preterm pregnancies less than 34 gestational weeks, patients lost to follow-up or those who had an IUD inserted after delivery were excluded from the study. Out of the 327 patients who underwent primary cesarean delivery, 280 were included into the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the single- (n:126) or double-layered (n:156) closure of their uterine incision. The maternal age, height, weight, obstetric and gynecologic histories, medical histories, indications for their cesarean delivery, technique of uterine closure, birth weight of the baby, duration of the cesarean delivery, need for extra suturing and transfusion were recorded. A Saline infusion sonography (SIS) was performed 3 months postoperatively to determine the presence, depth and length of the cesarean scar. The residual myometrial thickness overlying the scar defect and the fundal myometrial thickness were recorded. No difference was detected between the groups with respect to patient characteristics, whether the operation was elective or emergent, the type of anesthesia used, need for extra suturing, incidence of bladder injuries or uterine atony, need for blood transfusions, duration of labour or cervical dilatation and effacement between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was detected between the two groups with respect to the length

  7. Primer System for Single Cell Detection of Double Mutation for Tay-Sachs Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ming Cheng; Drury, Kenneth C.; Kipersztok, Simon; Zheng, Wenrong; Williams, R. Stan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Nearly 100% of infantile Tay-Sachs disease isproduced by two mutations occurring in the alpha chain ofthe lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HEXA)in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Although others havedescribed primer systems used to amplify both sitessimultaneously, few discuss the allele dropout problems inherent inthis test. Our goal was to construct a more robust testenabling stronger signal generation for single cellpreimplantation genetic diagnosis and to investigat...

  8. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. Wavelength converters will be essential devices to exploit the full potential of the wavelength dimension in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Based on experiments, we discuss different candidates for efficient wavelength converters with attention to expected...

  9. When a single hole aligns several spins: Double exchange in organic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinquier, Georges; Chilkuri, Vijay Gopal; Malrieu, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, CNRS, UMR 5626, IRSAMC, Université Paul-Sabatier, 118 Rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2014-05-28

    The double exchange is a well-known and technically important phenomenon in solid state physics. Ionizing a system composed of two antiferromagnetically coupled high-spin units, the ground state of which is a singlet state, may actually produce a high-spin ground state. This work illustrates the possible occurrence of such a phenomenon in organic chemistry. The here-considered high-spin units are triangulenes, the ground state of which is a triplet. Bridging two of them through a benzene ring produces a molecular architecture of singlet ground state. A careful exploitation of a series of unrestricted density functional calculations enables one to avoid spin contamination in the treatment of the doublet states and shows that under ionization the system becomes of quartet multiplicity in its ground state. The possibility to align more than three spins from conjugated hydrocarbon polyradicals is explored, considering partially hydrogenated triangulenes. A dramatic example shows that ionization of a singlet ground state molecule may generate a decuplet.

  10. Primer system for single cell detection of double mutation for Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M C; Drury, K C; Kipersztok, S; Zheng, W; Williams, R S

    2000-02-01

    Nearly 100% of infantile Tay-Sachs disease is produced by two mutations occurring in the alpha chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HEXA) in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Although others have described primer systems used to amplify both sites simultaneously, few discuss the allele dropout problems inherent in this test. Our goal was to construct a more robust test enabling stronger signal generation for single cell preimplantation genetic diagnosis and to investigate the occurrence of allele dropout. New nested primers were designed to optimize detection of both major Tay-Sachs mutations. Four hundred fifty-seven single cells, including normal cells and those carrying mutations of either the 4bp insertion exon 11 or splice-site intron 12 defects, were used to screen a new primer system. Based on PCR amplified product analysis, total efficiency of amplification was 85.3%, (390/457). The allele dropout rate for the 4bp insertion mutation in exon 11 and splice-site mutation in intron 12 was 4.8% and 5.8%, respectively. Multiple mutation detection and analysis within the Tay-Sachs disease gene (HEXA) is possible using single cells for clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Alternative PCR primers and conditions offer various methods for developing systems compatible to specific program requirements.

  11. Broadly, independent-tunable, dual-wavelength mid-infrared ultrafast optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuwei; Cristescu, S M; Harren, Frans J M; Mandon, Julien

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a two-crystal mid-infrared dual-wavelength optical parametric oscillator, synchronously pumped by a high power femtosecond Yb:fiber laser. The singly-resonant ring cavity, containing two periodically poled lithium niobate crystals, is capable of generating two synchronized idler wavelengths, independently tunable over 30 THz in the 2.9 - 4.2 μm wavelength region, due to the cascaded quadratic nonlinear effect. The independent tunability of the two idlers makes the optical parametric oscillator a promising source for ultrafast pulse generation towards the THz wavelength region, based on different frequency generation. In addition, the observed frequency doubled idler within the crystal indicates the possibility to realize a broadband optical self-phase locking between pump, signal, idler and higher order generated parametric lights.

  12. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants.

  13. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  14. Structural Differentiation between Layered Single (Ni) and Double Metal Hydroxides (Ni–Al LDHs) Using Wavelet Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute; Sparks, Donald L. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute

    2017-09-07

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are anionic clays important in disciplines such as environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and materials science. Developments in signal processing of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, such as wavelet transformation (WT), have been used to identify transition metals and Al present in the hydroxide sheets of LDHs. The WT plots of LDHs should be distinct from those of isostructural single metal hydroxides. However, no direct comparison of these minerals appears in the literature using WT. This work systematically analyzes a suite of Ni-rich mineral standards, including Ni–Al LDHs, single metal Ni hydroxides, and Ni-rich silicates using WT. The results illustrate that the WT plots for α-Ni(OH)2 and Ni–Al LDHs are often indistinguishable from each other, with similar two-component plots for the different mineral types. This demonstrates that the WT of the first metal shell often cannot be used to differentiate an LDH from a single metal hydroxide. Interlayer anions adsorbed to the hydroxide sheet of α-Ni(OH)2 affect the EXAFS spectra and are not visible in the FT but are clearly resolved and discrete in the WT.

  15. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jiovany Ramírez-Nava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro, and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro. The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.

  16. Structure-spectrophotometric selectivity relationship in interactions of quercetin related flavonoids with double stranded and single stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantanida, Ivo; Mašić, Lozika; Rusak, Gordana

    2009-04-01

    Interactions of five flavonoids with dsRNA and single stranded ssRNA were studied by UV/vis titrations. The results obtained supported the intercalative binding mode as a dominant interaction of studied flavonoids with dsRNA as well as major interaction with ssRNA. Furthermore, changes of the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids induced by addition of poly G or poly C, respectively, are significantly stronger than changes induced by double stranded poly G-poly C, pointing to essential role of the free poly G or poly C sequence (not hydrogen bonded in double helix). Exclusively poly G caused significant batochromic shift of the UV/vis maxima of all studied flavonoids, whereby the intensity of batochromic shift is nicely correlated to the number of OH groups of flavonoid. Unlikely to poly G, addition of poly A and poly U induced measurable changes only in the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids characterised by no OH (galangin) or three OH groups (myricetin) on the phenyl part of the molecule. Consequently, flavonoids with one- or two-OH groups on the phenyl part of the molecule (luteolin, fisetin, kaempferol) specifically differentiate between poly A, poly U (negligible changes in the UV/Vis spectra) and poly G (strong changes in the UV/Vis spectra) as well as poly C (moderate changes in the UV/Vis spectra).

  17. Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Dalla Libera, Luciano; Rittweger, Jörn; Mazzucco, Sara; Jurdana, Mihaela; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pisot, Rado; Gorza, Luisa; Narici, Marco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-12-15

    Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant systems stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and the extent of atrophy mediated by 35 days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([(2)H(2)]glycine and [(15)N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analysed in erythrocytes by Passing-Bablok and Altman-Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 11.0 ± 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue)(-1) day(-1) (mean ± S.E.M.; n = 9; P = 0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 ± 1.0 to 15.3 ± 0.9 deg; P = 0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.1 cm; P well as to compensatory activation of the glutathione system.

  18. Two's a crowd? Crowding effect in a parasitic castrator drives differences in reproductive resource allocation in single vs double infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Moron, Nancy A; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-04-01

    The 'crowding effect' is a result of competition by parasites within a host for finite resources. Typically, the severity of this effect increases with increasing numbers of parasites within a host and manifests in reduced body size and thus fitness. Evidence for the crowding effect is mixed - while some have found negative effects, others have found a positive effect of increased parasite load on parasite fitness. Parasites are consumers with diverse trophic strategies reflected in their life history traits. These distinctions are useful to predict the effects of crowding. We studied a parasitic castrator, a parasite that usurps host reproductive energy and renders the host sterile. Parasitic castrators typically occur as single infections within hosts. With multiple parasitic castrators, we expect strong competition and evidence of crowding. We directly assess the effect of crowding on reproductive success in a barnacle population infected by a unique parasitic castrator, Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasite that infects and blocks reproduction of barnacles. We find (1) strong evidence of crowding in double infections, (2) increased frequency of double infections in larger barnacle hosts with more resources and (3) perfect compensation in egg production, supporting strong space limitation. Our results document that the effects of crowding are particularly severe for this parasitic castrator, and may be applicable to other castrators that are also resource or space limited.

  19. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Nava, Edson Jiovany; González-Valdez, Abigail; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Hernández-Pineda, Jessica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Marcial-Quino, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD) and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro), and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro). The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD) and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations. PMID:29072585

  20. Human Visual System as a Double-Slit Single Photon Interference Sensor: A Comparison between Modellistic and Biophysical Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pizzi

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computational approach to the theoretical problems involved in the Young's single-photon double-slit experiment, focusing on a simulation of this experiment in the absence of measuring devices. Specifically, the human visual system is used in place of a photomultiplier or similar apparatus. Beginning with the assumption that the human eye perceives light in the presence of very few photons, we measure human eye performance as a sensor in a double-slit one-photon-at-a-time experimental setup. To interpret the results, we implement a simulation algorithm and compare its results with those of human subjects under identical experimental conditions. In order to evaluate the perceptive parameters exactly, which vary depending on the light conditions and on the subject's sensitivity, we first review the existing literature on the biophysics of the human eye in the presence of a dim light source, and then use the known values of the experimental variables to set the parameters of the computational simulation. The results of the simulation and their comparison with the experiment involving human subjects are reported and discussed. It is found that, while the computer simulation indicates that the human eye has the capacity to detect the corpuscular nature of photons under these conditions, this was not observed in practice. The possible reasons for the difference between theoretical prediction and experimental results are discussed.

  1. Single nucleotide-level mapping of DNA double-strand breaks in human HEK293T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Pope

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional biological processes involve the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. The production of such breaks and their subsequent resolution are also highly relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, in which extensive DNA fragmentation has been described Stephens et al. (2011, Blondet et al. (2001. Tchurikov et al. Tchurikov et al. (2011, 2013 have reported previously that frequent sites of DSBs occur in chromosomal domains involved in the co-ordinated expression of genes. This group report that hot spots of DSBs in human HEK293T cells often coincide with H3K4me3 marks, associated with active transcription Kravatsky et al. (2015 and that frequent sites of DNA double-strand breakage are likely to be relevant to cancer genomics Tchurikov et al. (2013, 2016 . Recently, they applied a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini protocol that selects for blunt-ended DSB sites and mapped these to the human genome within defined co-ordinate ‘windows’. In this paper, we re-analyse public RAFT data to derive sites of DSBs at the single-nucleotide level across the built genome for human HEK293T cells (https://figshare.com/s/35220b2b79eaaaf64ed8. This refined mapping, combined with accessory ENCODE data tracks and ribosomal DNA-related sequence annotations, will likely be of value for the design of clinically relevant targeted assays such as those for cancer susceptibility, diagnosis, treatment-matching and prognostication.

  2. Double versus single cartridge of 4% articaine infiltration into the retro-molar area for lower third molar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background There are no studies regarding 4% articaine infiltration injection into the retro-molar area for an impacted lower third molar (LITM) surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of infiltration using 1.7 ml (single cartridge: SC) of 4% articaine versus 3.4 ml (double cartridges: DC) of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in LITM surgery. Method This study involved 30 healthy patients with symmetrical LITM. The patients were assigned to receive either a DC or SC of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine as a local anesthetic for each operation. Onset, duration, profoundness, need for additional anesthetic administration, total volume of anesthetic used, vitality of the tooth, and pain score during operation were recorded. Results The DC of 4 % articaine had a significantly higher success rate (83.3%) than did the SC (53.3%; P molar region can be an alternative anesthetic for LITM surgery. PMID:28879339

  3. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings

  4. Molecular treatment of single (dissociative and nondissociative) and double electron capture in He2+ + H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Macias, A; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A

    2003-01-01

    We present close-coupling calculations of total cross sections for single and double electron capture in He 2+ + H 2 collisions in the range 0.5- 25 keV amu -1 , and compare them with experimental data. We confirm the experimental finding that the dominant process for E ∼> 3 keV amu -1 is the nondissociative capture He 2+ + H 2 → He + (2l) + H 2 + (1σ g ), while at lower energies it is dissociative capture leading to He + (1s) + H + + H. Our calculations also show that He(1s2l) is the main output of the two electron capture process. (letter to the editor)

  5. Double versus single cartridge of 4% articaine infiltration into the retro-molar area for lower third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawang, Kamonpun; Chaiyasamut, Teeranut; Kiattavornchareon, Sirichai; Pairuchvej, Verasak; Bhattarai, Bishwa Prakash; Wongsirichat, Natthamet

    2017-06-01

    There are no studies regarding 4% articaine infiltration injection into the retro-molar area for an impacted lower third molar (LITM) surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of infiltration using 1.7 ml (single cartridge: SC) of 4% articaine versus 3.4 ml (double cartridges: DC) of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in LITM surgery. This study involved 30 healthy patients with symmetrical LITM. The patients were assigned to receive either a DC or SC of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine as a local anesthetic for each operation. Onset, duration, profoundness, need for additional anesthetic administration, total volume of anesthetic used, vitality of the tooth, and pain score during operation were recorded. The DC of 4 % articaine had a significantly higher success rate (83.3%) than did the SC (53.3%; P molar region can be an alternative anesthetic for LITM surgery.

