Sample records for single unit subproblems

  1. Analytical Dimensional Reduction of a Fuel Optimal Powered Descent Subproblem (United States)

    Rea, Jeremy R.; Bishop, Robert H.


    Current renewed interest in exploration of the moon, Mars, and other planetary objects is driving technology development in many fields of space system design. In particular, there is a desire to land both robotic and human missions on the moon and elsewhere. The landing guidance system must be able to deliver the vehicle to a desired soft landing while meeting several constraints necessary for the safety of the vehicle. Due to performance limitations of current launch vehicles, it is desired to minimize the amount of fuel used. In addition, the landing site may change in real-time in order to avoid previously undetected hazards which become apparent during the landing maneuver. This complicated maneuver can be broken into simpler subproblems that bound the full problem. One such subproblem is to find a minimum-fuel landing solution that meets constraints on the initial state, final state, and bounded thrust acceleration magnitude. With the assumptions of constant gravity and negligible atmosphere, the form of the optimal steering law is known, and the equations of motion can be integrated analytically, resulting in a system of five equations in five unknowns. It is shown that this system of equations can be reduced analytically to two equations in two unknowns. With an additional assumption of constant thrust acceleration magnitude, this system can be reduced further to one equation in one unknown. It is shown that these unknowns can be bounded analytically. An algorithm is developed to quickly and reliably solve the resulting one-dimensional bounded search, and it is used as a real-time guidance applied to a lunar landing test case.

  2. A sequential quadratic programming algorithm using an incomplete solution of the subproblem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Systems Optimization Lab.; Prieto, F.J. [Universidad `Carlos III` de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Estadistica y Econometria


    We analyze sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems that are more flexible in their definition than standard SQP methods. The type of flexibility introduced is motivated by the necessity to deviate from the standard approach when solving large problems. Specifically we no longer require a minimizer of the QP subproblem to be determined or particular Lagrange multiplier estimates to be used. Our main focus is on an SQP algorithm that uses a particular augmented Lagrangian merit function. New results are derived for this algorithm under weaker conditions than previously assumed; in particular, it is not assumed that the iterates lie on a compact set.

  3. Algorithm 873: LSTRS: MATLAB Software for Large-Scale Trust-Region Subproblems and Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Santos, Sandra A.; Sorensen, Danny C.


    A MATLAB 6.0 implementation of the LSTRS method is resented. LSTRS was described in Rojas, M., Santos, S.A., and Sorensen, D.C., A new matrix-free method for the large-scale trust-region subproblem, SIAM J. Optim., 11(3):611-646, 2000. LSTRS is designed for large-scale quadratic problems with one...... at each step. LSTRS relies on matrix-vector products only and has low and fixed storage requirements, features that make it suitable for large-scale computations. In the MATLAB implementation, the Hessian matrix of the quadratic objective function can be specified either explicitly, or in the form...... of a matrix-vector multiplication routine. Therefore, the implementation preserves the matrix-free nature of the method. A description of the LSTRS method and of the MATLAB software, version 1.2, is presented. Comparisons with other techniques and applications of the method are also included. A guide...

  4. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.


    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  5. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  6. Intramuscular and epimuscular microstimulation of single motor units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, P.A.M.; Pool, C.W.; Lammerlée, G.C.; Wallinga, W.; Seeder, T.; Donselaar, Yvonne C.


    A new epimuscular method for stimulating single motor units (m.u.'s) in free prepared muscle is described. Unit isolation is stable and can be continued for long periods. The method is compared with an intramuscular stimulation technique and histological evidence is presented to confirm the validity

  7. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.


    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual

  8. [Attaching single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.


    A single- or multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis can be attached to the abutment teeth through mechanical retention and gap sealing or by adhesion. For sealing the gap, water-soluble cements are appropriate, such as zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, and (resin-modified) glasionomer cement. Attachment

  9. [Aftercare for durability and profitability of single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Loveren, C. van; Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    An important aim ofa treatment with single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses is a durable and profitable treatment outcome. That requires aftercare, too. First, the frequency of routine oral examinations should be assessed, using an individual risk profile. The objectives of the routine

  10. Splitting Terraced Houses Into Single Units Using Oblique Aerial Imagery (United States)

    Dahlke, D.


    This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. 3D line segments are detected with sub-pixel accuracy in traditional vertical true orthomosaics as well as in innovative oblique true orthomosaics and their respective surface models. Hereby high gradient strengths on roofs as well as façades are taken into account. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found. The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. For the chosen study area with 70 buidling outlines a hit rate of 80% for cut lines is achieved.

  11. Single unit approaches to human vision and memory. (United States)

    Kreiman, Gabriel


    Research on the visual system focuses on using electrophysiology, pharmacology and other invasive tools in animal models. Non-invasive tools such as scalp electroencephalography and imaging allow examining humans but show a much lower spatial and/or temporal resolution. Under special clinical conditions, it is possible to monitor single-unit activity in humans when invasive procedures are required due to particular pathological conditions including epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. We review our knowledge about the visual system and visual memories in the human brain at the single neuron level. The properties of the human brain seem to be broadly compatible with the knowledge derived from animal models. The possibility of examining high-resolution brain activity in conscious human subjects allows investigators to ask novel questions that are challenging to address in animal models.

