WorldWideScience

Sample records for single unoccupied region

  1. Unoccupied electronic state of delafossite-type PdCoO2 single crystal probed using inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Tohru; Tsukamoto, Takeyo; Hasegawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Takei, Humihiko; Shin, Shik

    2004-01-01

    The unoccupied electronic state of delafossite-type PdCoO 2 has been studied using inverse-photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). The Fermi edge and the unoccupied density-of-state (DOS) at the Fermi level (E F ) are not observed in the IPES spectrum measured at the incidence electron energy (E K ) of 100 eV, which corresponds to the Cooper minimum of Pd 4d. The finite DOS at E F is observed in the IPES spectra measured at the lower E K , which the ionization cross section of Pd 4d increases. These findings indicate that the Pd 4d electron is closely related to the low electrical resistivity of PdCoO 2 . (author)

  2. Unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Dowben, P.A.; Ortega, J.E.; Himpsel, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001) was investigated with high-resolution inverse-photoemission spectroscopy. An empty surface state near E F is observed at bar Γ. Two other surface-sensitive features are also revealed at 1.2 and 3.1 eV above the Fermi level. Hydrogen adsorption on Gd surfaces was used to distinguish the surface-sensitive features from the bulk features. The unoccupied bulk-band critical points are determined to be Γ 3 + at 1.9 eV and A 1 at 0.8 eV

  3. An Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Na/Cu(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeybek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra violet inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (uv-ipes) is a powerful technique for the investigation of alkali metals on metal surfaces because most of the alkali metal show chemical and physical properties, which are related to their unoccupied states. In this study, it is found that the uv-ipes spectra provides the intensity of the unoccupied states which decreases with increasing na coverage at off-normal incidence of the electron beam. It is also found that the uv-ipes spectra at 17 and 19 ev incident electron energies presents a shift toward fermi level on the peak at ∼7.8 ev with increasing na coverage

  4. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Johansson, Börje; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1995-01-01

    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green’s-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify...... the occupied and unoccupied 4f energy level shifts as the surface segregation energy of a 4fn-1 and 4fn+1 impurity atom, respectively, in a 4fn host metal. The calculations include both initial- and final-state effects and give values that are considerably lower than those measured on polycrystalline samples...... as well as those found in previous initial-state model calculations. The present theory agrees well with very recent high-resolution, single-crystal film measurements for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu. We furthermore utilize the unique possibility offered by the lanthanide metals to clarify the roles...

  5. Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Imm, C. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

  6. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldén, M.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, H. L.

    1995-02-01

    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green's-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify the occupied and unoccupied 4f energy level shifts as the surface segregation energy of a 4fn-1 and 4fn+1 impurity atom, respectively, in a 4fn host metal. The calculations include both initial- and final-state effects and give values that are considerably lower than those measured on polycrystalline samples as well as those found in previous initial-state model calculations. The present theory agrees well with very recent high-resolution, single-crystal film measurements for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu. We furthermore utilize the unique possibility offered by the lanthanide metals to clarify the roles played by the initial and the different final states of the core-excitation process, permitted by the fact that the so-called initial-state effect is identical upon 4f removal and 4f addition. Surface energy and work function calculations are also reported.

  7. Evolution of unoccupied resonance during the synthesis of a silver dimer on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperl, A; Kroeger, J; Berndt, R; Franke, A; Pehlke, E

    2009-01-01

    Silver dimers were fabricated on Ag(111) by single-atom manipulation using the tip of a cryogenic scanning tunnelling microscope. An unoccupied electronic resonance was observed to shift toward the Fermi level with decreasing atom-atom distance as monitored by spatially resolved scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Density functional calculations were used to analyse the experimental observations and revealed that the coupling between the adsorbed atoms is predominantly direct rather than indirect via the Ag(111) substrate. While the substrate influence is small owing to the surface-projected sp band gap, the direct interaction is most likely due to the large extension of the p wave functions at the adsorbate atoms contributing to the resonance.

  8. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of Na doped MoS{sub 2}(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komesu, Takashi; Zhang, Xin; Dowben, P. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theodore Jorgensen Hall, 855 N 16th St., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States); Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Ma, Quan; Bartels, Ludwig [Department of Chemistry and the Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Schwier, Eike F.; Iwasawa, Hideaki; Shimada, Kenya [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Kojima, Yohei; Zheng, Mingtian [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The influence of sodium on the band structure of MoS{sub 2}(0001) and the comparison of the experimental band dispersion with density functional theory show excellent agreement for the occupied states (angle-resolved photoemission) and qualitative agreement for the unoccupied states (inverse photoemission spectroscopy). Na-adsorption leads to charge transfer to the MoS{sub 2} surface causing an effect similar to n-type doping of a semiconductor. The MoS{sub 2} occupied valence band structure shifts rigidly to greater binding with little change in the occupied state dispersion. Likewise, the unoccupied states shift downward, approaching the Fermi level, yet the amount of the shift for the unoccupied states is greater than that of the occupied states, effectively causing a narrowing of the MoS{sub 2} bandgap.

  9. Effective single scattering albedo estimation using regional climate model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by modifying the optical parameterization of Regional Climate model (RegCM), the authors have computed and compared the Effective Single-Scattering Albedo (ESSA) which is a representative of VIS spectral region. The arid, semi...

  10. Unoccupied electronic structure and relaxation dynamics of Pb/Si(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhofer, M.; Sklyadneva, I.Yu.; Sharma, V.; Trontl, V. Mikšić; Zhou, P.; Ligges, M.; Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.; Chulkov, E.V.; Bovensiepen, U.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic structure of unoccupied quantum well states in Pb/Si(1 1 1) is analyzed. • The Si substrate modifies the binding energy and dispersion of the Pb bands. • The direct Pb 6p z orbital overlap with Si orbitals is marginal. • We conclude a 6p x,y mediated interaction of the 6p z states with the Si bulk bands. - Abstract: The unoccupied electronic structure of epitaxial Pb films on Si(1 1 1) is analyzed by angle-resolved two-photon photoemission in the Γ ¯ →M ¯ direction close to the Brillouin zone center. The experimental results are compared to density functional theory calculations and we focus on the nature of the interaction of the 6p z states with the Si substrate. The experimentally obtained dispersion E(k || ) of the unoccupied quantum well states is weaker than expected for freestanding films, in good agreement with their occupied counterparts. Following E(k || ) of quantum well states as a function of momentum at different energies, which are degenerate and non-degenerate with the Si conduction band, we observe no influence of the Si bulk band and conclude a vanishing direct interaction of the Pb 6p z states with the Si band. However, the momentum range at which mixing of 6p z and 6p x,y derived subbands is found to occur in the presence of the Si substrate is closer to Γ ¯ than in the corresponding freestanding film, which indicates a substrate-mediated enhancement of the mixing of these states. Additional femtosecond time-resolved measurements show a constant relaxation time of hot electrons in unoccupied quantum well states as a function of parallel electron momentum which supports our conclusion of a p x,y mediated interaction of the p z states with the Si conduction band

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolactin (PRL), a polypeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by the animal's anterior pituitary gland, plays an important role in the regulation of mammalian lactation and avian reproduction. Considering the significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking region of PRL and ...

  12. Unoccupied Surface State on Ag(110) as Revealed by Inverse Photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihl, B.; Schlittler, R. R.; Neff, H.

    1984-05-01

    By use of the new technique of k-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy, an unoccupied s-like surface state on Ag(110) has been detected, which lies within the projected L2'-->L1 gap of the bulk. At the X¯ point of the surface Brillouin zone, the energy of the surface state is 1.65 eV above the Fermi level EF, and exhibits a band dispersion E(k∥) towards higher energies. The surface-state emission is immediately quenched when the surface is exposed to very small amounts of oxygen or hydrogen.

  13. Orbital character of O-2p unoccupied states near the Fermi level in CrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagarescu, C. B.; Su, X.; Eastman, D. E.; Altmann, K. N.; Himpsel, F. J.; Gupta, A.

    2000-01-01

    The orbital character, orientation, and magnetic polarization of the O-2p unoccupied states near the Fermi level (E F ) in CrO 2 was determined using polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism from high-quality, single-crystal films. A sharp peak observed just above E F is excited only by the electric-field vector (E) normal to the tetragonal c axis, characteristic of a narrow band (≅0.7 eV bandwidth) constituted from O-2p orbitals perpendicular to c (O-2p y ) hybridized with Cr 3d xz-yz t 2g states. By comparison with band-structure and configuration-interaction cluster calculations our results support a model of CrO 2 as a half-metallic ferromagnet with large exchange-splitting energy (Δ exch-split ≅3.0 eV) and substantial correlation effects. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Pinning of fullerene lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge at the interface with standing up copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Turinske, Alexander J.; Gao, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure evolution of interfaces of fullerene (C 60 ) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and on native silicon oxide has been investigated with ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C 60 was found to be pinned at the interface with CuPc on SiO 2 . A substantial difference in the electron affinity of CuPc on the two substrates was observed as the orientation of CuPc is lying flat on HOPG and standing up on SiO 2 . The ionization potential and electron affinity of C 60 were not affected by the orientation of CuPc due to the spherical symmetry of C 60 molecules. We observed band bending in C 60 on the standing-up orientation of CuPc molecules, while the energy levels of C 60 on the flat lying orientation of CuPc molecules were observed to be flat. - Highlights: ► Orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on ordered graphite and silicon oxide. ► Pinning of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C60 to the Fermi level on CuPc. ► No C60 pinning or band bending was observed on flat laying CuPc. ► Results are useful for organic photovoltaic and organic light emitting diode research.

  15. Density functional theory, comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Gunasekaran, S.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra of Linezolid have been recorded in the regions 4,000-400 and 4,000-100 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound have been carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, have been calculated by density functional theory with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of Linezolid is reported. Mulliken's net charges have also been calculated. Ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using time-dependent density functional method. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been performed by the density functional theoretical method.

  16. Nanoscale measurements of unoccupied band dispersion in few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Johannes; Kautz, Jaap; Geelen, Daniël; Tromp, Rudolf M; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2015-11-26

    The properties of any material are fundamentally determined by its electronic band structure. Each band represents a series of allowed states inside a material, relating electron energy and momentum. The occupied bands, that is, the filled electron states below the Fermi level, can be routinely measured. However, it is remarkably difficult to characterize the empty part of the band structure experimentally. Here, we present direct measurements of unoccupied bands of monolayer, bilayer and trilayer graphene. To obtain these, we introduce a technique based on low-energy electron microscopy. It relies on the dependence of the electron reflectivity on incidence angle and energy and has a spatial resolution ∼10 nm. The method can be easily applied to other nanomaterials such as van der Waals structures that are available in small crystals only.

  17. Organic-​organic interfaces and unoccupied electronic states of thin films of perylene and naphthalene derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Komolov, A.S; Juul Møller, Preben

    2005-01-01

    ,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA, Fig. 1c) film surfaces, respectively, in order to form organic–organic interfaces so that molecules constituting the interfacing layers differ by the substituent group. The surface potential and the density of unoccupied electron states (DOUS) located 5–25 eV above the Fermi...

  18. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, M.; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.; Yamamoto, I.; Imamura, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-04-01

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4, m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L23 and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimes of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.

  19. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, M., E-mail: kamada@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.; Yamamoto, I.; Imamura, M.; Takahashi, K. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4,  m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L{sub 23} and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimes of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.

  20. Density of the unoccupied electronic states of the ultrathin films of the aziridinylphenylpyrrol substituted fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, A.S.; Lazneva, E.F.; Gerasimova, N.B.; Panina, Yu.A.; Zashikhin, G.D.; Baramygin, A.V.; Si, P.; Akhremtchik, S.N.; Gavrikov, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DOUS of the ultrathin films of the aziridinylphenylpyrrol substituted C_6_0 was determined by using the transmission of the low-energy electrons technique and by the DFT calculations. • The introduction of the APP substituent to C_6_0 molecule was accompanied by the modifications of DOUS in the energy range from 2 eV to 9 eV above E_F. • The major DOUS bands were assigned π* and σ* - type character using the spatial distribution of the relevant orbitals obtained from the DFT calculation results. - Abstract: The ultrathin films of aziridinylphenylpyrrol-C_6_0 (APP-C_6_0) and of the unsubstituted C_6_0 thermally deposited in UHV on an oxidized silicon substrate (SiO_2)n-Si were studied experimentally using the very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) method and the total current spectroscopy (TCS) measurement scheme. The density of the unoccupied electronic states (DOUS) located 2-20 eV above the Fermi level (E_F) of the films under study was determined using the TCS results and using the results of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the vacant electronic orbitals of the APP-C_6_0 and C_6_0 molecules. The DOUS peak structure obtained on the basis of the calculation results corresponds well to the structure of the major DOUS bands obtained from the TCS experiment. The comparison of the DOUS spectra of the APP-C_6_0 and C_6_0 films under study showed that the introduction of the APP substituent to the C_6_0 molecule was accompanied by the pronounced changes of the π* DOUS bands in the energy range from 2 eV to 5 eV above E_F and of the DOUS band composed from both π* and σ* - type orbitals in the energy range from 5 eV to 9 eV above E_F. The formation of the low-lying σ* DOUS band in the APP-C_6_0 film in the energy range from 8 eV to 13 eV above E_F can be explained by the superposition of the relevant DOUS maxima from the C_6_0 film and from the APP fragment.

  1. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  2. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  3. Principle and application of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy: A new method for measuring unoccupied states of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hyoshida@chiba-u.jp

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Principle of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy is described. • Instruments including electron sources and photon detectors are shown. • Recent results about organic devices and fundamental studies are reviewed. • Electron affinities of typical organic semiconductors are compiled. - Abstract: Information about the unoccupied states is crucial to both fundamental and applied physics of organic semiconductors. However, there were no available experimental methods that meet the requirement of such research. In this review, we describe a new experimental method to examine the unoccupied states, called low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy (LEIPS). An electron having the kinetic energy lower than the damage threshold of organic molecules is introduced to a sample film, and an emitted photon in the near-ultraviolet range is detected with high resolution and sensitivity. Unlike the previous inverse photoemission spectroscopy, the sample damage is negligible and the overall resolution is a factor of two improved to 0.25 eV. Using LEIPS, electron affinity of organic semiconductor can be determined with the same precision as photoemission spectroscopy for ionization energy. The instruments including an electron source and photon detectors as well as application to organic semiconductors are presented.

  4. Principle and application of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy: A new method for measuring unoccupied states of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Principle of low energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy is described. • Instruments including electron sources and photon detectors are shown. • Recent results about organic devices and fundamental studies are reviewed. • Electron affinities of typical organic semiconductors are compiled. - Abstract: Information about the unoccupied states is crucial to both fundamental and applied physics of organic semiconductors. However, there were no available experimental methods that meet the requirement of such research. In this review, we describe a new experimental method to examine the unoccupied states, called low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy (LEIPS). An electron having the kinetic energy lower than the damage threshold of organic molecules is introduced to a sample film, and an emitted photon in the near-ultraviolet range is detected with high resolution and sensitivity. Unlike the previous inverse photoemission spectroscopy, the sample damage is negligible and the overall resolution is a factor of two improved to 0.25 eV. Using LEIPS, electron affinity of organic semiconductor can be determined with the same precision as photoemission spectroscopy for ionization energy. The instruments including an electron source and photon detectors as well as application to organic semiconductors are presented.

  5. Balanced territorial development: problems of single-industry towns in the Sverdlovsk region

    OpenAIRE

    Илюхин Алексей Александрович; Ilyuhin Aleksey Aleksandrovich

    2017-01-01

    the article examines the questions concerning the optimization of territorial structure in the Sverdlovsk region associated with the comprehensive transformation of the economy of single-industry towns and mono economics areas. The author has analyzed the population dynamics of the region and industrial production, with allocation of single-industry towns. A classification of towns by type of localization economy has been classified. The author has made some conclusions on quality solution of...

  6. Regions of incompatibility in single-stranded DNA bacteriophages phi X174 and G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; van Arkel, G. A.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular presence of a recombinant plasmid containing the intercistronic region between the genes H and A of bacteriophage phi X174 strongly inhibits the conversion of infecting single-stranded phi X DNA to parental replicative-form DNA. Also, transfection with single-stranded or

  7. Linked-cluster formulation of electron-hole interaction kernel in real-space representation without using unoccupied states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Michael G; Scher, Jeremy A; Ellis, Benjamin H; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2018-05-21

    Electron-hole or quasiparticle representation plays a central role in describing electronic excitations in many-electron systems. For charge-neutral excitation, the electron-hole interaction kernel is the quantity of interest for calculating important excitation properties such as optical gap, optical spectra, electron-hole recombination and electron-hole binding energies. The electron-hole interaction kernel can be formally derived from the density-density correlation function using both Green's function and TDDFT formalism. The accurate determination of the electron-hole interaction kernel remains a significant challenge for precise calculations of optical properties in the GW+BSE formalism. From the TDDFT perspective, the electron-hole interaction kernel has been viewed as a path to systematic development of frequency-dependent exchange-correlation functionals. Traditional approaches, such as MBPT formalism, use unoccupied states (which are defined with respect to Fermi vacuum) to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel. However, the inclusion of unoccupied states has long been recognized as the leading computational bottleneck that limits the application of this approach for larger finite systems. In this work, an alternative derivation that avoids using unoccupied states to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel is presented. The central idea of this approach is to use explicitly correlated geminal functions for treating electron-electron correlation for both ground and excited state wave functions. Using this ansatz, it is derived using both diagrammatic and algebraic techniques that the electron-hole interaction kernel can be expressed only in terms of linked closed-loop diagrams. It is proved that the cancellation of unlinked diagrams is a consequence of linked-cluster theorem in real-space representation. The electron-hole interaction kernel derived in this work was used to calculate excitation energies in many-electron systems and results

  8. Multi-region and single-cell sequencing reveal variable genomic heterogeneity in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Yang; Di, Jiabo; Su, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Beihai; Wang, Zaozao; Zhuang, Meng; Bai, Fan; Su, Xiangqian

    2017-11-23

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with complex molecular subtypes. While colon cancer has been widely investigated, studies on rectal cancer are very limited. Here, we performed multi-region whole-exome sequencing and single-cell whole-genome sequencing to examine the genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) of rectal tumors. We sequenced nine tumor regions and 88 single cells from two rectal cancer patients with tumors of the same molecular classification and characterized their mutation profiles and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) at the multi-region and the single-cell levels. A variable extent of genomic heterogeneity was observed between the two patients, and the degree of ITH increased when analyzed on the single-cell level. We found that major SCNAs were early events in cancer development and inherited steadily. Single-cell sequencing revealed mutations and SCNAs which were hidden in bulk sequencing. In summary, we studied the ITH of rectal cancer at regional and single-cell resolution and demonstrated that variable heterogeneity existed in two patients. The mutational scenarios and SCNA profiles of two patients with treatment naïve from the same molecular subtype are quite different. Our results suggest each tumor possesses its own architecture, which may result in different diagnosis, prognosis, and drug responses. Remarkable ITH exists in the two patients we have studied, providing a preliminary impression of ITH in rectal cancer.

  9. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  10. Monitoring of seismic events from a specific source region using a single regional array: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Kværna, T.; Ringdal, F.

    2005-07-01

    In the monitoring of earthquakes and nuclear explosions using a sparse worldwide network of seismic stations, it is frequently necessary to make reliable location estimates using a single seismic array. It is also desirable to screen out routine industrial explosions automatically in order that analyst resources are not wasted upon detections which can, with a high level of confidence, be associated with such a source. The Kovdor mine on the Kola Peninsula of NW Russia is the site of frequent industrial blasts which are well recorded by the ARCES regional seismic array at a distance of approximately 300 km. We describe here an automatic procedure for identifying signals which are likely to result from blasts at the Kovdor mine and, wherever possible, for obtaining single array locations for such events. Carefully calibrated processing parameters were chosen using measurements from confirmed events at the mine over a one-year period for which the operators supplied Ground Truth information. Phase arrival times are estimated using an autoregressive method and slowness and azimuth are estimated using broadband f{-} k analysis in fixed frequency bands and time-windows fixed relative to the initial P-onset time. We demonstrate the improvement to slowness estimates resulting from the use of fixed frequency bands. Events can be located using a single array if, in addition to the P-phase, at least one secondary phase is found with both an acceptable slowness estimate and valid onset-time estimate. We evaluate the on-line system over a twelve month period; every event known to have occured at the mine is detected by the process and 32 out of 53 confirmed events were located automatically. The remaining events were classified as “very likely” Kovdor events and were subsequently located by an analyst. The false alarm rate is low; only 84 very likely Kovdor events were identified during the whole of 2003 and none of these were subsequently located at a large distance from

  11. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Black, Douglas R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration produced indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors. Supply ventilation with MERV13 filtration provided slightly less protection whereas supply MERV16 filtration reduced PM2.55 by 97-98% relative to outdoors. Supply filtration systems used little energy but provided no benefits for indoor-generated particles. Systems with MERV13-16 filters in the recirculating heating and cooling unit (FAU) operating continuously or 20 min/h reduced PM2.5 by 93-98%. Across all systems, removal percentages were higher for ultrafine particles and lower for black carbon, relative to PM2.5. Indoor ozone was 3-4% of outdoors for all systems except an electronic air cleaner that produced ozone. Filtration via the FAU or portable filtration units lowered PM2.5 by 25-75% when operated over the hour following cooking. The energy for year-round operation of FAU filtration with an efficient blower motor was estimated at 600 kWh/year.

  12. Double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with single halo pocket in channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A new structure for graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) is proposed and investigated using quantum simulation with a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Tunneling leakage current and ambipolar conduction are known effects for MOSFET-like GNRFETs. To minimize these issues a novel structure with a simple change of the GNRFETs by using single halo pocket in the intrinsic channel region, "Single Halo GNRFET (SH-GNRFET)", is proposed. An appropriate halo pocket at source side of channel is used to modify potential distribution of the gate region and weaken band to band tunneling (BTBT). In devices with materials like Si in channel region, doping type of halo and source/drain regions are different. But, here, due to the smaller bandgap of graphene, the mentioned doping types should be the same to reduce BTBT. Simulations have shown that in comparison with conventional GNRFET (C-GNRFET), an SH-GNRFET with appropriately halo doping results in a larger ON current (Ion), smaller OFF current (Ioff), a larger ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), superior ambipolar characteristics, a reduced power-delay product and lower delay time.

  13. Combined histochemical staining, RNA amplification, regional, and single cell cDNA analysis within the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli

    2004-08-01

    The use of five histochemical stains (cresyl violet, thionin, hematoxylin & eosin, silver stain, and acridine orange) was evaluated in combination with an expression profiling paradigm that included regional and single cell analyses within the hippocampus of post-mortem human brains and adult mice. Adjacent serial sections of human and mouse hippocampus were labeled by histochemistry or neurofilament immunocytochemistry. These tissue sections were used as starting material for regional and single cell microdissection followed by a newly developed RNA amplification procedure (terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification) and subsequent hybridization to custom-designed cDNA arrays. Results indicated equivalent levels of global hybridization signal intensity and relative expression levels for individual genes for hippocampi stained by cresyl violet, thionin, and hematoxylin & eosin, and neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Moreover, no significant differences existed between the Nissl stains and neurofilament immunocytochemistry for individual CA1 neurons obtained via laser capture microdissection. In contrast, a marked decrement was observed in adjacent hippocampal sections stained for silver stain and acridine orange, both at the level of the regional dissection and at the CA1 neuron population level. Observations made on the cDNA array platform were validated by real-time qPCR using primers directed against beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, this report demonstrated the utility of using specific Nissl stains, but not stains that bind RNA species directly, in both human and mouse brain tissues at the regional and cellular level for state-of-the-art molecular fingerprinting studies.

  14. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE AMOUNTS OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Teszbir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the causes of regional variation in the direct payments. The publication data has been used from ARiMR, publications which spans the time included the amount of subsidies paid throughout the post-accession period. Both at national and regional level, the total amount of payments increased from year to year, average 10%, which was connected to the principle phasing in. The amount of aid received by individual regions and individual farms varied widely, which had a direct relationship with the agrarian structure and the average total area of farms in these areas. The bigger number of small farms, as well as the smaller average total surface area of a single voivodeship, the lower sum of the payments.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kouichi; Watanabe, Sho; Suzuki, Michiyo; Kamijima, Gonbei

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  16. Binding energy and single-particle energies in the 16O Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiase, J.O.; Sharma, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the binding energy of 16 O together with single-particle energies in the oxygen region by folding together a Hamiltonian in the rest-frame of the nucleus with two-body correlation functions based on the Nijmegen potential. We have found that the binding energies are very sensitive to the core radius rc and that the effects of tensor correlations are non-negligible.Our calculated binding energy, E B = - 127.8 MeV with r c = 0.241 fm compares well with the experimental binding energy, E B = - 127.6 MeV

  17. An analysis of regional cerebral blood flow in impulsive murderers using single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Hanks, Chris; Prunella, Jill R; Green, Aisa

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored differences in regional cerebral blood flow in 11 impulsive murderers and 11 healthy comparison subjects using single photon emission computed tomography. The authors assessed subjects at rest and during a computerized go/no-go concentration task. Using statistical parametric mapping software, the authors performed voxel-by-voxel t tests to assess significant differences, making family-wide error corrections for multiple comparisons. Murderers were found to have significantly lower relative rCBF during concentration, particularly in areas associated with concentration and impulse control. These results indicate that nonemotionally laden stimuli may result in frontotemporal dysregulation in people predisposed to impulsive violence.

  18. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, F.J.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Stokely, E.M.; Homan, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Using a single-photon emission computed tomographic scanner (SPECT) the authors determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with inhaled xenon-133, a noninvasive procedure. Studies were performed in 40 normal individuals, and these were compared with rCBF determinations in 51 patients with seizure disorders. Although positive results were obtained in 15 of 16 patients with mass lesions, the group of principal interest comprised 25 patients suffering from ''temporal lobe'' epilepsy. Only one of these had a positive x-ray computed tomogram, but 16 had positive findings on rCBF study. These findings included increased local blood flow in the ictal state and reduced flow interictally

  19. The generation and selection of single-domain, v region libraries from nurse sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F; Dooley, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The cartilaginous fish (sharks, skates, and rays) are the oldest phylogenetic group in which a human-type adaptive immune system and immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. In addition to their conventional (heavy-light chain heterodimeric) isotypes, IgM and IgW, sharks produce the novel isotype, IgNAR, a heavy chain homodimer that does not associate with light chains. Instead, its variable (V) regions act as independent, soluble units in order to bind antigen. In this chapter, we detail our immunization protocol in order to raise a humoral IgNAR response in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and the subsequent cloning of the single-domain V regions from this isotype in order to select antigen-specific binders by phage display.

  20. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D. Sr.; Rush, A.J.; Schlesser, M.A.; Debus, J.; Raese, J.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of 133-Xe washout in 29 normal volunteers, 22 unipolar endogenous depressives (UPE), 9 unipolar nonendogenous depressives (UPNE), 13 bipolar depressed patients (BPD), and 14 schizophrenic patients (SCHZ). RCBF was measured 2 and 6 cm above and parallel to the cantho-meatal line and quantitated in 14 gray matter regions. Most subjects were drug-free for 4-14 days. Diagnoses were made by experienced clinicians employing the Research Diagnostic Criteria, the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the dexamethasone suppression test. SCHZ were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. UPE had reduced flow compared to normals in the right parietal and temporal lobes and a nonsignificant trend toward left temporal flow reductions. UPNE were not different from normal or other patient groups. BPD had significant flow elevations in the left hemisphere relative to normal, and in both hemispheres relative to UPE. SCHZ were not significantly different from normal or other patient groups. Anterior-posterior flow shifts were evaluated by subtracting parietal or temporal flows from frontal flows. SCHZ demonstrated a greater posterior shift (lower relative frontal lobe flow) in comparison to both UPE and UPNE. The most significant regional flow abnormalities were observed as frontal flow reductions in individual SCHZ, although these were not significant in the whole group in comparison to normal

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism in transcriptional regulatory regions and expression of environmentally responsive genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuting; Tomso, Daniel J.; Liu Xuemei; Bell, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome are DNA sequence variations that can alter an individual's response to environmental exposure. SNPs in gene coding regions can lead to changes in the biological properties of the encoded protein. In contrast, SNPs in non-coding gene regulatory regions may affect gene expression levels in an allele-specific manner, and these functional polymorphisms represent an important but relatively unexplored class of genetic variation. The main challenge in analyzing these SNPs is a lack of robust computational and experimental methods. Here, we first outline mechanisms by which genetic variation can impact gene regulation, and review recent findings in this area; then, we describe a methodology for bioinformatic discovery and functional analysis of regulatory SNPs in cis-regulatory regions using the assembled human genome sequence and databases on sequence polymorphism and gene expression. Our method integrates SNP and gene databases and uses a set of computer programs that allow us to: (1) select SNPs, from among the >9 million human SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database, that are similar to cis-regulatory element (RE) consensus sequences; (2) map the selected dbSNP entries to the human genome assembly in order to identify polymorphic REs near gene start sites; (3) prioritize the candidate polymorphic RE containing genes by searching the existing genotype and gene expression data sets. The applicability of this system has been demonstrated through studies on p53 responsive elements and is being extended to additional pathways and environmentally responsive genes

  2. Position sensitive regions in a generic radiation sensor based on single event upsets in dynamic RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Modern integrated circuits are highly complex systems and, as such, are susceptible to occasional failures. Semiconductor memory devices, particularly dynamic random access memories (dRAMs), are subject to random, transient single event upsets (SEUs) created by energetic ionizing radiation. These radiation-induced soft failures in the stored data of silicon based memory chips provide the foundation for a new, highly efficient, low cost generic radiation sensor. The susceptibility and the detection efficiency of a given dRAM device to SEUs is a complicated function of the circuit design and geometry, the operating conditions and the physics of the charge collection mechanisms involved. Typically, soft error rates measure the cumulative response of all sensitive regions of the memory by broad area chip exposure in ionizing radiation environments. However, this study shows that many regions of a dynamic memory are competing charge collection centres having different upset thresholds. The contribution to soft fails from discrete regions or individual circuit elements of the memory device is unambiguously separated. Hence the use of the dRAM as a position sensitive radiation detector, with high spatial resolution, is assessed and demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Occupied and unoccupied orbitals of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} probed with C 1s emission and absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Terminello, L.J.; Hudson, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the orbital structure of the fullerenes, and to pursue its evolution from a cluster to the infinite solid. For obtaining a complete picture of the electronic structure the authors compare a variety of experimental techniques, i.e. photoemission and core level emission for occupied orbitals and inverse photoemission and core level absorption for unoccupied orbitals. Their experimental results focus on optical probes involving the C 1s core level, i.e. absorption via transitions from the C 1s level into unoccupied {pi}* and {sigma}* orbitals and emission involving transitions from occupied orbitals into a C 1s hole. Due to the simplicity of the C 1s level there exist clear selection rules. For example, only transitions to and from orbitals with p-character are dipole-allowed. These results on the p-projected density of states are compared with inverse photoemission and photoemission results, where the selection rules are less definitive. In addition, a first-principles quasiparticle calculation of the density of states is used to assign the orbital features. The spectra from C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} are still far from their infinite analog, i.e., graphite, which is also measured with the same techniques. In order to determine the effect of electron transfer onto C{sub 60}, as in superconducting alkali fullerides, the authors are studying resonant emission of C{sub 60}. An electron is placed in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) by optical absorption from the C 1s level and the C 1s emission detected in the presence of this spectator electron.