  6. Spin asymmetry calculations of the TMR-V curves in single and double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Spin-polarization asymmetry is the key parameter in asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in magnetic tunnel junctions. In this paper, we study the value of the TMR as a function of the applied voltage Va in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions. As a result, we found that AVB may help to determine the exact values of Fermi wave vectors for minority and majority conducting spin sub-bands. Moreover, significant asymmetry of the experimental TMR-Va curves, which arises due to different annealing regimes, is explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and values of the spin asymmetry. The numerical TMR-V a data are in good agreement with experimental ones. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Single and double strand breaks induced by 3H incorporated in DNA of cultured human kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisljar-Lentulis, G.; Henneberg, P.; Mielke, T.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of the investigations of the biological effects of radionuclides incorporated in DNA single (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) caused tritium-decay were measured and compared with respective data resulting from 125 I. Tritium bound to thymidine and iododeoxyuridine seems to be more effective than tritium bound to other DNA-precursors. On the basis of decay, methyl- 3 H thymidine appears to be more effective with regard to the production of strand breaks than 3 H in position 6 of the pyrimidine ring. Based on the numbers of strand-breaks per rad, position 6 is more effective in accordance with data obtained by F. Krasin et al. The ratio of SSBs to DSBs per tritium decay appears to be approximately 8 in mammlian cells. Not only SSBs but also DSBs induced by 3 H in mammalian cells are reapairable. (orig./AJ) [de

  8. A DFT Mechanistic Study on Ethylene Tri- and Tetramerization with Cr/PNP Catalysts: Single versus Double Insertion Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britovsek, George J P; McGuinness, David S

    2016-11-14

    The mechanism of ethylene trimerization and tetramerization with a chromium-diphosphinoamine (Cr-PNP) catalyst system has been studied by theoretical (DFT) methods. Two representative ligands have been explored, namely Ph 2 PN(Me)PPh 2 and (o-MeC 6 H 4 ) 2 PN(Me)P(o-MeC 6 H 4 ) 2 . Calculations on the former ligand reveal how a combination of single and double ethylene insertion mechanisms may lead to 1-hexene, 1-octene and the major side products (cyclopentanes and n-alkanes). For the latter ligand, introduction of o-alkyl substitution leads to a more sterically congested active species, which suppresses the available pathways for tetramerization and side product formation. Hence, the high selectivity of o-aryl substituted PNP ligands for trimerization can be rationalized. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Graham

    Full Text Available Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails.If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN, left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN, normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC.Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions.A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the

  10. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  11. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  12. Variations in interpulse interval of double action potentials during propagation in single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran-Vargas, Edgar; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; Hustert, Reinhold; Blicher, Andreas; Laub, Katrine; Heimburg, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we analyzed the interpulse interval (IPI) of doublets and triplets in single neurons of three biological models. Pulse trains with two or three spikes originate from the process of sensory mechanotransduction in neurons of the locust femoral nerve, as well as through spontaneous activity both in the abdominal motor neurons and the caudal photoreceptor of the crayfish. We show that the IPI for successive low-frequency single action potentials, as recorded with two electrodes at two different points along a nerve axon, remains constant. On the other hand, IPI in doublets either remains constant, increases or decreases by up to about 3 ms as the pair propagates. When IPI increases, the succeeding pulse travels at a slower speed than the preceding one. When IPI is reduced, the succeeding pulse travels faster than the preceding one and may exceed the normal value for the specific neuron. In both cases, IPI increase and reduction, the speed of the preceding pulse differs slightly from the normal value, therefore the two pulses travel at different speeds in the same nerve axon. On the basis of our results, we may state that the effect of attraction or repulsion in doublets suggests a tendency of the spikes to reach a stable configuration. We strongly suggest that the change in IPI during spike propagation of doublets opens up a whole new realm of possibilities for neural coding and may have major implications for understanding information processing in nervous systems. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficient generation of 3.5W laser light at 515nm by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André

    2017-01-01

    More than 3.5 W of green light at 515 nm is generated by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser. The frequency doubling is performed in a cascade of PPMgLN and PPMgSLT crystals in order to reach high power and avoid thermal effects present in PPMgLN at high power....... The green light is diffraction limited (M2

  14. Biomechanical comparisons of knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 2 clinically available transtibial procedures: anatomic double bundle versus single bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Merican, Azhar M; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A

    2010-07-01

    Several trials have compared the clinical results between anatomic double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction procedures. However, it remains controversial whether the anatomic double-bundle procedure is superior to the single-bundle procedure. The anatomic double-bundle procedure will be better than the single-bundle procedure at resisting anterior laxity, internal rotation laxity, and pivot-shift instability. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knees were tested in a 6 degrees of freedom rig using the following loading conditions: 90-N anterior tibialforce, 5-N.m internal and external tibial torques, and a simulated pivot-shift test. Tibiofemoral kinematics during the flexion-extension cycle were recorded with an optical tracking system for (1) intact, (2) anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, (3) anatomic double-bundle reconstruction, and (4) single-bundle reconstruction placed at 11 o'clock in the intercondylar notch. There were significant reductions of anterior laxity of 3.5 mm at 20 degrees of flexion, internal rotational laxity of 2.5 degrees at 20 degrees of flexion, and anterior translations (2 mm) and internal rotations (5 degrees ) in the simulated pivot-shift test in the double-bundle reconstruction com-pared with the single-bundle reconstruction. There were no significant differences between the 2 procedures for external rotation laxity. The postoperative anterior translation and internal rotation stability after anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were significantly better than after single-bundle reconstruction, in both static tests and the pivot shift. Unlike previous laboratory studies, this work used clinical arthroscopic methods for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and found that the anatomic reconstruction was superior to a single graft placed at 11 o'clock.

  15. A single-stranded RNA copy of the Giardia lamblia virus double-stranded RNA genome is present in the infected Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Furfine, E S; White, T C; Wang, A L; Wang, C C

    1989-01-01

    An isolate of Giardia lamblia infected with the double-stranded RNA virus (GLV) has two major species of RNA that are not present in an uninfected isolate. One of these species is the previously characterized double-stranded RNA genome of GLV (1). The second species of RNA appears to be a full length copy of one strand of the double-stranded RNA genome. This full length single-stranded RNA is not present in viral particles isolated from the growth medium. The cellular concentration of the sin...

  16. Phenotypic characterization and complementation analysis of Bacillus subtilis 6S RNA single and double deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Philipp G; Burenina, Olga Y; Weber, Michael H W; Elkina, Daria A; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V; Sergiev, Petr V; Hartmann, Roland K; Kubareva, Elena A

    2015-10-01

    6S RNA, a global regulator of transcription in bacteria, binds to housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzymes to competitively inhibit transcription from DNA promoters. Bacillus subtilis encodes two 6S RNA homologs whose differential functions are as yet unclear. We constructed derivative strains of B. subtilis PY79 lacking 6S-1 RNA (ΔbsrA), 6S-2 RNA (ΔbsrB) or both (ΔbsrAB) to study the physiological role of the two 6S RNAs. We observed two growth phenotypes of mutant strains: (i) accelerated decrease of optical density toward extended stationary phase and (ii) faster outgrowth from stationary phase under alkaline stress conditions (pH 9.8). The first phenotype was observed for bacteria lacking bsrA, and even more pronounced for ΔbsrAB bacteria, but not for those lacking bsrB. The magnitude of the second phenotype was relatively weak for ΔbsrB, moderate for ΔbsrA and again strongest for ΔbsrAB bacteria. Whereas ΔbsrAB bacteria complemented with bsrB or bsrA (strains ΔbsrAB + B and ΔbsrAB + A) mimicked the phenotypes of the ΔbsrA and ΔbsrB strains, respectively, complementation with the gene ssrS encoding Escherichia coli 6S RNA failed to cure the "low stationary optical density" phenotype of the double mutant, despite ssrS expression, in line with previous findings. Finally, proteomics (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE) of B. subtilis 6S RNA deletion strains unveiled a set of proteins that were expressed at higher levels particularly during exponential growth and preferentially in mutant strains lacking 6S-2 RNA. Several of these proteins are involved in metabolism and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of double vs. single valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, R.P.; Abid, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the follow-up results of double valve replacement (DVR) i.e. mitral valve replacement (MVR) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) vs. isolated MVR or AVR for rheumatic heart disease. Study Design: An interventional qausi-experimental study. Prospective follow-up of 493 patients with mechanical heart valves was carried out using clinical assessment, international normalized ratio and echocardiography. Patients were divided into three groups: group I having MVR, group II having AVR and group III having DVR. Survival, time and causes of mortality, and frequency of valve thrombosis, haemorrhage and cerebrovascular haemorrhage was noted in the three groups and described as proportions. Actuarial survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. There were 493 with 287 (58.3%) in group I, 87 (17.6%) in group II and 119 (24.1%) in group III. Total follow-up was 2429.2 patient (pt)-years. Of 77 (15.6%) deaths, 19 (3.8%) were in-hospital and 58 (11.8%) were late. In-hospital mortality was highest 4 (4.6%) in group II followed by 5 (4.2%) group III and 10 (3.5%) group I. Late deaths were 39 (13.4%) in group I, 9 (10.2%) in group II and 10 (8.3%) in group III. The total actuarial survival was 84.4% with survival of 83%, 85.1%, 87.4% in groups I, II and III respectively. On follow-up valve thrombosis occurred in 12 (0.49%/pt-years) patients; 9 (0.67%/pt-years) group I, 1 (0.22%/pt-years) in group II and 2 (0.31%/pt-years) in group III. Severe haemorrhage occurred in 19 (0.78%/pt-years); 14 in (1.04%/pt-years) in group I, 3 (0.66%/pt-years) group II and 2 (0.31%/pt-years) in group III. Cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 34 (1.3%/pt-years); 26 (1.95%/pt-years) in group I and 4 in groups II (0.89%/pt-years) and III (0.62%/pt-years) each. In patients with rheumatic heart disease having combined mitral and aortic valve disease DVR should be performed whenever indicated as it has similar in-hospital mortality and better late survival as compared to isolated aortic or mitral

  18. Filling of double vacancy in the K atomic shell with emission of one single photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G.

    1978-12-01

    A method was developed to calculate the transition rate for two-electron one-photon K(sub αα) transition (2s 2p → 1s 2 ). The method was tested for Ni with two K-shell vacancies in the initial state. The (sub αα) rate is calculated within the framework of a single system formed by the atom and the radiation. The transition is originated in the interactiion between the parts of that system. In the dipole approximation, the transition rate is obtained from the second order term of the time dependente perturbation theory. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions were used in the calculations for Ni. The results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental information. (Author) [pt

  19. Quantitative determination of wear metals in engine oils using LIBS: The use of paper substrates and a comparison between single- and double-pulse LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between single- and double-pulse LIBS for the quantitative elemental analysis of used engine oils has been performed. Paper substrates have been utilised for the analysis and are shown to provide better limits of detection (LODs), no splashing and easier sample handling compared to the previously reported experiments using laminar liquid jets and static liquid surfaces. Single-pulse LIBS analysis of oil on paper substrates has had on average 2x better LODs than was obtained using flowing liquid jets, while double-pulse LIBS showed 4x improvement. Single-pulse LIBS has been found preferable for the analysis, as the use of an additional laser in double-pulse LIBS yielded only a minor improvement while adding substantially to the complexity and cost of the system

  20. Investigation on accordance of DNA double-strand break of blood between in vivo and in vitro irradiation using single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Enhai; Li Jin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan; Zhao Yongcheng; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the consistency of DNA double-strand break between in vivo and in vitro irradiation, as a prophase study in radiation biodosimetry using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Methods: Detect DNA double-strand break after whole-body and in vitro radiation in mice lymphocytes using neutral single cell gel electrophoresis. The comet images were processed by CASP software and all the data were analysed by SPSS12.0. Results: There is no difference between in vivo and in vitro irradiation group in HDNA%, TDNA%, CL, TL, TM and OTM. Conclusion: The result of neutral single cell gel electrophoresis shortly after in vitro irradiation can precisely reflect the DNA double-strand break of lymphocytes in whole-body irradiation. (authors)

  1. Accuracy for predicting adhesion between meningioma and the brain by using brain surface motion imaging: comparison between single and double acquisition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Akashi, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Ochi, Tomoko; Wada, Takeshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Yamada, Syuichi; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Uchikoshi, Masato [Siemens Japan K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The presence of adhesions between the brain and the meningioma is an important factor that determines the success of total surgical removal. Brain surface motion imaging enables assessment of the dynamics of brain surface motion. A subtraction image of pulse-gated heavily T2-weighted images in different phases of the cardiac cycle provides a stripe pattern on the surface of the pulsating brain. Thus, the lack of a stripe pattern on the surface of extraaxial tumor indicates the presence of tumor-brain adhesion. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tumor-brain adhesion using the original double acquisition method and the improved single acquisition method. The subjects were 67 meningioma cases patients who were surgically treated after brain surface motion imaging. Thirty-three cases were evaluated using the double acquisition method and 34 cases were evaluated with the single acquisition method. In the double acquisition method, the two sets of images are acquired as two independent scans, and in the single acquisition method, the images are acquired serially as a single scan. The findings for the double acquisition method agreed with the surgical findings in 23 cases (69.7 %), while findings from the single acquisition method agreed with the surgical findings in 26 cases (76.5 %). Pre-surgical evaluation for tumor-brain adhesion by brain surface motion imaging provides helpful information for meningioma surgery, especially when using the single acquisition method. (orig.)