  12. Recording from a Single Motor Unit During Strong Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Steen; Rosenfalck, Annelise


    During strong voluntary effort it is rarely possible to identify the action potentials from single motor units. In large muscles the most selective recordings are obtained with bipolar wire electrodes. To elucidate this experimental finding we have calculated the extracellular field around a sing...... order or smaller than the diameter of the muscle fibers, and when iii) the center-line between the recording surfaces is oriented perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibers....... muscle fiber from an intracellular muscle action potential. This model showed that the selectivity of a bipolar electrode is high provided: i) the diameter of the recording surfaces is less than half the diameter of the muscle fibers; ii) the center distance between the recording surfaces is of the same...

  13. [The conventional and the digital impression method for single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, E.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    To manufacture single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, an accurate cast is required. Casts can be obtained either by the conventional or the digital impression method. For both methods, dry tooth surfaces and a well exposed finish line of the tooth preparation are required. The

  14. [Determining and recording maxillomandibular relationships for the fabrication of single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, E.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    In a correctly functioning occlusal system, the design of the occlusal parts of single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses is generally determined by the maximum intercuspation. Determining and recording the maxillomandibular relationships is only required in case the adjacent teeth do not

  15. Development of new microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy under various ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Kaji, T; Ueda, R; Otomo, A


    This paper introduces techniques we previously developed for single molecule spectroscopy and continues on to describe our studies on dipole orientation imaging of single molecules under various ambient conditions. In these studies, we successfully obtained defocused images of single perylene diimide (PDI) molecules under air, high-vacuum, and pure N 2 gas conditions by utilizing the advantages of our new microscope unit. The studies are positioned as one of the important applications of our microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy. We expect a wide range of applications for this unit for various microscope measurements for many types of materials.

  16. Hearing performance in single-sided deaf cochlear implant users after upgrade to a single-unit speech processor. (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Hofkens, Anouk; Punte, Andrea Kleine; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul


    Single-sided deaf (SSD) patients report multiple benefits after cochlear implantation (CI), such as tinnitus suppression, speech perception, and sound localization. The first single-unit speech processor, the RONDO, was launched recently. Both the RONDO and the well-known behind-the-ear (BTE) speech processor work on the same audio processor platform. However, in contrast to the BTE, the microphone placement on the RONDO is different. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing performances using the BTE speech processor versus using the single-unit speech processor. Subjective and objective outcomes in SSD CI patients with a BTE speech processor and a single-unit speech processor, with particular focus on spatial hearing, were compared. Ten adults with unilateral incapacitating tinnitus resulting from ipsilateral sensorineural deafness were enrolled in the study. The mean age at enrollment in the study was 56 (standard deviation, 13) years. The subjects were cochlear implanted at a mean age of 48 (standard deviation, 14) years and had on average 8 years' experience with their CI (range, 4-11 yr). At the first test interval (T0), testing was conducted using the subject's BTE speech processor, with which they were already familiar. Aided free-field audiometry, speech reception in noise, and sound localization testing were performed. Self-administered questionnaires on subjective evaluation consisted of HISQUI-NL, SSQ5, SHQ, and a Visual Analogue Scale to assess tinnitus loudness and disturbance. All 10 subjects were upgraded to the single-unit processor and retested after 28 days (T28) with the same fitting map. At T28, an additional single-unit questionnaire was administered to determine qualitative experiences and the effect of the position of the microphone on the new speech processor. Equal hearing outcomes were found between the single-unit speech processor: median PTA(single-unit) (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) = 40 (range, 33-48) dB HL; median Speech Reception

  17. Single fibre and multifibre unit cell analysis of strength and cracking of unidirectional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    Numerical simulations of damage evolution in composites reinforced with single and multifibre are presented. Several types of unit cell models are considered: single fibre unit cell, multiple fibre unit cell with one and several damageable sections per fibres, unit cells with homogeneous...... and inhomogeneous interfaces, etc. Two numerical damage models, cohesive elements, and damageable layers are employed for the simulation of the damage evolution in single fibre and multifibre unit cells. The two modelling approaches were compared and lead to the very close results. Competition among the different...... damageable parts in composites (matrix cracks, fibre/matrix interface damage and fibre fracture) was observed in the simulations. The strength of interface begins to influence the deformation behaviour of the cell only after the fibre is broken. In this case, the higher interface layer strength leads...

  18. [The conventional and the digital impression method for single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses]. (United States)

    Wiersema, E J; Kreulen, C M; Creugers, N H J


    To manufacture single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, an accurate cast is required. Casts can be obtained either by the conventional or the digital impression method. For both methods, dry tooth surfaces and a well exposed finish line of the tooth preparation are required. The conventional impression method requires an elastic impression material. Elastomers have a high detail accuracy, which can produce, in combination with a good fitting and rigid impression tray, an impression with reliable dimensional stability. Based on the number of different impression material consistencies used and the number ofphases of the impression procedure, several options of the conventional impression method can be distinguished. For the digital impression method, teeth or implants are scanned to produce a digital cast which can be used directly with the help of computer technology to produce single-unit or multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. The digital impression method has a number of advantages when compared to the conventional impression method, but is not applicable for all prosthetic cases.