  4. Communication: Systematic shifts of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital peak in x-ray absorption for a series of 3d metal porphyrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Cook, P. L.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Porphyrins are widely used as dye molecules in solar cells. Knowing the energies of their frontier orbitals is crucial for optimizing the energy level structure of solar cells. We use near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to obtain the energy of the lowest unoccupied...... molecular orbital (LUMO) with respect to the N-1s core level of the molecule. A systematic energy shift of the N-1s to LUMO transition is found along a series of 3d metal octaethylporphyrins and explained by density functional theory. It is mainly due to a shift of the N-1s level rather than a shift...

  5. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  6. Single shot trajectory design for region-specific imaging using linear and nonlinear magnetic encoding fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kelvin J; Gallichan, Daniel; Testud, Frederik; Cocosco, Chris A; Welz, Anna M; Barmet, Christoph; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that nonlinear encoding fields result in a spatially varying resolution. This work develops an automated procedure to design single-shot trajectories that create a local resolution improvement in a region of interest. The technique is based on the design of optimized local k-space trajectories and can be applied to arbitrary hardware configurations that employ any number of linear and nonlinear encoding fields. The trajectories designed in this work are tested with the currently available hardware setup consisting of three standard linear gradients and two quadrupolar encoding fields generated from a custom-built gradient insert. A field camera is used to measure the actual encoding trajectories up to third-order terms, enabling accurate reconstructions of these demanding single-shot trajectories, although the eddy current and concomitant field terms of the gradient insert have not been completely characterized. The local resolution improvement is demonstrated in phantom and in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isoscalar single-pion production in the region of Roper and d⁎(2380 resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adlarson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive measurements of the quasi-free pn→ppπ− and pp→ppπ0 reactions have been performed by means of pd collisions at Tp=1.2 GeV using the WASA detector setup at COSY. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained covering the energy region Tp=0.95–1.3 GeV (s=2.3–2.46 GeV, which includes the regions of Δ(1232, N⁎(1440 and d⁎(2380 resonance excitations. From these measurements the isoscalar single-pion production has been extracted, for which data existed so far only below Tp=1 GeV. We observe a substantial increase of this cross section around 1 GeV, which can be related to the Roper resonance N⁎(1440, the strength of which shows up isolated from the Δ resonance in the isoscalar (NπI=0 invariant-mass spectrum. No evidence for a decay of the dibaryon resonance d⁎(2380 into the isoscalar (NNπI=0 channel is found. An upper limit of 180 μb (90% C.L. corresponding to a branching ratio of 9% has been deduced.

  8. Evaluation of auto region of interest settings for single photon emission computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Katsunori

    2008-01-01

    It has been noted that the manual settings of region of interest (ROI) to the single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) slice lacked objectivity when the fixed quantity value of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured previously. Therefore, we jointly developed software Brain ROI' with Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd. (Present name: FUJIFILM RI Pharma Co., Ltd.) The software normalized an individual brain to a standard brain template by using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM 2) of the easy Z-score Imaging System ver. 3.0 (eZIS Ver. 3.0), and the ROI template was set to a specific slice. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of this software with an ROI template that we made of useful size and shape, in some clinical samples. The method of automatic setting of ROI was the objective. However, we felt that we should use the shape of the ROI template without the influence of brain atrophy. Moreover, we should see normalization of the individual brain and confirm the accuracy of normalization. When normalization failed, we should partially correct the ROI or set everything by manual operation for the operator. However, it was thought that this software was useful if the tendency was understood because examples of failure were few. (author)

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in status epileptics measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiseki, Hajime; Terashi, Akiro; Hamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tokuzo.

    1995-01-01

    We have performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HM-PAO) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in status epileptics (SE) caused by a cerebral vascular accident. In addition, we have discussed the neurophysiology of SE based on the SPECT findings. A total of sixteen patients (5 males and 11 females, average age; 78.2 years old) with SE who were suffering from prolonged consciousness disturbance were investigated. When SPECT was performed in the ictal state, there was a remarkable increase in radio isotope (RI) uptake at the focus which correlated well with EEG findings. However, in other cortical regions, basal ganglia and thalamus, there was a relatively demonstrated decrease in RI uptake compared with that of the focus. Additionally in the interictal state, we found a decrease in RI uptake in the epileptic foci and normal recovery of the RI uptake level in other cerebral regions. We speculate that these characteristic patterns of cerebral blood flow distribution shown by SPECT scans in the ictal state reflect the state of consciousness disturbance due to SE. In general, in the elderly, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis between prolonged consciousness disturbance due to nonconvulsive SE and other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, dehydration, metabolic disorder, etc. Nevertheless, nonconvulsive SE causes diffuse cell loss and irreversible brain damage. Therefore the elderly who have suffered from prolonged consciousness disturbance due to SE need an exact diagnosis and immediate medical treatment. When we diagnose a nonconvulsive SE, the characteristic findings of SPECT scans in the ictal state are very clear and useful. In conclusion, SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEC but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE. (author)

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in status epileptics measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiseki, Hajime; Terashi, Akiro [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tokuzo

    1995-12-01

    We have performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HM-PAO) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in status epileptics (SE) caused by a cerebral vascular accident. In addition, we have discussed the neurophysiology of SE based on the SPECT findings. A total of sixteen patients (5 males and 11 females, average age; 78.2 years old) with SE who were suffering from prolonged consciousness disturbance were investigated. When SPECT was performed in the ictal state, there was a remarkable increase in radio isotope (RI) uptake at the focus which correlated well with EEG findings. However, in other cortical regions, basal ganglia and thalamus, there was a relatively demonstrated decrease in RI uptake compared with that of the focus. Additionally in the interictal state, we found a decrease in RI uptake in the epileptic foci and normal recovery of the RI uptake level in other cerebral regions. We speculate that these characteristic patterns of cerebral blood flow distribution shown by SPECT scans in the ictal state reflect the state of consciousness disturbance due to SE. In general, in the elderly, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis between prolonged consciousness disturbance due to nonconvulsive SE and other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, dehydration, metabolic disorder, etc. Nevertheless, nonconvulsive SE causes diffuse cell loss and irreversible brain damage. Therefore the elderly who have suffered from prolonged consciousness disturbance due to SE need an exact diagnosis and immediate medical treatment. When we diagnose a nonconvulsive SE, the characteristic findings of SPECT scans in the ictal state are very clear and useful. In conclusion, SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEC but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE. (author).

  11. Electroluminescence from a single InGaN quantum dot in the green spectral region up to 150 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalden, J; Sebald, K; Gutowski, J; Tessarek, C; Figge, S; Kruse, C; Hommel, D

    2010-01-01

    We present electrically driven luminescence from single InGaN quantum dots embedded into a light emitting diode structure grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Single sharp emission lines in the green spectral region can be identified. Temperature dependent measurements demonstrate thermal stability of the emission of a single quantum dot up to 150 K. These results are an important step towards applications like electrically driven single-photon emitters, which are a basis for applications incorporating plastic optical fibers as well as for modern concepts of free space quantum cryptography.

  12. INTRODUCING ELECTRONIC MARITIME SINGLE WINDOW BY PORT COMMUNITIES IN THE ADRIATIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan BEŠKOVNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis specific fields of procedures for ship arrival and acceptance in the port, that are predefined by the Directive 2010/65/EU. The directive poses the framework for the Maritime Single Window (MSW development in EU. The article brings original and scientific contribution, as it presents the model for Slovenian MSW (SI MSW. The model covers the need of different groups of stakeholder from the local port community. The proposed MSW architecture unifies communication channels and reduces interfaces in business to port (B2P and business to administration (B2A operational processes for ship formalities. Consequently, the business to customer (B2C relationship benefits from lean operation procedures. The focus is also on information exchange standardization. The paper presents principal benefits of the model implementation in the Slovenian port community. The SI MSW model might be adopted also in other port communities in the Adriatic region or to be used as the main platform for further local improvement.

  13. Modelling of strong heterogeneities in aerosol single scattering albedos over a polluted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Pont, V.; Liousse, C.

    2005-05-01

    To date, most models dedicated to the investigation of aerosol direct or semi-direct radiative forcings have assumed the various aerosol components to be either completely externally mixed or homogeneously internally mixed. Some recent works have shown that a core-shell treatment of particles should be more realistic, leading to significant differences in the radiative impact as compared to only externally or well-internally mixed states. To account for these studies, an optical module, ORISAM-RAD, has been developed for computing aerosol radiative properties under the hypothesis of internally mixed particles with a n-layer spherical concentric structure. Mesoscale simulations using ORISAM-RAD, coupled with the 3D mesoscale model Meso-NH-C, have been performed for one selected day (06/24/2001) during the ESCOMPTE experiment in the Marseilles-Fos/Berre region, which illustrate the ability of this new module to reproduce spatial heterogeneities of measured single scattering albedo (ωo), due to industrial and/or urban pollution plumes.

  14. Nuclear fusion as new energy option in a global single-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eherer, C.; Baumann, M.; Dueweke, J.; Hamacher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a window of opportunity for fusion on the electricity market under 'business as usual' conditions, and if not, how do the boundary conditions have to look like to open such a window? This question is addressed within a subtask of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme of the European Commission. The most advanced energy-modelling framework, the TIMES model generator developed by the Energy Technology System Analysis Project group of the IEA (ETSAP) has been used to implement a global single-regional partial equilibrium energy model. Within the current activities the potential role of fusion power in various future energy scenarios is studied. The final energy demand projections of the baseline of the investigations are based on IIASA-WEC Scenario B. Under the quite conservative baseline assumptions fusion only enters the model solution with 35 GW in 2100 and it can be observed that coal technologies dominate electricity production in 2100. Scenario variations show that the role of fusion power is strongly affected by the availability of GEN IV fission breeding technologies as energy option and by CO 2 emission caps. The former appear to be a major competitor of fusion power while the latter open a window of opportunity for fusion power on the electricity market. An interesting outcome is furthermore that the possible share of fusion electricity is more sensitive to the potential of primary resources like coal, gas and uranium, than to the share of solar and wind power in the system. This indicates that both kinds of technologies, renewables and fusion power, can coexist in future energy systems in case of CO 2 emission policies and/or resource scarcity scenarios. It is shown that Endogenous Technological Learning (ETL), a more consistent description of technological progress than mere time series, has an impact on the model results. (author)

  15. WR 110: A SINGLE WOLF-RAYET STAR WITH COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN ITS WIND?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Fahed, R.; St-louis, N.; Muntean, V.; Chevrotiere, A. De La; Cameron, C.; Matthews, J. M.; Gamen, R. C.; Lefevre, L.; Rowe, J. F.; Guenther, D. B.; Kuschnig, R.; Weiss, W. W.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.

    2011-01-01

    A 30 day contiguous photometric run with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) satellite on the WN5-6b star WR 110 (HD 165688) reveals a fundamental periodicity of P = 4.08 ± 0.55 days along with a number of harmonics at periods P/n, with n ∼ 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and a few other possible stray periodicities and/or stochastic variability on timescales longer than about a day. Spectroscopic radial velocity studies fail to reveal any plausible companion with a period in this range. Therefore, we conjecture that the observed light-curve cusps of amplitude ∼0.01 mag that recur at a 4.08 day timescale may arise in the inner parts, or at the base, of a corotating interaction region (CIR) seen in emission as it rotates around with the star at constant angular velocity. The hard X-ray component seen in WR 110 could then be a result of a high velocity component of the CIR shock interacting with the ambient wind at several stellar radii. Given that most hot, luminous stars showing CIRs have two CIR arms, it is possible that either the fundamental period is 8.2 days or, more likely in the case of WR 110, there is indeed a second weaker CIR arm for P = 4.08 days, that occurs ∼two-thirds of a rotation period after the main CIR. If this interpretation is correct, WR 110 therefore joins the ranks with three other single WR stars, all WN, with confirmed CIR rotation periods (WR 1, WR 6, and WR 134), albeit with WR 110 having by far the lowest amplitude photometric modulation. This illustrates the power of being able to secure intense, continuous high-precision photometry from space-based platforms such as MOST. It also opens the door to revealing low-amplitude photometric variations in other WN stars, where previous attempts have failed. If all WN stars have CIRs at some level, this could be important for revealing sources of magnetism or pulsation in addition to rotation periods.

  16. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy of a novel functional lung imaging method that utilizes single-inhalation, single-energy xenon CT (Xe-CT) lung ventilation scans, and to compare it against the current clinical standard, ventilation single-photon emission CT (V-SPECT). Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, 14 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy received two successive single inhalation, single energy (80keV) CT images of the entire lung using 100% oxygen and a 70%/30% xenon-oxygen mixture. A subset of ten patients also received concurrent SPECT ventilation scans. Anatomic reproducibility between the two scans was achieved using a custom video biofeedback apparatus. The CT images were registered to each other by deformable registration, and a calculated difference image served as surrogate xenon ventilation map. Both lungs were partitioned into twelve sectors, and a sector-wise correlation was performed between the xenon and V-SPECT scans. A linear regression model was developed with forced expiratory volume (FEV) as a predictor and the coefficient of variation (CoV) as the outcome. Results: The ventilation comparison for five of the patients had either moderate to strong Pearson correlation coefficients (0.47 to 0.69, p<0.05). Of these, four also had moderate to strong Spearman correlation coefficients (0.46 to 0.80, p<0.03). The patients with the strongest correlation had clear regional ventilation deficits. The patient comparisons with the weakest correlations had more homogeneous ventilation distributions, and those patients also had diminished lung function as assessed by spirometry. Analysis of the relationship between CoV and FEV yielded a non-significant trend toward negative correlation (Pearson coefficient −0.60, p<0.15). Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the Xe-CT and V-SPECT ventilation imagery. The results from this small cohort of patients indicate that single inhalation, single energy Xe-CT has the potential to

  17. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy of a novel functional lung imaging method that utilizes single-inhalation, single-energy xenon CT (Xe-CT) lung ventilation scans, and to compare it against the current clinical standard, ventilation single-photon emission CT (V-SPECT). Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, 14 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy received two successive single inhalation, single energy (80keV) CT images of the entire lung using 100% oxygen and a 70%/30% xenon-oxygen mixture. A subset of ten patients also received concurrent SPECT ventilation scans. Anatomic reproducibility between the two scans was achieved using a custom video biofeedback apparatus. The CT images were registered to each other by deformable registration, and a calculated difference image served as surrogate xenon ventilation map. Both lungs were partitioned into twelve sectors, and a sector-wise correlation was performed between the xenon and V-SPECT scans. A linear regression model was developed with forced expiratory volume (FEV) as a predictor and the coefficient of variation (CoV) as the outcome. Results: The ventilation comparison for five of the patients had either moderate to strong Pearson correlation coefficients (0.47 to 0.69, p<0.05). Of these, four also had moderate to strong Spearman correlation coefficients (0.46 to 0.80, p<0.03). The patients with the strongest correlation had clear regional ventilation deficits. The patient comparisons with the weakest correlations had more homogeneous ventilation distributions, and those patients also had diminished lung function as assessed by spirometry. Analysis of the relationship between CoV and FEV yielded a non-significant trend toward negative correlation (Pearson coefficient −0.60, p<0.15). Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the Xe-CT and V-SPECT ventilation imagery. The results from this small cohort of patients indicate that single inhalation, single energy Xe-CT has the potential to

  18. Single-photon counting in the 1550-nm wavelength region for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul-Woo; Park, Jun-Bum; Park, Young-Soo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Shin, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Byung-Seong; Moon, Sung; Han, Sang-Kook

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measured performance of an InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) Module fabricated for single-photon counting. We measured the dark current noise, the after-pulse noise, and the quantum efficiency of the single- photon detector for different temperatures. We then examined our single-photon source and detection system by measuring the coincident probability. From our measurement, we observed that the after-pulse effect of the APD at temperatures below 105 .deg. C caused cascade noise build-up on the succeeding electrical signals.

  19. Evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in mitral valvular heart disease using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Soon Koh; Byung Tae Kim; Myung Chul Lee; Bo Yeon Cho

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in mitral valvular cardiac disease has been evaluated in 122 patients by a modified upper lung/lower count ratio using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography. The mean upper lung/lower lung radio correlates well with pulmonary artery mean (r=0.483) and wedge pressure (r=0.804). After correction surgery of the cardiac valve, the ratio decreases and returns to normal range in patients judged clinically to have good surgical benifit. This modified method using single-pass technique provides additional simple, reproducible and nontraumatic results of regional pulmonary blood flow and appears to be correlated with the degree of pulmonary hypertension in mitral heart disease

  20. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography in patients with aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischies, F.M.; Muellmann, A.; Hedde, J.P.; Freie Univ. Berlin; Christe, W.

    1984-01-01

    5 cases are demonstrated of patients with aphasia whose brain perfusion as measured regionally by SPECT using 133 Xe was correlated to the lesions seen in the CT study. Perfusion reductions exceeded the CT visible lesions, such as, that in cortical lesions perfusion in the region of basal ganglia is diminished and vice versa. The findings are discussed in relation to recent work on brain perfusion and metabolism. (orig.) [de

  1. Paragangliomas of the head and neck region: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudachalam Pindicura

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Paragangliomas of the head and neck are uncommon lesions. The most common site in the head and neck region was the jugulotympanic region. Most cases of jugulotympanic paraganglioma presented in the fifth decade and later. Laryngeal paraganglioma presented clinically earlier in the second decade. Jugulotympanic and laryngeal paraganglioma showed dominance of tumor vasculature histologically. There was a rare case of laryngeal paraganglioma with lateral neck extension in this study.

  2. Linear single-step image reconstruction in the presence of nonscattering regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, H.; Delpy, D. T.

    2002-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the noninvasive determination of the oxygenation level within biological tissue. Stemming from this application, there has been further research in using this technique for obtaining tomographic images of the neonatal head, with the view of determining the level of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the brain. Because of computational complexity, methods used for numerical modeling of photon transfer within tissue have usually been limited to the diffusion approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. The diffusion approximation, however, is not valid in regions of low scatter, such as the cerebrospinal fluid. Methods have been proposed for dealing with nonscattering regions within diffusing materials through the use of a radiosity-diffusion model. Currently, this new model assumes prior knowledge of the void region; therefore it is instructive to examine the errors introduced in applying a simple diffusion-based reconstruction scheme in cases where a nonscattering region exists. We present reconstructed images, using linear algorithms, of models that contain a nonscattering region within a diffusing material. The forward data are calculated by using the radiosity-diffusion model, and the inverse problem is solved by using either the radiosity-diffusion model or the diffusion-only model. When using data from a model containing a clear layer and reconstructing with the correct model, one can reconstruct the anomaly, but the qualitative accuracy and the position of the reconstructed anomaly depend on the size and the position of the clear regions. If the inverse model has no information about the clear regions (i.e., it is a purely diffusing model), an anomaly can be reconstructed, but the resulting image has very poor qualitative accuracy and poor localization of the anomaly. The errors in quantitative and localization accuracies depend on the size and location of the clear regions.

  3. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right-left asymme......In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  4. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Chiang, Pei-Tzu; Lee, Pei-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above) with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. ...

  5. Characteristics of a single bubble in subcooled boiling region of a narrow rectangular channel under natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Tao; Duan, Jun; Hong, Dexun; Liu, Ping; Sheng, Cheng; Huang, Yanping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe the behavior of single bubbles in a narrow vertical rectangular channel. ► We analyze the force characteristics of the single bubble. ► Small bubbles in highly subcooled boiling region stick on the wall or slip slowly. ► The bubbles jumping from the wall are affected by drag force. ► The thermophoretic force makes bubbles jump from the wall strongly. - Abstract: The behavior of bubbles has an important influence on heat transfer during subcooled boiling. By observing the behavior of a single bubble in a narrow vertical rectangular channel, and analyzing the force characteristics of the single bubble, it turns out that small bubbles in the highly subcooled boiling region stick on the wall or slip slowly. The bubbles jumping from the wall are affected by drag force, and move with high speed. Maintaining a certain heating power, at the onset of boiling (ONB) point, the bubbles remain in a stable state. Furthermore, the thermophoretic force is considered in this paper. With increasing the temperature gradient in the fluid, the thermophoretic force causes the bubbles to jump from the wall easier

  6. Luminescence properties of Tm3+ ions single-doped YF3 materials in an unconventional excitation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Qing; Lin, Han; Yan, Xiaohong

    2018-05-01

    According to the spectral distribution of solar radiation at the earth's surface, under the excitation region of 1150 to 1350 nm, the up-conversion luminescence of Tm 3+ ions was investigated. The emission bands were matched well with the spectral response region of silicon solar cells, achieved by Tm 3+ ions single-doped yttrium fluoride (YF 3 ) phosphor, which was different from the conventional Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ ion couple co-doped materials. Additionally, the similar emission bands of Tm 3+ ions were achieved under excitation in the ultraviolet region. It is expected that via up-conversion and down-conversion routes, Tm 3+ -sensitized materials could convert photons to the desired wavelengths in order to reduce the energy loss of silicon solar cells, thereby enhancing the photovoltaic efficiency. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goode, Ellen L; Clyde, Merlise A

    2009-01-01

    The p53 protein is critical for multiple cellular functions including cell growth and DNA repair. We assessed whether polymorphisms in the region encoding TP53 were associated with risk of invasive ovarian cancer. The study population includes a total of 5,206 invasive ovarian cancer cases (2,829...

  8. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-07-07

    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Autoionic microscopy of damage regions of single atom displacement cascades in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The defect region formation characterized by zones of depletion with atoms and interstitial halos arizing during displacement cascade development in an irradiated metal is considered. in experimental autoionmicroscopic analysis technique is used. The analysis procedure is briefly discussed: the experiment, the defect identification on autoionic image microphotos, computer data processing. The technique was applied for pure tungsten irradiated with 12 and 5.8 MeV deuterons and fission neutrons, and for tungsten-1.5% ThO 2 alloy irradiated with fast neutrons from fission fragments

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaas Frode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732. A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs, which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters. Conclusion We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

  11. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  12. Salient region detection by fusing bottom-up and top-down features extracted from a single image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huawei; Fang, Yuming; Zhao, Yao; Lin, Weisi; Ni, Rongrong; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2014-10-01

    Recently, some global contrast-based salient region detection models have been proposed based on only the low-level feature of color. It is necessary to consider both color and orientation features to overcome their limitations, and thus improve the performance of salient region detection for images with low-contrast in color and high-contrast in orientation. In addition, the existing fusion methods for different feature maps, like the simple averaging method and the selective method, are not effective sufficiently. To overcome these limitations of existing salient region detection models, we propose a novel salient region model based on the bottom-up and top-down mechanisms: the color contrast and orientation contrast are adopted to calculate the bottom-up feature maps, while the top-down cue of depth-from-focus from the same single image is used to guide the generation of final salient regions, since depth-from-focus reflects the photographer's preference and knowledge of the task. A more general and effective fusion method is designed to combine the bottom-up feature maps. According to the degree-of-scattering and eccentricities of feature maps, the proposed fusion method can assign adaptive weights to different feature maps to reflect the confidence level of each feature map. The depth-from-focus of the image as a significant top-down feature for visual attention in the image is used to guide the salient regions during the fusion process; with its aid, the proposed fusion method can filter out the background and highlight salient regions for the image. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on three public available data sets.

  13. Salient Region Detection by Fusing Foreground and Background Cues Extracted from Single Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is an important preprocessing step in many application fields such as computer vision, robotics, and graphics to reduce computational cost by focusing on significant positions and neglecting the nonsignificant in the scene. Different from most previous methods which mainly utilize the contrast of low-level features, various feature maps are fused in a simple linear weighting form. In this paper, we propose a novel salient object detection algorithm which takes both background and foreground cues into consideration and integrate a bottom-up coarse salient regions extraction and a top-down background measure via boundary labels propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined saliency detection result. Wherein the coarse saliency map is also fused by three components, the first is local contrast map which is in more accordance with the psychological law, the second is global frequency prior map, and the third is global color distribution map. During the formation of background map, first we construct an affinity matrix and select some nodes which lie on border as labels to represent the background and then carry out a propagation to generate the regional background map. The evaluation of the proposed model has been implemented on four datasets. As demonstrated in the experiments, our proposed method outperforms most existing saliency detection models with a robust performance.

  14. A Simple and Consistent Equation of State for Sodium in the Single Phase and Two Phase Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced: coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available

  15. A simple and consistent equation of state for sodium in the single phase and two phase regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced : coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available. (auth.)

  16. Assessing the disturbance potential of small unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS on gray seals (Halichoerus grypus at breeding colonies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of small unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS for ecological studies and wildlife population assessments is increasing. These methods can provide significant benefits in terms of costs and reductions in human risk, but little is known if UAS-based approaches cause disturbance of animals during operations. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a series of UAS flights at gray seal breeding colonies on Hay and Saddle Islands in Nova Scotia, Canada. Using a small fixed-wing UAS, we assessed both immediate and short-term effects of surveys using sequential image analysis and between-flight seal counts in ten, 50 m2 random quadrats at each colony. Counts of adult gray seals and young-of-the-year animals between first and second flights revealed no changes in abundance in quadrats (matched pair t-test p > 0.69 and slopes approaching 1 for linear regression comparisons (r2 > 0.80. Sequential image analysis revealed no changes in orientation or posture of imaged animals. We also assessed the acoustic properties of the small UAS in relation to low ambient noise conditions using sound equivalent level (Leq measurements with a calibrated U-MIK 1 and a 1/3 octave band soundscape approach. The results of Leq measurements indicate that small fixed-wing UAS are quiet, with most energy above 160 Hz, and that levels across 1/3 octave bands do not greatly exceed ambient acoustic measurements in a quiet field during operations at standard survey altitudes. As such, this platform is unlikely to acoustically disturb gray seals at breeding colonies during population surveys. The results of the present study indicate that the effects of small fixed-wing UAS on gray seals at breeding colonies are negligible, and that fixed-wing UAS-based approaches should be considered amongst best practices for assessing gray seal colonies.

  17. Occupied and unoccupied electronic states on vicinal Si(111) surfaces decorated with monoatomic gold chains; Besetzte und unbesetzte elektronische Zustaende vizinaler Si(111)-Oberflaechen mit atomaren Goldketten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Kerstin

    2012-07-12

    In this work, the occupied and unoccupied electronic states of vicinal Si(111)-Au surfaces were investigated. The research focused on amending the experimental electronic band structure by two-photon photoemission and laser-based photoemission and bringing it in line with theoretical band structure calculations. This work dealt with the Si(553)-Au, the Si(111)-(5x2)-Au and the Si(557)-Au surface. Angle-resolved UV-photoelectron spectroscopy gave access to the occupied part of the band structure and thus to the energetic position, the dispersion and the symmetry of the occupied states. Bichromatic two-photon photoemission, however, revealed information about the energetics and, in addition, about the dynamics of unoccupied states on a femtosecond timescale. Notably, the selective polarization of the laser pulses allowed for distinguishing and classifying many of the states with respect to their symmetry. All three surfaces exhibited both surface and bulk states in the occupied part of the band structure. They could be clearly identified and separated from surface contributions by means of tight-binding calculations of the bulk band structure of silicon and by comparison to each other. An added similarity of these surfaces are the one-dimensional Rashba-split gold states, which definitely show dispersion along the chains but not perpendicular to them. All surfaces exhibit states which can easily be assigned to the gold chains. Additional features, however, cannot be attributed clearly to the characteristics of the complex surface reconstruction in all cases. An assignment to surface states was only successfully accomplished for Si(553)-Au. The primary emphasis of this photoemission study was on the Si(553)-Au surface, which shows the smallest defect density in comparison to the other surfaces and hence exhibits the sharpest peaks in the experimental spectra. In accordance with ab-initio band structure calculations this surface also displays, in addition to one

  18. Single π+ Electroproduction in the First and Second Resonance Regions Using CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiyan, Hovanes [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The study of single pion electroproduction can provide valuable information on the structure of the nucleon and its excited states. Although these reactions have been studied for decades, never has the n π+ channel been measured over the complete phase space of the reaction. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) located in Hall B of Jefferson Lab is well-suited for conducting these measurements. The CLAS data were taken using a 1.515 GeV electron beam incident on a liquid H2 target. The cross sections have been extracted, and their phi-dependence has been fit to obtain the sigmaTT, sigmaTL and the sigmaT + epsilon sigmaL linear combination of the structure functions. An analysis program based on the Mainz unitary isobar model was used to analyze the experimental data from the π+ channel only. The resonant amplitudes for P33(1232), SL(1535) and D{sub 13}(1520) were obtained from the fit.