  2. Does the accuracy of single reading with CAD (computer-aided detection) compare with that of double reading?: A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.L.; Blanks, R.G.; Moss, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine current evidence to determine whether the accuracy of single reading with computed-aided detection (CAD) compares with that of double reading. Methods: We performed a literature review to identify studies where both protocols had been investigated and compared. We identified eight studies that compared single reading with CAD against double reading, of which six reported on comparisons of both sensitivity and specificity. Results: Of the six studies identified, three showed no differences in either sensitivity or specificity. One showed single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity at the same specificity, another that single reading with CAD had a higher specificity at the same sensitivity. However, one study, in a real-life setting, showed that single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity. Conclusion: As the majority of the studies were not in a real-life setting, used test sets, lacked sufficient training in the use of CAD and simulated double reading (using a protocol of recall if one suggests), current evidence is therefore limited as to the accuracy, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of single reading with CAD in comparison with the most common practice in the UK of double reading using a protocol of consensus or arbitration

  3. Development of laser diode pumped solid state green laser for the pumping of wavelength tunable laser. 1. Development of single-pass Nd:YAG MOPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Kato, Masaaki; Oba, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-06-01

    For the pumping of wavelength tunable laser, a high repetition rate, high average power solid state laser pumped by a high duty laser diode (LD) array has been developed. The solid state laser using Nd:YAG zigzag slab crystals consists of an oscillator and an amplifier. Using this Nd:YAG MOPA system, the maximum fundamental average power of 33 W is obtained. The wavefront distortion of amplified laser beam is within 0.3 wavelength. M{sup 2} measured is about 1.5 which means the laser beam is near diffraction limited. By using nonlinear crystals, fundamental laser radiation is converted to second, third and fourth harmonics. The average power is 15.5 W at 532 nm, 1.2 W at 355 nm and 2.3 W at 266 nm. The beam quality of the second harmonic is good. With the measurement of the laser parameters, it is confirmed that the high repetition rate, high power and high quality second harmonic can be produced by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser MOPA system. (author)

  4. Single and double acquisition strategies for compensation of artifacts from eddy current and transient oscillation in balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2017-07-01

    To develop single and double acquisition methods to compensate for artifacts from eddy currents and transient oscillations in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) with centric phase-encoding (PE) order for magnetization-prepared bSSFP imaging. A single and four different double acquisition methods were developed and evaluated with Bloch equation simulations, phantom/in vivo experiments, and quantitative analyses. For the single acquisition method, multiple PE groups, each of which was composed of N linearly changing PE lines, were ordered in a pseudocentric manner for optimal contrast and minimal signal fluctuations. Double acquisition methods used complex averaging of two images that had opposite artifact patterns from different acquisition orders or from different numbers of dummy scans. Simulation results showed high sensitivity of eddy-current and transient-oscillation artifacts to off-resonance frequency and PE schemes. The artifacts were reduced with the PE-grouping with N values from 3 to 8, similar to or better than the conventional pairing scheme of N = 2. The proposed double acquisition methods removed the remaining artifacts significantly. The proposed methods conserved detailed structures in magnetization transfer imaging well, compared with the conventional methods. The proposed single and double acquisition methods can be useful for artifact-free magnetization-prepared bSSFP imaging with desired contrast and minimized dummy scans. Magn Reson Med 78:254-263, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Triple-Loaded Single-Row Versus Suture-Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair With Platelet-Rich Plasma Fibrin Membrane: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2016-05-01

    To compare the structural healing and clinical outcomes of triple-loaded single-row with suture-bridging double-row repairs of full-thickness rotator cuff tendons when both repair constructs are augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. A prospective, randomized, consecutive series of patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears no greater than 3 cm in anteroposterior length were treated with a triple-loaded single-row (20) or suture-bridging double-row (20) repair augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. The primary outcome measure was cuff integrity by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary clinical outcome measures were American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Rowe, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. The mean MRI interval was 12.6 months (range, 12-17 months). A total of 3 of 20 single-row repairs and 3 of 20 double-row repairs (15%) had tears at follow-up MRI. The single-row group had re-tears in 1 single tendon repair and 2 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed at the original attachment site (Cho type 1). In the double-row group, re-tears were found in 3 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed medial to the medial row near the musculotendinous junction (Cho type 2). All clinical outcome measures were significantly improved from the preoperative level (P plasma fibrin membrane. No difference could be demonstrated between these repairs on clinical outcome scores. I, Prospective randomized study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer simulations of a single-laser double-gas-jet wakefield accelerator concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hemker

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report in this paper on full scale 2D particle-in-cell simulations investigating laser wakefield acceleration. First we describe our findings of electron beam generation by a laser propagating through a single gas jet. Using realistic parameters which are relevant for the experimental setup in our laboratory we find that the electron beam resulting after the propagation of a 0.8 μm, 50 fs laser through a 1.5 mm gas jet has properties that would make it useful for further acceleration. Our simulations show that the electron beam is generated when the laser exits the gas jet, and the properties of the generated beam, especially its energy, depend only weakly on most properties of the gas jet. We therefore propose to use the first gas jet as a plasma cathode and then use a second gas jet placed immediately behind the first to provide additional acceleration. Our simulations of this proposed setup indicate the feasibility of this idea and also suggest ways to optimize the quality of the resulting beam.

  7. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, I; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, M; Gheata, A; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, R; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, S; Kim, B; Kim, T; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Korneev, A; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, V; Kushpil, S; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Le Bornec, Y; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Lee, K S; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, M V D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puchagin, S; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, M; Song, J; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strabykin, K; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, M; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; 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    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass M X 3) σ DD / σ INEL =0.11±0.03,0.12±0.05, and [Formula: see text], respectively at [Formula: see text]. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: [Formula: see text] mb at [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared to previous measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies, to measurements by other experiments at the LHC, and to theoretical models.

  8. Single-Atom Au/NiFe Layered Double Hydroxide Electrocatalyst: Probing the Origin of Activity for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfang; Liu, Jieyu; Xi, Lifei; Yu, Yifu; Chen, Ning; Sun, Shuhui; Wang, Weichao; Lange, Kathrin M; Zhang, Bin

    2018-03-21

    A fundamental understanding of the origin of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of transition-metal-based electrocatalysts, especially for single precious metal atoms supported on layered double hydroxides (LDHs), is highly required for the design of efficient electrocatalysts toward further energy conversion technologies. Here, we aim toward single-atom Au supported on NiFe LDH ( s Au/NiFe LDH) to clarify the activity origin of LDHs system and a 6-fold OER activity enhancement by 0.4 wt % s Au decoration. Combining with theoretical calculations, the active behavior of NiFe LDH results from the in situ generated NiFe oxyhydroxide from LDH during the OER process. With the presence of s Au, s Au/NiFe LDH possesses an overpotential of 0.21 V in contrast to the calculated result (0.18 V). We ascribe the excellent OER activity of s Au/NiFe LDH to the charge redistribution of active Fe as well as its surrounding atoms causing by the neighboring s Au on NiFe oxyhydroxide stabilized by interfacial CO 3 2- and H 2 O interfacing with LDH.

  9. Electrochemical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical double layer capacitors using non-aqueous electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, P.W.; Koetz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrolyte, 1 M Et 4 NBF 4 in acetonitrile, suitable for supercapacitors. Further, in situ dilatometry and in situ conductance measurements were performed on single electrodes and the results compared to an activated carbon, YP17. Both materials show capacitive behavior characteristic of high surface area electrodes for supercapacitors, with the maximum full cell gravimetric capacitance being 34 F/g for YP17 and 20 F/g for SWCNTs at 2.5 V with respect to the total active electrode mass. The electronic resistance of SWCNTs and activated carbon decreases significantly during charging, showing similarities of the two materials during electrochemical doping. The SWCNT electrode expands irreversibly during the first electrochemical potential sweep as verified by in situ dilatometry, indicative of at least partial debundling of the SWCNTs. A reversible periodic swelling and shrinking during cycling is observed for both materials, with the magnitude of expansion depending on the type of ions forming the double layer.

  10. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Wisla; Carena, Francesco; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Debasish; Dash, Sadhana; Dash, Ajay Kumar; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Mihaela; Gheata, Andrei George; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Ramni; Gupta, Anik; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; 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Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Beomkyu; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Vasily; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Le Bornec, Yves; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; 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Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nikulin, Sergey; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Pastircak, Blahoslav; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; 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Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; 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Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Yury; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Alexander; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; vrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Shiming; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haitao; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, Daicui; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton--proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass $M_X 3$) $\\sigma_{\\rm DD}/\\sigma_{\\rm INEL} = 0.11 \\pm 0.03, 0.12 \\pm 0.05$, and $0.12^{+0.05}_{-0.04}$, respectively at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9, 2.76$, and 7 TeV. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: $\\sigma_{\\rm INEL} = 62.8^{+2.4}_{-4.0} (model) \\pm 1.2 (lumi)$ mb at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 2.76 TeV and $73.2^{+2.0}_{-4.6} (model) \\pm 2.6 (lumi)$ mb at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared t...

  11. Compact, single-frequency, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped in an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, B; Berrou, A; Guilbaud, S; Raybaut, M; Godard, A; Lefebvre, M

    2011-03-01

    We report on a nested-cavity, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) architecture for widely tunable, mid-IR, single-frequency generation. By use of an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass pumping scheme, this new, low-threshold, semimonolithic architecture only requires two free-standing cavity mirrors and a nonlinear crystal with a mirror coating deposited on its input facet while the other facet is antireflection coated. It is thus as simple and compact as any basic linear optical parametric oscillator cavity, is easily tunable, and displays low sensitivity to mechanical vibrations. Using a high-repetition-rate (4.8 kHz) microlaser as the pump source of the NesCOPO, we demonstrate a compact source that provides pulsed, stable single-frequency output over a wide spectral range (3.8-4.3 μm) with a high peak power (up to 50 W), which are properties well suited for practical gas sensing applications.

  12. Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    1999-01-19

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  13. Measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium at 2.8 keV using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Lindle, D.W.; Keller, N.; Miller, R.D.; Azuma, Y.; Mansour, N.B.; Berry, H.G.; Sellin, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium well above the double-ionization threshold. Using a time-of-flight technique, we find He ++ /He + =1.6±0.3% at hν=2.8 keV. This value lies between calculations by Amusia (2.3%) and by Samson, who predicts 1.2% by analogy with electron-impact ionization cross sections of singly charged ions. Good agreement is obtained with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain, and of Aberg, who predict 1.7%

  14. Single-chip MEMS 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw switch arrays for automating telecommunication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, S; Oberhammer, J; Stemme, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch arrays with 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw (DPST) switches embedded and packaged on a single chip, which are intended for automating main distribution frames in copper-wire telecommunication networks. Whenever a customer requests a change in his telecommunication services, the copper-wire network has to be reconfigured which is currently done manually by a costly physical re-routing of the connections in the main distribution frames. To reduce the costs, new methods for automating the network reconfiguration are sought after by the network providers. The presented devices comprise 5 × 5 or 20 × 20 double switches, which allow us to interconnect any of the 5 or 20 input lines to any of the 5 or 20 output lines. The switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the switch contact on a flexible membrane, moving between a top and a bottom electrode. The devices are fabricated in two parts which are designed to be assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding, resulting in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The on-chip routing network consists of thick metal lines for low resistance and is embedded in bencocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layers. The packaged 5 × 5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7 × 6.4 mm 2 and the 20 × 20 arrays are 14 × 10 mm 2 large. The switch actuation voltages for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array were measured to be 21.2 V/15.3 V for the 5 × 5 array and 93.2 V/37.3 V for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The total signal line resistances vary depending on the switch position within the array between 0.13 Ω and 0.56 Ω for the 5 × 5 array and between 0.08 Ω to 2.33 Ω for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The average resistance of the switch contacts was determined to be 0.22 Ω with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω

  15. Dual-polarization wavelength conversion of 16-QAM signals in a single silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Gajda, Andrzej; Liebig, Erik

    2018-01-01

    with an optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty below 0.7 dB. High-quality converted signals are generated thanks to the low polarization dependence (≤0.5 dB) and the high conversion efficiency (CE) achievable. The strong Kerr nonlinearity in silicon and the decrease of detrimental free-carrier absorption due......A polarization-diversity loop with a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode as a nonlinear medium is used to realize polarization insensitive four-wave mixing. Wavelength conversion of seven dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals at 16 GBd is demonstrated...... to the reverse-biased p-i-n diode are key in ensuring high CE levels....

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN ABSORBED DOSES IN TARGET ORGANS IN PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY, USING SINGLE EMULSION AND DOUBLE EMULSION FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Talaeipour

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe use of panoramic radiography, due to its numerous advantages, is increasing. Radiographic films used in this technique are of double emulsion (DE type which are used with intensifying screens. Single emulsion (SE films can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine the exposure parameters to achieve an appropriate optical density in these two types of films, and to estimate under such parameters, radiation doses to mandibular bone marrow (MBM, thyroid gland and parotid gland. This study was performed through a tissue equivalent phantom. First, with various tube voltage and tube current, 128 radiographs were taken of phantom with these two types of films. After examining the optical densities, the exposure parameters under which both films have the same density, were determined. Then, phantom again was exposed and MBM, thyroid gland and parotid gland absorbed doses were measured, using TLDs. It was demonstrated that: 1 SE films, in order to provide appropriate optical density, require two times radiation in comparison with double emulsion film; 2 using SE films increases MBM dose, up to 2-2.5 times, thyroid gland dose up to 1.7-2 times and parotid gland dose up to 1.3 times, in comparison with DE films; 3 in DE films, under lower exposure parameters and desirable processing, MBM dose up to 3.5 times, thyroid gland dose up to 1.5 times and parotid gland dose up to 2.5 times will increase. Considering that the risk of radiation induced cancers increases with repeated radiation doses, using SE films is not recommended.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  18. 1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Naoto; Adachi, Shunsuke; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-04-13

    We report a telecom-band single-photon detector for gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution systems. The single-photon detector is based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The gate repetition frequency of the single-photon detector reached 1.5 GHz. A quantum efficiency of 10.8 % at 1550 nm was obtained with a dark count probability per gate of 6.3 x 10(-7) and an afterpulsing probability of 2.8 %. Moreover, the maximum detection rate of the detector is 20 MHz.