  19. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance]. (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Meijers, C C A J; Vergoossen, E L M; Creugers, N H J


    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and metal-ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is determined by the configuration's convergence angle, the height, the volume, the interocclusal space, the cervical outline design, the additional preparations, the quality of the (build-up) restoration, and the surface roughness. A silicate ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is attached through adhesion using a composite cement, but the retention and resistance of an oxide ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is dependent on the abutment tooth configuration. Most types of multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis have the following additional retention and resistance determining factors: the position in the occlusal system, the number of abutment teeth and their mutual configurations, and the length of (cantilever) pontics. A resin-bonded fixed partial denture's retention and resistance are determined by its bonding as well as its enamel surface coverage and its resistance preparations.

  20. Single-unit transfusions and hemoglobin trigger: relative impact on red cell utilization. (United States)

    Yang, William W; Thakkar, Rajiv N; Gehrie, Eric A; Chen, Weiyun; Frank, Steven M


    Patient blood management (PBM) programs can reduce unnecessary transfusions, but the optimal methods used to achieve this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that encouraging single-unit red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in stable patients would have a greater impact on blood use than compliance with a specific hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion trigger alone. We analyzed blood utilization data at three community hospitals without previous PBM efforts before and after implementing a PBM program. Data were analyzed at monthly intervals to determine the relative impact of a "Why give 2 when 1 will do?" campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions and simultaneous efforts to promote evidence-based Hb triggers of 7 or 8 g/dL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent effects of these two interventions on overall RBC utilization. Univariate analysis revealed that both the increase in single-unit transfusions (from 38.0% to 70.9%; p < 0.0001) and the decrease in RBC orders with an Hb trigger of at least 8 g/dL (from 45.7% to 25.0%; p < 0.0001) were associated with decreasing RBC utilization. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase in single-unit transfusions was an independent predictor of decreased RBC utilization, but the Hb triggers of both 7 and 8 g/dL were not. Overall, our PBM efforts decreased RBC utilization from 0.254 to 0.185 units/patient (27.2%) across all three hospitals (p = 0.0009). A campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions had a greater impact on RBC utilization than did encouraging a restrictive transfusion trigger. © 2016 AABB.

  1. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and

  2. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses 2. Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    The ultimate strength of a dental prosthesis is defined as the strongest loading force applied to the prosthesis until afracture failure occurs. Important key terms are strength, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Relatively prevalent complications of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are

  3. [Intra-oral restoration and correction of single- and multi-unit dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, F.J.M.; Loomans, B.A.C.


    In cases of a fracture of the porcelain or non-aesthetic margin of a correctly functioning single- or multi-unit dental prosthesis, an intra-oral restoration or correction using a resin composite can generally be chosen. To establish adhesion to metal, porcelain, resin and composite,

  4. [Technical aspects of treatments with single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, E.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Latzke, P.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    For the manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, effective communication between dentist and dental technician is required. Mutual insight concerning the (im)possibilities of available treatments and technical options is prerequisitefor this communication. The manufacture of

  5. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara


    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

  6. Prefrontal single-unit firing associated with deficient extinction in mice (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J; Whittle, Nigel; Flynn, Shaun M; Graybeal, Carolyn; Pinard, Courtney; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Kravitz, Alexxai; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew


    The neural circuitry mediating fear extinction has been increasingly well studied and delineated. The rodent infralimbic subregion (IL) of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been found to promote extinction, whereas the prelimbic cortex (PL) demonstrates an opposing, pro-fear, function. Studies employing in vivo electrophysiological recordings have observed that while increased IL single-unit firing and bursting predicts robust extinction retrieval, increased PL firing can correlate with sustained fear and poor extinction. These relationships between single-unit firing and extinction do not hold under all experimental conditions, however. In the current study, we further investigated the relationship between vmPFC and PL single-unit firing and extinction using inbred mouse models of intact (C57BL/6J, B6) and deficient (129S1/SvImJ, S1) extinction strains. Simultaneous single-unit recordings were made in the PL and vmPFC (encompassing IL) as B6 and S1 mice performed extinction training and retrieval. Impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice was associated with elevated PL single-unit firing, as compared to firing in extinguishing B6 mice, consistent with the hypothesized pro-fear contribution of PL. Analysis of local field potentials also revealed significantly higher gamma power in the PL of Sthan B6 mice during extinction training and retrieval. In the vmPFC, impaired extinction in S1 mice was also associated with exaggerated single-unit firing, relative to B6 mice. This is in apparent contradiction to evidence that IL activity promotes extinction, but could reflect a (failed) compensatory effort by the vmPFC to mitigate fear-promoting activity in other regions, such as the PL or amygdala. In support of this hypothesis, augmenting IL activity via direct infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin rescued impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced modest reductions in fear during extinction retrieval and