  19. Fast calcium transients translate the distribution and conduction of neural activity in different regions of a single sensory neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purali, Nuhan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cytosolic calcium concentration changes were recorded in response to various forms of excitations, using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye OG-BAPTA1 together with the current or voltage clamp methods in stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. A single action potential evoked a rise in the resting calcium level in the axon and axonal hillock, whereas an impulse train or a large saturating current injection would be required to evoke an equivalent response in the dendrite region. Under voltage clamp conditions, amplitude differences between axon and dendrite responses vanished completely. The fast activation time and the modulation of the response by extracellular calcium concentration changes indicated that the evoked calcium transients might be mediated by calcium entry into the cytosol through a voltage-gated calcium channel. The decay of the responses was slow and sensitive to extracellular sodium and calcium concentrations as well as exposure to 1-10 mM NiCl 2 and 10-500 µM lanthanum. Thus, a sodium calcium exchanger and a calcium ATPase might be responsible for calcium extrusion from the cytosol. Present results indicate that the calcium indicator OG-BAPTA1 might be an efficient but indirect way of monitoring regional membrane potential differences in a single neuron.

  20. Dopa-responsive dystonia: functional analysis of single nucleotide substitutions within the 5' untranslated GCH1 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna A Armata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GCH1 gene are associated with childhood onset, dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD. Correct diagnosis of DRD is crucial, given the potential for complete recovery once treated with L-dopa. The majority of DRD associated mutations lie within the coding region of the GCH1 gene, but three additional single nucleotide sequence substitutions have been reported within the 5' untranslated (5'UTR region of the mRNA. The biologic significance of these 5'UTR GCH1 sequence substitutions has not been analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative real time PCR and RNA decay assays, combined with bioinformatics, revealed a pathogenic 5'UTR GCH1 substitution. The +142C>T single nucleotide 5'UTR substitution that segregates with affected status in DRD patients, substantially attenuates translation without altering RNA expression levels or stability. The +142C>T substitution disrupts translation most likely by creating an upstream initiation start codon (uAUG and an upstream open reading frame (uORF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first GCH1 regulatory substitution reported to act at a post-transcriptional level, increasing the list of genetic diseases caused by abnormal translation and reaffirming the importance of investigating potential regulatory substitutions in genetic diseases.

  1. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Liang Kuo

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. Measurements were steadiness index of spinal regions (trunk, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvis during single-leg standing including relative holding time (RHT and relative standstill time (RST, and clinical balance tests (timed up and go test and 5-repetition sit to stand test. The LBP group had a statistically significantly smaller RHT than the control group, regardless of one leg stance on the painful or non-painful sides. The RSTs on the painful side leg in the LBP group were not statistically significantly different from the average RSTs of both legs in the control group; however, the RSTs on the non-painful side leg in the LBP group were statistically significantly smaller than those in the control group for the trunk, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant intra-group differences were found in the RHTs and RSTs between the painful and non-painful side legs in the LBP group. Measurements of clinical balance tests also showed insignificant weak to moderate correlations with steadiness index. In conclusion, older adults with chronic LBP demonstrated decreased spinal steadiness not only in the symptomatic lumbar spine but also in the other spinal regions within the kinetic chain of the spine. When treating older adults with chronic LBP, clinicians may also need to examine their balance performance and spinal steadiness during balance challenging tests.

  2. Importance of Hypervariable Region 2 for Stability and Affinity of a Shark Single-Domain Antibody Specific for Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Anderson

    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies derived from the unique New Antigen Receptor found in sharks have numerous potential applications, ranging from diagnostic reagents to therapeutics. Shark-derived single-domain antibodies possess the same characteristic ability to refold after heat denaturation found in single-domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies. Recently, two shark derived single-domain antibodies specific for the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus were described. Our evaluation confirmed their high affinity for the nucleoprotein, but found their melting temperatures to be low relative to most single-domain antibodies. Our first approach towards improving their stability was grafting antigen-binding regions (complementarity determining regions of one of these single-domain antibodies onto a high melting temperature shark single-domain antibody. This resulted in two variants: one that displayed excellent affinity with a low melting temperature, while the other had poor affinity but a higher melting temperature. These new proteins, however, differed in only 3 amino acids within the complementarity determining region 2 sequence. In shark single-domain antibodies, the complementarity determining region 2 is often referred to as hypervariable region 2, as this segment of the antibody domain is truncated compared to the sequence in camelid single-domain antibodies and conventional heavy chain variable domains. To elucidate which of the three amino acids or combinations thereof were responsible for the affinity and stability we made the 6 double and single point mutants that covered the intermediates between these two clones. We found a single amino acid change that achieved a 10°C higher melting temperature while maintaining sub nM affinity. This research gives insights into the impact of the shark sdAb hypervariable 2 region on both stability and affinity.

  3. Illuminant direction estimation for a single image based on local region complexity analysis and average gray value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Compare, Angelo

    2014-01-10

    Illuminant direction estimation is an important research issue in the field of image processing. Due to low cost for getting texture information from a single image, it is worthwhile to estimate illuminant direction by employing scenario texture information. This paper proposes a novel computation method to estimate illuminant direction on both color outdoor images and the extended Yale face database B. In our paper, the luminance component is separated from the resized YCbCr image and its edges are detected with the Canny edge detector. Then, we divide the binary edge image into 16 local regions and calculate the edge level percentage in each of them. Afterward, we use the edge level percentage to analyze the complexity of each local region included in the luminance component. Finally, according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model, we calculate the illuminant directions of the luminance component's three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, and synthesize them as the final illuminant direction. Unlike previous works, the proposed method requires neither all of the information of the image nor the texture that is included in the training set. Experimental results show that the proposed method works better at the correct rate and execution time than the existing ones.

  4. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollengode Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT, yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  5. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain under critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A M; Leermakers, F A M; Fleer, G J

    2013-08-07

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of floating free chains of concentration φ by the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Apart from the grafting, probe chain and floating chains are identical. Most of the results were obtained for a standard SCF model with freely jointed chains on a six-choice lattice, where immediate step reversals are allowed. A few data were generated for a five-choice lattice, where such step reversals are forbidden. These coarse-grained models describe the equilibrium properties of flexible atactic polymer chains at the scale of the segment length. The concentration was varied over the whole range from φ = 0 (single grafted chain) to φ = 1 (probe chain in the melt). The number of contacts with the surface, average height of the free end and its dispersion, average loop and train length, tail size distribution, end-point and overall segment distributions were calculated for a grafted probe chain as a function of φ, for several chain lengths and substrate∕polymer interactions, which were varied from strong repulsion to strong adsorption. The computations show that the conformations of the probe chain in the melt do not depend on substrate∕polymer interactions and are very similar to the conformations of a single end-grafted chain under critical conditions, and can thus be described analytically. When the substrate∕polymer interaction is fixed at the value corresponding to critical conditions, all equilibrium properties of a probe chain are independent of φ, over the whole range from a dilute solution to the melt. We believe that the conformations of all flexible chains in the surface region of the melt are close to those of an appropriate single chain in critical conditions, provided

  6. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  7. A Comparative Study between Codes of Spectrum for a Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) System in Two Different Hazardous Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour, P Moradi; Noorzaei, J [Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karisiddappa [Vice Principal of Malnad College of Engineering, 573201 Hassan, Karnataka (India); Jaafar, M S, E-mail: jamal@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Since in structure and earthquake engineering design of structures using response spectrum method (RSM) is very important, this study has been performed for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. Firstly the concept and the way of construction of response spectrum has been briefly explained. Then the records of some strong earthquakes in USA and Iran as two hazardous regions have been plotted, after that selected response spectrums (RS) of each country has been compared with each other and finally with standard response code of its own country. It was concluded:1) For a given ground motion the response of a SDOF system only depends on its natural vibration period (T) and damping ratio({zeta}).2) When the effective damping ratio of a structure increases, its dynamic responses will decrease which demands the use of higher value of damping ratio in the structure. Also the FORTRAN computer programme for solving the Duhamel's Integral has been improved in this paper.

  8. Single-shot full resolution region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar

    2018-05-01

    We describe a numerical processing technique that allows single-shot region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy with full pixel resolution. The ROI reconstruction is modelled as an optimization problem where the cost function to be minimized consists of an L2-norm squared data fitting term and a modified Huber penalty term that are minimized alternately in an adaptive fashion. The technique can provide full pixel resolution complex-valued images of the selected ROI which is not possible to achieve with the commonly used Fourier transform method. The technique can facilitate holographic reconstruction of individual cells of interest from a large field-of-view digital holographic microscopy data. The complementary phase information in addition to the usual absorption information already available in the form of bright field microscopy can make the methodology attractive to the biomedical user community.

  9. Regional blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine and single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Hibio, Shuichi; Ishihara, Hiroaki; Ariizumi, Motomizu

    1989-01-01

    Single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine was performed in 20 pediatric patients with partial seizure to examine regional blood perfusion. In detecting location of abnormality, SPECT and EEG were concordant in 13 patients (65%) and discordant in 4 patients (20%). In 7 patients undergoing SPECT one to 4 years after seizure onset, decreased blood perfusion corresponded to focal abnormality on EEG. In other 9 patiets in whom SPECT was performed within one year, however, location of abnormality on SPECT did not necessarily concur with that on EEG. These findings suggest that brain lesions are not focal but extensive at the early stage of partial seizure and that they are becoming focal with the mature of the central nervous system. (Namekawa, K)

  10. INFERENCE OF HEATING PROPERTIES FROM “HOT” NON-FLARING PLASMAS IN ACTIVE REGION CORES. I. SINGLE NANOFLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, W. T.; Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Cargill, P. J., E-mail: will.t.barnes@rice.edu [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-20

    The properties that are expected of “hot” non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions are investigated using hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops code. Here we study a single nanoflare and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK, which is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium, and for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the “smoking gun” of nanoflare heating, lies between 10{sup 6.6} and 10{sup 7} K. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  11. Single particle analysis of eastern Mediterranean aerosol particles: Influence of the source region on the chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Hans-Christian; Schneider, Johannes; Köllner, Franziska; Klimach, Thomas; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Sciare, Jean; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most climatically sensitive areas and is influenced by air masses of different origin. Aerosol particles are one important factor contributing to the Earth's radiative forcing, but knowledge about their composition and sources is still limited. Here, we report on results from the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS campaign, which was conducted at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, Agia Marina Xyliatou) in Cyprus in April 2016. Our results show that the chemical composition of the aerosol particles in the eastern Mediterranean is strongly dependent on their source region. The composition of particles in a size range between 150 nm and 3 μm was measured using the Aircraft-based Laser ABlation Aerosol MAss spectrometer (ALABAMA), which is a single particle laser ablation instrument using a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectral information on cations and anions allow for the analysis of different molecular fragments. The information about the source regions results from backward trajectories using HYSPLIT Trajectory Model (Trajectory Ensemble) on hourly basis. To assess the influence of certain source regions on the air masses arriving at CAO, we consider the number of trajectories that crossed the respective source region within defined time steps. For a more detailed picture also the height and the velocity of the air masses during their overpass above the source regions will be considered. During the campaign at CAO in April 2016 three main air mass source regions were observed: 1) Northern Central Europe, likely with an enhanced anthropogenic influence (e.g. sulfate and black carbon from combustion processes, fly ash particles from power plants, characterized by Sr and Ba), 2) Southwest Europe, with a higher influence of the Mediterranean Sea including sea salt particles (characterized by, e.g., NaxCly, NaClxNOy), 3) Northern Africa/Sahara, with air masses that are expected to have a higher load of mineral dust

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms typing of Mycobacterium leprae reveals focal transmission of leprosy in high endemic regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, M; Jadhav, R S; Turankar, R P; Chaitanya, V S; Singh, M; Sengupta, U

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies indicate that genotyping of Mycobaterium leprae based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is useful for analysis of the global spread of leprosy. In the present study, we investigated the diversity of M. leprae at eight SNP loci using 180 clinical isolates obtained from patients with leprosy residing mainly in Delhi and Purulia (West Bengal) regions. It was observed that the frequency of SNP type 1 and subtype D was most predominant in the Indian population. Further, the SNP type 2 subtype E was noted only from East Delhi region and SNP type 2 subtype G was noted only from the nearby areas of Hoogly district of West Bengal. These results indicate the occurrence of focal transmission of M. leprae infection and demonstrate that analysis by SNP typing has great potential to help researchers in understanding the transmission of M. leprae infection in the community. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies

  14. A single nucleotide in stem loop II of 5'-untranslated region contributes to virulence of enterovirus 71 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Te Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we investigated increased virulence of unadapted EV71 clinical isolate 237 as compared with isolate 4643 in mice. A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL II of 237 5'-untranslated region (UTR visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5'-UTR. In cells transfected with bicistronic plasmids, and replicon RNAs, the 12-nt fragment of isolate 237 enhanced translational activities and accelerated replication of subgenomic EV71. Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5'-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. Results collectively indicated a pivotal role of novel virulence determinant C158 on virus translation in vitro and EV71 virulence in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5'-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates.

  15. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  16. Nature of the surface states at the single-layer graphene/Cu(111) and graphene/polycrystalline-Cu interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagliara, S.; Tognolini, S.; Bignardi, L.; Galimberti, G.; Achilli, S.; Trioni, M. I.; van Dorp, W. F.; Ocelik, V.; Rudolf, P.; Parmigiani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Single-layer graphene supported on a metal surface has shown remarkable properties relevant for novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the nature of the electronic states derived from unoccupied surface states and quantum well states, lying in the real-space gap between the graphene

  17. Monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography of I123-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine in epileptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magistretti, P.L.; Uren, R.F.; Parker, J.A.; Royal, H.D.; Front, D.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In some patients with epileptic disorders it is difficult to accurately localize the seizure focus especially in the case of deep lesions. In an attempt to provide better localization of such foci we have used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of a new radiopharmaceutical I 123 -N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) in the ictal and interictal phases. Eight patients were studied. The location of the seizure focus was determined by intraoperative corticography operative findings and pathology in 5 patients and by neuropsychological testing and long-term EEG monitoring in the other three. The SPECT scan accurately localized the seizure focus in all patients. This modality also allowed the functional state of the seizure focus to be assessed. In five of the thirteen studies there was increased RCBF at the seizure focus. On four of these occasions the patients reported symptoms typical of their seizures. In the asymptomatic patient the focally increased RCBF corresponded with a very active superficial epileptic focus on EEG. These preliminary results suggest that SPECT scans of RCBF, will have considerable utility in the management of epileptics. This is particularly the case as the necessary instrumentation is already available in many hospitals, thus minimizing the cost of widespread application

  18. Absence of linkage of apparently single gene mediated ADHD with the human syntenic region of the mouse mutant coloboma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, E.J.; Rogan, P.K.; Domoto, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ. College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is a complex biobehavioral phenotype which affects up to 8% of the general population and often impairs social, academic, and job performance. Its origins are heterogeneous, but a significant genetic component is suggested by family and twin studies. The murine strain, coloboma, displays a spontaneously hyperactive phenotype that is responsive to dextroamphetamine and has been proposed as a genetic model for ADHD. Coloboma is a semi-dominant mutation that is caused by a hemizygous deletion of the SNAP-25 and other genes on mouse chromosome 2q. To test the possibility that the human homolog of the mouse coloboma gene(s) could be responsible for ADHD, we have carried out linkage studies with polymorphic markers in the region syntenic to coloboma (20p11-p12). Five families in which the pattern of inheritance of ADHD appears to be autosomal dominant were studied. Segregation analysis of the traits studied suggested that the best fitting model was a sex-influenced, single gene, Mendelian pattern. Several genetic models were evaluated based on estimates of penetrance, phenocopy rate, and allele frequency derived from our patient population and those of other investigators. No significant linkage was detected between the disease locus and markers spanning this chromosome 20 interval. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole

  1. Structural models of increasing complexity for icosahedral boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.

    2018-05-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the phase stability of boron carbide, concentrating on the recently proposed alternative structural models composed not only of the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), but also of B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ). We find that a combination of the four structural motifs can result in low-energy electron precise configurations of boron carbide. Among several considered configurations within the composition range of B10.5C and B4C , we identify in addition to the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) at the composition of B4C two low-energy configurations, resulting in a new view of the B-C convex hull. Those are [B12 (CBC)]0.67[B12(B4)] 0.33 and [B12 (CBC)]0.67[ B12 (CBCB)]0.33, corresponding to compositions of B10.5C and B6.67C , respectively. As a consequence, B12(CBC) at the composition of B6.5C , previously suggested in the literature as a stable configuration of boron carbide, is no longer part of the B -C convex hull. By inspecting the electronic density of states as well as the elastic moduli, we find that the alternative models of boron carbide can provide a reasonably good description for electronic and elastic properties of the material in comparison with the experiments, highlighting the importance of considering B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ), together with the previously proposed B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), as the crucial ingredients for modeling boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region.

  2. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhong; Shen, Rui; Sheng, Li; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Wang, Bai-Gen; Xing, Ding-Yu

    2011-04-01

    A single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spin-down electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  3. Two-step transition towards the reversibility region in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, H.; de La Cruz, F.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1992-10-01

    We have performed magnetization measurements on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ single crystals in the c^ crystallographic direction for fields from 2 Oe up to 700 Oe. The results strongly suggest that the reversible thermodynamic region is achieved after the vortex flux structure shows an abrupt transition at a temperature lower than that determined by the irreversibility line.

  4. Quadrupole moments of highly deformed structures in the A ∼ 135 region: Probing the single-particle motion in a rotating potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, R.W.; Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Pfohl, J.; Sheline, R.K.; Kondev, F.G.; Archer, D.E.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Sarantites, D.G.; Hartley, D.J.; Hibbert, I.M.; O'Brien, N.J.; Wadsworth, R.; Joss, D.T.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Shepherd, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The latest generation γ-ray detection system, GAMMASPHERE, coupled with the Microball charged-particle detector, has made possible a new class of nuclear lifetime measurement. For the first time differential lifetime measurements free from common systematic errors for over 15 different nuclei (>30 rotational bands in various isotopes of Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm) have been extracted at high spin within a single experiment. This comprehensive study establishes the effective single-particle transition quadrupole moments in the A∼135 light rare-earth region. Detailed comparisons are made with theoretical calculations using the self-consistent cranked mean-field theory which convincingly demonstrates the validity of the additivity of single-particle quadrupole moments in this mass region

  5. Determination of single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M gene in coronary artery diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zheng1, Guanghua Luo1, Xiaoying Zhang1, Jun Zhang1, Jiang Zhu1, Jiang Wei1, Qinfeng Mu1, Lujun Chen1, Peter Nilsson-Ehle2, Ning Xu21Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou University, Changzhou China; 2Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, SwedenObjective: It has been reported that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M (apoM gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and coronary artery disease (CAD in the Han Chinese. However, in a recent study demonstrated that plasma apoM level did not correlated to the coronary heart disease. In the present studies, we investigated the SNP T-778C of apoM gene in CAD patients and controls in the Han Chinese population. Moreover we examined whether serum apoM levels could be influenced by this promoter mutation.Material and methods: One hundred twenty-six CAD patients and 118 non-CAD patients were subjected in the present study. All patients were confirmed by the angiography. The genotyping of polymorphisms T-778C in apoM promoter was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum apoM levels were semi-quantitatively determined by the dot-blotting analysis. Results: Distribution of apoM T-778C genotype in non-CAD patients was as following: 84.7% were T/T, 15.3% were T/C and 0.0% was C/C. T allele frequencies were 92.4% and C allele, 7.6%. In the CAD patients, 99 patients (78.6% had the T/T genotype, 25 patients (19.8% with T/C genotype and 2 patients (1.6% with C/C genotype. The allele frequency was 88.5% for the T allele and 11.5% for the C allele. There was no statistical significant difference of serum apoM levels found in these three genotypes.Conclusions: There was no significant difference in allele or genotype frequencies between CAD patients and non-CAD patients. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age

  6. Nucleotide sequence of soybean chloroplast DNA regions which contain the psb A and trn H genes and cover the ends of the large single copy region and one end of the inverted repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, A; Stutz, E

    1983-10-25

    The soybean chloroplast psb A gene (photosystem II thylakoid membrane protein of Mr 32 000, lysine-free) and the trn H gene (tRNAHisGUG), which both map in the large single copy region adjacent to one of the inverted repeat structures (IR1), have been sequenced including flanking regions. The psb A gene shows in its structural part 92% sequence homology with the corresponding genes of spinach and N. debneyi and contains also an open reading frame for 353 aminoacids. The aminoacid sequence of a potential primary translation product (calculated Mr, 38 904, no lysine) diverges from that of spinach and N. debneyi in only two positions in the C-terminal part. The trn H gene has the same polarity as the psb A gene and the coding region is located at the very end of the large single copy region. The deduced sequence of the soybean chloroplast tRNAHisGUG is identical with that of Zea mays chloroplasts. Both ends of the large single copy region were sequenced including a small segment of the adjacent IR1 and IR2.

  7. An Extended ADOP for Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP, with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, Global Positioning System (GPS, and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1 ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2 when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3 in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4 ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow single photon emission computed tomography for detection of Frontotemporal dementia in people with suspected dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Hilary A; Smailagic, Nadja; John, Christeena; Holmes, Robin B; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Coulthard, Elizabeth J; Cullum, Sarah

    2015-06-23

    In the UK, dementia affects 5% of the population aged over 65 years and 25% of those over 85 years. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represents one subtype and is thought to account for up to 16% of all degenerative dementias. Although the core of the diagnostic process in dementia rests firmly on clinical and cognitive assessments, a wide range of investigations are available to aid diagnosis.Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an established clinical tool that uses an intravenously injected radiolabelled tracer to map blood flow in the brain. In FTD the characteristic pattern seen is hypoperfusion of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. This pattern of blood flow is different to patterns seen in other subtypes of dementia and so can be used to differentiate FTD.It has been proposed that a diagnosis of FTD, (particularly early stage), should be made not only on the basis of clinical criteria but using a combination of other diagnostic findings, including rCBF SPECT. However, more extensive testing comes at a financial cost, and with a potential risk to patient safety and comfort. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of rCBF SPECT for diagnosing FTD in populations with suspected dementia in secondary/tertiary healthcare settings and in the differential diagnosis of FTD from other dementia subtypes. Our search strategy used two concepts: (a) the index test and (b) the condition of interest. We searched citation databases, including MEDLINE (Ovid SP), EMBASE (Ovid SP), BIOSIS (Ovid SP), Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) and LILACS (Bireme), using structured search strategies appropriate for each database. In addition we searched specialised sources of diagnostic test accuracy studies and reviews including: MEDION (Universities of Maastricht and Leuven), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) and HTA (Health Technology Assessment) database

  9. Comparison of influencing factors on outcomes of single and multiple road traffic injuries: A regional study in Shanghai, China (2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Yu

    Full Text Available To identify key intervention factors and reduce road traffic injury (RTI-associated mortality, this study compared outcomes and influencing factors of single and multiple road traffic injuries (RTIs in Shanghai.Based on the design of National Trauma Data Bank, this study collected demographic, injury, and outcome data from RTI patients treated at the four largest trauma centers in Shanghai from January 2011 to January 2015. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis.Among 2397 participants, 59.4% had a single injury, and 40.6% had multiple injuries. Most patients' outcome was cure or improvement. For single-RTI patients, length of stay, body region, central nervous system injury, acute renal failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, bacterial infection, and coma were significantly related to outcome. For multiple-RTI patients, age, admission pathway, prehospital time, length of stay, number of body regions, body region, injury condition, injury severity score, and coma were significantly related to outcome.Emergency rescue in road traffic accidents should focus on high-risk groups (the elderly, high-incidence body regions (head, thorax, pelvis and number of injuries, injury condition (central nervous system injury, coma, complications, admission pathway, injury severity (critically injured patients, and time factors (particularly prehospital time.

  10. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with major depression using the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, K.; Kapucu, Oe.; Erbas, B.; Varoglu, E.; Guelec, C.; Bekdik, C.F.; Hacettepe Univ., Ankara

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was investigated in 14 patients with major depression diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R criteria (six patients with single and eight patients with recurrent episodes) and in ten healthy volunteers. The mean ages of the patients and the controls were 33.5±2.7 and 31.6±2.6 years, respectively. The severity of the depression was assessed using the 17-item Hamiltonian Depression Scale (mean: 23.2±1.5). None of the patients was under medication. After administration of 500 MBq technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel to the whole slice were calculated for 24 regions on three consecutive transaxial slices in the orbitomeatal plane. Additionally, left/right and frontal/occipital ratios were calculated. Both sides of the temporal region had a significantly decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the controls. The left/right ratio of the prefrontal region was also significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The Hamilton score had a negative correlation with blood flow in the anterofrontal and left prefrontal regions. According to our results, regional CBF seems to be decreased in the left prefrontal and in both temporal regions in major depression. The severity of depression is correlated with the reduction in CBF in the regions of the anterofrontal and left prefrontal cortex. (orig.)

  11. Construction of a restriction map and gene map of the lettuce chloroplast small single-copy region using Southern cross-hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, K R

    1996-01-01

    The small single-copy region (SSCR) of the chloroplast genome of many higher plants typically contain ndh genes encoding proteins that share homology with subunits of the respiratory-chain reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. A map of the lettuce chloroplast SSCR has been determined by Southern cross-hybridization, taking advantage of the high degree of homology between a tobacco small single-copy fragment and a corresponding lettuce chloroplast fragment. The gene order of the SSCR of lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts is similar. The cross-hybridization method can rapidly create a primary gene map of unknown chloroplast fragments, thus providing detailed information of the localization and arrangement of genes and conserved open reading frame regions.

  12. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campa, D.; Pastore, M.; Gentiluomo, M.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Kupcinskas, J.; Malecka-Panas, E.; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Niesen, W.; Vodička, Pavel; Delle Fave, G.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Gazouli, M.; Pacetti, P.; Di Leo, M.; Ito, H.; Klüter, H.; Souček, P.; Corbo, V.; Yamao, K.; Hosono, S.; Kaaks, R.; Vashist, Y.; Gioffreda, D.; Strobel, O.; Shimizu, Y.; Dijk, F.; Andriulli, A.; Ivanauskas, A.; Bugert, P.; Tavano, F.; Vodičková, L.; Zambon, C.F.; Lovecek, M.; Landi, S.; Key, T. J.; Boggi, U.; Pezzilli, R.; Jamroziak, K.; Mohelníková-Duchoňová, B.; Mambrini, A.; Bambi, F.; Busch, O.; Pazienza, V.; Valente, R.; Theodoropoulos, G.E.; Hackert, T.; Capurso, G.; Cavestro, G.M.; Pasquali, C.; Basso, D.; Sperti, C.; Matsuo, K.; Büchler, M.; Khaw, K. T.; Izbicki, J.; Costello, E.; Katzke, V.; Michalski, Ch.; Stepien, A.; Rizzato, C.; Canzian, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 35 (2016), s. 57011-57020 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1734 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pancreatic cancer * CDKN2A * single nucleotide polymorphisms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  14. Effects of a single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine in the rat brain regions of a learned helplessness model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Effects of a single bilateral infusion of R-enantiomer of ketamine in rat brain regions of learned helplessness model of depression were examined. A single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into infralimbic (IL) portion of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus showed antidepressant effects. By contrast, a single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into prelimbic (PL) portion of mPFC, shell and core of nucleus accumbens, basolateral amygdala and central nucleus of the amygdala had no effect. This study suggests that IL of mPFC, CA3 and DG of hippocampus might be involved in the antidepressant actions of R-ketamine.

  15. Dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB2 single crystals near the peak-effect region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Byeongwon; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB 2 single crystals has been constructed by using voltage noise characteristics. Between the onset (H on ) and the peak (H p ) magnetic fields, crossovers from a state with large noises to a noise-free state were observed with increasing current while above H p , a reverse behavior was found. We will discuss the dynamic vortex phase diagram and the possible origins of the crossovers

  16. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain nder critical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Fleer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of

  17. Evaluation of single-tooth implants in the second molar region: a 5-year life-table analysis of a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jang-Yeol; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2010-09-01

    To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the success or survival rate of single-tooth implants that replaced missing maxillary and mandibular second molars. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the 1- to 5-year cumulative survival rate (CSR) for single-tooth implants placed in the second molar region and the effects of associated factors. Four hundred eighty-nine patients (298 males and 191 females; age range: 23 to 91 years; mean age: 47 years) who were admitted to the Seoul National University Dental Hospital between March 2003 and July 2008 and treated with single-tooth implants in the second molar region (227 maxillary implants and 294 mandibular implants; total: 521 implants) were included in the study. Thirty-two subjects received two implants each. A 1- to 5-year CSR was calculated using a life-table analysis. A comparison of CSRs between maxillary versus mandibular implants, one-stage versus two-stage implants, short (10 mm) implants, and standard-diameter (or=5.0 mm) implants was performed using Wilcoxon (Gehan) statistics. P CSR was 95.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in CSRs between implants placed in maxillas and mandibles (96.3% versus 94.9%, respectively; P = 0.084), one- and two-stage implants (95.6% versus 94.7%, respectively; P = 0.267), short and long implants (100% versus 95.1%, respectively; P = 0.582), and standard- and wide-diameter implants (93.8% versus 96.8%, respectively; P = 0.065). Within the limitations of the study, the placement of single-tooth implants in the second molar region was an effective and reliable treatment modality. Also, associated factors such as implant diameter, length, and location (the maxilla versus the mandible) may not have an impact on the long-term success of implants.