  19. SAT-TAVI (single antiplatelet therapy for TAVI) study: a pilot randomized study comparing double to single antiplatelet therapy for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Eugenio; Pucciarelli, Armando; Cota, Linda; Sorropago, Giovanni; Tesorio, Tullio; Salemme, Luigi; Popusoi, Grigore; Ambrosini, Vittorio; Cioppa, Angelo; Agrusta, Marco; Catapano, Donato; Moscariello, Cesare; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni; Rubino, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Common clinical practice recommends dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of the study was to evaluate, in a double blind randomized study, the safety of TAVI, with adjunctive pharmacotherapy consisting of single antiplatelet therapy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 120 consecutive patients, undergoing TAVI, have been enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to DAPT group (aspirin and clopidogrel 75 mg/qd or ticlopidine 500 mg/bid) or ASA group (aspirin only). TAVI device was the Sapien XT-Novaflex Delivery System (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc.). All patients were followed up to 6 months. Device success was achieved in 100% of patients. No difference in the VARC combined 30 day safety endpoint, all cause and cardiovascular mortality was observed. At 30 days vascular complications were reduced in the ASA group (p<0.05). No differences in the clinical status were detected between the groups up to 6 months. This study suggests that TAVI procedures can be performed without DAPT without increasing the morbidity and mortality. These findings, if confirmed in a larger multicenter randomized trial, will no longer support the use of DAPT for TAVI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. One stage revision single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with impacted morselized bone graft following a failed double-bundle reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jong Ra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has theoretical benefits such as more accurate reproduction of ACL anatomy, it is technically more demanding surgery. This report describes the case of a one stage revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction after primary double-bundle ACL reconstruction. A professional dancer had an ACL previously reconstructed with a double-bundle technique, but the femoral tunnels were malpositioned resulting in residual laxity and rotational instability. The previous femoral tunnel positions were vertical and widened. The previous vertical tunnels were filled with impacted bone graft and a revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction was performed via the new femoral tunnel with a 2 O'clock position between the previous two tunnels. After 10 months of postoperative rehabilitation, the patient returned to professional dancing with sound bony union and without any residual instability.

  1. A Comparison of Herpetofaunal Sampling Effectiveness of Pitfall, Single-ended, and Double-ended Funnel Traps Used with Drift Fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Daniel G. Neary; Larry D. Harris

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the relative effectiveness of pitfalls, single-ended, and double-ended funnel traps at 12 replicate sites in sand pine scrub using drift fence arrays. Pitfalls captured fewer species but yielded more individuals of many species and higher average species richness than funnel traps. Pitfalls and funnel traps exhibited differential capture bias probably due...

  2. Single-frequency operation of a broad-area laser diode by injection locking of a complex spatial mode via a double phase conjugate mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, P.D.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate what is believed to be the first phase-coherent locking of a high-power broad-area diode to a single-frequency master laser. We use photorefractive double phase conjugation to lock the diode in a selfoptimized complex spatial mode while the photorefractive crystal diffracts that

  3. Studies of Double-Layer Effects at Single-Crystal Gold Electrodes. 3. Reduction Kinetics of Fluoropentaamminecobalt(III) Cation in Aqueous Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fawcett, W. R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2004), s. 3277-3282 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/02/P082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : double - layer * single crystal * reduction kinetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  4. Motoneuronal location of the external urethral and anal sphincters : A single and double labeling study in the male and female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Sie, Judith A.M.L.; Holstege, Gerrit

    1997-01-01

    The location of external urethral (EUS) and anal sphincter (EAS) motoneurons was investigated in the golden hamster using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase and cholera toxin B-subunit. Single and double labeling studies revealed that the motoneurons of the EUS and EAS were present in the

  5. Double Pass 595?nm pulsed dye laser at a 6 minute interval for the treatment of port-wine stains is not more effective than single pass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A. D.; van Drooge, A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; van der Veen, J. P. W.; Bos, J. D.; Beek, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the first choice for treatment of port wine stains (PWS). However, outcome is highly variable and only a few patients achieve complete clearance. The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and safety of single pass PDL with double pass PDL at a 6 minute

  6. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C{sub 60} by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si{sup q+} (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O{sup q+} (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C{sub 60} are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  7. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  8. Double-pumped multiwavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator based on a Sagnac loop filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Hu, Kai; Wei, Yizhen; Chen, Daru; Gao, Shiming; Wang, Tianshu; He, Sailing

    2012-01-01

    We propose a double-pumped ring cavity multiwavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator (MW-FOPO) using a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF) as the gain medium and a polarization maintained fiber based Sagnac loop filter as the comblike filter. 22-wavelength lasing of the double-pumped MW-FOPO with a ripple less than ±2.5 dB and a wavelength spacing of about 0.8 nm in a wavelength range from 1541 nm to 1558 nm is experimentally demonstrated. We discussed the power stability of the multiwavelength lasing of the double-pumped MW-FOPO. A comparison of the output spectra between the double-pumped MW-FOPO and single-pumped MW-FOPO is also presented. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  9. Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done.

  10. Study on Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Murine Double Minute 2 and Susceptibility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in murine double minute 2 (MDM2 and susceptibility and biological behavior of hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC. Methods: MDM2 (rs2279744 site polymorphism in peripheral blood from 166 patients with HCC and 157 healthy controls were detected by SYBR GREEN PCR method and the relationship between MDM2 polymorphism and susceptibility and biological behavior of HCC was analyzed by comparing the differences of genotypes in two populations. Results: There was no statistical significance between two groups in terms of MDM2 allele distribution in research population (P = 0.753. The risk of HCC onset in individuals with GG+ TG genotype was 1.698 times of those with TT genotype in case group (95%CI = 1.027 -2.808. MDM2 SNP was associated with HBV infection and the degree of tumor differentiation (P< 0.05. The incidence of alleles in experimental group (T, 0.49; G, 0.51 was very different from that in control group (T, 0.59; G, 0.41 (P = 0.015. The incidence of GG genotype in patients with HCC (22.29% was significantly higher than those without HCC (13.38%. Compared with TT genotype, G allele or GG genotype had more correlation with HCC onset. Conclusion: Compared with TT genotype, MDM2 promoter SNP309 G allele or GG genotype is more associated with HCC onset in Chinese population.

  11. Unveiling the pentagonal nature of perfectly aligned single-and double-strand Si nano-ribbons on Ag(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Jorge I; Sławińska, Jagoda; Le Lay, Guy; Marele, Antonela C; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M; Dávila, María E

    2016-10-06

    Carbon and silicon pentagonal low-dimensional structures attract a great interest as they may lead to new exotic phenomena such as topologically protected phases or increased spin-orbit effects. However, no pure pentagonal phase has yet been realized for any of them. Here we unveil through extensive density functional theory calculations and scanning tunnelling microscope simulations, confronted to key experimental facts, the hidden pentagonal nature of single- and double-strand chiral Si nano-ribbons perfectly aligned on Ag(110) surfaces whose structure has remained elusive for over a decade. Our study reveals an unprecedented one-dimensional Si atomic arrangement solely comprising almost perfect alternating pentagons residing in the missing row troughs of the reconstructed surface. We additionally characterize the precursor structure of the nano-ribbons, which consists of a Si cluster (nano-dot) occupying a silver di-vacancy in a quasi-hexagonal configuration. The system thus materializes a paradigmatic shift from a silicene-like packing to a pentagonal one.

  12. Approximate non-linear multiparameter inversion for multicomponent single and double P-wave scattering in isotropic elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian

    2018-03-01

    An asymptotic quadratic true-amplitude inversion method for isotropic elastic P waves is proposed to invert medium parameters. The multicomponent P-wave scattered wavefield is computed based on a forward relationship using second-order Born approximation and corresponding high-frequency ray theoretical methods. Within the local double scattering mechanism, the P-wave transmission factors are elaborately calculated, which results in the radiation pattern for P-waves scattering being a quadratic combination of the density and Lamé's moduli perturbation parameters. We further express the elastic P-wave scattered wavefield in a form of generalized Radon transform (GRT). After introducing classical backprojection operators, we obtain an approximate solution of the inverse problem by solving a quadratic non-linear system. Numerical tests with synthetic data computed by finite-differences scheme demonstrate that our quadratic inversion can accurately invert perturbation parameters for strong perturbations, compared with the P-wave single-scattering linear inversion method. Although our inversion strategy here is only syncretized with P-wave scattering, it can be extended to invert multicomponent elastic data containing both P-wave and S-wave information.

  13. On the Influence of the Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on the Performance of Single and Double Binary Turbo Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTA, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the influence of the extrinsic information scaling coefficient value (eic on the bit and frame error rate (BER/FER, for single and double binary turbo codes (S/DBTC decoded with maximum a posteriori (MAP and maximum logarithmic MAP (MaxLogMAP component algorithms. Firstly, we estimate the distance spectrum of the code with the so-called error impulse method (EIM, and we analyze its dependence as well as the dependence of the asymptotic FER on eic. Secondly, we estimate the actual FER using Monte Carlo simulations with eic as a parameter. The comparison of the FER(eic curves obtained by the two methods allows us, on the one hand, to assess the quality of the decoding algorithms, and on the other hand, to estimate the very low BER/FER performance of TCs, where the Monte Carlo method is practically unusable. The results presented also provide a practical guide for the appreciation of the optimal value of the scaling factor, eic. We may notice that also the MAP algorithm performance could be improved using eic<1.

  14. An ultrasensitive squamous cell carcinoma antigen biosensing platform utilizing double-antibody single-channel amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Dan; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Fan, Dawei; Pang, Xuehui; Li, Yueyun; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-10-15

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor was developed for ultrasensitive detection of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), which was based on the double-antibody single-channel amplification strategy. For the first time, human immunoglobulin antibody (anti-HIgG) was used as the supporting framework to amplify the loading quantity of SCCA antibody (anti-SCCA). In this strategy, SCCA can be detected without using mesoporous nanometers to amplify the signal. In addition, Pd icosahedrons were first used as the connecter to immobilize the antibodies and strengthen the sensitivity. Only one touch point exists under the limited condition between a sphere and another shape in geometry, thus the Pd icosahedron is an excellent candidate as the role of connecter. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) decorated with mercapto-functionalized graphene sheets (Au@GS) were synthesized as the transducing materials. The fabricated immunosensor exhibited an excellent detection limit of 2.8 pg/mL and wide linear range of 0.01-5 ng/mL. This kind of immunosensor would provide a potential application in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single basin double slope solar still: Year round performance prediction for local climatic conditions at Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulandaivel Kalidasa Murugavel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, performance of a single basin double slope solar still has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model is used to predict the year round performance of the still at the local climatic conditions for the year 2008. Average values of maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures, wind velocities were taken from meteorological data for last five years. Radiation models were used to predict the global and diffused irradiances on the inclined covers. The time to time variations in transmittance of the cover were considered. The rate of production variation and the total production for first day of the every month had been calculated. The overall production of the still was higher during March, April, August, November and December and it is around 4 liters/day. The average production of the still was 2.1 liters/day/m2. The economy of the still was also studied and the payback period of the still was three years.

  16. Unveiling the pentagonal nature of perfectly aligned single-and double-strand Si nano-ribbons on Ag(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Jorge I.; Sławińska, Jagoda; Le Lay, Guy; Marele, Antonela C.; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M.; Dávila, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and silicon pentagonal low-dimensional structures attract a great interest as they may lead to new exotic phenomena such as topologically protected phases or increased spin–orbit effects. However, no pure pentagonal phase has yet been realized for any of them. Here we unveil through extensive density functional theory calculations and scanning tunnelling microscope simulations, confronted to key experimental facts, the hidden pentagonal nature of single- and double-strand chiral Si nano-ribbons perfectly aligned on Ag(110) surfaces whose structure has remained elusive for over a decade. Our study reveals an unprecedented one-dimensional Si atomic arrangement solely comprising almost perfect alternating pentagons residing in the missing row troughs of the reconstructed surface. We additionally characterize the precursor structure of the nano-ribbons, which consists of a Si cluster (nano-dot) occupying a silver di-vacancy in a quasi-hexagonal configuration. The system thus materializes a paradigmatic shift from a silicene-like packing to a pentagonal one. PMID:27708263

  17. Effect of Pre-Fatigue on the Monotonic Deformation Behavior of a Coplanar Double-Slip-Oriented Cu Single Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wu Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The [ 2 ¯ 33 ] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 × 10−4, which is located within the quasi-plateau of the cyclic stress-strain (CSS curve, its tensile strength and elongation are coincidently improved, showing an obvious strengthening effect by low-cycle fatigue (LCF training. However, for the crystal specimens pre-fatigued at a γpl lower or higher than the quasi-plateau region, due to a low pre-cyclic hardening or the pre-induction of fatigue damage, no marked strengthening effect by LCF training occurs, and even a weakening effect by LCF damage takes place instead. In contrast, the effect of pre-fatigue deformation on the uniaxial compressive behavior is not so significant, since the compressive deformation is in a stress state more beneficial to the ongoing plastic deformation and it is insensitive to the damage induced by pre-cycling. Based on the observations and comparisons of deformation features and dislocation structures in the uniaxially deformed [ 2 ¯ 33 ] crystal specimens which have been pre-fatigued at different γpl, the micro-mechanisms for the effect of pre-fatigue on the static mechanical behavior are discussed.