  7. [Impacts of ABO incompatibility on early outcome after single unit unrelated cord blood transplantation: a retrospective single center experience]. (United States)

    Yan, Jiawei; Sun, Guangyu; Zhang, Lei; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tang, Baolin; Zheng, Changcheng; Liu, Huilan; Sun, Zimin


    To retrospectively study the impacts of ABO incompatibility on early outcome after single unit unrelated cord blood transplantation(UCBT), such as cumulative incidence of engraftment, incidence of acute graft- versus- host disease (aGVHD) and 180- day transplant- related mortality(TRM). 208 patients underwent single unit UCBT from April 2008 to October 2014 were analyzed, included 99 ABO- identical, 60 minor, 38 major and 11 bidirectional ABO- incompatible recipients. All the patients received intensified myeloablative conditioning, and a combination of cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil was given for GVHD prophylaxis. Cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet recovery, erythroid lineage reconstitution, Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD, Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD and 180- day TRM showed no significant difference among the patients receiving ABOidentical, minor, major, and bidirectional UCBT(all P>0.05, respectively). What's more, none of the patients developed pure red- cell aplasia(PRCA)after UCBT. Group A donor and a group O recipient patients didn't appeared to influence the clinical results when compared with others(all P>0.05, respectively). Patients receive ABO- incompatible UCBT may not develop PRCA. The presence of ABO- incompatibility did not influence the hematopoietic reconstitution, the incidence of aGVHD and 180-day TRM in this cohort. There is not support for the need to regard ABO-compatibility as an UCB-graft selection criterion.

  8. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos


    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  9. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia


    Jett, Lewis W.


    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  10. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car...

  11. A tabu search algorithm for scheduling a single robot in a job-shop environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Knust, S.


    We consider a single-machine scheduling problem which arises as a subproblem in a job-shop environment where the jobs have to be transported between the machines by a single transport robot. The robot scheduling problem may be regarded as a generalization of the travelling-salesman problem with time

  12. A tabu search algorithm for scheduling a single robot in a job-shop environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Knust, Sigrid


    We consider a single-machine scheduling problem which arises as a subproblem in a job-shop environment where the jobs have to be transported between the machines by a single transport robot. The robot scheduling problem may be regarded as a generalization of the travelling-salesman problem with time

  13. Dynamic trajectory of multiple single-unit activity during working memory task in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yi, Hu; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin


    Working memory plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. A popular theoretical view is that transient properties of neuronal dynamics underlie cognitive processing. The question raised here as to how the transient dynamics evolve in working memory. To address this issue, we investigated the multiple single-unit activity dynamics in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a Y-maze working memory task. The approach worked by reconstructing state space from delays of the original single-unit firing rate variables, which were further analyzed using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Then the neural trajectories were obtained to visualize the multiple single-unit activity. Furthermore, the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the neural trajectories during the working memory task. The results showed that the neuronal activity produced stable and reproducible neural trajectories in the correct trials while showed irregular trajectories in the incorrect trials, which may establish a link between the neurocognitive process and behavioral performance in working memory. The MLEs significantly increased during working memory in the correctly performed trials, indicating an increased divergence of the neural trajectories. In the incorrect trials, the MLEs were nearly zero and remained unchanged during the task. Taken together, the trial-specific neural trajectory provides an effective way to track the instantaneous state of the neuronal population during the working memory task and offers valuable insights into working memory function. The MLE describes the changes of neural dynamics in working memory and may reflect different neuronal population states in working memory.

  14. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU


    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  15. Reliability modelling for wear out failure period of a single unit system


    Arekar, Kirti; Ailawadi, Satish; Jain, Rinku


    The present paper deals with two time-shifted density models for wear out failure period of a single unit system. The study, considered the time-shifted Gamma and Normal distributions. Wear out failures occur as a result of deterioration processes or mechanical wear and its probability of occurrence increases with time. A failure rate as a function of time deceases in an early failure period and it increases in wear out period. Failure rates for time shifted distributions and expression for m...

  16. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.


    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  17. Indiscernible Benefit of Double-Unit Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children: A Single-Center Experience From Hong Kong. (United States)

    Tsang, Kam Sze; Leung, Alex Wing Kwan; Lee, Vincent; Cheng, Frankie Wai Tsoi; Shing, Matthew Ming Kong; Pong, Henry Nga Hin; Leung, Ting Fan; Yuen, Patrick Man Pan; Li, Chi Kong