  18. Electronic structure of single crystalline Bi2(Sr,Ca,La)3Cu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.X.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Borg, A.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission experiments on single crystals of Bi 2 (Sr,Ca,La) 3 Cu 2 O 8 are reported. The data show a dispersionless behavior of the valence band states as a function of the perpendicular component of the wave vector (along the c-axis), while as a function of the parallel component (in the a-b plane) clear dispersion occurs. Furthermore, polarization-dependent excitations reveal information on the symmetry of the unoccupied states

  19. Tensions of network security and collaborative work practice: understanding a single sign-on deployment in a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckle, Rosa R; Lutters, Wayne G

    2011-08-01

    Healthcare providers and their IT staff, working in an effort to balance appropriate accessibility with stricter security mandates, are considering the use of a single network sign-on approach for authentication and password management. Single sign-on (SSO) promises to improve usability of authentication for multiple-system users, increase compliance, and help curb system maintenance costs. However, complexities are introduced when SSO is placed within a collaborative environment. These complexities include unanticipated workflow implications that introduce greater security vulnerability for the individual user. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: In this work, we examine the challenges of implementing a single sign-on authentication technology in a hospital environment. The aim of the study was to document the factors that affected SSO adoption within the context of use. The ultimate goal is to better inform the design of usable authentication systems within collaborative healthcare work sites. The primary data collection techniques used are ethnographically informed - observation, contextual interviews, and document review. The study included a cross-section of individuals from various departments and varying rolls. These participants were a mix of both clinical and administrative staff, as well as the Information Technology group. The field work revealed fundamental mis-matches between the technology and routine work practices that will significantly impact its effective adoption. While single sign-on was effective in the administrative offices, SSO was not a good fit for collaborative areas. The collaborative needs of the clinical staff unearthed tensions in its implementation. An analysis of the findings revealed that the workflow, activities, and physical environment of the clinical areas create increased security vulnerabilities for the individual user. The clinical users were cognizant of these vulnerabilities and this created resistance to the implementation due

  20. Single point mutations distributed in 10 soluble and membrane regions of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plasma membrane PMA2 H+-ATPase activate the enzyme and modify the structure of the C-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsomme, P; Dambly, S; Maudoux, O; Boutry, M

    1998-12-25

    The Nicotiana plumbaginifolia pma2 (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) gene is capable of functionally replacing the H+-ATPase genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provided that the external pH is kept above 5.0. Single point mutations within the pma2 gene were previously identified that improved H+-ATPase activity and allowed yeast growth at pH 4.0. The aim of the present study was to identify most of the PMA2 positions, the mutation of which would lead to improved growth and to determine whether all these mutations result in similar enzymatic and structural modifications. We selected additional mutants in total 42 distinct point mutations localized in 30 codons. They were distributed in 10 soluble and membrane regions of the enzyme. Most mutant PMA2 H+-ATPases were characterized by a higher specific activity, lower inhibition by ADP, and lower stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine than wild-type PMA2. The mutants thus seem to be constitutively activated. Partial tryptic digestion and immunodetection showed that the PMA2 mutants had a conformational change making the C-terminal region more accessible. These data therefore support the hypothesis that point mutations in various H+-ATPase parts displace the inhibitory C-terminal region, resulting in enzyme activation. The high density of mutations within the first half of the C-terminal region suggests that this part is involved in the interaction between the inhibitory C-terminal region and the rest of the enzyme.

  1. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Challenging the neuronal MIBG uptake by pharmacological intervention: effect of a single dose of oral amitriptyline on regional cardiac MIBG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estorch, Montserrat; Carrio, Ignasi; Mena, Esther; Flotats, Albert; Camacho, Valle; Fuertes, Jordi [Autonomous University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kulisewsky, Jaume [Autonomous University of Barcelona, Department of Neurology, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Narula, Jagat [Irvine College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Imaging with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is used for the assessment of neuronal dysfunction in various cardiovascular disorders. Although valuable information is obtained by resting MIBG imaging, it is conceivable that competitive interference with the re-uptake mechanism would exaggerate MIBG defects and might unmask subclinical neuronal dysfunction. Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, have been reported to significantly increase cardiac MIBG washout and inhibit uptake into presynaptic neurons. This study was undertaken to assess whether a single oral dose of amitriptyline could influence cardiac MIBG distribution. Six patients (aged 62-81 years; four males, two females) who had demonstrated a normal cardiac MIBG scan during work-up for movement disorders were studied. The patients underwent a second {sup 123}I-MIBG study after oral administration of 25 mg amitriptyline within 1 week. Single-photon emission computed tomography images were acquired at 4 h to assess the regional distribution of MIBG, after generation of polar maps and employing a 20-segment model. Mean percentage of peak activity was calculated for each segment at rest and after amitriptyline administration. After amitriptyline administration, there was a decrease in regional MIBG uptake in 10{+-}4 segments per patient [62/120 segments (52%): 37 segments with a 5-10% decrease, 25 segments with a >10% decrease]. This change was statistically significant in lateral (P=0.003), apical (P<0.0001) and inferior (P=0.03) regions. A single oral dose of amitriptyline can induce changes in the uptake and retention of cardiac MIBG, indicating the feasibility of use of pharmacological intervention in cardiac neurotransmission imaging. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J J [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands) Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harskamp, F van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breteler, M M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E P [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cammen, T.J.M. van der (Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Hofman, A [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hasan, D [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-10-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ([sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Harskamp, F. van; Breteler, M.M.B.; Krenning, E.P.; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Hasan, D.

    1994-01-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Matan; Peremans, Kathelijne; Martlé, Valentine; Vandermeulen, Eva; Bosmans, Tim; Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area. Brain perfusion imaging alterations observed in the dogs with PSS and HE are similar to those in human patients with HE. These findings suggest that dogs with HE and PSS have altered perfusion of mainly the subcortical and the temporal regions of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism typing of Mycobacterium ulcerans reveals focal transmission of buruli ulcer in a highly endemic region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Röltgen

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is an emerging necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. While proximity to stagnant or slow flowing water bodies is a risk factor for acquiring BU, the epidemiology and mode of M. ulcerans transmission is poorly understood. Here we have used high-throughput DNA sequencing and comparisons of the genomes of seven M. ulcerans isolates that appeared monomorphic by existing typing methods. We identified a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and developed a real-time PCR SNP typing method based on these differences. We then investigated clinical isolates of M. ulcerans on which we had detailed information concerning patient location and time of diagnosis. Within the Densu river basin of Ghana we observed dominance of one clonal complex and local clustering of some of the variants belonging to this complex. These results reveal focal transmission and demonstrate, that micro-epidemiological analyses by SNP typing has great potential to help us understand how M. ulcerans is transmitted.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with sickle cell disease: study with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kandari, F.A.; Owunwanne, A.; Syed, G.M.; Elgazzar, A.H.; Rizui, A.M.; Al-Ajmi, J.A.; Mohammed, A.M.; Ar Marouf, R.; Shiekh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Neurological complications have been reported in patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) using positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT), but not with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The objective of this study was to investigate brain perfusion in the patients with SCD using SPECT after technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), was administered and compare the findings with those of demography, physical examination, MRI and hematological profile. The study involved 21 patients (12 males, 9 females, age at study 8-45 years) who were known to be having SCD for a duration of at least 5 years. The patients were not in acute crisis and had normal neurological assessments with no known history of stroke or transient ischemic episode or previous abnormal CT or MRI brain scan, and were right-handed. The brain SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99m Tc-HMPAO in adults or an appropriate dose in pediatric patients. The scans were visually interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians and a decision was reached by consensus. An MRI done 3 months later was interpreted by a radiologist. The demographic data and hematological profile were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Of the 21 patients, 7 (age 11-22 years) had brain perfusion deficit mostly in the frontal lobe either alone or in combination with temporal and/or parietal lobe. The MRI was abnormal in 2 patients. The brain perfusion deficit was not associated with the demographic data of the patients or hematological profiles. The findings show that SPECT was useful in detecting brain perfusion deficit in SCD patients, and such an early detection may be clinically useful in the subsequent follow-up of such patients, since it is known that cerebral perfusion deficit can lead to silent infarct and/or overt stroke, and affect cognitive skills. (author)

  8. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLY SINGLE BLUE SUPERGIANT STAR IN THE INTRA-CLUSTER REGION OF VIRGO CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Youichi; Hota, Ananda [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-20

    IC 3418 is a dwarf irregular galaxy falling into the Virgo cluster, and a 17 kpc long trail is seen behind the galaxy, which is considered to have formed due to ram pressure stripping. The trail contains compact knots and diffuse blobs of ultraviolet and blue optical emission and, thus, it is a clear site of recent star formation but in an unusual environment, surrounded by a million degree intra-cluster medium. We report on our optical spectroscopy of a compact source in the trail, SDSS J122952.66+112227.8, and show that the optical spectrum is dominated by emission from a massive blue supergiant star. If confirmed, our report would mark the farthest star with spectroscopic observation. We interpret that a massive O-type star formed in situ in the trail has evolved recently out of the main sequence into this blue supergiant phase, and now lacks any detectable spectral sign of its associated H II region. We argue that turbulence within the ram pressure striped gaseous trail may play a dominant role for the star formation within such trails.

  10. DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLY SINGLE BLUE SUPERGIANT STAR IN THE INTRA-CLUSTER REGION OF VIRGO CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Youichi; Hota, Ananda

    2013-01-01

    IC 3418 is a dwarf irregular galaxy falling into the Virgo cluster, and a 17 kpc long trail is seen behind the galaxy, which is considered to have formed due to ram pressure stripping. The trail contains compact knots and diffuse blobs of ultraviolet and blue optical emission and, thus, it is a clear site of recent star formation but in an unusual environment, surrounded by a million degree intra-cluster medium. We report on our optical spectroscopy of a compact source in the trail, SDSS J122952.66+112227.8, and show that the optical spectrum is dominated by emission from a massive blue supergiant star. If confirmed, our report would mark the farthest star with spectroscopic observation. We interpret that a massive O-type star formed in situ in the trail has evolved recently out of the main sequence into this blue supergiant phase, and now lacks any detectable spectral sign of its associated H II region. We argue that turbulence within the ram pressure striped gaseous trail may play a dominant role for the star formation within such trails.

  11. Study of single particle properties of nuclei in the region of the "island of inversion" by means of neutron-transfer reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Voulot, D

    2007-01-01

    We are aiming at the investigation of single particle properties of neutron-rich nuclei in the region of the "island of inversion" where intruder states from the $\\{fp}$-shell favour deformed ground states instead of the normal spherical $\\textit{sd}$-shell states. As first experiment, we propose to study single particle states in the neutron-rich isotope $^{31}$Mg. The nucleus will be populated by a one-neutron transfer reaction with a $^{30}$Mg beam at 3 MeV/u obtained from REX-ISOLDE impinging on a CD$_{2}$ target. The $\\gamma$-rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array and the particles by a newly built set-up of segmented Si detectors with a angular coverage of nearly 4$\\pi$. Relative spectroscopic factors extracted from the cross sections will enable us to pin down the configurations of the populated states. These will be compared to recent shell model calculations involving new residual interactions. This will shed new light on the evolution of single particle structure leading to the breaking of the ...

  12. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  13. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  14. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keymeulen, B. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Metz, K. de [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Cluydts, R. [Dept. of Psychology, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Bossuyt, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Somers, G.

    1996-02-01

    The study was performed to investigate subclinical abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to correlate them with patients` characteristics. After intravenous injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), tracer uptake of the prefrontal, frontal and parieto-occipital zones was measured with a triple-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera system in 35 IDDM patients outside an episode of hypolycaemia. Tracer uptake values in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as reference values. Compared with healthy subjects, increased tracer uptake of both prefrontal regions and the left frontal region could be shown in diabetes. Tracer uptake was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes in all investigated regions. In diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (n=26), stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between their HbA1c levels and tracer uptake. Long-term diabetic patients with reduced (pre)frontal tracer uptake (n=8) had lower HbA1c levels than those without (8.4%{+-}0.2% vs 9.3%{+-}0.3%, P<0.05) and tended to have more frequently a history of hypoglycaemic coma (6/8 v 6/18, P=0.06). It can be concluded that duration of diabetes contributes to subclinical changes in basal rCBF in IDDM as detected with HMPAO SPET of the brain. The positive correlation between the presence of regional hypoperfusion and lower HbA1c levels in long-term diabetic patients may be interpreted in the light of presumed higher incidence of hypoglycaemia as metabolic control improves. (orig.)

  15. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keymeulen, B.; Metz, K. de; Cluydts, R.; Bossuyt, A.; Somers, G.

    1996-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate subclinical abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to correlate them with patients' characteristics. After intravenous injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), tracer uptake of the prefrontal, frontal and parieto-occipital zones was measured with a triple-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera system in 35 IDDM patients outside an episode of hypolycaemia. Tracer uptake values in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as reference values. Compared with healthy subjects, increased tracer uptake of both prefrontal regions and the left frontal region could be shown in diabetes. Tracer uptake was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes in all investigated regions. In diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (n=26), stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between their HbA1c levels and tracer uptake. Long-term diabetic patients with reduced (pre)frontal tracer uptake (n=8) had lower HbA1c levels than those without (8.4%±0.2% vs 9.3%±0.3%, P<0.05) and tended to have more frequently a history of hypoglycaemic coma (6/8 v 6/18, P=0.06). It can be concluded that duration of diabetes contributes to subclinical changes in basal rCBF in IDDM as detected with HMPAO SPET of the brain. The positive correlation between the presence of regional hypoperfusion and lower HbA1c levels in long-term diabetic patients may be interpreted in the light of presumed higher incidence of hypoglycaemia as metabolic control improves. (orig.)

  16. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Toshinori (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshinori

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs

  19. Passage and absorption of dietary and endogenous nitrogen in different regions of the digestive tract of rats given a single meal of 15N-labelled barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, I.G.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats (86.9 +- 0.96 g) were fasted for 24 hours and then offered a single meal (intake of 1 to 2.5 g) of 15 N-labelled barley (5.34 atom% 15 N excess). The test meal also contained Cr 2 O 3 (20 mg/g). Groups of five animals were killed 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 4; 6 and 8 hours after removal of food. The contents of different regions of the digestive tract (stomach, proximal, middle and distal third of small intestine, large intestine) and feces were analyzed for Cr 2 O 3 and for N and 15 N abundance in both a TCA soluble and a TCA precipitable fraction. The distribution patterns of Cr 2 O 3 and 15 N along the digestive tract were very similar. If the disappearance of 15 N from the contents of the small and of the large intestines was expressed as a proportion of the gastric outflow of 15 N, a disappearance rate of 90% was found. On the basis of isotopic dilution the proportion of dietary nitrogen in digesta was calculated. The results illustrated the intensive dilution of dietary nitrogen by endogenous secretions in all regions of the digestive tract. In the distal small intestine endogenous nitrogen accounted for 70% of total nitrogen. 17 mg endogenous N were produced by the stomach within 8 hours after the single meal. The results show the value of the method in determining the true digestibility of nitrogen in 15 N-labelled feedstuffs more accurately than with classical methods and in providing an insight into the dynamics of nitrogen absorption and secretion in the digestive tract. (author)

  20. Theory of single-photon echo (SP-echo) and the possibility of its experimental study in the gamma-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    The single-photon echo (SP-echo) effect is predicted to appear in the case of three-level medium excitation by means of a single photon propagating to the medium along two optical paths with a mutual time delay surpassing the temporal duration of the photon wave packet. The quantum electrodynamical theory describing this interaction is presented and the S-matrix of the field is shown for infinite time (t=∞). Using the S-matrix approach, physical properties of the scattering field are studied. Hence, it is shown that the field has an echo signal at the ω 32 0 carrier frequency. It has been shown that the echo signal exists only in the field amplitude while being absent in its intensity behaviour. Thus, SP-echo is an interference effect and is not influenced by the energy irradiation. The problems of SP-echo detection in the gamma-region (where special generation difficulties appear) are discussed. The influence of the additional detection of theω 21 0 frequency field on the echo signal has been shown. A special case is the EPR-paradox which can appear within the echo phenomenon

  1. Theory of single-photon echo (SP-echo) and the possibility of its experimental study in the gamma-region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, S.A

    1997-05-15

    The single-photon echo (SP-echo) effect is predicted to appear in the case of three-level medium excitation by means of a single photon propagating to the medium along two optical paths with a mutual time delay surpassing the temporal duration of the photon wave packet. The quantum electrodynamical theory describing this interaction is presented and the S-matrix of the field is shown for infinite time (t={infinity}). Using the S-matrix approach, physical properties of the scattering field are studied. Hence, it is shown that the field has an echo signal at the {omega}{sub 32}{sup 0} carrier frequency. It has been shown that the echo signal exists only in the field amplitude while being absent in its intensity behaviour. Thus, SP-echo is an interference effect and is not influenced by the energy irradiation. The problems of SP-echo detection in the gamma-region (where special generation difficulties appear) are discussed. The influence of the additional detection of the{omega}{sub 21}{sup 0} frequency field on the echo signal has been shown. A special case is the EPR-paradox which can appear within the echo phenomenon.

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis of Deleterious Non-Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nsSNPs in the Coding Regions of Human Prion Protein Gene (PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Bamdad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the cause of genetic variation to living organisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms alter residues in the protein sequence. In this investigation, the relationship between prion protein gene polymorphisms and its relevance to pathogenicity was studied. Material & Method: Amino acid sequence of the main isoform from the human prion protein gene (PRNP was extracted from UniProt database and evaluated by FoldAmyloid and AmylPred servers. All non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs from SNP database (dbSNP were further analyzed by bioinformatics servers including SIFT, PolyPhen-2, I-Mutant-3.0, PANTHER, SNPs & GO, PHD-SNP, Meta-SNP, and MutPred to determine the most damaging nsSNPs. Results: The results of the first structure analyses by FoldAmyloid and AmylPerd servers implied that regions including 5-15, 174-178, 180-184, 211-217, and 240-252 were the most sensitive parts of the protein sequence to amyloidosis. Screening all nsSNPs of the main protein isoform using bioinformatic servers revealed that substitution of Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (ID code: rs11538766 was the most deleterious nsSNP in the protein structure. Conclusion:  Substitution of the Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (D178V was the most pathogenic mutation in the human prion protein gene. Analyses from the MutPred server also showed that beta-sheets’ increment in the secondary structure was the main reason behind the molecular mechanism of the prion protein aggregation.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenia during verbal memory activation: a 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography (SPET) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, G F; Costa, D C; Ell, P J; Pilowsky, L S; David, A S; Kerwin, R W

    1994-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in a group of medicated DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients and age, sex and handedness matched normal volunteers using a split-dose 99mTc-HMPAO Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET) protocol. Measures were taken during the performance of a verbal memory task aimed at activating the left medial temporal lobe, a region repeatedly suggested to be structurally abnormal in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, the performance of the task was associated with significant rCBF increases in the left medial temporal, left inferior frontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and right cerebellum. Despite their significantly poorer performance on the memory task, the degree of medial temporal activation measured in the schizophrenic patients was not significantly different from that found in the control group. This finding suggests that memory deficits in schizophrenia do not necessarily imply failure to activate the left medial temporal lobe as assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO SPET.

  4. Homozygosity of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the canine estrogen receptor 1 gene is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Indunil N; Tanaka, Kakeru; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tsuji, Makoto; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2011-06-01

    Differences in the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) were examined in Miniature Dachshunds (n = 48), Chihuahuas (n = 20) and Toy Poodles (n = 18). Five DNA fragments located in the 40-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were directly sequenced. We compared allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies at each SNP in the 3' end of ESR1 for these three breeds of small dog. The frequency of the major allele and the genotype frequency of the major allele homozygotes, were significantly higher in Toy Poodles for five SNPs (SNP #5, #14-17) than in Miniature Dachshunds, and significantly higher in Toy Poodles than Chihuahuas for three SNPs (SNP #15-17). A common haplotype block was identified in an approximately 20-kb region encompassing four SNPs (SNPs # 14-17). The frequencies of the most abundant estimated haplotype (GTTG) and GTTG homozygotes were significantly higher in Toy Poodles than in the other two breeds. These results imply that homozygosity for the allele, genotype and haplotype distribution within the block at the 3' end of ESR1 is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Co-ordinate expression of glycine betaine synthesis genes linked by the FMDV 2A region in a single open reading frame in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sanhong; Yao, Quanhong; Tao, Jianmin; Qiao, Yushan; Zhang, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    The genes encoding the two enzymes choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) of glycine betaine synthesis in Suaeda salsa were cloned and fused with the 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a single open reading frame. The fused genes were placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter in pPIC3B and transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The expression of the fused genes in P. pastoris and the ability of recombinant yeasts to tolerate environmental stresses were studied. The results showed that induced with 0.5% methanol for 96 h, the maximal activities of CMO and BADH in the tested recombinant yeasts were 45- and 44-fold higher than those in the control yeast transformed empty vector only, respectively; the content of glycine betaine in the recombinant yeasts was 28- to 35-fold higher than that in the control. The fused genes linked by 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus were expressed in P. pastoris successfully and the polyprotein was 'cleaved' to each functional protein. The yeasts transformed the fused genes, which were more resistant to salt, methanol, and high temperature stresses than the control as result of glycine betaine synthesis genes introduced.

  6. BENZO[A]PYRENE AND ITS K-REGION DIOL INDUCE DNA DAMAGE IN C3H10T1/2C18 CELLS AS MEASURED BY THE ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL (COMET) ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    160. Benzo[a]pyrene and its K-region diol induce DNA damage in C3HlOTl/2Cl8 cells as measured by the alkaline single cell gel (Comet) assay In a continuing series of studies on the genotoxicity ofK-region dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have repo...

  7. Single Mutations in the VP2 300 Loop Region of the Three-Fold Spike of the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Can Determine Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J.; Zhang, Sheng; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range. IMPORTANCE Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300

  8. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research

  9. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the estrogen receptor 1 gene in normal and cryptorchid Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Indunil Nishantha; Tanaka, Kakeru; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tsuji, Makoto; Kida, Kayoko; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to examine the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated haplotypes in the canine estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene (ESR1) and the association of them with different phenotypes of cryptorchidism (CO) in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Forty CO and 68 normal dogs were used, and CO was classified into unilateral (UCO; n=33) and bilateral CO (BCO; n=5) or into abdominal (ACO; n=16) and inguinal CO (ICO; n=22). Thirteen DNA fragments located in the 70-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by PCR and sequenced to examine 13 SNPs (#1-#13) reported in a canine SNP database. Ten SNPs (#1-#4, #7, #8, #10-#13) were not polymorphic, and 5 new SNPs (#14-#18) were discovered. A common haplotype block in normal, CO and CO phenotypes was identified for an approximately 20-kb region encompassing 4 SNPs (#14-#17). Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies in CO without classification by phenotype and also in UCO, ACO and ICO phenotypes were not statistically different from the normal group. Significant differences in genotype frequencies and homozygosity for the estimated GTTG haplotype within the block were observed in BCO compared with the normal group, although the number of BCO animals was small. Our results demonstrate that the examined SNPs and haplotypes in the 3' end of canine ESR1 are not associated with unilateral, abdominal and inguinal CO phenotypes and CO per se in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Further studies are necessary to suggest a clear association between the ESR1 SNPs and bilateral CO in dogs.

  10. Feasibility of Single Scan for Simultaneous Evaluation of Regional Krypton and Iodine Concentrations with Dual-Energy CT: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae Rom; Chang, Suyon; Im, Dong Jin; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a simultaneous single scan of regional krypton and iodine concentrations by using dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional animal experimental committee. An airway obstruction model was first made in 10 beagle dogs, and a pulmonary arterial occlusion was induced in each animal after 1 week. For each model, three sessions of dual-energy CT (80% krypton ventilation [krypton CT], 80% krypton ventilation with iodine enhancement [mixed-contrast agent CT], and iodine enhancement [iodine CT]) were performed. Krypton maps were made from krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT, and iodine maps were made from iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT. Observers measured overlay Hounsfield units of the diseased and contralateral segments on each map. Values were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results In krypton maps of airway obstruction, overlay Hounsfield units of diseased segments were significantly decreased compared with those of contralateral segments in both krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both). However, the values of mixed-contrast agent CT were significantly higher than those of krypton CT for both segments (P = .005 and .007, respectively). In iodine maps of pulmonary arterial occlusion, values were significantly lower in diseased segments than in contralateral segments for both iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both), without significant difference between iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT for both segments (P = .126 and .307, respectively). Conclusion Although some limitations may exist, it might be feasible to analyze regional krypton and iodine concentrations simultaneously by using dual-energy CT. © RSNA, 2016.

  11. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  12. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of liposome encapsulated HVR1 and NS3 regions of genotype 3 HCV, either singly or in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Gouri M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus displays a high rate of mutation and exists as a quasispecies in infected patients. In the absence of an effective universal vaccine, genotype-specific vaccine development represents an alternative. We have attempted to develop a genotype 3 based, liposome encapsulated HCV vaccine with hypervariable region-1 (HVR1 and non-structural region-3 (NS3 components. Results HCV RNA extracted from serum samples of 49 chronically infected patients was PCR amplified to obtain HVR1 region. These amplified products were cloned to obtain 20 clones per sample in order to identify the quasispecies pattern. The HVR1 consensus sequence, along with three variants was reverse transcribed to obtain peptides. The peptides were checked for immunoreactivity individually, as a pool or as a single peptide tetramer interspersed with four glycine residues. Anti-HCV positivity varied from 42.6% (tetramer to 92.2% (variant-4 when 115 anti-HCV positive sera representing genotypes 1, 3, 4 and 6 were screened. All the 95 anti-HCV negatives were scored negative by all antigens. Mice were immunized with different liposome encapsulated or Al(OH3 adjuvanted formulations of HVR1 variants and recombinant NS3 protein, and monitored for anti-HVR1 and anti-NS3 antibody titres, IgG isotypes and antigen specific cytokine levels. A balanced Th1/Th2 isotyping response with high antibody titres was observed in most of the liposome encapsulated antigen groups. The effect of liposomes and aluminium hydroxide on the expression of immune response genes was studied using Taqman Low Density Array. Both Th1 (IFN-gamma, Il18 and Th2 (Il4 genes were up regulated in the liposome encapsulated HVR1 variant pool-NS3 combination group. In-vitro binding of the virus to anti-HVR1 antibodies was demonstrated. Conclusion The optimum immunogen was identified to be combination of peptides of HVR1 consensus sequence and its variants along with pNS3 encapsulated in liposomes

  13. Importance of a distal proximal contact on load transfer by implant-supported single adjacent crowns in posterior region of the mandible: a photoelastic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Afranio de Aguiar Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the importance of a distal proximal contact on the load transfer to the posterior region of the mandible by non-splinted adjacent implant-supported crowns using photoelastic stress analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rectangular model (68x30x15 mm was made of polymethylmethacrylate resin to simulate half of the mandibular arch. One model was completed with resin replicas representing the first premolar and second molar and with two 3.75 mm dia.x11 mm internal hexagon threaded implants replacing the second premolar and first molar. The other model was manufactured in the same way but without the second molar. Both models were duplicated using photoelastic resin. The roots of the teeth replicas were covered with a layer of polyether impression material to simulate the periodontal ligament. Two different vertical loads were applied to the crowns as follows: 1 - single static point load alternately applied to the crowns replacing the second premolar and first molar (50 N; 2 - simultaneous static point loads applied to both of the crowns replacing the second premolar and first molar (100 N. The resulting isochromatic fringe pattern in the photoelastic model was monitored and photographed. RESULTS: All loading conditions studied showed that the presence of the second molar has changed the load transmission and the pattern of stresses. CONCLUSION: Results showed that the presence of a second molar proximal contact can help minimize the stresses around the implants.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage with ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Iino, Katsuro; Kojima, Hisashi; Saito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kazuo; Kato, Toshiro

    1987-05-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method was undertaken within 48 hr after the onset in 68 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The results for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were compared with concurrently available computed tomography (CT) scans. In patients with cerebral infarction, SPECT detected ischemic lesions earlier than CT, with the detectability being 92 %. The area with a decreased blood flow, as seen on SPECT, was more extensive than the low density area on CT, with a concomitant decrease in blood flow in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery in 50 % (7/14), and with stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in 35 % (9/26). Abnormal SPECT findings were seen in 47 % (8/17) of the patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Five TIA patients had a decreased rCBF on SPECT, which was not provided by CT scans. On the contrary, small infarct lesions in the cerebral basal ganglia, as observed in 4 patients, was not detected by SPECT, but detected by CT. This may imply the limitations of SPECT in the detection of deep-seated lesions of the cerebrum. The results led to the conclusion that SPECT can be performed safely even in acute, seriously ill patients to know changes in rCBF because it is noninvasive and is capable of being repeated in a short time. (Namekawa, K.).

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine single-photon emission tomography in patients with Joseph disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kunio

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in five Japanese patients who were clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease, also called Machado-Joseph disease or Azorean disease, using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by a five-step rating scale as defined on X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Compared with ten age-matched normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF ± SD: 66.9 ± 6.6 ml/100 g/min), rCBF in patients with Joseph disease was significantly decreased in the cerebellum (mean ± SD: 50.2 ± 7.3 ml/100 g/min). No significant relationship, however, was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy on X-CT. rCBF in the cerebellum was minimally decreased in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy and in two patients with moderate atrophy. These data may support the findings that Purkinje cells in the cerebellum are almost normal in Joseph disease, and that the granular and molecular layers remain intact in spite of cortical atrophy of the cerebellum. It is concluded that [ 123 I]-IMP SPET is able to identify pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or magnetic resonance imaging, and thus is useful for the diagnosis of Joseph disease. (orig.)

  16. Ligand-based transport resonances of single-molecule magnet spin filters: Suppression of the Coulomb blockade and determination of the orientation of the magnetic easy axis

    OpenAIRE

    Renani, Fatemeh Rostamzadeh; Kirczenow, George

    2011-01-01

    We investigate single molecule magnet transistors (SMMTs) with ligands that support transport resonances. We find the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of Mn12-benzoate SMMs (with and without thiol or methyl-sulfide termination) to be on ligands, the highest occupied molecular orbitals being on the Mn12 magnetic core. We predict gate controlled switching between Coulomb blockade and coherent resonant tunneling in SMMTs based on such SMMs, strong spin filtering by the SMM in both transport ...