  18. Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K; Roine, Elina; Sencilo, Ana; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting archaea show a variety of virion morphotypes, and they are currently classified into more than ten viral families or corresponding groups. A pleomorphic virus morphotype is very common among haloarchaeal viruses, and to date, several such viruses have been isolated. Here, we propose the classification of eight such viruses and formation of a new family, Pleolipoviridae (from the Greek pleo for more or many and lipos for lipid), containing three genera, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammapleolipovirus. The proposal is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae infect halophilic archaea and are nonlytic. They share structural and genomic features and differ from any other classified virus. The virion of pleolipoviruses is composed of a pleomorphic membrane vesicle enclosing the genome. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, internal membrane and spike proteins. Although the genomes of the pleolipoviruses are single- or double-stranded, linear or circular DNA molecules, they share the same genome organization and gene synteny and show significant similarity at the amino acid level. The canonical features common to all members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae show that they are closely related and thus form a new viral family.

  19. All-optical bit-pattern recognition in data segments using logic AND and XOR in a single all-active MZI wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Fjelde, T; Buron, J D

    2002-01-01

    A novel and cost-effective scheme far comparing a segment of an incoming data stream to an expected sequence, using a single, all- active MZI is proposed. The comparator comprises the logic AND and XOR functions, and is demonstrated at 10 Gb/s...

  20. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft: can it restore normal knee joint kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadikota, Hemanth R; Wu, Jia-Lin; Seon, Jong Keun; Sutton, Karen; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2010-04-01

    Anatomical reconstruction techniques that can restore normal joint kinematics without increasing surgical complications could potentially improve clinical outcomes and help manage anterior cruciate ligament injuries more efficiently. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft can more closely restore normal knee anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and internal-external kinematics than can conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematic responses after single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft were compared with the intact knee in 9 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens using a robotic testing system. Kinematics of each knee were determined under an anterior tibial load (134 N), a simulated quadriceps load (400 N), and combined torques (10 N.m valgus and 5 N.m internal tibial torques) at 0 degrees , 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of flexion. Anterior tibial translations were more closely restored to the intact knee level after single-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft than with a single-bundle reconstruction under the 3 external loading conditions. Under simulated quadriceps load, the mean internal tibial rotations after both reconstructions were lower than that of the anterior cruciate ligament-intact knee with no significant differences between these 3 knee conditions at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion (P > .05). The increased medial tibial shifts of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees were restored to the intact level by both reconstruction techniques under the 3 external loading conditions. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARTHROSCOPIC SINGLE BUNDLE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AND NON-ANATOMICAL DOUBLE BUNDLE WITH SINGLE TIBIAL TUNNEL ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH SEMITENDINOSUS ± GRACILIS AUTOGRAFTS USING LAXOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The knee joint is the most commonly injured of all joints and the ACL is the most commonly injured ligament. Arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL has become gold standard in treating these injuries. AIM 1. To compare the short-term results of ACL reconstruction using single bundle (one Tibial + one Femoral tunnel and non-anatomical double-bundle (one Tibial + two Femoral tunnels techniques using Hamstrings (Semitendinosus ± Gracilis graft. 2. To evaluate ACL graft reconstruction stability measured by laxometry and to find out an association with clinical findings. MATERIAL & METHODS We performed a prospective study between 2014-2015 of 20 case of ACL injuries & compared single bundle reconstruction with Non – anatomical double Bundle reconstruction with semitendinosus ± Gracilis, Autograft using laxometry. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic Non-anatomical double ACL Reconstruction is Bio-mechanically stable reconstruction resembling anatomy of the ACL.

  2. Effects of 3-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) on the repair of X-ray-induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks in chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Sato, Fumiaki

    1990-01-01

    The ability of cordycepin to inhibit the repair of DNA strand breaks was examined with X-irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells in log-phase culture. A filter elution technique revealed that 70 μM cordycepin did not inhibit the repair of single-strand breaks but inhibited the repair of double-strand breaks. These findings confirmed the fact that the increase in the lethality of cordycepin in X-irradiated cultured mammalian cells was attributable to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks. (author)

  3. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Buchhorn, G H; Spahn, G; Poppendieck, B; Schultz, W; Klinger, H-M

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-row repair was coupled with (3) USP No. 2 (DRAE) or (4) braided polyblend polyethylene suture No. 2 (DRAH). Arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches were used (single-row) and combined with medial horizontal mattress stitches (double-row). Shoulders were cyclically loaded from 10 to 180 N. Displacement to gap formation of 5- and 10-mm at the repair site, cycles to failure, and the mode of failure were determined. The ultimate tensile strength was verified in specimens that resisted to 3,000 cycles. DRAE and DRAH had a lower frequency of 5- (P = 0.135) and 10-mm gap formation (P = 0.135). All DRAE and DRAH resisted 3,000 cycles while only three SRAE and one SRAH resisted 3,000 cycles (P 0.05). Double-row suture anchor repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches provides initial strength superior to single-row repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches under isometric cyclic loading as well as under ultimate loading conditions. Our results support the concept of double-row fixation with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches in rotator cuff tears with improvement of initial fixation strength and ultimate tensile load. Use of new polyblend polyethylene suture material seems not to increase the initial biomechanical aspects of the repair construct.

  4. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Thompson, Gwilym J; Maroudas, Penny A; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Ofatumumab (Arzerra ® , Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9 months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. The objective of the study was to present a method to estimate the cost effectiveness of ofatumumab in the treatment of DR-CLL. As no suitable historical control was available for modelling, the outcomes from non-responders to ofatumumab were used to model the effect of best supportive care (BSC). This was done via a Cox regression to control for differences in baseline characteristics between groups. This analysis was included in a partitioned survival model built in Microsoft ® Excel with utilities and costs taken from published sources, with costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Using the outcomes seen in non-responders, ofatumumab is expected to add approximately 0.62 life years (1.50 vs. 0.88). Using published utility values this translates to an additional 0.30 QALYs (0.77 vs. 0.47). At the list price, ofatumumab had a cost per QALY of £130,563, and a cost per life year of £63,542. The model was sensitive to changes in assumptions regarding overall survival estimates and utility values. This study demonstrates the potential of using data for non-responders to model outcomes for BSC in cost-effectiveness evaluations based on single-arm trials. Further research is needed on the estimation of comparative effectiveness using uncontrolled clinical studies.

  5. Mapping meiotic single-strand DNA reveals a new landscape of DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Buhler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which are formed by the Spo11 protein, initiate meiotic recombination. Previous DSB-mapping studies have used rad50S or sae2Delta mutants, which are defective in break processing, to accumulate Spo11-linked DSBs, and report large (> or = 50 kb "DSB-hot" regions that are separated by "DSB-cold" domains of similar size. Substantial recombination occurs in some DSB-cold regions, suggesting that DSB patterns are not normal in rad50S or sae2Delta mutants. We therefore developed a novel method to map genome-wide, single-strand DNA (ssDNA-associated DSBs that accumulate in processing-capable, repair-defective dmc1Delta and dmc1Delta rad51Delta mutants. DSBs were observed at known hot spots, but also in most previously identified "DSB-cold" regions, including near centromeres and telomeres. Although approximately 40% of the genome is DSB-cold in rad50S mutants, analysis of meiotic ssDNA from dmc1Delta shows that most of these regions have substantial DSB activity. Southern blot assays of DSBs in selected regions in dmc1Delta, rad50S, and wild-type cells confirm these findings. Thus, DSBs are distributed much more uniformly than was previously believed. Comparisons of DSB signals in dmc1, dmc1 rad51, and dmc1 spo11 mutant strains identify Dmc1 as a critical strand-exchange activity genome-wide, and confirm previous conclusions that Spo11-induced lesions initiate all meiotic recombination.

  6. DNA ligase 1 deficient plants display severe growth defects and delayed repair of both DNA single and double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Clifford M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligase enzymes catalyse the joining of adjacent polynucleotides and as such play important roles in DNA replication and repair pathways. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligases with distinct roles in DNA metabolism, with clear differences in the functions of DNA ligase orthologues between animals, yeast and plants. DNA ligase 1, present in all eukaryotes, plays critical roles in both DNA repair and replication and is indispensable for cell viability. Results Knockout mutants of atlig1 are lethal. Therefore, RNAi lines with reduced levels of AtLIG1 were generated to allow the roles and importance of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in DNA metabolism to be elucidated. Viable plants were fertile but displayed a severely stunted and stressed growth phenotype. Cell size was reduced in the silenced lines, whilst flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of cells in S-phase in atlig1-RNAi lines relative to wild type plants. Comet assay analysis of isolated nuclei showed atlig1-RNAi lines displayed slower repair of single strand breaks (SSBs and also double strand breaks (DSBs, implicating AtLIG1 in repair of both these lesions. Conclusion Reduced levels of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in the silenced lines are sufficient to support plant development but result in retarded growth and reduced cell size, which may reflect roles for AtLIG1 in both replication and repair. The finding that DNA ligase 1 plays an important role in DSB repair in addition to its known function in SSB repair, demonstrates the existence of a previously uncharacterised novel pathway, independent of the conserved NHEJ. These results indicate that DNA ligase 1 functions in both DNA replication and in repair of both ss and dsDNA strand breaks in higher plants.

  7. Transport in Weakly Coupled Vertical Double Quantum Dots: Single-Particle Energy Level Spectroscopy and Hyperfine Interaction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Performing transport measurements on weakly coupled vertical double quantum dots, we study by magneto-resonant-tunneling spectroscopy, single-particle energy spectra of the constituent dots over a wide energy window. The measured energy spectra are well modeled overall by ideal spectra calculated for elliptical and parabolic in-dot-plane confinement potentials. However, in regions where single-particle energy levels are naively expected to cross, we observe pronounced level anti-crossing behaviour and strong resonant current variations (both enhancement and suppression). Within a coherent tunneling picture, these effects can be attributed to coherent level mixing induced by weak perturbations in the nearly ideal dot confinement potentials. We analyze the energy spectra in detail, and focus on examples of two-, three- and four-level crossings where we observe the suppression of an otherwise strong current resonance, a signature of dark state formation due to destructive interference. The mixing we measure and model at two three-level crossings represents an all-electrical analogue of coherent population trapping. We also explore the limitations of the applicability of the coherent level mixing model and demonstrate in-situ alteration of the coupling between levels. We further examine the electron spin-nuclear spin (hyperfine) interaction. In the familiar two-electron spin blockade regime, on application of an out-of-dot-plane magnetic field, we observe current switching and hysteresis, and a funnel-like structure in the leakage current, all hallmarks of the hyperfine interaction. The measurements bring to light a strong gate voltage dependence, significant device-to-device variations, and an intricate bias voltage history dependence not accounted for in any existing model. Unexpectedly, we also observe signatures of the hyperfine interaction at high bias, well outside the spin blockade regime. We characterize these features and suggest how the hyperfine interaction

  8. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar; Abdullah, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties. The width of the defect layer is taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure. Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed. It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer gives rises to a localized mode within the zero-φ eff gap in this kind of structure. It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency, its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Double Threaded Dental Implant Screws As Opposed to Single-Threaded: A Study from a Biomechanical Perspective by the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Arenal, A.; de Cos Juez, F. J.; Lasheras, F. Sánchez; Quevedo, M. Mauvezin

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present article is to study the advantages from a biomechanical point of view of the use of a double-threaded dental implant over the more common single-threaded one. For this purpose a 3D model of a portion of the jaw was generated. In this model four different bone areas were distinguished (transition cortical, transition trabecular, bulk cortical and bulk trabecular). Not only was the portion of the jaw created with CAD software but also two different implants geometries, one with only one thread (single-threaded) and the other with two threads (double-threaded). The loading condition was defined as 150 N intrusive forces and 15 N lingual-labial forces acting on the implant. The results of the present study shown that from a macroscopic point of view, the choice of one or other of the dental implants does not make a significant difference in the general behaviour of the jaw. In spite of this and notwithstanding the effects of the transition bone-implant, the stress distribution achieved by the single-threaded dental implant is more uniform. This effect is better for the biomechanics of the jaw. The advantage presented by the double threaded implant is that due to its larger surface the osseointegration is better than in the single-threaded version.

  10. Single-dose fluconazole versus standard 2-week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of convenience, cost, and reluctance to complicate antiretroviral treatment regimens, single-dose fluconazole may be a favorable regimen for

  11. Physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Morris, Nathaniel; Sonne, Michael W; Zuniga, Amanda Farias; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim R; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    We compared physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities. The primary hypothesis was that the counterweight method would elicit greater normalized power (i.e., power/active leg), greater electromyography (EMG) responses, and lower cardiorespiratory demand. Graded-exercise tests performed by 12 men (age: 21 ± 2 years; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) initially established that peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]; 76 ± 8.4%), expired ventilation ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), carbon dioxide production ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), heart rate (HRpeak; 91 ± 5.3%), and power output (PPO; 56 ± 3.6%) were lower during single-leg compared to double-leg cycling (main effect of mode; p cycling were performed at greater absolute power outputs but lower normalized power outputs compared to single-leg cycling (p  0.05), but semitendinosus was activated to a greater extent for single-leg cycling (p = 0.005). Single-leg interval and continuous cycling elicited lower mean [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], HR and ratings of perceived exertion compared to double-leg cycling (p cycling elicits lower cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses than double-leg cycling at greater normalized power outputs.