    Double-unit umbilical cord blood (DU-UCB) may extend the use of UCB transplantation and improve clinical outcomes. Data in the literature show that single-unit dominance happened in a vast majority of recipients, and the mechanism is unknown. We examined the clinical relevance and engraftment kinetics of DU-UCB transplant in 65 consecutive children who underwent unrelated single-unit (n = 25) and double-unit (n = 40) UCB transplantation for various hematological malignancies (n = 45) and nonmalignant disorders (n = 20). Our result showed no discernible benefit to children receiving double-unit transplant over those receiving single-unit transplant when the total nucleated cell (TNC) doses are ≥2.5 × 10(7)/kg, in terms of the hastening of the engraftment of neutrophils and platelets, reduction of nonengraftment, disease recurrence, early mortality, and graft-versus-host disease, despite significantly higher numbers of TNCs in double units. Further analyses demonstrated that the phenomena were not associated with underlying disease, duration of UCB storage, postthaw viability, HLA disparity, ABO incompatibility, gender, or doses of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, CD3(+) cells, or colony-forming units. Engrafting units in DU-UCB transplants were notably associated with higher CD34(+) cell dose. Chimerism studies demonstrated that single-unit dominance started before neutrophil engraftment in DU-UCB transplants. Data from the study suggested no advantage of infusing double-unit UCB, if an adequately dosed single-unit UCB is available. Successful prediction of the dominant graft would optimize algorithms of UCB selection and maximize the long-term engraftment of chosen units.

  18. Acute Respiratory Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single Intensive Care Unit Experience. (United States)

    Ulas, Aydin; Kaplan, Serife; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Torgay, Adnan; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet


    Frequency of pulmonary complications after renal transplant has been reported to range from 3% to 17%. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal transplant recipients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify incidence and cause of acute respiratory failure in the postoperative period and compare clinical features and outcomes between those with and without acute respiratory failure. We retrospectively screened the data of 540 consecutive adult renal transplant recipients who received their grafts at a single transplant center and included those patients admitted to an intensive care unit during this period for this study. Acute respiratory failure was defined as severe dyspnea, respiratory distress, decreased oxygen saturation, hypoxemia or hypercapnia on room air, or requirement of noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Among the 540 adult renal transplant recipients, 55 (10.7%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, including 26 (47.3%) admitted for acute respiratory failure. Median time from transplant to intensive care unit admission was 10 months (range, 0-67 mo). The leading causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia (56%) and cardiogenic pulmonary edema (44%). Mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen ratio was 174 ± 59, invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 13 patients (50%), and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 8 patients (31%). The overall mortality was 16.4%. Acute respiratory failure was the reason for intensive care unit admission in almost half of our renal transplant recipients. Main causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Mortality of patients admitted for acute respiratory failure was similar to those without acute respiratory failure.

  19. Speech Intelligibility in Noise With a Single-Unit Cochlear Implant Audio Processor. (United States)

    Wimmer, Wilhelm; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin


    The Rondo is a single-unit cochlear implant (CI) audio processor comprising the identical components as its behind-the-ear predecessor, the Opus 2. An interchange of the Opus 2 with the Rondo leads to a shift of the microphone position toward the back of the head. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the Rondo wearing position on speech intelligibility in noise. Speech intelligibility in noise was measured in 4 spatial configurations with 12 experienced CI users using the German adaptive Oldenburg sentence test. A physical model and a numerical model were used to enable a comparison of the observations. No statistically significant differences of the speech intelligibility were found in the situations in which the signal came from the front and the noise came from the frontal, ipsilateral, or contralateral side. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was significantly better with the Opus 2 in the case with the noise presented from the back (4.4 dB, p processors placed further behind the ear than closer to the ear. The study indicates that CI users with the receiver/stimulator implanted in positions further behind the ear are expected to have higher difficulties in noisy situations when wearing the single-unit audio processor.

  20. Wireless multi-channel single unit recording in freely moving and vocalizing primates. (United States)

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin


    The ability to record well-isolated action potentials from individual neurons in naturally behaving animals is crucial for understanding neural mechanisms underlying natural behaviors. Traditional neurophysiology techniques, however, require the animal to be restrained which often restricts natural behavior. An example is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, used in our laboratory to study the neural correlates of vocal production and sensory feedback. When restrained by traditional neurophysiological techniques marmoset vocal behavior is severely inhibited. Tethered recording systems, while proven effective in rodents pose limitations in arboreal animals such as the marmoset that typically roam in a three-dimensional environment. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a wireless neural recording technique that is capable of collecting single-unit data from chronically implanted multi-electrodes in freely moving marmosets. A lightweight, low power and low noise wireless transmitter (headstage) is attached to a multi-electrode array placed in the premotor cortex of the marmoset. The wireless headstage is capable of transmitting 15 channels of neural data with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparable to a tethered system. To minimize radio-frequency (RF) and electro-magnetic interference (EMI), the experiments were conducted within a custom designed RF/EMI and acoustically shielded chamber. The individual electrodes of the multi-electrode array were periodically advanced to densely sample the cortical layers. We recorded single-unit data over a period of several months from the frontal cortex of two marmosets. These recordings demonstrate the feasibility of using our wireless recording method to study single neuron activity in freely roaming primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of single-family rooms on nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction in neonatal intensive care unit. (United States)