  17. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN APPARENTLY SINGLE GALACTIC WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE WIND VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  18. The effect of metallothionein 2A core promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphism on accumulation of toxic metals in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.starska@umed.lodz.pl [I Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź (Poland); Bryś, Magdalena; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr [II Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź (Poland); Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Danilewicz, Marian [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Łódź, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź (Poland); Krześlak, Anna [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)

    2015-06-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular thiol-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which join trace metal ions protecting cells against heavy metal toxicity and regulate metal distribution and donation to various enzymes and transcription factors. The goal of this study was to identify the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene, and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni content in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissue (IP), with non-cancerous sinonasal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 117 IP and 132 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The frequency of A allele carriage was 99.2% and 100% in IP and NCM, respectively. The G allele carriage was detected in 23.9% of IP and in 12.1% of the NCM samples. As a result, a significant association of − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups was determined. A significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. A highly significant association was detected between the rs28366003 genotype and Cd and Zn content in IP. Furthermore, significant differences were identified between A/A and A/G genotype with regard to the type of metal contaminant. The Spearman rank correlation results showed the MT2A gene expression and both Cd and Cu levels were negatively correlated. The results obtained in this study suggest that the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and toxic metal accumulation in sinonasal inverted papilloma. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant

  19. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck Region for Tumor Staging-Comparison of Dual-Source, Dual-Energy and Low-Kilovolt, Single-Energy Acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias Stefan; Bruegel, Joscha; Brand, Michael; Wiesmueller, Marco; Krauss, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Wuest, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed. A second scan aligned to the jaw, covering the oral cavity, was performed for every patient to reduce artifacts caused by dental hardware using a SE-CT protocol with 70-kV tube voltages and matching radiation dose settings. Objective image quality was evaluated by calculating contrast-to-noise ratios. Subjective image quality was evaluated by experienced radiologists. Highest contrast-to-noise ratios for vessel and tumor attenuation were obtained in 40-keV VMI (all P image quality was also highest for 40-keV, but differences to 60-keV VMI, WAI, and 70-kV SE were nonsignificant (all P > 0.05). High kiloelectron volt VMIs reduce metal artifacts with only limited diagnostic impact because of insufficiency in case of severe dental hardware. CTDIvol did not differ significantly between both examination protocols (DSDE: 18.6 mGy; 70-kV SE: 19.4 mGy; P = 0.10). High overall image quality for tumor delineation in head and neck imaging were obtained with 40-keV VMI. However, 70-kV SE examinations are an alternative and modified projections aligned to the jaw are recommended in case of severe artifacts caused by dental hardware.

  20. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  1. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  2. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  3. Precarity in the Brussels-Capital Region: The Issues at Stake for Public Policy in Response to the Precarization of Single-parent Families in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of precarization is analysed in different manners in most literature concerning contemporary stakes of western welfare states. In comparison to other countries, Belgium has known a rather specific and delimited effect of the economic crisis from 2008, but certain groups face rather an ongoing effect of precarization on multiple and intertwined aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the situation of precarity of single-parent families in the Brussels-Capital Region. The attention to that group is related to its higher risk of precarity and poverty. Furthermore it allows analysing the limits of public policies in the fight against poverty and precarity, that are clearly inadequate. Various options in terms of public policies and legal measures in the fight against poverty are discussed from three different angles of perspective: socioeconomic positions, social integration and the subjective experience (Dubet 1994. The tension between recognition and redistribution measures is central (Fraser 2011 in the argumentation for a balanced vision of policy measures to address single-parent poverty. La literatura científica sobre las apuestas contemporáneas de los estados de bienestar occidentales analiza de forma diferente el proceso de precarización. En comparación con otros países, Bélgica ha vivido desde 2008 un efecto de la crisis económica bastante específico y delimitado. Sin embargo, algunos grupos se enfrentan a un proceso de precarización continuo en numerosos aspectos, interrelacionados entre sí. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la situación de precariedad de las familias monoparentales de la región de Bruselas capital. La atención a ese grupo está relacionada con su mayor riesgo de precariedad y pobreza. Además, permite analizar los límites de las políticas públicas en la lucha contra la pobreza y la precariedad, que son claramente insuficientes. Se analizan desde tres puntos de vista diversas

  4. A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

    2010-08-13

    Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

  5. Characterization of individual ice residual particles by the single droplet freezing method: a case study in the Asian dust outflow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Ayumi; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    pure or fresh calcite, Ca(NO3)2, and (NH4)2SO4 particles were more often found in the non-active fraction. In this study, we demonstrated the capability of the combined single droplet freezing method and thorough individual particle analysis to characterize the ice nucleation activity of atmospheric aerosols. We also found that dramatic changes in the particle mixing states during long-range transport had a complex effect on the ice nucleation activity of the host aerosol particles. A case study in the Asian dust outflow region highlighted the need to consider particle mixing states, which can dramatically influence ice nucleation activity.

  6. Characterization of individual ice residual particles by the single droplet freezing method: a case study in the Asian dust outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iwata

    2018-02-01

    dust particles. Also, relatively pure or fresh calcite, Ca(NO32, and (NH42SO4 particles were more often found in the non-active fraction. In this study, we demonstrated the capability of the combined single droplet freezing method and thorough individual particle analysis to characterize the ice nucleation activity of atmospheric aerosols. We also found that dramatic changes in the particle mixing states during long-range transport had a complex effect on the ice nucleation activity of the host aerosol particles. A case study in the Asian dust outflow region highlighted the need to consider particle mixing states, which can dramatically influence ice nucleation activity.

  7. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  8. Incremental value of regional wall motion analysis immediately after exercise for the detection of single-vessel coronary artery disease. Study by separate acquisition, dual-isotope ECG-gated single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shunichi; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Tani, Shigemasa; Takayama, Tadateru; Uchiyama, Takahisa; Saito, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Although the detection of wall motion abnormalities gives incremental value to myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the diagnosis of extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-grade single-vessel CAD, whether or not it is useful in the diagnosis of mild, single-vessel CAD has not been studied previously. Separate acquisition, dual isotope electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated SPECT was performed in 97 patients with a low likelihood of CAD (Group 1) and 46 patients with single-vessel CAD (Group 2). Mild CAD was defined by stenosis of 50-75% (Group 2a, n=22) and moderate to severe CAD was defined by stenosis ≥76% (Group 2b, n=24). Myocardial perfusion and wall motion were graded by a 5 point-scale, 20-segment model. The sensitivity of myocardial perfusion alone was 50% for Group 2a, 83% for Group 2b and 67% for Group 2 as a whole. The overall specificity was 90%. When the wall motion analysis was combined, the sensitivity was increased to 82% in Group 2a and 92% in Group 2b. The ability to detect a wall motion abnormality immediately after exercise gives incremental diagnostic value to myocardial perfusion SPECT in the identification of mild, single-vessel CAD. (author)

  9. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  10. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-{sup 123}I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ohagata, Niigata (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V{sub d}) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ({sup 123}I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p<0.01) and cerebellar vermis (p<0.05). The V{sub d} was also significantly decreased in the pons (p<0.005) in comparison with that for normal subjects. Pearson's correlation analysis yielded a significant relationship between the rCBF in the pons and age at onset (r=0.578, p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between the V{sub d} for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p<0.05). Person's correlation analysis also showed a significant relationship between the V{sub d} in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p<0.05). The pontine rCBFs in patients with early onset MJD

  11. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  12. The peculiarities of regional volume cerebral blood flow in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy by the findings of single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makejev, S.S.; Novyikova, T.G.; Kustkova, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the state of the brain perfusion in patients with stage II hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) at development of hypertension crisis vs. crisis-free course of HE showed that in 79,5% of the patients with stage II HE, single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated local changes of the blood flow

  13. Differential patterns of human immunoglobulin G subclass responses to distinct regions of a single protein, the merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, D R; Dobaño, C; Elhassan, I M

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to the major polymorphic region and to a conserved region of MSP-1 in three cohorts of African villagers exposed to Plasmodium falciparum revealed that responses to Block 2 are predominantly IgG3 whereas antibodies to MSP-1(19) are mainly IgG......1. The striking dominance of IgG3 to Block 2 may explain the short duration of this response and also the requirement for continuous stimulation by malaria infection to maintain clinical immunity....

  14. Meaurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic region from the reaction {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yawei [Rutgers

    2013-10-01

    A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.

  15. Optimization study of a single-effect water–lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system powered by flat-plate collector in hot regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Mosa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive analysis for optimizing solar absorption system in hot region. • The most important parameter to be controlled is hot source temperature. • Ensuring appropriate choice of parameters, COP of absorption unit exceeds 0.8. • Results show that solar cooling systems are promising in hot regions. • The research aims to play a vital role to promote the use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This investigation has been carried out to present a comprehensive analysis for optimizing the operation of solar absorption system in hot regions. To optimize performance of the system, the hot source temperature should be controlled in function of incident solar radiation, chilled and cooling water temperatures. With an appropriate control, these external conditions can be monitored to detect and implement the actual optimization conditions. Adopting typical values encountered in hot regions, the overall system performance takes its optimal value at temperatures between 75 and 80 °C. It was found that in designing or selecting solar collector, selective coating type is necessary to produce hot water with potential around 80–90 °C needed to optimize operation of absorption unit. By ensuring an appropriate choice of components temperatures, COP of absorption unit can exceed the value 0.8. Cooling water temperature above 40 °C reduces significantly the performance of the unit which requires, under conditions of extremely high external temperatures, dimensioning and selection of condensers and absorbers that guarantee values less than this limit

  16. Electronic structure of single- and multiple-shell carbon fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Nori, F.

    1994-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multiple-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the π-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: C 240 , C 540 , C 960 , C 1500 , C 2160 , and C 2940 . Our iteration technique reduces the size of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of ∼12 and 20), while the symmetry-based approach reduces it by a factor of 10. We also find formulas for the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of C 60n 2 fullerenes as a function of n, demonstrating a tendency towards a metallic regime for increasing n. For multiple-shell fullerenes, we analytically obtain the eigenvalues of the intershell interaction

  17. Analysis of the /sup 28/Si(p,. gamma. )/sup 29/P reaction data in the region of the sub-barrier single particle resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulewicz, T; Decowski, P; Kicinska-Habior, M; Sikora, B; Toke, J

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 28/Si(p, ..gamma..)/sup 29/P reaction data have been analyzed in terms of a modified direct-semidirect capture model which accounts for the presence of broad shape (single-particle) resonances in the entrance channel. Values of the spectroscopic factors for the ground state and 1,65 MeV and 2,88 MeV resonances in /sup 29/P nuclei were extracted and found to be consistent with those obtained in other experiments. The modified theoretical analysis scheme was found to provide a convenient tool for analyzing the radiative capture reaction data.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); Clinical experiences, possibilities. Regionalis agyi veratfolyas vizsgalata egyfotonos emissios computer tomographiaval (SPECT); Klinikai tapasztalatok, lehetoesegek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavics, Laszlo; Csernay, Laszlo; Doczi, Tamas; Lang, Jenoe; Blaho, Gabor; Janka, Zoltan; Bodosi, Mihaly [Szegedi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary)

    1990-01-07

    Clinical experiences based on regional cerebral blood flow investigations with {sup 99m}Tc hexamethylpropyleneamin-oxime (HMPAO) SPECT in 164 patients are reported. The pharmacokinetics of the {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO are summarized, and the important indications of the investigations are interpreted in case reports (stroke, surgical solution of intracavernous aneurysm, Alzheimer and multiinfarct types of dementia). The literature data suggest that the diagnostic possibilities with this method are advantageous, even in other diseases. (author) 36 refs.; 7 figs.

  19. AHM1, a Novel Type of Nuclear Matrix–Localized, MAR Binding Protein with a Single AT Hook and a J Domain–Homologous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Gaku; Han-yama, Atsushi; Moda, Ichiro; Tamai, Atsushi; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between the nuclear matrix and special regions of chromosomal DNA called matrix attachment regions (MARs) have been implicated in various nuclear functions. We have identified a novel protein from wheat, AT hook–containing MAR binding protein1 (AHM1), that binds preferentially to MARs. A multidomain protein, AHM1 has the special combination of a J domain–homologous region and a Zn finger–like motif (a J-Z array) and an AT hook. For MAR binding, the AT hook at the C terminus was essential, and an internal portion containing the Zn finger–like motif was additionally required in vivo. AHM1 was found in the nuclear matrix fraction and was localized in the nucleoplasm. AHM1 fused to green fluorescent protein had a speckled distribution pattern inside the nucleus. AHM1 is most likely a nuclear matrix component that functions between intranuclear framework and MARs. J-Z arrays can be found in a group of (hypothetical) proteins in plants, which may share some functions, presumably to recruit specific Hsp70 partners as co-chaperones. PMID:11041885

  20. Electronic structure of single crystalline Bi sub 2 (Sr,Ca,La) sub 3 Cu sub 2 O sub 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, P A.P.; Shen, Z X; Dessau, D S; Wells, B O; Borg, A; Mitzi, D B; Lindau, I; Spicer, W E; Kapitulnik, A [Stanford Electronics Labs. and Dept. of Applied Physics, Stanford Univ., CA (USA)

    1989-12-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission experiments on single crystals of Bi{sub 2}(Sr,Ca,La){sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} are reported. The data show a dispersionless behaviour of the valence band states as a function of the perpendicular component of the wave vector (along the c-axis), while as a function of the parallel component (in the a-b plane) clear dispersion occurs. Furthermore, polarization-dependent excitations reveal information on the symmetry of the unoccupied states. (orig.).

  1. Unoccupied density of states of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ studied by polarization-dependent x-ray-absorption spectroscopy and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.; Elp, J. van; Sawatzky, G.A.; Fujimori, A.; Hosoya, S.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen 1s x-ray-absorption measurements of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ (0≤x≤1.15) are presented, together with O 1s polarization-dependent x-ray absorption on single-crystal La1.85Sr0.15NiO4. It is concluded that the charge-compensating holes have mainly oxygen 2p character. The Ni 3d9 final states reached

  2. Simulation study of wave phenomena from the sheath region in single frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharges; field reversals and ion reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Turner, M. M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-07-15

    Capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) discharges have great significance for industrial applications. Collisionless electron heating in such discharges is important, and sometimes is the dominant mechanism. This heating is usually understood to originate in a stochastic interaction between electrons and the electric fields. However, other mechanisms may also be important. There is evidence of wave emission with a frequency near the electron plasma frequency, i.e., ω{sub pe}, from the sheath region in collisionless capacitive RF discharges. This is the result of a progressive breakdown of quasi-neutrality close to the electron sheath edge. These waves are damped in a few centimeters during their propagation from the sheath towards the bulk plasma. The damping occurs because of the Landau damping or some related mechanism. This research work reports that the emission of waves is associated with a field reversal during the expanding phase of the sheath. Trapping of electrons near to this field reversal region is observed. The amplitude of the wave increases with increasing RF current density amplitude J(tilde sign){sub 0} until some maximum is reached, beyond which the wave diminishes and a new regime appears. In this new regime, the density of the bulk plasma suddenly increases because of ion reflection, which occurs due to the presence of strong field reversal near sheath region. Our calculation shows that these waves are electron plasma waves. These phenomena occur under extreme conditions (i.e., higher J(tilde sign){sub 0} than in typical experiments) for sinusoidal current waveforms, but similar effects may occur with non-sinusoidal pulsed waveforms for conditions of experimental interest, because the rate of change of current is a relevant parameter. The effect of electron elastic collisions on plasma waves is also investigated.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA is associated with the kidney survival time in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Guo, Zhanjun; Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Ai, Xiaolu

    2015-02-01

    The mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) is known to accumulate mutations and SNPs at a higher frequency than other regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We had identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients previously. In this study, we investigated the association of SNPs in the D-loop of mtDNA with the kidney survival of CKD. The D-loop region of mtDNA was sequenced for 119 CKD patients from the inpatient of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to identify disease outcome-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify risk factors for the kidney survival of CKD. In the present study, we identified 20 SNPs with a frequency higher than 5% and assessed the relationship of these SNPs with kidney survival time in CKD patients, a SNP of 146 was identified by log-rank test for statistically significant prediction of the kidney survival time. In an overall multivariate analysis, allele 146 was identified as an independent predictor of kidney survival time in CKD patients. The survival time of kidney in the CKD patients with 146C was significantly shorter than that of kidney in CKD patients with 146T (relative risk, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.319-3.923; p = 0.001). SNPs in the D-loop can predict the kidney survival of CKD patients. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop can help to identify CKD patient subgroup at high risk of a poor disease outcome.

  4. Single and Cumulative Relations of Social Risk Factors with Children's Dental Health and Care-Utilization Within Regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Alyssa J; Gromoske, Andrea N; Olson, Melissa A; Chaffin, Jeffrey G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose is to examine the relation of social risk factors, and the cumulative burden of social risk factors, on parent-reported dental health and dental care-seeking behavior. National Survey of Children's Health data (2011-2012) were analyzed for US children by Title V Block Grant regions. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated for ten social risk factors, as well as a cumulative risk index, to find any associations with poor condition of teeth, presence of dental caries, and no dental care visits. Almost all of the risk factors were significantly associated with poor condition of teeth and presence of dental caries for the US. Models associating no dental care visits suggested that low family income (OR 1.58), poor maternal mental health (OR 1.54), high school education or less (OR 1.34), and multi-racial/other race (OR 1.18) were significant factors for the US. Regional variation existed for those risk factors and their association with the outcomes, but income, education, and poor maternal mental health consistently played a significant role in adverse outcomes. The cumulative risk index was strongly related to poor oral health outcomes, with a weaker relationship to dental care utilization. US children experiencing certain social risk factors, such as low family income, high school education or less, and poor maternal mental health, are likely to be at greater risk for poor dental health and low levels of dental-care seeking behavior. Children experiencing multiple social risks are at greater risk for poor oral outcomes than children who experience fewer social risks. An approach that involves the social determinants of health is needed to address these issues.

  5. The behavior of rats irradiated with a sublethal single dose of γ-rays on the region of head in open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Kereskenyiova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was to establish the effects of the irradiation of head in laboratory rats on some forms of naturalistic behavior in the open field test. During a 5-day control period behavioral parameters reflecting motory and explorative activity, as well as anxiousness of animals (6 parameters in total) were followed daily in 20 male Sprague-Dowley rats in an open field test lasting 5 minutes. Fourteen animals were repeatedly tested after irradiation of head with a single dose of 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results showed statistically significant depression of motory and explorative activities during the first 3 days after irradiation in comparison with the control period. The anxiousness of animals was decreased, too. Novelty habituation was observed only in non-irradiated animals. Based on these results it is possible to presume, that the applied dose of ionizing radiation was able to influence the brain centers involved in control of naturalistic behavioral functions connected with response to new environment in rats. (authors)

  6. Accuracy of Assignment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) to Rivers and Regions in Scotland and Northeast England Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbey, John; Cauwelier, Eef; Coulson, Mark W.; Stradmeyer, Lee; Sampayo, James N.; Armstrong, Anja; Verspoor, Eric; Corrigan, Laura; Shelley, Jonathan; Middlemas, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the habitat use patterns of migratory fish, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and the natural and anthropogenic impacts on them, is aided by the ability to identify individuals to their stock of origin. Presented here are the results of an analysis of informative single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for detecting genetic structuring in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and NE England and their ability to allow accurate genetic stock identification. 3,787 fish from 147 sites covering 27 rivers were screened at 5,568 SNP markers. In order to identify a cost-effective subset of SNPs, they were ranked according to their ability to differentiate between fish from different rivers. A panel of 288 SNPs was used to examine both individual assignments and mixed stock fisheries and eighteen assignment units were defined. The results improved greatly on previously available methods and, for the first time, fish caught in the marine environment can be confidently assigned to geographically coherent units within Scotland and NE England, including individual rivers. As such, this SNP panel has the potential to aid understanding of the various influences acting upon Atlantic salmon on their marine migrations, be they natural environmental variations and/or anthropogenic impacts, such as mixed stock fisheries and interactions with marine power generation installations. PMID:27723810

  7. Clinical study of burn patients requiring admission: A single center experience at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkupar Khongwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although burns are a major problem in health care, a lot of the variation in risk factors exists from region to region which if uncovered correctly could help take effective prevention measures. Aims and Objectives: To assess the 3-year (January 2012 to January 2015 epidemiology of burn injuries admitted to our hospital (primary objective and to find areas of improvement in burn care (secondary objective. Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical approval data were obtained from the medical record section regarding age, sex, residence, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, dates of admission and discharge, circumstances regarding the place, intent, cause, and source of heat. Clinical assessment was done using Wallace's “Rule of Nine” in adult and “Lund and Browder” chart in the pediatric age groups. The interrelationships between clinical and epidemiological variables with burn injury were studied. Results: An increasing trend in the admission rates of burn victims noted in last 3 years males (55.47% outnumbered females (44.52%. The most common age group affected is older children, adolescents, and young adults (between 11 and 30 years. Flame (38.3% and scald (25.3% burns contributed to most of the injuries. Females (52.30% are the major victim of flame burns. Electrical and chemical burns affected only the males suggesting work-related injuries. Trunk (30.8% is the most severely affected site in all cases. Depression (6.8% and power line workers (4.7% seem to be important risk factors in our study. Inability to complete treatment (26.7% was a major concern in our study. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for proper burn care that could be provided at the primary health-care level. The majority of burns were accidental in nature in school going children, young adults, and females. Flame and scald burns were the most common cause. Preventive measures directed toward burn safety and first aid measures

  8. Performance assessment of a single-layer moisture store-and-release cover system at a mine waste rock pile in a seasonally humid region (Nova Scotia, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Ramasamy, Murugan; Mkandawire, Martin

    2018-03-03

    Cover systems are commonly applied to mine waste rock piles (WRPs) to control acid mine drainage (AMD). Single-layer covers utilize the moisture "store-and-release" concept to first store and then release moisture back to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. Although more commonly used in semi-arid and arid climates, store-and-release covers remain an attractive option in humid climates due to the low cost and relative simplicity of installation. However, knowledge of their performance in these climates is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of moisture store-and-release covers at full-scale WRPs located in humid climates. This cover type was installed at a WRP in Nova Scotia, Canada, alongside state-of-the-art monitoring instrumentation. Field monitoring was conducted over 5 years to assess key components such as meteorological conditions, cover material water dynamics, net percolation, surface runoff, pore-gas, environmental receptor water quality, landform stability and vegetation. Water balances indicate small reductions in water influx to the waste rock (i.e., 34 to 28% of precipitation) with the diminished AMD release also apparent by small improvements in groundwater quality (increase in pH, decrease in sulfate/metals). Surface water quality analysis and field observations of vegetative/aquatic life demonstrate significant improvements in the surface water receptor. The WRP landform is stable and the vegetative cover is thriving. This study has shown that while a simple store-and-release cover may not be a highly effective barrier to water infiltration in humid climates, it can be used to (i) eliminate contaminated surface water runoff, (ii) minimize AMD impacts to surface water receptor(s), (iii) maintain a stable landform, and (iv) provide a sustainable vegetative canopy.

  9. [Single nucleotide polymorphism of STAT4 rs7574865 is associated with the susceptibility of primary biliary cirrhosis in Han population of partial regions of Jiangsu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liming; Zhou, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) rs7574865 gene with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in Han population of Jiangsu province. Methods The peripheral blood samples were collected from 138 inpatients with PBC and 116 unrelated healthy donors in the Third People's Hospital of Changzhou City in Jiangsu province. The STAT4 rs7574865 SNP was determined by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) assay. The distributions of genotype and allele frequencies in the two groups were analyzed by the Chi-squared test in order to identify whether rs7574865 was the susceptible locus of PBC. Then, the associations between rs7574865 and the serum levels of anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 (AMA-M2), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-Cenp B antibody, anti-GP210 antibody, anti-SP100 antibody in PBC were investigated. Results Three genotypes, GG, GT and TT, were found at position rs7574865 of STAT4. The TT genotype frequency in the PBC group (20.3%) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (6.9%) and the odds rations (OR) value was 3.436. The T allele frequencies were 42.4% and 31.9% in the PBC group and healthy controls, respectively, and OR value was 1.571. There were no statistically differences between rs7574865 and the levels of serum autoantibodies in the patients with PBC. Conclusion STAT4 rs7574865 gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility of PBC in the Han population of Jiangsu province.

  10. Measurement of νμ charged-current single π0 production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinok, O.; Le, T.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres Vera, G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Yaeggy, B.

    2017-10-01

    The semiexclusive channel νμ+CH →μ-π0+nucleon(s ) is analyzed using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI νμ beam with spectral peak at Eν≃3 GeV . Differential cross sections for muon momentum and production angle, π0 kinetic energy and production angle, and for squared four-momentum transfer are reported, and the cross section σ (Eν) is obtained over the range 1.5 GeV ≤Eν<20 GeV . Results are compared to GENIE and NuWro predictions and to published MINERvA cross sections for charged-current π+(π0) production by νμ(ν¯μ) neutrinos. Disagreements between data and simulation are observed at very low and relatively high values for muon angle and for Q2 that may reflect shortfalls in modeling of interactions on carbon. For π0 kinematic distributions, however, the data are consistent with the simulation and provide support for generator treatments of pion intranuclear scattering. Using signal-event subsamples that have reconstructed protons as well as π0 mesons, the p π0 invariant mass distribution is obtained, and the decay polar and azimuthal angle distributions in the rest frame of the p π0 system are measured in the region of Δ (1232 )+ production, W <1.4 GeV .

  11. Provenance and depositional age of the neoproterozoic volcanometasedimentary sequence in the Santa Terezinha region, Goias based on U-Pb single zircon and Sm-Nd isotope data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Brod, Jose Affonso

    2001-01-01

    Some of the volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Tocantins Province have been considered to be formed during the evolution of a Neoproterozoic intra oceanic island arc system (Pimentel et al., 2000). However, the interpretation of supra crustal rocks of some areas of the central portions of the Goias Massif, such as the region of Santa Terezinha de Goias, is still controversial. These rocks have been considered either as part of the Archean greenstone belts or as Paleoproterozoic sequences (Ribeiro Filho 1981, Souza and Le Neto 1981, Machado et al.1981, Ribeiro Filho and Lacerda Filho 1985, Biondi and Pidevin 1994, Arantes et al. 1991) rather than an extension of the Neoproterozoic Mara Rosa magmatic arc (Viana et al.1995, Pimentel et al. 1997). An area of about 800 km 2 near the town of Santa Terezinha de Goias was recently mapped on a 1:25.000 scale (Jost et al. 2001). Its northern part consists of Proterozoic supra crustal rocks in tectonic contact with Archean rocks in the south. We present new Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon data for the supra crustal rocks that crop out in the northern part of the area and discuss their provenance and depositional age (au)

  12. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations' engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a 'regional' European polity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model's deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations' (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative 'extreme case study' research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a 'regional' European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the 'pathologies' associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies.

  13. To press or not to press, and if so, with what? A single question-focused meta-analysis of vasopressor choice during regional anesthesia in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2013-08-01

    Given the underlying assumption that reasonable maternal hemodynamics can be achieved with either ephedrine or phenylephrine, this focused meta-analysis addresses the impact of vasopressor choice on resultant neonatal Apgar scores during regional anesthesia. The literature was systematically searched for randomized trials of obstetric vasopressor use employing standard search tools. Only the highest quality trials were included. Of 142 studies retrieved, 9 met the defined inclusion criteria. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes in the ephedrine group (served as control) vs the phenylephrine group did not differ at either time epoch; no abnormal values prevailed in either group (relative risk, 0.88; CI, 0.79-1.16). This meta-analysis focused on the most clinically relevant, immediately available information pertinent in the obstetric suite, the Apgar score, and found that ephedrine and phenylephrine did not differ in their effect on this metric. The current meta-analysis provides an updated, evidence-based validation of vasopressor use from the American Society of Anesthesiologists' 2007 "Practice Guidelines for Obstetric Anesthesia".

  14. Spontaneous Up states in vitro: a single-metric index of the functional maturation and regional differentiation of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos eRigas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development and differentiation of the neocortex remains a central focus of neuroscience. While previous studies have examined isolated aspects of cellular and synaptic organization, an integrated functional index of the cortical microcircuit is still lacking. Here we aimed to provide such an index, in the form of spontaneously recurring periods of persistent network activity -or Up states- recorded in mouse cortical slices. These coordinated network dynamics emerge through the orchestrated regulation of multiple cellular and synaptic elements and represent the default activity of the cortical microcircuit. To explore whether spontaneous Up states can capture developmental changes in intracortical networks we obtained local field potential recordings throughout the mouse lifespan. Two independent and complementary methodologies revealed that Up state activity is systematically modified by age, with the largest changes occurring during early development and adolescence. To explore possible regional heterogeneities we also compared the development of Up states in two distinct cortical areas and show that primary somatosensory cortex develops at a faster pace than primary motor cortex. Our findings suggest that in vitro Up states can serve as a functional index of cortical development and differentiation and can provide a baseline for comparing experimental and/or genetic mouse models.

  15. Spontaneous Up states in vitro: a single-metric index of the functional maturation and regional differentiation of the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Pavlos; Adamos, Dimitrios A; Sigalas, Charalambos; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Skaliora, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development and differentiation of the neocortex remains a central focus of neuroscience. While previous studies have examined isolated aspects of cellular and synaptic organization, an integrated functional index of the cortical microcircuit is still lacking. Here we aimed to provide such an index, in the form of spontaneously recurring periods of persistent network activity -or Up states- recorded in mouse cortical slices. These coordinated network dynamics emerge through the orchestrated regulation of multiple cellular and synaptic elements and represent the default activity of the cortical microcircuit. To explore whether spontaneous Up states can capture developmental changes in intracortical networks we obtained local field potential recordings throughout the mouse lifespan. Two independent and complementary methodologies revealed that Up state activity is systematically modified by age, with the largest changes occurring during early development and adolescence. To explore possible regional heterogeneities we also compared the development of Up states in two distinct cortical areas and show that primary somatosensory cortex develops at a faster pace than primary motor cortex. Our findings suggest that in vitro Up states can serve as a functional index of cortical development and differentiation and can provide a baseline for comparing experimental and/or genetic mouse models.

  16. Double versus single high-dose melphalan 200 mg/m2 and autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a region-based study in 484 patients from the Nordic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstrand, Bo; Klausen, Tobias W.; Remes, Kari; Gruber, Astrid; Knudsen, Lene M.; Bergmann, Olav J.; Lenhoff, Stig; Johnsen, Hans E.