  12. Using a Socioecological Framework to Understand the Career Choices of Single- and Double-Degree Nursing Students and Double-Degree Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Noelene; Harrison, Linda; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Untested changes in nursing education in Australia, such as the introduction of double degrees in nursing, necessitate a new research approach to study nursing career pathways. A review of the literature on past and present career choice theories demonstrates these are inadequate to gain an understanding of contemporary nursing students' career choices. With the present worldwide shortage of nurses, an understanding of career choice becomes a critical component of recruitment and retention strategies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an ecological system approach based on Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development can be used to understand and examine the influences affecting nursing students' and graduates' career development and career choices. Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model was adapted to propose a new Nursing Career Development Framework as a way of conceptualizing the career development of nursing students undertaking traditional bachelor of nursing and nontraditional double-degree nursing programs. This Framework is then applied to a study of undergraduate nurses' career decision making, using a sequential explanatory mixed method study. The paper demonstrates the relevance of this approach for addressing challenges associated with nursing recruitment, education, and career choice. PMID:22852094

  13. Color and wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    "Using the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the My World of Science series provides the earliest readers with background on key STEM concepts. Color and Wavelengths explores the different frequencies in light wavelengths in a simple, engaging way that will help readers develop word recognition and reading skills. Includes a glossary and index"-- Provided by publisher.

  14. Expanded potential of seleno-carbohydrates as a molecular tool for X-ray structural determination of a carbohydrate-protein complex with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Komura, Naoko; Menjo, Masanori; Yamada, Yusuke; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Kato, Ryuichi; Kiso, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Seleno-lactoses have been successfully synthesized as candidates for mimicking carbohydrate ligands for human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). Selenium was introduced into the mono- or di-saccharides using p-methylselenobenzoic anhydride (Tol2Se) as a novel selenating reagent. The TolSe-substituted monosaccharides were converted into selenoglycosyl donors or acceptors, which were reacted with coupling partners to afford seleno-lactoses. The seleno-lactoses were converted to the target compounds. The structure of human galectin-9 NCRD co-crystallized with 6-MeSe-lactose was determined with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD/MAD) phasing and was similar to that of the co-crystal with natural lactose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Harilaos S; Perez, Guillermo M; Bueno, Juan M; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

    2013-05-01

    Ocular straylight is the combined effect of light scattering in the optical media and the diffuse reflectance from the various fundus layers. The aim of this work was to employ an optical technique to measure straylight at different wavelengths and to identify the optimal conditions for visually relevant optical measurements of straylight. The instrument, based on the double-pass (DP) principle, used a series of uniform disks that were projected onto the retina, allowing the recording of the wide-angle point spread function (PSF) from its peak and up to 7.3° of visual angle. A liquid crystal wavelength tunable filter was used to select six different wavelengths ranging from 500 to 650 nm. The measurements were performed in nine healthy Caucasian subjects. The straylight parameter was analyzed for small (0.5°) and large (6°) angles. For small angles, the wavelength dependence of straylight matches the transmittance spectrum of hemoglobin, which suggests that diffuse light from the fundus contributes significantly to the total straylight for wavelengths longer than 600 nm. Eyes with lighter pigmentation exhibited higher straylight at all wavelengths. For larger angles, straylight was less dependent on wavelength and eye pigmentation. Small-angle straylight in the eye is affected by the wavelength-dependent properties of the fundus. At those small angles, measurements using wavelengths near the peak of the spectral sensitivity of the eye might be better correlated with the visual aspects of straylight. However, the impact of fundus reflectance on the values of the straylight parameter at larger angles did not depend on the measuring wavelength.

  16. Low-Frequency Fatigue Assessed as Double to Single Twitch Ratio after Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, Damian; Jaskólska, Anna; Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólski, Artur

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p twitch ratio could be used as a sensitive tool in the evaluation of muscle recovery and adaptation to repeated eccentric exercise.

  17. A simple method to reconstruct the molar mass signal of respiratory gas to assess small airways with a double-tracer gas single-breath washout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Johannes; Tao, Ziran; Junger, Annika; Joppek, Christoph; Tempel, Philipp; Husemann, Kim; Singer, Florian; Latzin, Philipp; Yammine, Sophie; Nagel, Joachim H; Kohlhäufl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    For the assessment of small airway diseases, a noninvasive double-tracer gas single-breath washout (DTG-SBW) with sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and helium (He) as tracer components has been proposed. It is assumed that small airway diseases may produce typical ventilation inhomogeneities which can be detected within one single tidal breath, when using two tracer components. Characteristic parameters calculated from a relative molar mass (MM) signal of the airflow during the washout expiration phase are analyzed. The DTG-SBW signal is acquired by subtracting a reconstructed MM signal without tracer gas from the signal measured with an ultrasonic sensor during in- and exhalation of the double-tracer gas for one tidal breath. In this paper, a simple method to determine the reconstructed MM signal is presented. Measurements on subjects with and without obstructive lung diseases including the small airways have shown high reliability and reproducibility of this method.

  18. Modelling and analysis of a heating system for industrial application, using flat-plate solar-collectors with single and double cover glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraslis, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A calculational methodology for dimensioning a flat-plate solar-collector arrangement, which fulfils the energy requirement of a heat transfer system in one of the steps of the uranium recovery process, from the uranium-phosphorus ore at Itataia, Ceara, in Brazil. The PROSOL-1 and PROSOL-2 computer codes for determining the total area required by collector arrangement-with single and double cover glasses, respectively- taking into account the system design and meteorological conditions of the regions, were used. These codes optimize the series/parallel arranges of collectors in the whole complex and, determine the water flow in each system and the average efficiency of the collector arrangement. The technical and economical feasibility for both collector arrangement with single and double cover glasses, were verified. It was concluded that, the last one is more advantageous, allowing a reduction of 30% in the total collector area. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Symmetry and Non-empirical Calculations of Structure and Properties of Single- and Double-Wall SrTiO3 Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarestov, R. A.; Bandura, A. V.

    A large-scale first-principles simulation of the structure and stability of SrTiO3 single- and double-wall nanotubes with different chiralities has been performed for the first time using the periodic PBE0 LCAO method. The initial structures of nanotubes have been obtained by rolling up slabs consisting of two and four alternating (001) SrO and TiO2 planes. In the majority of the considered cases the inner or outer TiO2 shells of 4-layer nanotubes undergo a considerable reconstruction due to shrinkage or stretching of interatomic distances. Double-wall nanotubes constructed from 2-layer single-wall nanotubes with the intertube distance less than 4.5-5.0 Å merge to stable polyhedron-shaped tubular objects consisting of blocks with a distorted cubic perovskite structure.

  20. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  1. Single-crystal C60 needle/CuPc nanoparticle double floating-gate for low-voltage organic transistors based non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan-Chun; Lu, Chien; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2015-01-07

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistor memory devices exhibiting a wide memory window, low power consumption, acceptable retention, endurance properties, and tunable memory performance are fabricated. The performance is achieved by employing single-crystal C60 needles and copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles to produce an ambipolar (hole/electron) trapping effect in a double floating-gate architecture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Self-Assembly of Single-Layer CoAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on 3D Graphene Network Used as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Lu, Qipeng; Chen, Bo; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Ma, Qinglang; Tan, Chaoliang; Yang, Jian; Cao, Xiehong; Wang, Zhijuan; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    A non-noble metal based 3D porous electrocatalyst is prepared by self-assembly of the liquid-exfoliated single-layer CoAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (CoAl-NSs) onto 3D graphene network, which exhibits higher catalytic activity and better stability for electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction compared to the commercial IrO2 nanoparticle-based 3D porous electrocatalyst. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Life forms employ different repair strategies of repair single- and double strand DNA breaks caused by different qualities of radiation: criticality of RecA mediated repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    Different qualities of radiation, either through direct or indirect pathway, induce qualitative different spectrum of damages in DNA, which are also different in in vitro and in vivo systems. The single- and double strand breaks of DNA are of special interest as they lead to serious biological consequences. The implications of such damage to DNA and their processing by various inherent repair pathways together decide the fate of the living form

  4. Comparison between high-resolution climate simulations using single- and double-nesting approaches within the Big-Brother experimental protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Dominic; Laprise, René; Thériault, Julie Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Regional climate models (RCM) are widely used to downscale global climate models' (GCMs) simulations. As the resolution of RCM increases faster than that of GCM used for climate-change projections till the end of this century, the resolution jump will become an issue. Cascade with multiple nesting offers an approach to reach high resolution while keeping reasonable computational cost. Few studies have addressed whether the best results are obtained with the single- or multiple-nesting approaches. In this study the results obtained with single and double nesting are compared within the idealised "perfect model" framework of the Big-Brother Experiment. This method consists in first realizing a simulation, nicknamed the Big-Brother (BB) simulation, on a relatively large domain at the desired resolution, to serve as reference dataset. The BB results are then processed by a low-pass filter to emulate a coarse-resolution dataset to be used as LBC to drive further simulations, nicknamed the Little-Brother (LB) simulations, using an identical model formulation and resolution as the BB simulation. For the single nesting, the LB simulations are directly simulated, while for the double nesting a surrogate intermediate-resolution simulation is used. The study of the time-mean (stationary) component shows that little difference is noted between the single- and double-nesting approaches. The time-deviation (transient-eddy) component, however, shows important differences. The double-nesting approach weakly degrades the large scales but allows a significant reduction of the required domain size to allow adequate spin-up of fine-scale features. This results in an important saving in the computational cost.

  5. Continuous-wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.V.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Nielsen, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave wavelength conversion through four-wave mixing in an endlessly single mode photonic crystal fiber. Phasematching is possible at vanishing pump power in the anomalous dispersion regime between the two zero-dispersion wavelengths. By mixing appropriate pump and idler...... line width lasers....

  6. A retrospective study comparing the outcome of horses undergoing small intestinal resection and anastomosis with a single layer (Lembert) or double layer (simple continuous and Cushing) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristyn; Epstein, Kira L; Sherlock, Ceri E

    2014-05-01

    To (1) compare postoperative complications and survival in horses after small intestinal resection and anastomosis using 2 anastomosis techniques (single layer Lembert; double layer simple continuous oversewn with Cushing), and (2) to compare outcome by anastomosis type (jejunoileostomy; jejunojejunostomy). Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 53). Medical records (July 2006-July 2010) of all horses that had small intestinal resection and anastomosis. Horses were divided into groups based on technique and type of anastomosis. Comparisons of pre- and intraoperative findings (disease severity), postoperative complications, and survival rates were made between groups. There were no differences in disease severity, postoperative complications, or survival between single layer (n = 23) or double layer (n = 31) anastomoses. There were no differences in disease severity or survival between jejunoileostomy (n = 16) or jejunojejunostomy (n = 38). There was a higher incidence of postoperative colic in hospital after jejunoileostomy (13/16) compared with jejunojejunostomy (18/38) (P = .0127). Postoperative complications and survival are comparable between horses undergoing single layer and double layer small intestinal end-to-end anastomoses. With the exception of increased postoperative colic in the hospital, postoperative complications and survival after jejunoileostomy and jejunojejunostomy are also comparable. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Precipitation Sensitivity to the Mean Radius of Drop Spectra: Comparison of Single- and Double-Moment Bulk Microphysical Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kovačević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two bulk microphysical schemes were compared across mean radius values of the entire drop spectra. A cloud-resolving mesoscale model was used to analyze surface precipitation characteristics. The model included the following microphysical categories: water vapour, cloud droplets, raindrops, ice crystals, snow, graupel, frozen raindrops and hail. Two bulk schemes were used: a single-moment scheme in which the mean radius was specified as a parameter and a double-moment scheme in which the mean radius of drops was calculated diagnostically with a fixed value for the cloud droplet number concentration. Experiments were conducted out for three values of the mean radius (in the single-moment scheme and two cloud droplet number concentrations (in the double-moment scheme. There were large differences in the surface precipitation for the two schemes, the simulated precipitation generated by the double-moment scheme had a higher sensitivity. The single-moment scheme generated an unrealistic collection rate of cloud droplets by raindrops and hail as well as unrealistic evaporation of rain and melting of solid hydrometeors; these processes led to inaccurate timing and amounts of surface precipitation.

  8. Perinatal outcomes among singletons after assisted reproductive technology with single-embryo or double-embryo transfer versus no assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela S; Chang, Jeani; Zhang, Yujia; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Boulet, Sheree L; McKane, Patricia; Bernson, Dana; Kissin, Dmitry M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-04-01

    To examine outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived without assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) compared with singletons conceived with ART by elective single-embryo transfer (eSET), nonelective single-embryo transfer (non-eSET), and double-embryo transfer with the establishment of 1 (DET -1) or ≥2 (DET ≥2) early fetal heartbeats. Retrospective cohort using linked ART surveillance data and vital records from Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Connecticut. Not applicable. Singleton live-born infants. None. Preterm birth (PTB Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Savarese, Eugenio; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario A; Masala, Salvatore; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-27

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that

  10. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudisco Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA, showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant

  11. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  12. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  14. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  15. Double Fano resonances in plasmon coupling nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fano resonances are investigated in nanorods with symmetric lengths and side-by-side assembly. Single Fano resonance can be obtained by a nanorod dimer, and double Fano resonances are shown in nanorod trimers with side-by-side assembly. With transverse plasmon excitation, Fano resonances are caused by the destructive interference between a bright superradiant mode and dark subradiant modes. The bright mode originates from the electric plasmon resonance, and the dark modes originate from the magnetic resonances induced by near-field inter-rod coupling. Double Fano resonances result from double dark modes at different wavelengths, which are induced and tuned by the asymmetric gaps between the adjacent nanorods. Fano resonances show a high figure of merit and large light extinction in the periodic array of assembled nanorods, which can potentially be used in multiwavelength sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions. (paper)

  16. Conventional versus single-ladder-splitting contributions to double parton scattering production of two quarkonia, two Higgs bosons, and cc xAFcc xAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional (i.e. double ladder) and those corresponding to 1→2 ladder splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x1 and x2. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and cc ¯cc ¯. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional (i.e. double ladder against double ladder) contributions is discussed as a function of center-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of xi and scales), we find that the single-ladder-splitting (or 2v1) contribution is as big as the conventional (or 2v2) contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. In many experimental studies of DPS, one extracts the quantity 1/σeff=σDPS/(σSPS ,1σSPS,2), with σSPS ,1 and σSPS ,2 being the single scattering cross sections for the two subprocesses in the DPS process. Many past phenomenological studies of DPS have only considered the conventional contribution and have obtained values a factor of ˜2 too small for 1/σeff. Our analysis shows that it is important also to consider the ladder-splitting mechanism, and that this might resolve the discrepancy (this was also pointed out in a recent study by Blok et al.). The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σeff. This is

  17. Effectiveness of Single Session of Low-Level Laser Therapy with a 940 nm Wavelength Diode Laser on Pain, Swelling, and Trismus After Impacted Third Molar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan; Keskin Tunc, Serap

    2016-09-01

    In low-level laser therapy (LLLT), applications are generally performed in repetitive sessions using wavelengths of around 800 nm, at which the depth of penetration of laser is greater. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LLLT with a 940 nm diode laser, which was performed extraorally on all the primarily and secondarily affected areas immediately after surgery in a single session, on pain, swelling, and trismus that occurred after impacted tooth extraction. Thirty-five outpatients with similarly impacted lower third molars on both sides were selected. The teeth of patients were removed in two separate operations. Postoperatively, the patients received laser therapy with energy of 4 J/cm(2) on one side and no laser energy was applied to the other side (placebo side). Swelling, trismus, and subjective assessment of pain on a visual analog scale were evaluated and compared between the laser-treated and placebo sides. There was no statistically significant difference in pain, swelling, or trismus between the sides (Mann-Whitney U test p > 0.05). However, according to the clinical outcomes, swelling and trismus were less in the laser-treated side than in the placebo side. A single-session LLLT that would be applied with a diode laser immediately after impacted tooth extraction might help patients to be less affected by postoperative trismus and swelling.