    Toivonen, Mirka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Axelin, Anna

    Single-family rooms in neonatal intensive care unit can provide longer interaction between family and staff. On the other hand, separation in private rooms has been shown detrimental to child development if parents are not present. To examine the effects of single-family rooms on nurse-family, nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction time in neonatal intensive care unit. A quantitative, comparative, observational study was conducted before and after a move to a neonatal intensive care unit with single-family rooms. A total of 194 observation hours were conducted before the move and 194h after the move. The differences were analyzed using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Nurses working in one neonatal intensive care unit were recruited to study. The duration and number of nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction episodes were recorded. The nurse-family and the nurse-parent interaction were longer in the unit with single-family rooms compared with the unit before the move (mean 261 vs. 138min per shift, pintensive care unit with single-family rooms supported an increase in nurse-parent interaction time. Importantly, nurse-infant interaction time did not decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleta, Mariusz; Toczylowski, Eugeniusz


    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

  3. Theoretical evaluation of the efficiency of gas single-stage reciprocating compressor medium pressure units (United States)

    Busarov, S. S.; Vasil'ev, V. K.; Busarov, I. S.; Titov, D. S.; Panin, Ju. N.


    Developed earlier and tested in such working fluid as air, the technology of calculating the operating processes of slow-speed long-stroke reciprocating stages let the authors to obtain successful results concerning compression of gases to medium pressures in one stage. In this connection, the question of the efficiency of the application of slow-speed long-stroke stages in various fields of technology and the national economy, where the working fluid is other gas or gas mixture, is topical. The article presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of single-stage compressor units on the basis of such stages for cases when ammonia, hydrogen, helium or propane-butane mixture is used as the working fluid.

  4. A systematic approach to definitive planning and designing single and multiple unit implant abutments. (United States)

    Karunagaran, Sanjay; Markose, Sony; Paprocki, Gregory; Wicks, Russell


    With an increase in the availability of implant restorative components, the selection of an appropriate implant abutment for a given clinical situation has become more challenging. This article describes a systematic protocol to help the practitioner more thoughtfully select abutments for single and multiple unit fixed implant prostheses. The article examines the evaluation, planning, design, and fabrication processes for the definitive restoration. It includes an assessment of a variety of factors, namely restorative space, soft and hard tissues, the location of the implant platform, the type of platform connection, platform switching indications, tissue collar heights, emergence profile, implant angulation, and finally the design and esthetic options for the final implant abutment. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Safety of women in mixed-sex and single-sex medium secure units: staff and patient perceptions. (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; Hassell, Yonette; Bartlett, Annie


    The development of single-sex medium secure units for women has been driven by concern about the vulnerability of women to sexual abuse and exploitation in mixed-sex secure settings. Less is known about how women patients and staff perceive gender segregation and their experiences in single-sex units. To examine the impact of gender segregation on the safety of women patients detained in medium secure psychiatric facilities. A qualitative study was conducted involving individual interviews with 58 male and female staff and 31 women patients in single-sex and mixed-sex medium secure units throughout England and Wales. Women patients in both types of units reported high levels of actual and threatened physical and sexual violence. Women in single-sex units reported intimidation, threats and abuse by other women patients, although they were less vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation and serious physical assault. Further development of single-sex secure units for women may not be justified on the grounds of safety issues alone. Risk assessment of forensic psychiatric patients must include a full assessment of their safety within the psychiatric setting.

  6. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong


    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  7. Stride length determination during overground running using a single foot-mounted inertial measurement unit. (United States)

    Brahms, C Markus; Zhao, Yang; Gerhard, David; Barden, John M


    From a research perspective, detailed knowledge about stride length (SL) is important for coaches, clinicians and researchers because together with stride rate it determines the speed of locomotion. Moreover, individual SL vectors represent the integrated output of different biomechanical determinants and as such provide valuable insight into the control of running gait. In recent years, several studies have tried to estimate SL using body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) and have reported promising results. However, many studies have used systems based on multiple sensors or have only focused on estimating SL for walking. Here we test the concurrent validity of a single foot-mounted, 9-degree of freedom IMU to estimate SL for running. We employed a running-specific, Kalman filter based zero-velocity update (ZUPT) algorithm to calculate individual SL vectors with the IMU and compared the results to SLs that were simultaneously recorded by a 6-camera 3D motion capture system. The results showed that the analytical procedures were able to successfully identify all strides that were recorded by the camera system and that excellent levels of absolute agreement (ICC(3,1) = 0.955) existed between the two methods. The findings demonstrate that individual SL vectors can be accurately estimated with a single foot-mounted IMU when running in a controlled laboratory setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system]. (United States)

    Witter, D J; Gerritsen, A E; van Spijker, A; Creugers, N H J


    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary. These guidelines are based on the border movements and positions of the mandible in the orofacial system, and on the location and modelling of the occlusal contacts in the occlusal system. The modelling of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses must harmonize with the occlusal system. Moreover, an important feature is the relation of the anterior teeth which enables mutually protected occlusion. Characteristics of a healthy orofacial and occlusal system are: absence of pathology, perceived sufficient oral functions, variability inform and function, and adaptive capacity. When designing single- or multiunit fixed dental prostheses, a pragmatic starting point is to maintain the existing occlusion and the existing speech pattern unless arguments can be provided for alterations. The occlusal design should aim at optimizing oral functions, such as mandibular and occlusal stability.