    2009-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation is still considered the standard of care in young patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This disease is the most common indication for high-dose therapy (HDT) supported by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and much data support the benefit of this procedure. Results of randomized studies are in favor of tandem autologous transplantation although the effect on overall survival is unclear. Based on sequential registration trials in the Nordic area, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of conventional single or double HDT. During 1994–2000 we registered a total of 484 previously untreated patients under the age of 60 years at diagnosis who on a regional basis initially were treated with single [Trial NMSG #5/94 and #7/98 (N=383)] or double [Trial Huddinge Karolinska Turku Herlev (N=101)] high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) therapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation. A complete or very good partial response was achieved by 40% of patients in the single transplant group and 60% of patients in the double transplant group (p=0.0006). The probability of surviving progression free for five years after the diagnosis was 25% (95% CL 18–32%) in the singletransplant group and 46% (95% CL 33–55%) in the double transplant group (p=0.0014). The estimated overall five-year survival rate was 60% in the single transplant group and 64% in the doubletransplant (p=0.9). In a multivariate analysis of variables, including single versus double transplantation, β2 microglobulin level, age, sex and disease stage, only β2 microglobulin level was predictive for overall survival (p>0.0001) and progression free survival (p=0.001). In accordance with these results, a 1:1 case-control matched comparison between double and single transplantation did not identify significant differences in overall and progression free survival. In this retrospective analysis up front double transplantation with melphalan (200 mg/m2) as compared to single

  17. Biomass burning plumes and the aging of black carbon aerosols in the tropopause region observed with the CARIBIC single particle soot photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditas, J.; Ma, N.; Zhang, Y.; Assmann, D. N.; Neumaier, M.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Poeschl, U.; Su, H.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) events can release large amounts of refractory black carbon (rBC) into the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) (Dahlkötter et al., 2014). To explore this effect, a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was added to the scientific payload of the instrumented CARIBIC container that is installed monthly in the cargo bay of a passenger aircraft (the IAGOS-CARIBIC atmospheric observatory, www.iagos.org). Regular measurement flights with different destinations are performed, covering an area of about 120°W to 120°E and 75°N to 30°S. A wide range of in situ measurements (CO, O3, greenhouse gases, aerosol particles and volatile organic compounds) is combined with a collection of air and aerosol samples for laboratory analyses. Since August 2014, the SP2 measures BC number and mass concentration at altitudes between 8 and 12 km. More than 600 BC measurement hours show a strong impact of BB emissions on the lowermost stratosphere. The BB plumes are identified with the help of concurrent carbon monoxide and acetonitrile measurements showing substantially increased concentrations compared to their background level. Transported into the lowermost stratosphere, BB smoke can be transported over long distances and the BC particles can stay in the atmosphere up to one year. The monthly missions of four consecutive CARIBIC flights sometimes enable to revisit a certain air mass, as was the case during a measurement flight to San Francisco in August 2014, with a stopover time of 2h. The revisited biomass burning plume located over the Altlantic ocean near Greenland was traced back by backward and forward trajectories to open fires in Canada (upper Fig.). The transit time of the smoke plume was estimated to 16 - 19h which perfectly matches our flight time difference ( 18h). Based on the LEO-fit method (Leading Edge Only fit) from Gao et al. (2007), the mixing state of the BC particles within the BB plume was calculated. Our unique data set

  18. Fear of movement modulates the feedforward motor control of the affected limb in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS): A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Sumitani, Masahiko; Otake, Yuko; Morioka, Shu

    2018-01-01

    Pain-related fear can exacerbate physical disability and pathological pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. We conducted a kinematic analysis of grasping movements with a pediatric patient suffering from CRPS in an upper limb to investigate how pain-related fear affects motor control. Using a three-dimensional measurement system, we recorded the patient's movement while grasping three vertical bars of different diameters (thin, middle, thick) with the affected and intact hands. We analyzed the maximum grasp distance between the thumb and the index finger (MGD), the peak velocity of the grasp movement (PV), and the time required for the finger opening phase (TOP) and closing phase (TCP). Consequently, the MGD and PV of grasp movements in the affected hand were significantly smaller than those of the intact hand when grasping the middle and thick bars. This might reflect pain-related fear against visual information of the target size which evokes sensation of difficulty in opening fingers widely to grasp the middle and thick bars. Although MGD and PV increased with target size, the TOP was longer in the affected hand when grasping the thick bar. These findings indicate that pain-related fear impairs motor commands that are sent to the musculoskeletal system, subsequently disrupting executed movements and their sensory feedback. Using kinematic analysis, we objectively demonstrated that pain-related fear affects the process of sending motor commands towards the musculoskeletal system in the CRPS-affected hand, providing a possible explanatory model of pathological pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single season changes in resting state network power and the connectivity between regions distinguish head impact exposure level in high school and youth football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Gowtham; Saghafi, Behrouz; Davenport, Elizabeth; Wagner, Ben; Urban, Jillian; Kelley, Mireille; Jones, Derek; Powers, Alex; Whitlow, Christopher; Stitzel, Joel; Maldjian, Joseph; Montillo, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repetitive sub-concussive head impact exposure in contact sports like American football on brain health is poorly understood, especially in the understudied populations of youth and high school players. These players, aged 9-18 years old may be particularly susceptible to impact exposure as their brains are undergoing rapid maturation. This study helps fill the void by quantifying the association between head impact exposure and functional connectivity, an important aspect of brain health measurable via resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, the data from two separate studies (youth and high school) are combined to form a high-powered analysis with 60 players. These players experience head acceleration within overlapping impact exposure making their combination particularly appropriate. Second, multiple features are extracted from rs-fMRI and tested for their association with impact exposure. One type of feature is the power spectral density decomposition of intrinsic, spatially distributed networks extracted via independent components analysis (ICA). Another feature type is the functional connectivity between brain regions known often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Third, multiple supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated for their stability and predictive accuracy in a low bias, nested cross-validation modeling framework. Each classifier predicts whether a player sustained low or high levels of head impact exposure. The nested cross validation reveals similarly high classification performance across the feature types, and the Support Vector, Extremely randomized trees, and Gradboost classifiers achieve F1-score up to 75%.

  20. Ca 3d unoccupied states in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 investigated by Ca L2,3 x-ray-absorption near-edge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, A.; King, P.L.; Pianetta, P.; Lindau, I.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Soldatov, A.V.; Della Longa, S.; Bianconi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The high-resolution Ca L 2,3 x-ray-absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectrum of a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystal has been measured by use of a magnetic-projection x-ray microscope probing a surface area of 200x200 μm 2 . The Ca L 2,3 XANES spectrum is analyzed by performing a multiple-scattering XANES calculation in real space and comparing the results with the spectrum of CaF 2 . Good agreement between the calculated and experimental crystal-field splitting Δ f of the Ca 3d final states is found and the splitting is shown to be smaller by 0.5 eV than in the initial state. The Ca 3d partial density of states is found to be close to the Fermi level in the initial state. The Ca-O(in plane) distance is shown to be a critical parameter associated with the shift of the Ca 3d states relative to the Fermi level; in particular, we have studied the effect of the out-of-plane dimpling mode of the in-plane oxygen atoms O(in plane) that will move the Ca 3d states on or off the Fermi level. This mode can therefore play a role in modulating the charge transfer between the two CuO 2 planes separated by the Ca ions

  1. Ca 3d unoccupied states in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 investigated by Ca L2,3 x-ray-absorption near-edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A; King, P L; Pianetta, P; Lindau, I; Mitzi, D B

    1992-01-01

    The high-resolution Ca L(2,3) x-ray-absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectrum of a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystal has been measured by use of a magnetic-projection x-ray microscope probing a surface area of 200x200 micrometers square. The Ca L(2,3) XANES spectrum is analyzed by performing a multiple-scattering XANES calculation in real space and comparing the results with the spectrum of CaF2. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental crystal-field splitting Delta f of the Ca 3d final states is found and the splitting is shown to be smaller by 0.5 eV than in the initial state. The Ca 3d partial density of states is found to be close to the Fermi level in the initial state. The Ca-O (in plane) distance is shown to be a critical parameter associated with the shift of the Ca 3d states relative to the Fermi level; in particular, the authors have studied the effect of the out-of-plane dimpling mode of the in-plane oxygen atoms O(in plane) that will move the Ca 3d states on or off the Fermi level. This mode can therefore play a role in modulating the charge transfer between the two CuO2 planes separated by the Ca ions.

  2. P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii antigens abbreviate regions to diagnose acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: toward single-sample assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan G; Peretti, Leandro E; García, Valeria S; Peverengo, Luz; González, Verónica D G; Gugliotta, Luis M; Dalla Fontana, Maria L; Lagier, Claudia M; Marcipar, Iván S

    2017-03-01

    P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii proteins are recognized by specific IgG at the early infection stage, making them ideal for acute toxoplasmosis pregnancy control. Both proteins have been studied to discriminate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. However, results were hardly comparable because different protein obtainment procedures led to different antigens, the reference panels used were not optimally typified, and avidity tests were either not performed or narrowly examined. We bioinformatically predicted P35 and P22 regions with the highest density of epitopes, and expressed them in pET32/BL21DE3 alternative expression system, obtaining the soluble proteins rP35a and rP22a. We assessed their diagnostic performance using pregnant woman serum samples typified as: not infected, NI (IgG-, IgM-), typical-chronic, TC (IgM-, IgG+), presumably acute, A (IgG+, IgM+, low-avidity IgG), and recently chronic, RC (IgG+, IgM+, high-avidity IgG). rP35a performed better than rP22a to differentiate A from RC, the areas under the curve (AUC) being 0.911 and 0.818, respectively. They, however, performed similarly to differentiate A from TC+RC (AUC: 0.915 and 0.907, respectively). rP35a and rP22a evaluation by avidity ELISA to discriminate A from RC rendered AUC values of 0.974 and 0.921, respectively. The indirect ELISA and avidity ELISA results analyzed in tandem were consistent with those obtained using commercial kits. rP35a and rP22a features suggest that, with complementary use, they could replace parasite lysate for toxoplasmosis infection screening and for acute toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Our proposal should be validated by a longitudinal study and may lead to a reliable toxoplasmosis pregnancy control, performing tests in only one serum sample.

  3. Adsorption of glyphosate in chilean soils and its relationship with unoccupied phosphate binding sites Adsorção de glifosato em solos chilenos e sua relação com sítios de adsorção disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kogan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate glyphosate adsorption by soils and its relationship with unoccupied binding sites for phosphate adsorption. Soil samples of three Chilean soils series - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol and Chicureo (Vertisol - were incubated with different herbicide concentrations. Glyphosate remaining in solution was determined by adjusting a HPLC method with a UV detector. Experimental maximum adsorption capacity were 15,000, 14,300 and 4,700 mg g¹ for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir models were used to describe glyphosate adsorption. Isotherms describing glyphosate adsorption differed among soils. Maximum adjusted adsorption capacity with the Langmuir model was 231,884, 17,874 and 5,670 mg g-1 for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Glyphosate adsorption on the Valdivia soil showed a linear behavior at the range of concentrations used and none of the adjusted models became asymptotic. The high glyphosate adsorption capacity of the Valdivia soil was probably a result of its high exchangeable Al, extractable Fe, and alophan and imogolite clay type. Adsorption was very much related to phosphate dynamics in the Valdivia soil, which showed the larger unoccupied phosphate binding sites. However relationship between unoccupied phosphate binding sites and glyphosate adsorption in the other two soils (Clarillo and Chicureo was not clear.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a adsorção de glifosato em solos e sua relação com os sítios disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato. Amostras de três solos chilenos - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol e Chicureo (Vertisol - foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do herbicida. O glifosato remanescente na solução foi determinado pelo método de HPLC com detector de UV modificado. A capacidade de adsorção máxima experimental foi de 15.000, 14.300 e 4.700 mg g-1 para os solos de

  4. Ligand-based transport resonances of single-molecule-magnet spin filters: Suppression of Coulomb blockade and determination of easy-axis orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh Renani, Fatemeh; Kirczenow, George

    2011-11-01

    We investigate single-molecule-magnet transistors (SMMTs) with ligands that support transport resonances. We find the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of Mn12-benzoate SMMs (with and without thiol or methyl-sulfide termination) to be on ligands, the highest occupied molecular orbitals being on the Mn12 magnetic core. We predict gate-controlled switching between Coulomb blockade and coherent resonant tunneling in SMMTs based on such SMMs, strong spin filtering by the SMM in both transport regimes, and that if such switching is observed, then the magnetic easy axis of the SMM is parallel to the direction of the current through the SMM.

  5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single-crystalline (VO)2P2O7: Electronic structure and possible exchange paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhold, S.; Nu''cker, N.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Schuppler, S.; Stadler, S.; Idzerda, Y. U.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Bu''llesfeld, F.; Assmus, W.

    2001-01-01

    Using polarization-dependent V2p and O1s near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we studied the unoccupied electronic structure of single-crystalline (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . It is highly anisotropic, and shows similarities to vanadium oxides like VO 2 and V 2 O 5 at the V2p edge and at the O1s threshold. The contributions from V-O and P-O orbitals could be identified. The results rule out the spin ladder model for the magnetic behavior of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 , but are consistent with the alternating chain scenario

  6. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, M.; Nagamachi, S.; Inoue, K.; Morotomi, Y.; Nunoi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl- 123 I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis

  7. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  8. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  9. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction.

  10. High-resolution melting analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism hot-spot region in the rpoB gene as an indicator of reduced susceptibility to rifaximin in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecavar, Verena; Blaschitz, Marion; Hufnagl, Peter; Zeinzinger, Josef; Fiedler, Anita; Allerberger, Franz; Maass, Matthias; Indra, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium, is the main causative agent of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide. In addition to metronidazole and vancomycin, rifaximin, a rifamycin derivative, is a promising antibiotic for the treatment of recurring C. difficile infections (CDI). However, exposure of C. difficile to this antibiotic has led to the development of rifaximin-resistance due to point mutations in the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene. In the present study, 348 C. difficile strains with known PCR-ribotypes were investigated for respective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the proposed rpoB hot-spot region by using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. This method allows the detection of SNPs by comparing the altered melting behaviour of dsDNA with that of wild-type DNA. Discrimination between wild-type and mutant strains was enhanced by creating heteroduplexes by mixing sample DNA with wild-type DNA, leading to characteristic melting curve shapes from samples containing SNPs in the respective rpoB section. In the present study, we were able to identify 16 different rpoB sequence-types (ST) by sequencing analysis of a 325 bp fragment. The 16 PCR STs displayed a total of 24 different SNPs. Fifteen of these 24 SNPs were located within the proposed 151 bp SNP hot-spot region, resulting in 11 different HRM curve profiles (CP). Eleven SNPs (seven of which were within the proposed hot-spot region) led to amino acid substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and 13 SNPs (eight of which were within the hot-spot region) were synonymous. This investigation clearly demonstrates that HRM analysis of the proposed SNP hot-spot region in the rpoB gene of C. difficile is a fast and cost-effective method for the identification of C. difficile samples with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and even allows simultaneous SNP subtyping of the respective C. difficile isolates.

  11. ASEAN : Extra-Regional Cooperation Triggers Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Krapohl, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter contains two case studies of regional cooperation within Southeast Asia. The network analysis of ASEAN demonstrates that the region is dependent on extra-regional trade with the EU and the USA, but also with China and Japan. However, the region is not dominated by a single regional

  12. A study on single nucleotide polymorphism of exon 7 T/C (locus 593 of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene in healthy Han population in the Shanghai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-bao XIA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 in healthy Han population in Shanghai region and the features different from other races. Methods The SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was detected and analyzed by PCR and sequencing in 110 healthy Han people from Shanghai areas. The genotype and allele frequency were then calculated and compared with that in other races in combination with review of relevant literature. Results The amplified product of the SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was 240 bp in 110 healthy Han people, of whom 97 were with TT genotype and 13 with TC genotype, but no CC genotype was found. As to the allele frequency distribution, T type allele took the highest position, and C type followed. The genotype frequency of TT and TC was 88.2% and 11.8%, respectively, and they were markedly different from that in German population (0.95%, while not statistically significant different from that in British population (7.67%. Conclusions There exists SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (position 593 in healthy Han people in Shanghai region, with a higher frequency of T→C mutation. The mutational genotype frequency is found to be located at the locus 593 is 11.81%, and it is markedly different from that in German population, but not significantly different from that in British population.

  13. The Rev1 interacting region (RIR) motif in the scaffold protein XRCC1 mediates a low-affinity interaction with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) during DNA single-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Claire; Mani, Rajam S; Fanta, Mesfin; Hoch, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-09-29

    The scaffold protein X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) interacts with multiple enzymes involved in DNA base excision repair and single-strand break repair (SSBR) and is important for genetic integrity and normal neurological function. One of the most important interactions of XRCC1 is that with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a dual-function DNA kinase/phosphatase that processes damaged DNA termini and that, if mutated, results in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 (AOA4) and microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ). XRCC1 and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Here, we identified using biochemical and biophysical approaches a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 phosphorylation. However, this interaction nevertheless stimulated PNKP activity and promoted SSBR and cell survival. The low-affinity interaction site required the highly conserved Rev1-interacting region (RIR) motif in XRCC1 and included three critical and evolutionarily invariant phenylalanine residues. We propose a bipartite interaction model in which the previously identified high-affinity interaction acts as a molecular tether, holding XRCC1 and PNKP together and thereby promoting the low-affinity interaction identified here, which then stimulates PNKP directly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The identification of two Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes from domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles in Colombia based on a single polymerase chain reaction amplification of the spliced-leader intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Villa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A single polymerase chain reaction (PCR reaction targeting the spliced-leader intergenic region of Trypanosoma cruzi I was standardised by amplifying a 231 bp fragment in domestic (TcIDOM strains or clones and 450 and 550 bp fragments in sylvatic strains or clones. This reaction was validated using 44 blind coded samples and 184 non-coded T. cruzi I clones isolated from sylvatic triatomines and the correspondence between the amplified fragments and their domestic or sylvatic origin was determined. Six of the nine strains isolated from acute cases suspected of oral infection had the sylvatic T. cruzi I profile. These results confirmed that the sylvatic T. cruzi I genotype is linked to cases of oral Chagas disease in Colombia. We therefore propose the use of this novel PCR reaction in strains or clones previously characterised as T. cruzi I to distinguish TcIDOMfrom sylvatic genotypes in studies of transmission dynamics, including the verification of population selection within hosts or detection of the frequency of mixed infections by both T. cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

  15. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry Ayn in the Deep Inelastic Region from the Reaction 3He(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A first measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry, Any, has been performed in deep-inelastic scattering of electrons from a 3He target polarized normal to the electron scattering plane. This asymmetry is void of contributions at the Born level, and thus is a direct observable for two-photon physics. The experiment was performed in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from October 2008 through early February 2009. The measurement is the first from a polarized neutron target. The final overall precision is several times better than previously existing SLAC proton data, and significantly extends the kinematic range over which the asymmetry has been measured. The asymmetry was measured at five kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region covering Q2 = 1 - 3 GeV2 and xB = 0.16 to 0.41. The asymmetry varied from 0.006 to 0.071 with astatistical precision at the 10-2 level.

  16. Single Nucleobase Identification Using Biophysical Signatures from Nanoelectronic Quantum Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshoj, Lee E; Afsari, Sepideh; Khan, Sajida; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-03-01

    Nanoelectronic DNA sequencing can provide an important alternative to sequencing-by-synthesis by reducing sample preparation time, cost, and complexity as a high-throughput next-generation technique with accurate single-molecule identification. However, sample noise and signature overlap continue to prevent high-resolution and accurate sequencing results. Probing the molecular orbitals of chemically distinct DNA nucleobases offers a path for facile sequence identification, but molecular entropy (from nucleotide conformations) makes such identification difficult when relying only on the energies of lowest-unoccupied and highest-occupied molecular orbitals (LUMO and HOMO). Here, nine biophysical parameters are developed to better characterize molecular orbitals of individual nucleobases, intended for single-molecule DNA sequencing using quantum tunneling of charges. For this analysis, theoretical models for quantum tunneling are combined with transition voltage spectroscopy to obtain measurable parameters unique to the molecule within an electronic junction. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is then used to measure these nine biophysical parameters for DNA nucleotides, and a modified machine learning algorithm identified nucleobases. The new parameters significantly improve base calling over merely using LUMO and HOMO frontier orbital energies. Furthermore, high accuracies for identifying DNA nucleobases were observed at different pH conditions. These results have significant implications for developing a robust and accurate high-throughput nanoelectronic DNA sequencing technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs13042395 in the SLC52A3 gene as a biomarker for regional lymph node metastasis and relapse-free survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hua-Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Yi; Long, Lin; Jiao, Ji-Wei; Peng, Yu-Hui; Xu, Yi-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    SLC52A3 was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs13042395 (C > T) and rs3746803 (G > A) in SLC52A3 and risk, tumor characteristics and survival of ESCC patients remain inconclusive and of unknown prognostic significance. Analyses of the association between SNPs in SLC52A3 and ESCC risk were performed on 479 ESCC cases, together with 479 controls, in a case-control study. Blood samples for cases and controls were collected and genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan assays. Among the 479 ESCC cases, 343 cases with complete clinical data were used to investigate the association between SNPs and ESCC clinical characteristics; 288 cases with complete clinical data and 5-year follow-up data were used to analyze the association between SNPs and prognosis. Dual luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to investigate the biological function of rs13042395. No association was found between SLC52A3 rs3746803 and susceptibility, tumor characteristics or survival of ESCC patients. For rs13042395, TT genotype carriers were likely to have reduced lymph node metastasis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.31–0.98) and longer relapse-free survival time (P = 0.03) . Also, both rs13042395 (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62, 95 % CI, 0.38–0.99) and regional lymph node metastasis (HR = 2.06, 95 % CI, 1.36–3.13 for N1 vs. N0; HR = 2.88, 95 % CI, 1.70–4.86 for N2 vs. N0; HR = 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.01–4.30 for N3 vs. N0) were independent factors affecting relapse-free survival for ESCC patients who underwent surgery. Dual luciferase reporter assays and EMSAs suggested that the CC genotype of rs13042395 enhanced SLC52A3 expression, probably via binding with specific transcription factors. The rs13042395 polymorphism in SLC52A3 is associated with regional lymph node

  19. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.starska@umed.lodz.pl [I Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź (Poland); Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Olszewski, Jurek [II Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź (Poland); Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Łódź, Paderewskiego 4, 93-509 Łódź (Poland); Aleksandrowicz, Paweł [Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin (Poland); Lewy-Trenda, Iwona [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Łódź, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź (Poland); and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  20. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Olszewski, Jurek; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels

  1. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inversion of single-particle levels in nuclear Hartree-Fock and Brueckner-HF calculations with broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.L.; Svenne, J.P.

    1975-12-01

    Energy levels of states connected by a symmetry of the Hamiltonian normally should be degenerate. In self-consistent field theories, when only one of a pair of single-particle levels connected by a symmetry of the full Hamiltonian is occupied, the degeneracy is split and the unoccupied level often lies below the occupied one. Inversions of neutron-proton (charge) and time-reversal doublets in odd nuclei, charge doublets in even nuclei with a neutron excess, and spin-orbit doublets in spherical configurations with spin-unsaturated shells are examined. The origin of the level inversion is investigated, and the following explanation offered. Unoccupied single-particle levels, from a calculation in an A-particle system, should be interpreted as levels of the (A + 1)-particle system. When the symmetry-related level, occupied in the A-particle system, is also calculated in the (A + 1)-particle system it is degenerate with or lies lower than the other. That is, when both levels are calculated in the (A + 1)-particle system, they are not inverted. It is demonstrated that the usual prescription to occupy the lowest-lying orbitals should be modified to refer to the single-particle energies calculated in the (A + 1)- or the (A - 1)-particle system. This observation is shown to provide a justification for avoiding an oscillation of occupancy between symmetry-related partners in successive iterations leading to a self-consistency. It is pointed out that two degenerate determinants arise from occupying one or the other partner of an initially degenerate pair of levels and then iterating to self-consistency. The existence of the degenerate determinants indicates the need for introducing correlations, either by mixing the two configurations or by allowing additional symmetry-breaking (resulting in a more highly deformed non-degenerate configuration). 2 figures, 3 tables, 43 references

  3. Correlation effects beyond coupled cluster singles and doubles approximation through Fock matrix dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Rahul; Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-11-28

    We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n 5 additional cost. Due to the inclusion of higher rank excitations via the Fock matrix dressing, this method is a natural improvement over conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles approximation, and this method would be demonstrated via applications on some challenging systems. This highly promising scheme has a conceptually simple structure which is also easily generalizable to a multi-reference coupled cluster scheme for treating strong degeneracy. We shall demonstrate that this method is a natural lowest order perturbative approximation to the recently developed iterative n-body excitation inclusive coupled cluster singles and doubles scheme [R. Maitra et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074103 (2017)].

  4. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  5. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported.Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination.Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern.These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at CDH1 promoter region in familial gastric cancer Polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs en la región promotora CDH1 en cáncer gástrico familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-de la Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer is the most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy in Mexico and the proportion of patients younger than 40 years is one of the highest reported in the world literature. Recently several families with familial diffuse gastric cancer have been identified at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition. Germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CHD1 have been described that result in the development of diffuse hereditary gastric cancer in young patients. Methods: the complete coding sequence at exons 1 to 16 and the promoter region of CDH1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples of two patients with early onset familial diffuse gastric cancer. Results: no germline inactivating mutations of CHD1 were found on either patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms -160 C→A were detected in the promoter region of CDH1 in both patients. Conclusions: the polymorphism -160 C→A theoretically confers an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. The relatives of these patients may an increased risk of gastric cancer among other tumors. There is presently not enough evidence to consider the -160 C→A polymorphism an etiologic factor of diffuse gastric cancer in these patients since the frequency and type of genetic alterations of CDH1 are largely unknown in the Mexican population. It will be necessary to conduct epidemiologic studies in the Mexican population to determine the influence that genetic alterations have on the genesis of diffuse gastric carcinoma.Introducción: el cáncer gástrico es la neoplasia más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal en México y la proporción de pacientes menores de 40 años es una de las más altas reportadas en la literatura mundial. Recientemente se han identificado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición varias familias con cáncer gástrico difuso familiar. Múltiples mutaciones germinales del gene de E-cadherina (CHD1

  7. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  8. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  9. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  10. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  11. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (DSPECT): Definition of a generally acceptable normal range and follow-up checks after extracranial bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography was evaluated in 50 volunteers with unobtrusive cerebral findings, who were to provide the relevant standard values. It was found that the values measured were easily reproducible. Measurements in patients showing cerebrovascular disease that were carried out before and after extracranial bypass surgery did mostly not suggest any perceivable improvement of cerebral blood flow. In isolated cases the cerebral reserve was influenced favourably, as judged from measurements after administration of acetazolamide. (MBC) [de

  12. T-cell responsiveness to LCMV segregates as a single locus in crosses between BALB/cA and C.B-17 mice. Evidence for regulation by a gene outside the Igh region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, Ole; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1993-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was studied in BALB/cA and C.B-17 mouse strains differing in the immunoglobulin heavy chain region (Igh). Susceptibility to intracerebral infection and the ability to clear the virus differed significantly between...

  13. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a....../release. Studies of E1/E2 heterodimerization showed no differences in intracellular E1/E2 interaction for chimeric constructs with or without E2 stem region mutations. Interestingly, the E2 stem region mutations allowed efficient entry, which was verified in 1a-E1/1b-E2 HCV pseudoparticle assays. A CD81 inhibition...

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in aged diabetic patients without a history of cerebrovascular accident, determined by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Masanori; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Morotomi, Yasuyuki; Nunoi, Kiyohide; Fujishima, Masatoshi.

    1989-01-01

    N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to determine the regional cerebral blood flow in 9 diabetic patients (average age: 71.8 years) and 9 non-diabetic subjects (average age: 71.7 years), none of whom had a history of cerebrovascular accident. There were no significant differences in the physiological or laboratory data between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups except in fasting plasma glucose and HbA 1 c levels. Areas of hypoperfusion of the cerebral hemispheres were observed in 7 diabetic patients, 5 of whom showed multiple lesions. On the other hand, areas of hypoperfusion were observed only in 4 of the non-diabetic subjects and only 1 of these demonstrated multiple lesions. We evaluated the cerebral blood flow semiquantitatively as follows: the area where the radioactive count was 65% or more of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region of normal cerebral blood flow (ROI-A); the area where the count was 45% or more as region of brain tissue except for ventricles (RUI-B). The numbers of pixels of ROI-A and ROI-B were counted in each slice and the ROI-A/B ratios of 16 slices were averaged individually. The average percent ROI-A/B ratio was significantly lower in the diabetic group than that in the control group (49.4±1.9 (Mean±SEM) vs 56.6±1.9%, p<0.05). These observations suggest that the area of normal regional cerebral blood flow is reduced in aged diabetics, even in the absence of a history of cerebrovascular accident. (author)

  15. Energy in Italian regions. Energy environment situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, E.; Coralli, L.; Porpiglia, V.; Perrella, G.; De Lauretis, R.; Romagnoli, A.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a representative picture of the choice regions in energy and environment field. Are singled out the laws and regulations of some regions and concrete territorial applications [it

  16. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  17. Electronic structure and optical properties of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal, a nonlinear optical mid-IR material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, Tuan V.; Isaenko, L. I.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-06-01

    Measurements of X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and irradiated with Ar+ ions surfaces of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal, novel nonlinear optical mid-IR selenide grown by a modified vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, are reported. Electronic structure of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 is elucidated from theoretical and experimental points of view. Notably, total and partial densities of states (DOSs) of the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 compound are calculated based on density functional theory (DFT) using the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method. In accordance with the DFT calculations, the principal contributors to the valence band are the Se 4p states, making the main input at the top and in the upper part of the band, while its bottom is dominated by contributions of the valence s states associated with Ga and In atoms. The theoretical total DOS curve peculiarities are found to be in excellent agreement with the shape of the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal. The bottom of the conduction band of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 is formed mainly by contributions of the unoccupied Ga 4s and In 5s states in almost equal proportion, with somewhat smaller contributions of the unoccupied Se 4p states as well. Our calculations indicate that the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 compound is a direct gap semiconductor. The principal optical constants of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 are calculated in the present work.