  18. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  19. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B., E-mail: l.ma@ifw-dresden.de; Jorgensen, M. R. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miao, S. D. [Anhui Key Lab of Controllable Chemical Reaction and Material Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Tunxi Road. 193, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-04-25

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  20. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring titratable alkalinity by single versus double endpoint titration: An evaluation in two cyprinodont species and implications for characterizing net H+ flux in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Wood, Chris M; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Na(+) uptake and acid-base balance in the euryhaline pupfish Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus were characterized when fish were exposed to pH 4.5 freshwater (7mM Na(+)). Similar to the related cyprinodont, Fundulus heteroclitus, Na(+) uptake was significantly inhibited when exposed to low pH water. However, it initially appeared that C. v. variegatus increased apparent net acid excretion at low pH relative to circumneutral pH. This result is opposite to previous observations for F. heteroclitus under similar conditions where fish were observed to switch from apparent net H(+) excretion at circumneutral pH to apparent net H(+) uptake at low pH. Further investigation revealed disparate observations between these studies were the result of using double endpoint titrations to measure titratable alkalinity fluxes in the current study, while the earlier study utilized single endpoint titrations to measure these fluxes (i.e.,. Cyprinodon acid-base transport is qualitatively similar to Fundulus when characterized using single endpoint titrations). This led to a comparative investigation of these two methods. We hypothesized that either the single endpoint methodology was being influenced by a change in the buffer capacity of the water (e.g., mucus being released by the fish) at low pH, or the double endpoint methodology was not properly accounting for ammonia flux by the fish. A series of follow-up experiments indicated that buffer capacity of the water did not change significantly, that excretion of protein (a surrogate for mucus) was actually reduced at low pH, and that the double endpoint methodology does not properly account for NH(3) excretion by fish under low pH conditions. As a result, it overestimates net H(+) excretion during low pH exposure. After applying the maximum possible correction for this error (i.e., assuming that all ammonia is excreted as NH(3)), the double endpoint methodology indicates that net H(+) transport was reduced to

  2. A novel wavelength reused bidirectional RoF-WDM-PON architecture to mitigate reflection and Rayleigh backscattered noise in multi-Gb/s m-QAM OFDM SSB upstream and downstream transmission over a single fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-05-01

    A novel m-QAM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Single Sideband (SSB) architecture is proposed for centralized light source (CLS) bidirectional Radio over Fiber (RoF) - Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) - Passive Optical Network (PON). In bidirectional transmission with carrier reuse over the single fiber, the Rayleigh Backscattering (RB) noise and reflection (RE) interferences from optical components can seriously deteriorate the transmission performance of the fiber optic systems. These interferometric noises can be mitigated by utilizing the optical modulation schemes at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) such that the spectral overlap between the optical data spectrum and the RB and RE noise is minimum. A mathematical model is developed for the proposed architecture to accurately measure the performance of the transmission system and also to analyze the effect of interferometric noise caused by the RB and RE. The model takes into the account the different modulation schemes employed at the OLT and the ONU using a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM), the optical launch power and the bit-rates of the downstream and upstream signals, the gain of the amplifiers at the OLT and the ONU, the RB-RE noise, chromatic dispersion of the single mode fiber and optical filter responses. In addition, the model analyzes all the components of the RB-RE noise such as carrier RB, signal RB, carrier RE and signal RE, thus providing the complete representation of all the physical phenomena involved. An optical m-QAM OFDM SSB signal acts as a test signal to validate the model which provides excellent agreement with simulation results. The SSB modulation technique using the MZM at the OLT and the ONU differs in the data transmission technique that takes place through the first-order higher and the lower optical sideband respectively. This spectral gap between the downstream and upstream signals reduces the effect of Rayleigh backscattering and

  3. Near Field and Far Field Effects in the Taguchi-Optimized Design of AN InP/GaAs-BASED Double Wafer-Fused Mqw Long-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Kandiah, K.; Mandeep, J. S.; Shaari, S.; Apte, P. R.

    Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

  4. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hatswell, Anthony J.; Thompson, Gwilym J.; Maroudas, Penny A.; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ofatumumab (Arzerra?, Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9?months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. Methods The objective of the study was to present a metho...

  5. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  7. Alveolar ridge preservation with an open-healing approach using single-layer or double-layer coverage with collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Keun; Cho, Hag-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Jo; Cho, In-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Seung; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Park, Jung-Chul

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this prospective pilot study was to compare alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) procedures with open-healing approach using a single-layer and a double-layer coverage with collagen membranes using radiographic and clinical analyses. Eleven molars from 9 healthy patients requiring extraction of the maxillary or mandibular posterior teeth were included and allocated into 2 groups. After tooth extraction, deproteinized bovine bone mineral mixed with 10% collagen was grafted into the socket and covered either with a double-layer of resorbable non-cross-linked collagen membranes (DL group, n=6) or with a single-layer (SL group, n=5). Primary closure was not obtained. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken immediately after the ARP procedure and after a healing period of 4 months before implant placement. Radiographic measurements were made of the width and height changes of the alveolar ridge. All sites healed without any complications, and dental implants were placed at all operated sites with acceptable initial stability. The measurements showed that the reductions in width at the level 1 mm apical from the alveolar crest (including the bone graft) were -1.7±0.5 mm in the SL group and -1.8±0.4 mm in the DL group, and the horizontal changes in the other areas were also similar in the DL and SL groups. The reductions in height were also comparable between groups. Within the limitations of this study, single-layer and double-layer coverage with collagen membranes after ARP failed to show substantial differences in the preservation of horizontal or vertical dimensions or in clinical healing. Thus, both approaches seem to be suitable for open-healing ridge preservation procedures.

  8. All-fiber photon-pair source at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Single photon sources are a key element for quantum computing, quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communications. In particular, producing single photons at telecommunications wavelengths is valuable for QKD protocols and would enable realizing the quantum internet. The preferred method...

  9. Absolute experimental cross sections for the electron impact single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hertling, D.R.

    1981-02-28

    The absolute cross sections for the single, double, triple and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions by electron impact have been measured from below their respective thresholds to approximately 5000 eV. This determination has been accomplshed using a crossed beam facility in which monoenergetic beams of ions and electrons are caused to intersect at right angles in a well-defined collision volume. Multiply charged, product ions born as a result of the electron impact are deflected into their respective detectors by cascaded electrostatic analyzers. The multiply charged beam current component is measured by means of a vibrating reed electrometer operating in the rate-of-charge mode.

  10. Analytical energy gradients for explicitly correlated wave functions. II. Explicitly correlated coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples corrections: CCSD(T)-F12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Werner; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2018-03-21

    We present an implementation of analytical energy gradients for the explicitly correlated coupled cluster singles and doubles method with perturbative triples corrections [CCSD(T)-F12]. The accuracy of the CCSD(T)-F12 analytical gradient technique is demonstrated by computing equilibrium geometries for a set of closed-shell molecules containing first- and second-row elements. Near basis-set limit equilibrium geometries are obtained with triple-zeta correlation consistent basis sets. Various approximations in the F12 treatment are compared, and the effects of these are found to be small.

  11. Selective Growth of Single-, Double-, and Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through Precise Control of Catalyst Diameter by Radiation-Heated Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yusuke; Shinohara, Kiyoaki; Kikuchi, Makiko; Tanaka, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-heated chemical vapor deposition (RHCVD) is a newly developed process which enables the maintenance of narrow catalyst diameter distributions until carbon nanotubes (CNTs) start growing and the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT), and triple-walled carbon nanotube (TWCNT) films by changing catalyst diameters. The proportions of specific walled CNTs/as-grown CNTs are as follows: SWCNT/CNT ratio of 100%, DWCNT/CNT ratio of 88% and TWCNT/CNT ratio of 76%. It is clarified that CNT diameter and the number of graphene walls of CNTs are proportional to catalyst diameter.

  12. Thermally-fluctuated single-flux-quantum pulse intervals reflected in input-output characteristics of a double-flux-quantum amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Urai, Yoshiaki; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    A double-flux-quantum amplifier (DFQA) is a voltage multiplier of quantum accuracy, which we have employed at the final stage of a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). We recently found that experimental input-output (IO) characteristics of DFQAs were always slightly different from numerical results assuming ideally-periodic SFQ pulse trains. That is, experimental IO characteristics obtained using an over-biasing method were gradually deteriorated near their maximum operation voltages. Numerical simulation including the over-biasing method at a finite temperature suggested that the difference was likely to be attributed to thermally-fluctuated intervals of input SFQ pulses.

  13. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  14. Double Pass 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser Does Not Enhance the Efficacy of Port Wine Stains Compared with Single Pass: A Randomized Comparison with Histological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Zhu, Jiafang; Wang, Lizhen; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Yijie; Yang, Xi; Chang, Lei; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-03-27

    To compare the efficacy and safety of double-pass pulsed dye laser (DWL) and single-pass PDL (SWL) in treating virgin port wine stain (PWS). The increase in the extent of vascular damage attributed to the use of double-pass techniques for PWS remains inconclusive. A prospective, side-by-side comparison with a histological study for virgin PWS is still lacking. Twenty-one patients (11 flat PWS, 10 hypertrophic PWS) with untreated PWS underwent 3 treatments at 2-month intervals. Each PWS was divided into three treatment sites: SWL, DWL, and untreated control. Chromametric and visual evaluation of the efficacy and evaluation of side effects were conducted 3 months after final treatment. Biopsies were taken at the treated sites immediately posttreatment. Chromametric and visual evaluation suggested that DWL sites showed no significant improvement compared with SWL (p > 0.05) in treating PWS. The mean depth of photothermal damage to the vessels was limited to a maximum of 0.36-0.41 mm in both SWL and DWL sides. Permanent side effects were not observed in any patients. Double-pass PDL does not enhance PWS clearance. To improve the clearance of PWS lesions, either the depth of laser penetration should be increased or greater photothermal damage to vessels should be generated.

  15. Comparison of a single- or double-injection technique for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block: a prospective, randomized, blinded controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mélanie; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Côté, Dany; Levesque, Simon; Dion, Nicolas; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2012-01-01

    Despite good success rates reported with ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block using 1 or multiple injections, no consensus exists on the best technique to use. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that a double-injection technique would hasten the onset of sensory block. Adult patients undergoing hand, wrist, or elbow surgery were enrolled in this prospective double-blind randomized study. Blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance. In group S (single injection), 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected at the junction of the subclavian artery and the first rib. In group D (double injection), 15 mL of the same solution was injected at the site described above, then 15 mL was injected in the most superficial portion of the lateral aspect of the cluster formed by the brachial plexus trunks and divisions. The primary end point was the rate of complete sensory block at 15 mins. Secondary end points were the rates of sensory, motor, and surgical blocks and procedure time. Fifty-one patients were randomized to each group. The rate of complete sensory block was similar at 15 mins (group S: 49% [95% confidence interval, 36%-62%], group D: 53% [95% confidence interval, 40%-66%]; P = 0.80) and at each time interval. The rates of complete motor block and surgical block success were similar between groups. The procedure time was shorter in group S (179 ± 104 vs 275 ± 137 secs; P block.

  16. Single- and double-scattering production of four muons in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas van Hameren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss production of two μ+μ− pairs in ultraperipheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We take into account electromagnetic (two-photon double-scattering production and for a first time direct γγ production of four muons in one scattering. We study the unexplored process γγ→μ+μ−μ+μ−. We present predictions for total and differential cross sections. Measurable nuclear cross sections are obtained and corresponding differential distributions and counting rates are presented.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  18. Inversion gate capacitance of undoped single-gate and double-gate field-effect transistor geometries in the extreme quantum limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Amlan, E-mail: amajumd@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    We present first-principle analytical derivations and numerically modeled data to show that the gate capacitance per unit gate area C{sub G} of extremely thin undoped-channel single-gate and double-gate field-effect transistor geometries in the extreme quantum limit with single-subband occupancy can be written as 1/C{sub G} = 1/C{sub OX} + N{sub G}/C{sub DOS} + N{sub G}/ηC{sub WF}, where N{sub G} is the number of gates, C{sub OX} is the oxide capacitance per unit area, C{sub DOS} is the density-of-states capacitance per unit area, C{sub WF} is the wave function spreading capacitance per unit area, and η is a constant on the order of 1.