  9. Technology in Rehabilitation: Evaluating the Single Leg Squat Exercise with Wearable Inertial Measurement Units. (United States)

    Whelan, Darragh F; O'Reilly, Martin A; Ward, Tomás E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian


    The single leg squat (SLS) is a common lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also frequently used as an evaluative exercise to screen for an increased risk of lower limb injury. To date athlete / patient SLS technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete / patient SLS technique. The aims of this study were to determine if in combination or in isolation IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thigh and shank are capable of: (a) distinguishing between acceptable and aberrant SLS technique; (b) identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. Eighty-three healthy volunteers participated (60 males, 23 females, age: 24.68 + / - 4.91 years, height: 1.75 + / - 0.09 m, body mass: 76.01 + / - 13.29 kg). All participants performed 10 SLSs on their left leg. IMUs were positioned on participants' lumbar spine, left shank and left thigh. These were utilized to record tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data during all repetitions of the SLS. SLS technique was labelled by a Chartered Physiotherapist using an evaluation framework. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data. These features were used to train and evaluate a variety of random-forests classifiers that assessed SLS technique. A three IMU system was moderately successful in detecting the overall quality of SLS performance (77 % accuracy, 77 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity). A single IMU worn on the shank can complete the same analysis with 76 % accuracy, 75 % sensitivity and 76 % specificity. Single sensors also produce competitive classification scores relative to multi-sensor systems in identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. A single IMU positioned on the shank can differentiate between acceptable and aberrant

  10. Single-unit Analysis of Somatosensory Processing in Core Auditory Cortex of Hearing Ferrets (United States)

    Meredith, M. Alex; Allman, Brian L.


    The recent findings in several species that primary auditory cortex processes non-auditory information have largely overlooked the possibility for somatosensory effects. Therefore, the present investigation examined the core auditory cortices (anterior – AAF, and primary auditory-- A1, fields) for tactile responsivity. Multiple single-unit recordings from anesthetized ferret cortex yielded histologically verified neurons (n=311) tested with electronically controlled auditory, visual and tactile stimuli and their combinations. Of the auditory neurons tested, a small proportion (17%) was influenced by visual cues, but a somewhat larger number (23%) was affected by tactile stimulation. Tactile effects rarely occurred alone and spiking responses were observed in bimodal auditory-tactile neurons. However, the broadest tactile effect that was observed, which occurred in all neuron types, was that of suppression of the response to a concurrent auditory cue. The presence of tactile effects in core auditory cortices was supported by a substantial anatomical projection from the rostral suprasylvian sulcal somatosensory area. Collectively, these results demonstrate that crossmodal effects in auditory cortex are not exclusively visual and that somatosensation plays a significant role in modulation of acoustic processing and indicate that crossmodal plasticity following deafness may unmask these existing non-auditory functions. PMID:25728185

  11. Stable single-unit-cell nanosheets of zeolite MFI as active and long-lived catalysts. (United States)

    Choi, Minkee; Na, Kyungsu; Kim, Jeongnam; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Osamu; Ryoo, Ryong


    Zeolites-microporous crystalline aluminosilicates-are widely used in petrochemistry and fine-chemical synthesis because strong acid sites within their uniform micropores enable size- and shape-selective catalysis. But the very presence of the micropores, with aperture diameters below 1 nm, often goes hand-in-hand with diffusion limitations that adversely affect catalytic activity. The problem can be overcome by reducing the thickness of the zeolite crystals, which reduces diffusion path lengths and thus improves molecular diffusion. This has been realized by synthesizing zeolite nanocrystals, by exfoliating layered zeolites, and by introducing mesopores in the microporous material through templating strategies or demetallation processes. But except for the exfoliation, none of these strategies has produced 'ultrathin' zeolites with thicknesses below 5 nm. Here we show that appropriately designed bifunctional surfactants can direct the formation of zeolite structures on the mesoporous and microporous length scales simultaneously and thus yield MFI (ZSM-5, one of the most important catalysts in the petrochemical industry) zeolite nanosheets that are only 2 nm thick, which corresponds to the b-axis dimension of a single MFI unit cell. The large number of acid sites on the external surface of these zeolites renders them highly active for the catalytic conversion of large organic molecules, and the reduced crystal thickness facilitates diffusion and thereby dramatically suppresses catalyst deactivation through coke deposition during methanol-to-gasoline conversion. We expect that our synthesis approach could be applied to other zeolites to improve their performance in a range of important catalytic applications.