  18. Single-Molecule Rotational Switch on a Dangling Bond Dimer Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Szymon; Kawai, Hiroyo; Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafał; Echavarren, Antonio M; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek; Saeys, Mark

    2016-09-27

    One of the key challenges in the construction of atomic-scale circuits and molecular machines is to design molecular rotors and switches by controlling the linear or rotational movement of a molecule while preserving its intrinsic electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate both the continuous rotational switching and the controlled step-by-step single switching of a trinaphthylene molecule adsorbed on a dangling bond dimer created on a hydrogen-passivated Ge(001):H surface. The molecular switch is on-surface assembled when the covalent bonds between the molecule and the dangling bond dimer are controllably broken, and the molecule is attached to the dimer by long-range van der Waals interactions. In this configuration, the molecule retains its intrinsic electronic properties, as confirmed by combined scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements, density functional theory calculations, and advanced STM image calculations. Continuous switching of the molecule is initiated by vibronic excitations when the electrons are tunneling through the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital state of the molecule. The switching path is a combination of a sliding and rotation motion over the dangling bond dimer pivot. By carefully selecting the STM conditions, control over discrete single switching events is also achieved. Combined with the ability to create dangling bond dimers with atomic precision, the controlled rotational molecular switch is expected to be a crucial building block for more complex surface atomic-scale devices.

  19. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  20. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  1. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  2. Evaluation of a Panel of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 Genomic Regions in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Priyanka; Lavu, Vamsi; RangaRao, Suresh; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial triggering of the host immune-inflammatory response, which in turn is regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathways affect the expression of several target genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, which are associated with progression of disease. The objective of this study was to identify the association between the MiR-146a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382), the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) SNP and chronic periodontitis. Genotyping was performed for the MiR-146a (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382) and the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) polymorphisms in 180 healthy controls and 190 cases of chronic periodontitis by the direct Sanger sequencing technique. The strength of the association between the polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Haplotype and linkage analyses among the polymorphisms was performed. Multifactorial dimensionality reduction was performed to determine epistatic interaction among the polymorphisms. The MiR-196a2 polymorphism revealed a significant inverse association with chronic periodontitis. Haplotype analysis of MiR-146a and MiR-196a2 polymorphisms revealed 13 different combinations, of which 5 were found to have an inverse association with chronic periodontitis. The present study has demonstrated a significant inverse association of MiR-196a2 polymorphism with chronic periodontitis.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL1B gene influence outcome in multiple myeloma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy independently of relapse treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias W.; Abildgaard, Niels

    2011-01-01

    the impact on outcome of HDT, INF-α maintenance treatment, and treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib at relapse, in relation to the major identified functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL1B. The wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriage of the IL1B promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T...... carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T (HR, 1.6 (1.1–2.4)). Furthermore, among INF-α treated patients, gene–gene interaction studies on IL1B C-3737T and NFКB1-94ins/del ATTG revealed a fourfold increase in TTF for homozygous carriers of wild-type alleles at both loci as compared to variant allele...... carriers at both loci. No relation to genotype and outcome was found for relapse patients treated with thalidomide or bortezomib. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of myeloma patients carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriers of the promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T, −1464G...

  4. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  5. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  6. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  7. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  8. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  9. Single port VATS: recent developments in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter S Y; Capili, Freddie; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-03-01

    Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the most recent evolution in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. With increasing global popularity, the single port VATS approach has been adopted by experienced thoracic surgeons in many Asian countries. From initial experience of single port VATS lobectomy to the more complex sleeve resection procedures now forming part of daily practice in some Asia institutes, the region has been the proving ground for single port VATS approaches' feasibility and safety. In addition, certain technical refinements in single port VATS lung resection and lymph node dissection have also sprung from Asia. Novel equipment designed to facilitate single port VATS allowing further reduce access trauma are being realized by the partnership between surgeons and the industries. Advanced thoracoscopes and staplers that are narrower and more maneuverable are particularly important in the smaller habitus of patients from Asia. These and similar new generation equipment are being applied to single port VATS in novel ways. As dedicated thoracic surgeons in the region continue to striving for excellence, innovative ideas in single incision access including subxiphoid and embryonic natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (e-NOTES) have been explored. Adjunct techniques and technology used in association with single port VATS such as non-intubated surgery, hybrid operating room image guidance and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy are all in rapid development in Asia.

  10. Single crystal growth, electronic structure and optical properties of Cs2HgBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Shkumat, P. N.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We report on successful synthesis of high-quality single crystal of cesium mercury tetrabromide, Cs2HgBr4, by using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method as well as on studies of its electronic structure. For the Cs2HgBr4 crystal, we have recorded X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Our data indicate that the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, such a treatment of the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface alters its elemental stoichiometry. To explore peculiarities of the energy distribution of total and partial densities of states within the valence band and the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4, we have made band-structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The APW+lo calculations allow for concluding that the Br 4p states make the major contributions in the upper portion of the valence band, while its lower portion is dominated by contributors of the Hg 5d and Cs 5p states. Further, the main contributors to the bottom of the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4 are the unoccupied Br p and Hg s states. In addition, main optical characteristics of Cs2HgBr4 such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity have been explored from the first-principles band-structure calculations.

  11. Enhanced regional forecasting considering single wind farm distribution for upscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremen, Lueder von; Saleck, Nadja; Heinemann, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    With increasing wind power penetration the need for more accurate wind power forecasts increases to raise the market value of wind power. State-of-the-art wind power forecasting tools are considered either statistical or physical. Fundamentally new techniques are rare, thus it is tried to establish a new approach. The spatial decomposition of wind power generation in Germany can be done with principle component analysis to extract the main pattern of variability. They have a physical meaning when linked with typical weather situation. The first four eigenvectors explain about 94 % of the observed variance. The time-evolving principle components are linked with the total wind power feed-in in Germany and are used for its estimation. A new wind power forecasting model has been implemented with this approach and shows very good results that are comparable with state-of-the-art commercial wind power forecast models. The day-ahead forecast error for a common intercomparison period Jan-Jul 2006 is 4.4 %. The suggested approach offers wide ranges for future developments (e.g. several NWP models), because it is computationally very cheap to run

  12. Region 3 James Madison University Single Source Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  14. Dynamic Monitoring of Energy Services in Conflict Regions using Suomi-NPP VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, E.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    While remote sensing data has proven useful for understanding the environmental conditions surrounding conflict, it can also present a more nuanced, dynamic picture inside conflict zones. This study investigates the use of global nighttime environmental products as derived from the Suomi-NPP satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to identify and track the location and timing of regional conflicts in the Middle East as reflected in changes to the region's energy infrastructure. The study focuses on a 43-month period (c. Jan 2012 - Aug 2015) over major urban centers in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Lebanon. The new daily dynamic products captured a series of striking downturns in energy service supply and demand that occurred in 2012 in the Syrian cities of Damascus (-50%) and Aleppo (-94%) corresponding to the onset of major military confrontations (The Battle of Aleppo on 7/15/2012 and The Damascus Bombing on 7/23/2012, respectively). Iraqi cities recently captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (e.g. Mosul, Tikrit, Tal Afor, Ramadi), also showed marked average decreases in energy service provision (-84% since 4/1/2014) compared to their unoccupied counterparts (e.g., Baghdad and Sulaimaniya at +6%). A seasonal trend decomposition analysis is used to disentangle climactic, social, and political factors affecting the VIIRS time-series, distinguishing between energy patterns associated with conflict and those associated with cultural festivals, load shedding, seasonal weather, and socioeconomic factors.

  15. Spectroscopy of exotic nuclei with A {approx} 190: single particle states and collective properties of {sup 187,189}Bi and {sup 188}Pb; Spectroscopie de noyaux exotiques dans la region de masse A {approx} 190: la structure des isotopes {sup 187,189}Bi et {sup 188}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerstel, A

    2002-11-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of very neutron deficient nuclei in the lead region of the nuclear chart and more precisely to the investigation of the single particle states and collective properties of the {sup 187,189}Bi isotopes by gamma-ray spectroscopy. These nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reaction induced by a krypton beam on a silver target. In this mass region, the cross section for producing these nuclei are very low, of the order of a few micro-barns, making experimental studies very difficult. The identification of the nuclei was done using the very powerful RDT (Recoil Decay Tagging) technique, based on the selection of the isotopes through their characteristic alpha-particle decays. The experiments were performed at the university of Jyvdskyla (Finland) with the facility combining the gamma-ray spectrometer JUROSPHERE and the magnetic gas-filled separator RITU. Isomeric states were observed in both nuclei and their life-times measured. The systematics of individual proton states in odd-mass bismuth isotopes have been reproduced with a shell model up to 20 neutrons away from the valley of stability. Furthermore, rotational bands, a signature of collective nuclear motion, have been established for the first time in these nuclei. The interpretation of these results led to the conclusion that {sup 187,189}Bi have a prolate shape at low excitation energy, unlike the heavier bismuth isotopes which have been interpreted to have oblate deformation, implying a shape transition in this mass region. Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculations are consistent with the experimental indication of shape coexistence, as seen in the neighbouring even-even lead nuclei. (author)

  16. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  17. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  18. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  19. Single atom oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiorkowski, P.; Walther, H.

    1990-01-01

    Modern methods of laser spectroscopy allow the study of single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of radiation-atom coupling. In this paper, the following two experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed: the single-atom maser and the study of the resonance fluorescence of a single stored ion. The simplest and most fundamental system for studying radiation-matter coupling is a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. This problem received a great deal of attention shortly after the maser was invented

  20. Dynamic emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The author reviews three tomographic methods for measuring the regional cerebral blood flow: single photon transmission tomography; dual photon emission tomography; and single photon emission tomography. The latter technique is discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  1. "Mature Regionalism" and the Genesis of "Functional Projects": "Educational Regionalism" in Small (and Micro-States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2017-01-01

    This article advances that the movement towards "deeper" Caribbean integration has generated a shift from "immature" regionalism to a "mature" form of regionalism. Thus, mature regionalism, a new governance mechanism, in regulating the institutional and legal framework of Caribbean Single Market and Economy is…

  2. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  3. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  4. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  5. Sensing single electrons with single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, Taras

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for probing transport of just one electron, a process of great importance both in nature and in artificial devices. Our idea for locating a single electron is analogues to the conventional GPS where signals from several satellites are used to locate a macro object. Using fluorescent molecules as tiny sensors, it is possible to determine 3D displacement vector of an electron

  6. Stress resistance of single stock cultures of filamentous green algae from the genus Klebsormidium (Streptophyta) isolated from the polar regions and from Slovakia; Stresova rezistencia jednodruhovych kmenovych kultur vlaknitej zelenej riasy z rodu Klebsormidium (Streptophyta) izolovanych z polarnych oblasti a zo Slovenska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segecova, J; Kovacik, L [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra botaniky, 81102 Bratislava (Slovakia); Elster, J [Centrum polarni ekologie, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Jihoceska Universita, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-25

    Single-fiber stem cultures of green algae of the genus Klebsormidium PC Silva, K. R. Mattox et W.H. Blackwell isolated from the both polar regions and from Slovakia were subjected to the effects of the environmental stress including various options of dessication and freezing. Klebsormidium algae species has a wide ecological amplitude and equally broad biological plasticity that allows it to adapt and survive in adverse environmental conditions. Based on the performed microscopic analyses of algaes after exposure to stressors, the experimental strains were generally the most resistant to the slow and rapid freezing. Exposure of the strains to lyophilization was shown as the most drastic stress factor of all, to who were the most resistant arctic strains 9 LUC, LUC 11, LUC 14 as well as MON 1 strain from Slovakia and LUC strain 8 of Antarctica. The least resistant to environmental stress were two Antarctic strains LUC LUC 4 and 5. However, we can not explain it yet and it will be the subject of the further study. (authors)

  7. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  8. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  9. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  10. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  11. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  12. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  13. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  14. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  15. Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).

  16. The Media, Marketing, and Single Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Australian media's interest in education, as in many Anglophone countries, is frequently dominated by concerns about boys in schools. In 2002, in a country region of the Australian State of Queensland, this concern was evident in a debate on the merits of single sex schooling that took place in a small local newspaper. The debate was fuelled…

  17. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  19. Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate

  20. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  1. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  2. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  3. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  4. Users guide to REGIONAL-1: a regional assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Eadie, W.J.; Powell, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    A guide was prepared to allow a user to run the PNL long-range transport model, REGIONAL 1. REGIONAL 1 is a computer model set up to run atmospheric assessments on a regional basis. The model has the capability of being run in three modes for a single time period. The three modes are: (1) no deposition, (2) dry deposition, (3) wet and dry deposition. The guide provides the physical and mathematical basis used in the model for calculating transport, diffusion, and deposition for all three modes. Also the guide includes a program listing with an explanation of the listings and an example in the form of a short-term assessment for 48 hours. The purpose of the example is to allow a person who has past experience with programming and meteorology to operate the assessment model and compare his results with the guide results. This comparison will assure the user that the program is operating in a proper fashion

  5. Electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine : An experimental and theoretical study of occupied and unoccupied levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Fabrizio; Carravetta, Vincenzo; Stefani, Giovanni; Jansik, Branislav; Alagia, Michele; Stranges, Stefano; Ruocco, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule is presented. We performed x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and photoabsorption [x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES)] gas phase experiments and we compared the results with

  6. Exploratory Use of Microaerosol Decontamination Technology (PAEROSOL) in Enclosed, Unoccupied Hospital Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainina, Evguenia I.; McCune, D. E.; Luna, Maria L.; Cook, J. E.; Soltis, Michele A.; Demons, Samandra T.; Godoy-Kain, Patricia; Weston, J. H.

    2012-05-31

    The goal of this study was to validate the previously observed high biological kill performance of PAEROSOL, a semi-dry, micro-aerosol decontamination technology, against common HAI in a non-human subject trial within a hospital setting of Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) on Joint Base Lewis-McChord in Tacoma, Washington. In addition to validating the disinfecting efficacy of PAEROSOL, the objectives of the trial included a demonstration of PAEROSOL environmental safety, (i.e., impact to hospital interior materials and electronic equipment exposed during testing) and PAEROSOL parameters optimization for future deployment.

  7. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  8. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  9. Single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information

  10. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  11. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  12. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  14. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  15. Single-photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Peter; Theuwissen, Albert J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist's view from different domains to the forthcoming ''single-photon imaging'' revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields. (orig.)

  16. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielejec, E; Seamons, J A; Carroll, M S

    2010-01-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 μm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ∼600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of -1 and 10 -4 for operation temperatures of ∼300 K and ∼77 K, respectively. Low temperature operation and reduced false, 'dark', counts are critical to achieving high confidence in single ion arrival. For the device performance in this work, the confidence is calculated as a probability of >98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10 -4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  17. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions....... Although the operations described are the first of their kind reported in Denmark, favorable operating times and very low complication rates are seen. It is the authors' opinion that in addition to being feasible for hysterectomy, single port laparoscopy may become the preferred method for many simple...

  18. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  19. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  20. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  1. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  2. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  3. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  4. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  5. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Single cell metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    Recent discoveries suggest that cells of a clonal population often display multiple metabolic phenotypes at the same time. Motivated by the success of mass spectrometry (MS) in the investigation of population-level metabolomics, the analytical community has initiated efforts towards MS-based single

  7. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  8. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  9. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  10. Elucidation of the electronic states in polyethylene glycol by attenuated Total reflectance spectroscopy in the far-ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nami; Wakabayashi, Tomonari; Morisawa, Yusuke

    2018-05-01

    We measured the attenuated total reflectance-far ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG; average molecular weights of 200, 300, and 400) and related materials in the liquid state in the 145-200-nm wavelength region. For appropriately assigning the absorption bands, we also performed theoretical simulation of the unit-number dependent electronic spectra. The FUV spectra of PEGs contain three bands, which are assigned to the transitions between n(CH2OCH2)-3s Rydberg state (176 nm), n(CH2OCH2)-3p Rydberg state (163 nm), and n(OH)-3p Rydberg state (153 nm). Since the contribution of n(OH) decreases compared to n(CH2OCH2) with increase in the number of units, the ratios of the molar absorption coefficients, ε, at 153 nm relative to 163 nm, decrease. On the other hand, the ratio of ε at 176 nm to that at 163 nm increases with increase in the number of units, because of the difference in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the transitions. The calculated results suggest that n orbitals form two electronic bands. In the upper band, the electrons expand over the ether chain, whereas in the lower band, the electrons are localized in the terminal OH in the PEGs.

  11. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruoxue

    adaptable to average bio-lab environment. These probes are mechanically robust and flexible and can withstand repeated bending and deformation without significant deterioration in optical performance, which offers an ideal instrumental platform for out subsequent effort of using these nanoprobes in chemical sensing as well as single cell endoscopy and spot delivery. Parameters affecting the coupling efficiency and output power of the nanoprobe were studied and chemical etched of single mode fiber with small cone angle was established to be optimized for highly effective optical nanoprobes. The versatility of the nanoprobe design was first tested by transforming the nanowire probe into a pH sensor with near-field photopolymerization of a copolymer containing pH sensitive dye on the tip of the nanowire. The pH-sensitive nanoprobe was able to report the pH difference in micro-droplets containing buffer solution with the excitation of light waveguided on the nanoprobe with internal calibration, fast response time and good photostability and reversibility. Such nanoprobe sensors are ideal for high definition spatial and temporal sensing of concentration profile, especially for the kinetic processes in single cell studies for which chemical probes of minute sizes and fast response are desired. The nanoprobe was then applied into spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy. It was demonstrated that nanowire-based optical probe can deliver payloads into the cell with a high spatiotemporal precision, guide and confine visible light into intracellular compartments selectively and detect optical signals from the subcellular regions with high spatial resolution. The nanoprobe was proven to be biocompatible and non-invasive. The effective optical coupling between the fiber optics and the nanowire enables highly localized excitation and detection, limiting the probe volume to the close proximity of the nanowire. None the less, this versatile technique does not rely on any

  12. Inclusive central region in perturbative Reggeon calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, C.; Pascual, R.

    1976-01-01

    The single-particle inclusive cross section and the correlation function are studied in the perturbative approach to Gribov's Reggeon calculus; the leading contributions to both functions are evaluated. The large energy rise of the inclusive cross section appears as a consequence of the Pomerons having an intercept larger than 1. The same set of parameters which describes correctly the cross-section data and the triple-Regge region also describes the inclusive data in the central region

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  14. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  15. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... of SNPs. This will allow acquisition of more information from the sample materials and open up for new possibilities as well as new challenges....

  18. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  19. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  20. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  1. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  2. Food consumption: A Europe of regions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    1993-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of what may on the face of it seem like an increasing internationalisation of consumer patterns within the food area it is relatively clear that major national and regional differences persist. In the light of the establishment of the European Single Market from 1993 and its...

  3. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  4. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  5. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  6. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  7. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  8. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  9. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  10. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  11. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  12. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  13. Using Xrootd to Federate Regional Storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    While the LHC data movement systems have demonstrated the ability to move data at the necessary throughput, we have identified two weaknesses: the latency for physicists to access data and the complexity of the tools involved. To address these, both ATLAS and CMS have begun to federate regional storage systems using Xrootd. Xrootd, referring to a protocol and implementation, allows us to provide data access to all disk-resident data from a single virtual endpoint. This "redirector" endpoint (which may actually be multiple physical hosts) discovers the actual location of the data and redirects the client to the appropriate site. The approach is particularly advantageous since typically the redirection requires much less than 500 milliseconds (bounded by network round trip time) and the Xrootd client is conveniently built into LHC physicist's analysis tools. Currently, there are three regional storage federations - a US ATLAS region, a European CMS region, and a US CMS region. The US ATLAS and US CMS regi...

  14. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  15. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  16. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  17. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  18. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  19. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  20. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  1. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  2. Single access laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D Raman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic nephrectomy has assumed a central role in the management of benign and malignant kidney diseases. While laparoscopy is less morbid than open surgery, it still requires several incisions each at least 1-2 cm in length. Each incision carries morbidity risks of bleeding, hernia and/or internal organ damage, and incrementally decreases cosmesis. An alternative to conventional laparoscopy is single access or keyhole surgery, which utilizes magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS technology or articulating laparoscopic instruments. These technical innovations obviate the need to externally space trocars for triangulation, thus allowing for the creation of a small, solitary portal of entry into the abdomen. Laboratory and early clinical series demonstrate feasibility as well as safe and successful completion of keyhole nephrectomy. Future work is necessary to improve existing instrumentation, increase clinical experience, assess benefits of this surgical approach, and explore other potential applications for this technique.

  3. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  4. The zitterbewegung region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with a precise description of the region of zitterbewegung below the Compton scale and the stochastic nature associated with it. We endeavor to delineate this particular region by means of Ito’s calculus and instigate certain features that are in sharp contrast with conventional physics. Interestingly, our work substantiates that the zitterbewegung region represents a pre-space-time region and from therein emerges the notion of our conventional space-time. Interestingly, this unique region engenders the relativistic and quantum mechanical aspects of space-time.

  5. Method of stabilizing single channel analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasching, G.E.; Patton, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A method and the apparatus to reduce the drift of single channel analyzers are described. Essentially, this invention employs a time-sharing or multiplexing technique to insure that the outputs from two single channel analyzers (SCAS) maintain the same count ratio regardless of variations in the threshold voltage source or voltage changes, the multiplexing technique is accomplished when a flip flop, actuated by a clock, changes state to switch the output from the individual SCAS before these outputs are sent to a ratio counting scalar. In the particular system embodiment disclosed that illustrates this invention, the sulfur content of coal is determined by subjecting the coal to radiation from a neutron producing source. A photomultiplier and detector system equates the transmitted gamma radiation to an analog voltage signal and sends the same signal after amplification, to a SCA system that contains the invention. Therein, at least two single channel analyzers scan the analog signal over different parts of a spectral region. The two outputs may then be sent to a digital multiplexer so that the output from the multiplexer contains counts falling within two distinct segments of the region. By dividing the counts from the multiplexer by each other, the percentage of sulfur within the coal sample under observation may be determined. (U.S.)

  6. Assessment of innovative potential of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sazonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of innovative-oriented processes of transformation of the Russian economy at the current stage of development requires the formation of regional innovation systems that predetermine the growing competitiveness of the national economy in the future. The optimal functioning of the innovation system of the region as the most important link in the national innovation system depends on the availability, condition and level of development of its innovative potential, which in turn determines the economic growth of not only a single region, but the country as a whole. The essence and structure of innovative potential of organizational systems are considered in the article. The main approaches to the definition of the concept of innovative potential and the definition of the content of the concept are analyzed. An approach to the formation of an integrated indicator is proposed. The integrated indicator of the region's innovative potential was calculated using the area diagram method. The values of the innovation potential for the regions of the Central Federal District were calculated and the ranking of the regions was performed in accordance with the final value. Conclusion. To build a model for innovative development of the region, it is necessary to analyze the components of the innovation potential, its evaluation, and a possible development forecast for the coming years. Voronezh, Tula and Kostroma and Belgorod regions have high rates for the Central Federal District. Ryazan, Smolensk and Kostroma oblasts have rather low indicators in comparison with other regions.

  7. Insertion and crossing region design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  8. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  9. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  10. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  11. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  12. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  13. Regional confidence-building by means of disarmament and democracy: Review of the first ASEAN regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Hiromichi

    1997-01-01

    Not a single word about disarmament or arms reduction appears in the ASEAN Regional Forum 'Chairman's Statement' issued in 1994. Similarly, not a single word about human rights or democracy can be found in the document. This paper deals with the idea that disarmament and human rights must be central issues of discussion in any Asia-Pacific regional security mechanism and that the roles of non-governmental organizations must be emphasized in this process

  14. Regional ejection fraction: a quantitative radionuclide index of regional left ventricular performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, D.E.; Wynne, J.; Uren, R.; Parker, J.A.; Idoine, J.; Siegel, L.C.; Neill, J.M.; Cohn, P.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Left ventricular regional ejection fractions were derived from background-corrected, time-activity curves in 43 patients assessed by both gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography and left ventricular contrast angiography. From a single, modified left anterior oblique projection, the regional change in background corrected counts was determined in each of three anatomic regions. The normal range for regional radionuclide ejection fraction was determined in 10 patients with normal contrast ventriculograms and without obstructive coronary artery disease at coronary arteriography. Regional ejection fraction was compared with percent segmental axis shortening and extent of akinetic segments in corresponding regions of the contrast ventriculogram. Radionuclide and roentgenographic methods were in agreement as to the presence or absence of abnormal wall motion in 83 of 99 left ventricular regions (84%) in 33 patients evaluated prospectively. Comparison of regional ejection fraction demonstrated significant differences between regions with roentgenographically determined normokinesis hypokinesis, and akinesis. We conclude that the left ventricular regional ejection fraction provides a reliable quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular performance

  15. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  16. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  17. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  18. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  19. LASER PROCESSING ON SINGLE CRYSTALS BY UV PULSE LASER

    OpenAIRE

    龍見, 雅美; 佐々木, 徹; 高山, 恭宜

    2009-01-01

    Laser processing by using UV pulsed laser was carried out on single crystal such as sapphire and diamond in order to understand the fundamental laser processing on single crystal. The absorption edges of diamond and sapphire are longer and shorter than the wave length of UV laser, respectively. The processed regions by laser with near threshold power of processing show quite different state in each crystal.

  20. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  1. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  2. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  3. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  4. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  5. Single-Particle States in $^{133}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    Huck, A

    2002-01-01

    % IS338 \\\\ \\\\ It is suggested to investigate the $\\beta^- $-decay of $^{133}$In and $^{134}$In in order to determine the single-particle states in $^{133}$Sn, which are so far unknown and needed for the shell-model description of the region close to $^{132}$Sn. Large hyper-pure Ge-detectors will be used for the $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. In the experiments with $^{134}$In, delayed neutrons in coincidence with $\\gamma$-rays from excited states in $^{133}$Sn provide the opportunity for a very selective detection of the states in question.

  6. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  7. Classical region of a trapped Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakie, P Blair [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Davis, Matthew J [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2007-06-14

    The classical region of a Bose gas consists of all single particle modes that have a high average occupation and are well described by a classical field. Highly occupied modes only occur in massive Bose gases at ultra-cold temperatures, in contrast to the photon case where there are highly occupied modes at all temperatures. For the Bose gas the number of these modes is dependent on the temperature, the total number of particles and their interaction strength. In this paper, we characterize the classical region of a harmonically trapped Bose gas over a wide parameter regime. We use a Hartree-Fock approach to account for the effects of interactions, which we observe to significantly change the classical region as compared to the idealized case. We compare our results to full classical field calculations and show that the Hartree-Fock approach provides a qualitatively accurate description of a classical region for the interacting gas.

  8. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  9. Medial/skeletal linking structures for multi-region configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Damon, James

    2018-01-01

    The authors consider a generic configuration of regions, consisting of a collection of distinct compact regions \\{ \\Omega_i\\} in \\mathbb{R}^{n+1} which may be either regions with smooth boundaries disjoint from the others or regions which meet on their piecewise smooth boundaries \\mathcal{B}_i in a generic way. They introduce a skeletal linking structure for the collection of regions which simultaneously captures the regions' individual shapes and geometric properties as well as the "positional geometry" of the collection. The linking structure extends in a minimal way the individual "skeletal structures" on each of the regions. This allows the authors to significantly extend the mathematical methods introduced for single regions to the configuration of regions.

  10. Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, W E

    2004-01-01

    Single molecules in suitable host crystals have been demonstrated to be useful single-photon emitters both at liquid-helium temperatures and at room temperature. The low-temperature source achieved controllable emission of single photons from a single terrylene molecule in p-terphenyl by an adiabatic rapid passage technique. In contrast with almost all other single-molecule systems, terrylene single molecules show extremely high photostability under continuous, high-intensity irradiation. A room-temperature source utilizing this material has been demonstrated, in which fast pumping into vibrational sidebands of the electronically excited state achieved efficient inversion of the emissive level. This source yielded a single-photon emission probability p(1) of 0.86 at a detected count rate near 300 000 photons s -1 , with very small probability of emission of more than one photon. Thus, single molecules in solids can be considered as contenders for applications of single-photon sources such as quantum key distribution

  11. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  12. Calculation of spectral shifts in UV–visible region and photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals: Effect of solvent and substituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P.; Ojha, Durga P.

    2012-01-01

    The photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals p-phenylene-4-methoxy benzoate-4-trifluoromethylbenzoate (FLUORO1), and 4-propyloxyphenyl-4-(4-trifluoromethylbenzoyloxy) benzoate (FLUORO2) has been systematically investigated using the CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods. These methods have been employed to calculate/analyze the spectral shifts, and absorbance measurements in UV–visible region of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecules has been discussed in the light of absorption wavelength and electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The effect of different solvent media and substituents on transition energies, oscillator strength, and other absorption parameters have also been reported. The present article provides valuable information regarding enhancing the UV stability of molecules by marinating their conductivity. Highlights: ► The strongest bands of FLUORO molecules can be assigned as π → π ∗ transitions. ► A small red-shift indicates a weak exciton coupling of chromophores. ► No n → π ∗ transition occurs due to the rigidity of the ring system of the molecules. ► The HOMO, LUMO, and E g values have been found to be independent of solvent effect.

  13. Calculation of spectral shifts in UV-visible region and photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals: Effect of solvent and substituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India); Ojha, Durga P., E-mail: durga_ojha@hotmail.com [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals p-phenylene-4-methoxy benzoate-4-trifluoromethylbenzoate (FLUORO1), and 4-propyloxyphenyl-4-(4-trifluoromethylbenzoyloxy) benzoate (FLUORO2) has been systematically investigated using the CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods. These methods have been employed to calculate/analyze the spectral shifts, and absorbance measurements in UV-visible region of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecules has been discussed in the light of absorption wavelength and electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The effect of different solvent media and substituents on transition energies, oscillator strength, and other absorption parameters have also been reported. The present article provides valuable information regarding enhancing the UV stability of molecules by marinating their conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strongest bands of FLUORO molecules can be assigned as {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small red-shift indicates a weak exciton coupling of chromophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No n {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transition occurs due to the rigidity of the ring system of the molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HOMO, LUMO, and E{sub g} values have been found to be independent of solvent effect.