  19. Cumulative results including obstetrical and neonatal outcome of fresh and frozen-thawed cycles in elective single versus double fresh embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Patricia; Jouannet, Pierre; Davy, Céline; Guibert, Juliette; Viallon, Vivian; Epelboin, Sylvie; Kunstmann, Jean-Marie; Patrat, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of elective single embryo transfer (e-SET) compared to a double embryo transfer (DET) in a selected population including obstetrical and neonatal outcome of fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. Prospective nonrandomized study. Department of reproductive medicine. Elective single embryo transfer was proposed to women 0.05). Twin delivery rate was significantly different between the two groups (3.5% versus 37.5% respectively, P<0.05). Neonatal outcome in twins resulting from IVF-ICSI was found to be poorer than in singletons, considering the mean gestational age, mode of delivery, birthweight, and risk of neonatal intensive care unit admission for the infants. In a selected population, the elective transfer of one embryo with high implantation potential helped to avoid twin pregnancies without decreasing delivery rate. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research

  1. Single institution experience comparing double-barreled wet colostomy to ileal conduit for urinary and fecal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Ravi J; Kuhrt, Maureen P; Schmidt, Carl; Arrese, David; Routt, Meghan; Parks, Lisa; Bahnson, Robert; Martin, Edward W

    2011-10-01

    To compare outcomes and feasibility of double-barreled wet colostomy and ileal conduit (IC) in patients undergoing total pelvic exenteration (TPE). Between 2004 and 2010, 54 patients underwent TPE for pelvic malignancies. Of those patients, 53 had complete records available for analysis. Two groups were identified based on the technique used for urinary diversion, either by way of an IC or a double-barreled wet colostomy (DBWC). Demographics, comorbidities, complications, length of stay, operative times, morbidity, and mortality were compared between the 2 groups. Forty-three patients (81%) underwent a DBWC and ten patients (19%) underwent an IC. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities. Eighteen patients underwent an R0 resection (39%) and twenty-eight (61%) patients had a non-R0 resection. Seven patients (13%) had a complete response to therapy with no evidence of malignancy. A majority of the patients (68%) undergoing TPE had colorectal histology. Thirty-day morbidity directly related to complications of urinary or fecal diversion was 78% in the DBWC group and 58% in the IC group. There was no perioperative mortality in either group. DBWC is a safe and feasible alternative to the traditional IC for urinary diversion. This technique is easy to learn and is associated with similar operative times, length of stay, morbidity, and mortality compared with IC. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-03-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament injury may lead to deteriorations in postural stability. The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance of both legs in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects and non-injured control subjects with a standardized methodology. Fifteen control subjects and 15 anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects (time after injury: mean (SD)=1.4 (0.7) months) participated in the study. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight and body mass index. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the single-leg stance phase was significantly increased in the anterior cruciate ligament injured group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (Plegs within both groups (P>.05). No significant differences were found during the transition itself (P>.05). The anterior cruciate ligament injured group showed postural stability deficits during the single-leg stance phase compared to the non-injured control group in the eyes closed condition. Using the non-injured leg as a normal reference when evaluating postural stability of the injured leg may lead to misinterpretations, as no significant differences were found between the injured and non-injured leg of the anterior cruciate ligament injured group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conventional versus single-ladder-splitting contributions to double parton scattering production of two quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and c anti cc anti c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Maciula, Rafal [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Szczurek, Antoni [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Rzeszow Univ. (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional and those corresponding to parton splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x{sub 1} and x{sub 2}. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and c anti cc anti c. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional contributions is discussed as a function of centre-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of x{sub i} and scales), we find that the 2v1 contribution is as big as the 2v2 contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. This means that the phenomenological analyses of σ{sub eff} including only the conventional DPS mechanism have to be revised including explicitly the single-ladder-splitting contributions discussed here. The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σ{sub eff}. This is illustrated in our paper for the considered processes.

  4. Role of VAMP3 and VAMP7 in the commitment of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to LC3-associated pathways involving single- or double-membrane vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeon, Laure-Anne; Moreau, Kevin; Barois, Nicolas; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lacorre, Delphine-Armelle; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Galli, Thierry; Lafont, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can replicate inside macrophages by hijacking autophagy and blocking autophagosome acidification. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, the bacteria are mainly observed inside double-membrane vacuoles positive for LC3, a hallmark of autophagy. Here, we address the question of the membrane traffic during internalization of Yersinia investigating the role of vesicle- associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). First, we show that as in epithelial cells, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis replicates mainly in nonacidic LC3-positive vacuoles. Second, in these cells, we unexpectedly found that VAMP3 localizes preferentially to Yersinia-containing vacuoles (YCVs) with single membranes using correlative light-electron microscopy. Third, we reveal the precise kinetics of VAMP3 and VAMP7 association with YCVs positive for LC3. Fourth, we show that VAMP7 knockdown alters LC3's association with single-and multimembrane-YCVs. Finally, in uninfected epithelial cells stimulated for autophagy, VAMP3 overexpression and knockdown led respectively to a lower and higher number of double-membrane, LC3-positive vesicles. Hence, our results highlight the role that VAMPs play in selection of the pathways leading to generation of ultrastructurally different LC3 compartments and pave the way for determining the full set of docking and fusion proteins involved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis' intravesicular life cycle.

  5. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-J. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuang 1st Rd., Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Dayeh University, 112 Shan-Jiau Road, Da-Tsuen, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da Road, Kung-ching Li, Miao Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mcwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw

    2007-05-31

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 2 {mu}m for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1.

  6. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-J.; Chen, Y.-H.; Shih, C.-J.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 2 μm for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1

  7. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNA on gold and silver nanoparticles: Investigating some important parameters in bio-sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhari, Nahid; Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNAs on colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles has been studied by measuring the resistance of the nanoparticles, surrounded by various oligonucleotides, against salt induced aggregation. It is shown that both single and double stranded DNAs can be adsorbed on the metal nanoparticles and the adsorption strength is determined by the interaction between various bases of DNA and the nanoparticles. By changing the salt concentration, the difference between adsorption of various DNA strands on the nanoparticles can be specified. The results indicate that a key parameter in success of a sensing assay of DNA hybridization is the salt concentration which should be greater than a minimum threshold depending on the nanoparticles characteristics. We have also investigated the interaction mechanism between various DNA bases with the metal nanoparticles. For both gold and silver nanoparticles, adenine has the highest and thymine has the lowest attachment to the nanoparticles. From surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) data of various bases in the presence of gold nanoparticles, the probable interaction points in the bases with the nanoparticles have been determined, which are mainly the nitrogen sites of these oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  10. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase by single-stranded and double-stranded RNA aptamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, R; Norby, P L; Martensen, P M

    1998-01-01

    A number of small RNA molecules that are high affinity ligands for the 46-kDa form of human 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase have been identified by the SELEX method. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that these RNAs bind to the enzyme with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range....... Competition experiments indicate that the binding site for the small RNAs on the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase molecule at least partially overlaps that for the synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(I).poly(C). Several of the RNAs function as potent activators of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in vitro......-stranded RNA, can also be activated by RNA ligands with little secondary structure. Since 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase possesses no homology to other known RNA-binding proteins, the development of small specific ligands by SELEX should facilitate studies of RNA-protein interactions and may reveal novel...

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: String-nets, single- and double-stranded quantum loop gases for non-Abelian anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenich, Andrea; Chamon, Claudio; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2010-04-01

    String-nets and quantum loop gases are two prominent microscopic lattice models to describe topological phases. String-net condensation can give rise to both Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, whereas loop condensation usually produces Abelian anyons. It has been proposed, however, that generalized quantum loop gases with non-orthogonal inner products could support non-Abelian anyons. We detail an exact mapping between the string-net and these generalized loop models and explain how the non-orthogonal products arise. We also introduce an equivalent loop model of double-stranded nets where quantum loops with an orthogonal inner product and local interactions supports non-Abelian Fibonacci anyons. Finally, we emphasize the origin of the sign problem in systems with non-Abelian excitations and its consequences on the complexity of their ground state wavefunctions.

  12. A systematic parametric study and feasibility assessment of solar-assisted single-effect, double-effect, and triple-effect absorption chillers for heating and cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Taylor, Robert A.; White, Stephen D.; Morrison, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TRNSYS simulations of SHC single/multi-effect absorption chillers were conducted. • A detailed parametric study was conducted to find the optimal size of the tank. • The effect of tank heat loss on the performance of the configurations was analyzed. • The effect of beam and diffuse radiation on the solar field size was investigated. • Energy performance and economics of each plant were analyzed in various climates. - Abstract: The present work investigates the feasibility of solar heating and cooling (SHC) absorption systems based on combining three types of LiBr–H 2 O absorption chillers (single-, double-, and triple-effect) with common solar thermal collectors available on the market. A single-effect chiller is coupled with evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) – SHC1. A double-effect chiller is integrated with parabolic trough collectors (PTCs), linear Fresnel micro-concentrating collectors (MCTs) and evacuated flat plate collectors (EFPCs) respectively – SHC2, SHC3, and SHC4. PTCs are employed to provide high-temperature heat to a triple-effect absorption chiller (SHC5). Although triple-effect chillers have been around for a while, this paper represents the first system-level analysis of these chillers coupled with high-temperature solar concentrating collectors for air-conditioning applications. A simulation model for each configuration is developed in a transient system simulation environment (TRNSYS 17). Furthermore, a unique, comprehensive perspective is given by investigating the impact of characteristic solar beam radiation to global radiation ratios on the techno-economic performance of the proposed SHC plants for a wide variety of climatic regions worldwide. The results of parametric study suggest that a storage volume of around 70 L/m 2 is a good choice for SHC1, while 40–50 L/m 2 storage capacity is sufficient for the other configurations (SHC2 to SHC5). The simulation results reveal that when the fraction of direct normal

  13. Alpha-Helical Fragaceatoxin C Nanopore Engineered for Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wloka, Carsten; Mutter, Natalie Lisa; Soskine, Misha; Maglia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Nanopores are used in single-molecule DNA analysis and sequencing. Herein, we show that Fragaceatoxin C (FraC), an α-helical pore-forming toxin from an actinoporin protein family, can be reconstituted in sphingomyelin-free standard planar lipid bilayers. We engineered FraC for DNA analysis and show

  14. Elastic deformations of the rotary double motor of single F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases detected in real time by Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G; Zarrabi, Nawid; Dunn, Stanley D; Börsch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone are essential for catalytic activities of enzymes. To follow relative movements within the protein, Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two specifically attached fluorophores can be applied. FRET provides a precise ruler between 3 and 8nm with subnanometer resolution. Corresponding submillisecond time resolution is sufficient to identify conformational changes in FRET time trajectories. Analyzing single enzymes circumvents the need for synchronization of various conformations. F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is a rotary double motor which catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A proton-driven 10-stepped rotary F(O) motor in the Escherichia coli enzyme is connected to a 3-stepped F(1) motor, where ATP is synthesized. To operate the double motor with a mismatch of step sizes smoothly, elastic deformations within the rotor parts have been proposed by W. Junge and coworkers. Here we extend a single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in individual F(O)F(1)-ATP synthases at work. We labeled this enzyme with two fluorophores specifically, that is, on the ε- and c-subunits of the two rotors. Alternating laser excitation was used to select the FRET-labeled enzymes. FRET changes indicated associated transient twisting within the rotors of single enzyme molecules during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the FRET experiments, these studies reveal that the rotor twisting is greater than 36° and is largely suppressed in the presence of the rotation inhibitor DCCD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bile duct evaluation of potential living liver donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Single-dose, double dose or half-dose contrast enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, Sonja; Steinweg, Verena; Maderwald, Stefan; Radtke, Arnold; Sotiropoulos, Georgios; Forsting, Michael; Schroeder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of the biliary anatomy is essential to avoid complications in living donor liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dosage of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (ce-MRC) with reference to contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography (ce-CTC). Materials and methods: 30 potential living liver donors (PLLD) underwent both ce-CTC and ce-MRC. Ten candidates each received single, double or half-dose Gd-EOB-DTPA. Ce-MRC images with and without inversion recovery pulses (T1w ± IR) were acquired 20–30 min after intravenous contrast injection. Image data was quantitatively and qualitatively reviewed by two radiologists based on a on a 5-point scale. Data sets were compared using a Mann–Whitney-U-test or Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Kappa values were also calculated. Results: All image series provided sufficient diagnostic information both showing normal biliary anatomy and variant bile ducts. Ce-CTC showed statistically significant better results compared to all ce-MRC data sets. T1w MRC with single dose Gd-EOB-DTPA proved to be superior to half and double dose in subjective and objective evaluation without a statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Ce-MRC is at any dosage inferior to ce-CTC. As far as preoperative planning of bile duct surgery is focused on the central biliary anatomy, ce-MRC can replace harmful ce-CTC strategies, anyway. Best results were seen with single dose GD-EOB-DTPA on T1w MRC+IR

  16. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Single-electron regime and Pauli spin blockade in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are promising candidates for quantum information processing as spin qubits with long coherence time. We present electrical transport measurements on a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) double quantum dot (DQD). First, Coulomb diamonds measurements demonstrate the one-electron regime at a relatively high temperature of 1.5 K. Then, the 8 mK stability diagram shows Pauli spin blockade with a large singlet-triplet separation of approximatively 0.40 meV, pointing towards a strong lifting of the valley degeneracy. Finally, numerical simulations indicate that by integrating a micro-magnet to those devices, we could achieve fast spin rotations of the order of 30 ns. Those results are part of the recent body of work demonstrating the potential of Si MOS DQD as reliable and long-lived spin qubits that could be ultimately integrated into modern electronic facilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Dynamics of hepatic gene expression and serum cytokine profiles in single and double-hit burn and sepsis animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We simulate the pathophysiology of severe burn trauma and burn-induced sepsis, using rat models of experimental burn injury and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP either individually (singe-hit model or in combinatio