  14. Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbourg, R; Salmon, E D; Tran, P T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the birefringence of microtubules (MTs) and of MT-based macromolecular assemblies in vitro and in living cells by using the new Pol-Scope. A single microtubule in aqueous suspension and imaged with a numerical aperture of 1.4 had a peak retardance of 0.07 nm. The peak retardance of a small bundle increased linearly with the number of MTs in the bundle. Axonemes (prepared from sea urchin sperm) had a peak retardance 20 times higher than that of single MTs, in accordance with the nine doublets and two singlets arrangement of parallel MTs in the axoneme. Measured filament retardance decreased when the filament was defocused or the numerical aperture of the imaging system was decreased. However, the retardance "area," which we defined as the image retardance integrated along a line perpendicular to the filament axis, proved to be independent of focus and of numerical aperture. These results are in good agreement with a theory that we developed for measuring retardances with imaging optics. Our theoretical concept is based on Wiener's theory of mixed dielectrics, which is well established for nonimaging applications. We extend its use to imaging systems by considering the coherence region defined by the optical set-up. Light scattered from within that region interferes coherently in the image point. The presence of a filament in the coherence region leads to a polarization dependent scattering cross section and to a finite retardance measured in the image point. Similar to resolution measurements, the linear dimension of the coherence region for retardance measurements is on the order lambda/(2 NA), where lambda is the wavelength of light and NA is the numerical aperture of the illumination and imaging lenses.

  15. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  16. Origin of the duplicated regions in the yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains several duplicated regions. The recent sequencing results of several yeast species suggest that the duplicated regions found in the modern Saccharomyces species are probably the result of a single gross duplication, as well as a series of sporadic...

  17. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  18. The Wealth of Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistotskaya, Marina; Charron, Nicholas; Lapuente, Victor

    2015-01-01

    . Using original survey data on QoG from 172 regions in eighteen European Union countries, we find that regions where governments are perceived by their citizens as impartial and free from corruption have on average significantly more SMEs. We also find that in less corrupt countries the spatial...... distribution of SMEs is more even than in more corrupt countries...

  19. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  20. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  1. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  2. Politics, Planning and Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukosky, Jerome

    The concept of regionalism identifies the issues in public affairs pertaining to a region and develops structures through which citizens can participate in the decisionmaking process. This speech describes educational decisions in the State of New York as affected by local decentralization and by concentration of power at the State level. Relevant…

  3. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusses...

  4. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  5. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  6. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  7. Arkadien. Region og identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    Oldtidens Grækenland bestod af et mylder af bystater, grupperet i regioner, og grækerne mente, at de forskellige regioners beboere havde hver deres karakteristika. Bogen undersøger dette emne nærmere i forhold til Arkadien på Peloponnes: Hvad ville det sige at være arkader? Var det et geografisk...

  8. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  9. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce the interdepend......Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce...... the interdependence of the then Soviet republics, while conflicting economic interests make cross-border cooperation difficult. Based on extensive fieldwork on infrastructure systems and firm export strategies, this paper identifies contemporary infrastructure and transportation issues within the Central Asian region...

  10. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    , Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...

  11. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  12. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  13. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  14. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  15. The applicability of physical optics in the millimetre and sub-millimetre spectral region. Part II: Application to a three-component model of ice cloud and its evaluation against the bulk single-scattering properties of various other aggregate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anthony J.; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sourdeval, Odran; Hesse, Evelyn; Harlow, Chawn

    2018-02-01

    The bulk single-scattering properties of various randomly oriented aggregate ice crystal models are compared and contrasted at a number of frequencies between 89 and 874 GHz. The model ice particles consist of the ten-branched plate aggregate, five-branched plate aggregate, eight-branched hexagonal aggregate, Voronoi ice aggregate, six-branched hollow bullet rosette, hexagonal column of aspect ratio unity, and the ten-branched hexagonal aggregate. The bulk single-scattering properties of the latter two ice particle models have been calculated using the light scattering methods described in Part I, which represent the two most extreme members of an ensemble model of cirrus ice crystals. In Part I, it was shown that the method of physical optics could be combined with the T-matrix at a size parameter of about 18 to compute the bulk integral ice optical properties and the phase function in the microwave to sufficient accuracy to be of practical value. Here, the bulk single-scattering properties predicted by the two ensemble model members and the Voronoi model are shown to generally bound those of all other models at frequencies between 89 and 874 GHz, thus representing a three-component model of ice cloud that can be generally applied to the microwave, rather than using many differing ice particle models. Moreover, the Voronoi model and hollow bullet rosette scatter similarly to each other in the microwave. Furthermore, from the various comparisons, the importance of assumed shapes of the particle size distribution as well as cm-sized ice aggregates is demonstrated.

  16. Single photon sources with single semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guang-Cun; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Shek, Chan Hung; Huang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution, we briefly recall the basic concepts of quantum optics and properties of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which are necessary to the understanding of the physics of single-photon generation with single QDs. Firstly, we address the theory of quantum emitter-cavity system, the fluorescence and optical properties of semiconductor QDs, and the photon statistics as well as optical properties of the QDs. We then review the localization of single semiconductor QDs in quantum confined optical microcavity systems to achieve their overall optical properties and performances in terms of strong coupling regime, efficiency, directionality, and polarization control. Furthermore, we will discuss the recent progress on the fabrication of single photon sources, and various approaches for embedding single QDs into microcavities or photonic crystal nanocavities and show how to extend the wavelength range. We focus in particular on new generations of electrically driven QD single photon source leading to high repetition rates, strong coupling regime, and high collection efficiencies at elevated temperature operation. Besides, new developments of room temperature single photon emission in the strong coupling regime are reviewed. The generation of indistinguishable photons and remaining challenges for practical single-photon sources are also discussed.

  17. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2005-01-01

    and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men......The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that income...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...

  18. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  19. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or CRPS is a chronic disabling heterogenous pain disorder due to trauma, resulting in sensory changes, motor function impairment, psychological changes. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and investigations. The patho - physiology is not clearly known. There is no single drug therapy, only combinations work. Treatment is multidisplinary involving medical, psychological and rehabi li tation. Newer modes of spinal cord stimulations, neuraxial mode of analgesics and newe r drugs are promising

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in Angelman syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guecueyener, K.; Goekcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Buyan, N.; Sayli, A.

    1993-01-01

    A patient with typical features of Angelman syndrome - a genetically inherited disorder involving developmental delay, ataxia, episodes of paroxysmal laughter and brachiocephaly - was studied with single-photon emission tomography. Hyperfusion found in the left frontal and left temporoparietal regions can provide insights into the functional cerebral pathology, which may be due to a disturbance of the developmental process related to a chromosomal abnormality. (orig.)

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guecueyener, K [Dept. of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Goekcora, N [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Ilgin, N [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Buyan, N [Dept. of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Sayli, A [Dept. of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1993-07-01

    A patient with typical features of Angelman syndrome - a genetically inherited disorder involving developmental delay, ataxia, episodes of paroxysmal laughter and brachiocephaly - was studied with single-photon emission tomography. Hyperfusion found in the left frontal and left temporoparietal regions can provide insights into the functional cerebral pathology, which may be due to a disturbance of the developmental process related to a chromosomal abnormality. (orig.)

  2. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...... a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...

  3. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It seems that regional decision makers during the last two decades has been unable to produce a sustainable peacebuilding plan for the region and it is questionable whether any remarkable change will occur in the near future. Some would argue that the political differences are simply too far apart...... to the process of peacebuilding, this could prove as a useful tool, and for this reason politicians, officials, and persons in general with an interest in this region will benefit from the perspectives presented here....

  4. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  5. Quantum mechanics in a multiply connected region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    It is usually assumed that wave fields or wave functions are single valued functions of space-time. However, the phase of a complex field is an unobservable quantity and there is no obvious reason that it must be single valued. On this point quantum mechanics in a multiply connected regions is not well formulated. This ambiguity appears e.g., in the case of the Bohm-Aharonov effect concerning the observability of the vector potential around a magnetic flux. The author discusses the single or multiple valuedness of wave functions and attempts to see if such an effect really exists or not. The wave function of a charged particle in a multiply connected region is not necessarily single valued. The condition that the ground state energy be a minimum fixes the character of the multiple valuedness. For a charged particle around a magnetic flux a multiple valued wave function is preferable and no Bohm-Aharonov effect is observed. The minimum energy principle is proved if one also considers the interaction of a charged particle with external objects. Then theoretically the Bohm-Aharonov effect should not be observed. Experiments are not yet conclusive on this point

  6. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  7. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  8. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  9. Indonesian Sea Power and Regional Maritime Security Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Marsetio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the regional maritime security challenges facing Indonesia. As it is known that entering to the 21st century has come a new term in regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the Indo-Pacific region. This region consists of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Both of these areas became more interconnected than in the previous period. These two regions became a single, significant system in the global order. Key players in the Indo-Pacific region are China, India and the United States. Of course, their actions have created new challenges in maritime security. These challenges include maritime disputes, pirates, and maritime power competition. The dispute in the South China Sea has spawned a security problem in the Asia Pacific region that Indonesia must face in the future.

  10. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  11. Regional Education Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  12. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  13. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  14. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  15. Paediatric regional anaesthesia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced respiratory depression. The purpose ... regional blocks are usually performed under anaesthesia or .... brachial plexus, as well as the axillary, musculo-cutaneous, ulnar, ... of their use for continuous postoperative pain management or.

  16. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  17. Second region of stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.M.; Chance, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    A new type of axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is presented. It is characterized by a region of pressure and safety factor variation with a short scale length imposed as a perturbation. The equilibrium consistent with these profile variations can be calculated by means of an asymptotic expansion. The flexibility obtained by generating such equilibria allows for a close examination of the mechanisms that are relevant to ballooning instabilities - ideal MHD modes with large toroidal mode number. The so-called first and second regions of stability against these modes are seen well within the limits of validity of the asymptotic expansion. It appears that the modes must be localized in regions with small values of the local shear of the magnetic field. The second region of stability occurs where the local shear is large throughout the range where the magnetic field line curvature is destabilizing

  18. Regional utvikling og partnerskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, H.; Gjertsen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Danish regional policy has changed dramatically. As of January 1991, all central government incentive schemes were terminated, and since then the main components of spatial economic policy have been a host of subnational initiatives and the European Structural...... in European matters as envisaged in the ?Europe of the Regions? slogan. The aim of this chapter is to examine the transformation of regional policy in Denmark from the perspective of political decentralization and Europeanization in order to establish to what extent recent changes have increased the capacity...... of Danish regions to pursue their own agendas with regard to economic development, and explore the organizational strategies pursued by varies tiers of government in this process of rapid and profound policy change. The text is divided into three parts. The following section provides a brief outline...

  19. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  20. Southeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  1. Northeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  2. Regional Hearing Clerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  3. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  4. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  5. RCA's regional industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, formulated under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came into force in June 1972. The overall objective of RCA is to promote technical cooperation among the developing and developed countries in the Asia Pacific region in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology. Currently, the biggest project under RCA is the Regional Project on the Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology for Asia and the Pacific. The project was established in 1982 for a period of five years and was completed in December 1986. The first phase of the project has generated a high degree of awareness on the industrial potential of isotopes and radiation technology throughout the region; produced a cadre of trained manpower in all areas covered by the project; identified the expertise available in the region; and developed in the region, a unique network of people and institutions involved with the utilization of isotope and radiation technology. A Phase II of the project, which cover all but one of the sub-projects under Phase I, was approved in early 1987 for another five years until 1991. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  7. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, María Delia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author) [es

  8. Single-gap multi-harmonic buncher for NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Barua, P.

    1998-01-01

    A single gap multi harmonic buncher has been installed in the pre-acceleration region of the NSC pelletron. For the operation of the booster LINAC, presently under construction, a pre-tandem buncher is required with higher efficiency and producing beam bunches of smaller time spread. The multi harmonic buncher meets all these requirements

  9. The sequence of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; IJkel, W.F.J.; Tarchini, R.; Sun, X.; Sandbrink, H.; Wang, H.; Peters, S.; Zuidema, D.; Klein Lankhorst, R.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) DNA genome was determined and analysed. The circular genome encompasses 131 403 bp, has a G C content of 39.1 molnd contains five homologous regions with a unique pattern of repeats.

  10. Seismic retrofit system for single leaf masonry buildings in Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkmen, Ö.S.; Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Martens, D.R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent seismic activity in the Netherlands, the demand of adequate strengthening and retrofitting techniques increased, especially for single leaf masonry. Two Dutch companies founded in the re-gion have initiated an experimental program to study the applicability of existing stand-alone

  11. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  12. Single banking supervision and the single supervisory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolution seems to have been found for the banking crisis. The first steps have been made towards the construction of the Economic and Monetary Union, steps involving the single supervision of banks, in order to avoid the discount of a new financial crisis on the expense of the EU state members. The Single Supervisory Mechanism – SSM is to become effective as of March 1, 2014, at the earliest.

  13. Whole Genome Scan to Detect Chromosomal Regions Affecting Multiple Traits in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, C.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosomal regions affecting multiple traits ( multiple trait quantitative trait regions or MQR) in dairy cattle were detected using a method based on results from single trait analyses to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The covariance between contrasts for different traits in single trait

  14. Single Molecule Nano-Metronome

    OpenAIRE

    Buranachai, Chittanon; McKinney, Sean A.; Ha, Taekjip

    2006-01-01

    We constructed a DNA-based nano-mechanical device called the nano-metronome. Our device is made by introducing complementary single stranded overhangs at the two arms of the DNA four-way junction. The ticking rates of this stochastic metronome depend on ion concentrations and can be changed by a set of DNA-based switches to deactivate/reactivate the sticky end. Since the device displays clearly distinguishable responses even with a single basepair difference, it may lead to a single molecule ...

  15. Single Molecule Nano-Metronome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranachai, Chittanon; McKinney, Sean A.; Ha, Taekjip

    2008-01-01

    We constructed a DNA-based nano-mechanical device called the nano-metronome. Our device is made by introducing complementary single stranded overhangs at the two arms of the DNA four-way junction. The ticking rates of this stochastic metronome depend on ion concentrations and can be changed by a set of DNA-based switches to deactivate/reactivate the sticky end. Since the device displays clearly distinguishable responses even with a single basepair difference, it may lead to a single molecule sensor of minute sequence differences of a target DNA. PMID:16522050

  16. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome

    2001-02-01

    After introducing the concepts of longitudinal wakefield and coupling impedance, it is reviewed the theory of longitudinal single-bunch collective effects in storage rings. From the Fokker-Planck equation it is first derived the stationary solution describing the natural single-bunch regime, and then treat the problem of microwave instability, showing the different approaches used for estimating the threshold current. The lecture is ended with the semi-empirical laws that allow everyone to obtain the single-bunch behaviour above threshold, and with a description of the simulation codes that are now reliable tools for investigating all these effects

  17. Adverse selection without single crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The single-crossing assumption simplifies the analysis of screening models as local incentive compatibility becomes sufficient for global incentive compatibility. If single crossing is violated, global incentive compatibility constraints have to be taken into account. This paper studies monotone...... solutions in a screening model that allows a one-time violation of single crossing. The results show that local and non-local incentive constraints distort the solution in opposite directions. Therefore, the optimal decision might involve distortions above as well as below the first-best decision...

  18. [CII] dynamics in the S140 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedes, C. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Zurich (Switzerland); Röllig, M.; Okada, Y.; Ossenkopf, V. [1. Physikalisches Institut Universität Köln (Germany); Mookerjea, B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Collaboration: WADI Team

    2015-01-22

    We report the observation of [C II] emission in a cut through the S140 region together with single pointing observations of several molecular tracers, including hydrides, in key regions of the photon-dominated region (PDR) and molecular cloud [1]. At a distance of 910 pc, a BOV star ionizes the edge of the molecular cloud L1204, creating S140. In addition, the dense molecular cloud hosts a cluster of embedded massive young stellar objects only 75' from the H II region [e.g. 2, 3]. We used HIFI on Herschel to observe [CII] in a strip following the direction of the impinging radiation across the ionisation front and through the cluster of embedded YSOs. With [C II], we can trace the ionising radiation and, together with the molecular tracers such as CO isotopologues and HCO{sup +}, study the dynamical processes in the region. Combining HIFIs high spectral resolution data with ground based molecular data allows us to study the dynamics and excitation conditions both in the ionization front and the dense molecular star forming region and model their physical conditions [4].

  19. [CII] dynamics in the S140 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedes, C.; Röllig, M.; Okada, Y.; Ossenkopf, V.; Mookerjea, B.

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of [C II] emission in a cut through the S140 region together with single pointing observations of several molecular tracers, including hydrides, in key regions of the photon-dominated region (PDR) and molecular cloud [1]. At a distance of 910 pc, a BOV star ionizes the edge of the molecular cloud L1204, creating S140. In addition, the dense molecular cloud hosts a cluster of embedded massive young stellar objects only 75' from the H II region [e.g. 2, 3]. We used HIFI on Herschel to observe [CII] in a strip following the direction of the impinging radiation across the ionisation front and through the cluster of embedded YSOs. With [C II], we can trace the ionising radiation and, together with the molecular tracers such as CO isotopologues and HCO + , study the dynamical processes in the region. Combining HIFIs high spectral resolution data with ground based molecular data allows us to study the dynamics and excitation conditions both in the ionization front and the dense molecular star forming region and model their physical conditions [4

  20. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  1. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  2. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  3. Diffusion of Ti in α-Zr single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, G.M.; Zou, H.; Schultz, R.J.; Jackman, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Ti diffusion coefficients (D) have been measured in nominally pure αZr single crystals (773-1124 K) in directions both parallel (D pa ) and perpendicular (D pe , few data) to the c-axis: tracer techniques and secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to determine the diffusion profiles. The results show a temperature dependence which suggests two regions of diffusion behaviour. Above 1035 K, region I, diffusion conforms to the expectations of intrinsic behaviour with normal Arrhenius law constants: D pa = 1.7 x 10 -3 exp(-2.93 ± 0.08 eV/kΤ) m 2 /s. Below 1035 K, region II, D's are enhanced with respect to an extrapolation of region I behaviour. The region II data are associated with extrinsic effects. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...

  5. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...... of entrepreneurship). This study sets out to obtain an in-depth understanding of the micro-, community-, and regional-level localized entrepreneurial processes as well as the way in which these processes are intertwined with the spatial context. The contribution of this dissertation lies in the illustration of how......, culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...

  6. GRTgaz and the regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the regional activities of GRTgaz in France in the form of 12 regional fact sheets summarizing the key data by the end of 2016: network structure, financial indicators (investments, orders), public and industrial gas consumptions, 2017 projects, institutional and environmental partnerships

  7. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  8. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  9. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  10. Thermoelectric single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

  11. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  12. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  13. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  14. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  15. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  16. Regional Governance Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dijkstra, Lewis; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    study presents novel data (European QoG Index – EQI) on the ‘quality of government’ (QoG) – understood as low corruption, impartial public services and rule of law – for national and sub-national levels in twenty-seven European Union countries. The EQI shows notable within-country variations: while...... high-performing regions in Italy and Spain (for example, Bolzano, País Vasco) rank amongst the best European Union regions, others perform well below the European Union average. The index is highly correlated with sub-national levels of socio-economic development and levels of social trust, yet...

  17. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.

  18. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  19. Voksenuddannelse og regional udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i regionale og lokale forskelle uddannelsesforskelle behandler artiklen uddannelsers rolle i regional udvikling. Der lægges særlig vægt på forskellige former for voksenuddannelse. Hvad betyder udviklingen mod vidensamfundet for udviklingen i erhverv, beskæftigelse og sociale...... forhold? Hvilken rolle spiller uddannelse i centerområder og udkantsområder? Hvordan kan uddannelse og læring bidrage til regional udvikling? Hvilke roller kan voksenuddannelse have i denne sammenhæng?...

  20. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  1. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  2. Approaches to single photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thew, R.T.; Curtz, N.; Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Gautier, J.-D.; Koller, E.; Zhang, J.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results on our development of single photon detectors, including: gated and free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs); hybrid detection systems based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) and Si APDs-SFG-Si APDs; and SSPDs (superconducting single photon detectors), for telecom wavelengths; as well as SiPM (Silicon photomultiplier) detectors operating in the visible regime.

  3. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  4. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  5. Metal Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: From Growth Process to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuigen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a strong competitor in the field of optoelectronic applications, organic-inorganic metal hybrid perovskites have been paid much attention because of their superior characteristics, which include broad absorption from visible to near-infrared region, tunable optical and electronic properties, high charge mobility, long exciton diffusion length and carrier recombination lifetime, etc. It is noted that perovskite single crystals show remarkably low trap-state densities and long carrier diffusion lengths, which are even comparable with the best photovoltaic-quality silicon, and thus are expected to provide better optoelectronic performance. This paper reviews the recent development of crystal growth in single-, mixed-organic-cation and fully inorganic halide perovskite single crystals, in particular the solution approach. Furthermore, the application of metal hybrid perovskite single crystals and future perspectives are also highlighted.

  6. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  7. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  8. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  10. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  12. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  13. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  14. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABA STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  15. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  16. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  17. Aid for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POPESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.

  18. Regional anaesthesia in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H; Finster, M

    1984-01-01

    This review includes a brief discussion of the indications and pitfalls of regional anaesthetic techniques commonly used during parturition. Emphasis is given to the physiological changes of pregnancy and the potential effects on the fetus. The criteria for the choice of local anaesthetic are also presented.

  19. Development of pulsation technique for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    When a high energy heavy ion enters into a substance, high density of ionization and excitement occurrs along its flying trace. Especially, when such an ion enters into a semiconductor cell, a bit inversion called single event is occurred or a phenomenon destroyed element itself on case of the worst is formed. The present semiconductor cell is made in a size of some micron square, as different from its accumulated degree. In order to analyze the single event phenomenon formed by entering ion into such fine region in detail, a technique possible enter heavy ion beam with space resolution under 1 micron to each sample is necessary. In order to develop this technique, a static type high speed beam switch for control of entering a beam into a sample and a single ion detector for detecting entrance of ion into the sample were installed to heavy ion microbeam forming apparatus. The single ion hit system in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAERI succeeded in detection and control technique of the single ion and control of noise due to pulsization and finished development of basic technique of the single ion hit, since now. After today, it is planned to hit actually the single ion onto the sample and evaluate its accuracy. (G.K.)

  20. Quasi-free pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Cross sections for the quasi-free (QF) region for pion single charge exchange (SCX) were measured with beams of 475 MeV π - , 500 MeV π ± , and 400 MeV π - , with most data at 500 MeV π ± . The LAMPF π 0 spectrometer and a proton detector arm were placed on each side of the beam with different scattering angles. Up to twelve targets, from hydrogen to bismuth, were used. Both inclusive and coincidence measurements were performed. The extraction of peak shape and cross section for the QF peak, the effective number of nucleons involved in the reaction, mass dependence, and angular dependence were studied for the inclusive measurement. Calculations with the local random phase approximation (RPA) were used to understand the inclusive experimental results. A collection of experimental results is given for both inclusive and coincidence measurements

  1. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  2. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  3. Single-tier city logistics model for single product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, N. I.; Nur Bahagia, S.; Suprayogi; Syabri, I.

    2017-11-01

    This research develops single-tier city logistics model which consists of suppliers, UCCs, and retailers. The problem that will be answered in this research is how to determine the location of UCCs, to allocate retailers to opened UCCs, to assign suppliers to opened UCCs, to control inventory in the three entities involved, and to determine the route of the vehicles from opened UCCs to retailers. This model has never been developed before. All the decisions will be simultaneously optimized. Characteristic of the demand is probabilistic following a normal distribution, and the number of product is single.

  4. Namibia's transition from whole blood-derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.

    BACKGROUNDFew African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT

  5. Venus - Phoebe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This Magellan radar image is of part of the Phoebe region of Venus. It is a mosaic of parts of revolutions 146 and 147 acquired in the first radar test on Aug. 16, 1990. The area in the image is located at 291 degrees east longitude, 19 degrees south latitude. The image shows an area 30 kilometers (19.6 miles) wide and 76 km (47 miles) long. On the basis of Pioneer Venus and Arecibo data, it is known that two major rift zones occur in southern Phoebe Regio and that they terminate at about 20 to 25 degrees south latitude, about 2,000 km (1,240 miles) apart. This image is of an area just north of the southern end of the western rift zone. The region is characterized by a complex geologic history involving both volcanism and faulting. Several of the geologic units show distinctive overlapping or cross cutting relationships that permit identification and separation of geologic events and construction of the geologic history of the region. The oldest rocks in this image form the complexly deformed and faulted, radar bright, hilly terrain in the northern half. Faults of a variety of orientations are observed. A narrow fault trough (about one-half to one km (three tenths to six tenths of a mile) wide is seen crossing the bright hills near the lower part in the middle of the image. This is one of the youngest faults in the faulted, hilly unit as it is seen to cut across many other structures. The fault trough in turn appears to be embayed and flooded by the darker plains that appear in the south half of the image. These plains are interpreted to be of volcanic origin. The dark plains may be formed of a complex of overlapping volcanic flows. For example, the somewhat darker region of plains in the lower left (southwest) corner of the image may be a different age series of plains forming volcanic lava flows. Finally, the narrow bright line crossing the image in its lower part is interpreted to be a fault which cross cuts both plains units and is thus the youngest event in

  6. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  7. Regional planning without means - search for regional leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian

    and stakeholders, not least due to its polycentric urban structure with several medium-sized towns. Besides the regional authority and the regions 22 municipalities, sub-regional collaboration is gaining momentum. Furthermore, different fora, councils and associations are engaging in regional issues. However......, collaboration is often focused on specific sectors or sub-regions, while the joint development of the region is left behind. The regional authority has changed its focus from planning to the provision of knowledge, suitable to kick-off joint action with regional stakeholders, while municipalities keep focus...... on their own territories, eventually in the context of one of the new sub-regional collaborations. Based on an empirical analysis of the regional interplay in Southern Denmark and results from the ESPON ReSSI project, we go through these new settings of regional collaboration in the search for new forms...

  8. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  9. A graphene screen-printed carbon electrode for real-time measurements of unoccupied active sites in a cellulase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Borch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Cellulases hydrolyze cellulose to soluble sugars and this process is utilized in sustainable industries based on lignocellulosic feedstock. Better analytical tools will be necessary to understand basic cellulase mechanisms, and hence deliver rational improvements of the industrial process...

  10. A reliable method for the counting and control of single ions for single-dopant controlled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinada, T; Kurosawa, T; Nakayama, H; Zhu, Y; Hori, M; Ohdomari, I

    2008-01-01

    By 2016, transistor device size will be just 10 nm. However, a transistor that is doped at a typical concentration of 10 18 atoms cm -3 has only one dopant atom in the active channel region. Therefore, it can be predicted that conventional doping methods such as ion implantation and thermal diffusion will not be available ten years from now. We have been developing a single-ion implantation (SII) method that enables us to implant dopant ions one-by-one into semiconductors until the desired number is reached. Here we report a simple but reliable method to control the number of single-dopant atoms by detecting the change in drain current induced by single-ion implantation. The drain current decreases in a stepwise fashion as a result of the clusters of displaced Si atoms created by every single-ion incidence. This result indicates that the single-ion detection method we have developed is capable of detecting single-ion incidence with 100% efficiency. Our method potentially could pave the way to future single-atom devices, including a solid-state quantum computer

  11. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  12. A region in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, M.U.; Nicolet, R.; Dufour, J.

    1998-01-01

    On July 19 and 20 of 1996, torrential rains provoked catastrophic floods in the Saguenay Region of Quebec. The overflowing waters of the region's rivers damaged 3000 residential buildings, completely destroyed another 426, and seriously affected the activities of 850 business establishments. In this comprehensive report, the physical causes and the social, economic, psychological, cultural, political and administrative consequences of this natural catastrophe are discussed by several experts. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the actual flooding conditions and the immediate response of local emergency services such as the Red Cross and the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul agencies. Reactions of the various public agencies and governments to the disaster are described in Part Two. Part Three of the document focuses on lessons to be drawn from this natural disaster, in particular the need to improve emergency relief strategies. The legal implications and consequences of the disaster are also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  14. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  15. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallavardin, S.; Froyd, K. D.; Johnston, M. V.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Reinard, M. S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Wexler, A. S.

    2007-06-01

    Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  16. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    few productive oases survive) that has had few parallels in Europe and that, unlike other areas of the Old Continent, where the old manufacturing industries were closed, has not seen any serious plan to realize policy renewal and a reconstruction of its economy. 3) A huge population density, which makes at least part of the Campania region - particularly in the area straddling the provinces of Naples and Caserta - one single "in-finite" city, an "in-complete" megalopolis in which there is no solution of continuity between the rural and urban realities; in which cities, towns and countryside are piled up without order - without any order, because in the past, even in the recent past, that order somehow existed; houses, warehouses, roads and farmland, cement, fields, unauthorized dumping sites and again cement, in a state of chaos and, often, of deterioration that is, once again, almost unique in Europe. 4) The contemporary presence of two large migration flows, one incoming (usually non-EU), the other outgoing (with a very high number of migrant graduates), are interwoven in a way chaotic to further contributing to tear the already tattered social fabric. 5) Last but not least, the authoritative answer of the State that, in its various forms, now explicitly (through laws and decrees) now implicitly (through activities or omissions of bureaucracies) effectively inhibits at all levels the demand of participation, of transparency and even of simple information. The authoritarianism of the State and its bureaucracies was recently only scratched by the evolution of the local and national political events.

  17. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  18. Disarmament through regional dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yuhei

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the United Nations in the pursuit of peace and disarmament and in support of the construction of a stable order in the region is very great. The attitude of Japan as a 'peace loving state' shown by its support to Non-proliferation is expressed by its high appreciation of the fact that this Second United Nations Conference in Hiroshima has been convened, as such exchanges of views constitute an important aspect of the process of disarmament

  19. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  20. Cleantech Region Stedendriehoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A. (Andries)

    2016-01-01

      http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/B1917A51-5AA6-4723-9EDF87AB64EC267B Keynote speech. In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).  It just so happens that innovation and