  12. Keys to Achieving Predictable Single-Unit Implant Esthetics in the Smile Zone. (United States)

    Marongiu, Nicholas


    When planned and implemented appropriately, single-unit implant dentistry in the smile zone can be an excellent alternative to attempting to save a failing natural tooth. Historically, implant success has revolved around assessment of osseointegration and the healing of bone around the implant, without much regard for esthetics upon completion. As implant dentistry has evolved, the expectations of both restoring clinicians and patients have expanded to emphasize the esthetic outcome as well as faster treatment with immediate implant placement. Advancements in dental radiography have increased the accuracy of diagnosing and planning, enabling more timely recognition of potential inadequacies and providing more predictable results. Even with the advances in implant dentistry over the past several decades, however, it is virtually impossible to reproduce nature; therefore, every effort should be made to preserve natural dentition. This article, which presents two case reports, will discuss differentiation between surgical success and restorative success of implants in the smile zone, identify key predictive factors associated with restorative implant success, and identify benefits of immediate implant placement.

  13. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells. (United States)

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A


    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein's unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Accelerated rescaling of single Monte Carlo simulation runs with the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). (United States)

    Yang, Owen; Choi, Bernard


    To interpret fiber-based and camera-based measurements of remitted light from biological tissues, researchers typically use analytical models, such as the diffusion approximation to light transport theory, or stochastic models, such as Monte Carlo modeling. To achieve rapid (ideally real-time) measurement of tissue optical properties, especially in clinical situations, there is a critical need to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation runs. In this manuscript, we report on our approach using the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to accelerate rescaling of single Monte Carlo runs to calculate rapidly diffuse reflectance values for different sets of tissue optical properties. We selected MATLAB to enable non-specialists in C and CUDA-based programming to use the generated open-source code. We developed a software package with four abstraction layers. To calculate a set of diffuse reflectance values from a simulated tissue with homogeneous optical properties, our rescaling GPU-based approach achieves a reduction in computation time of several orders of magnitude as compared to other GPU-based approaches. Specifically, our GPU-based approach generated a diffuse reflectance value in 0.08ms. The transfer time from CPU to GPU memory currently is a limiting factor with GPU-based calculations. However, for calculation of multiple diffuse reflectance values, our GPU-based approach still can lead to processing that is ~3400 times faster than other GPU-based approaches.

  15. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Svetlana


    Full Text Available Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012. For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286 showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences

  16. A single-unit design structure and gender differences in the swimming world championships. (United States)

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B; Verbitsky, Oleg


    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences.

  17. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.


    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  18. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  19. The Effects of Single Parenthood on Educational Aspiration: A Comparative Study of Children in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum


    Using data collected by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Program for International Student Assessment in 2003, this study examines the gap in the educational aspirations of children from single-parent families and two-parent families in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong. Consistent with previous research on the…

  20. Hydrothermal unit commitment with AC constraints by a new solution method based on benders decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Reza Ansari, Mohammad


    Highlights: ► A new HTUC model with AC constraints is presented. ► A new decomposition strategy for HTUC problem is suggested. ► A new Benders decomposition method is proposed. ► Effectiveness of the proposed solution strategy is extensively tested. - Abstract: This paper presents a new approach based on Benders decomposition (BD) to solve hydrothermal unit commitment problem with AC power flow and security constraints. The proposed method decomposes the problem into a master problem and two sets of sub-problems. The master problem applies integer programming method to solve unit commitment (UC) while the sub-problems apply nonlinear programming solution method to determine economic dispatch for each time period. If one sub-problem of the first set becomes infeasible, the corresponding sub-problem of the second set is called. Moreover, strong Benders cuts are proposed that reduce the number of iterations and CPU time of the Benders decomposition method. All constraints of the hydrothermal unit commitment problem can be completely satisfied with zero penalty terms by the proposed solution method. The methodology is tested on the 9-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  1. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.


    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  2. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.


    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly 2139 Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase 239 Pu containing 5.9 wt-% 240 Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal

  3. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  4. Multiple single-unit long-term tracking on organotypic hippocampal slices using high-density microelectrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong


    Full Text Available A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals. An unsupervised iterative spike-sorting algorithm, based on PCA and k-means clustering, was developed to assign the activities to the single units. Spike-triggered average extracellular waveforms of an action potential recorded across neighboring electrodes, termed ‘footprints’ of single-units were generated and tracked over weeks. The developed system offers the potential to study chronic impacts of drugs or genetic modifications on individual neurons in slice preparations over extended times.

  5. Solar-powered single-and double-effect directly air-cooled LiBr–H2O absorption prototype built as a single unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; González-Gil, A.; Palacios, E.


    Highlights: • This work presents a novel solar cooling air-cooled absorption prototype for buildings. • The solution (LiB r –H 2 O) and the refrigerant (H 2 O) are cooled directly by air. • The cooling is produced from solar energy when operates in single-effect mode. • If the demand is not met the prototype is able to operate in double-effect mode. - Abstract: This work describes an installation in Madrid, Spain, designed to test a new solar-powered air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. This installation essentially consists of a-48 m 2 field of flat-plate solar collectors, a 1500-L hot water storage tank and a single and-double effect air-cooled lithium bromide absorption prototype. Designed and built by our research group, this prototype is able to operate either as a single-effect unit (4.5 kW) or as a double-effect unit (7 kW). In operation as single-effect mode, the prototype is driven by solar energy, whereas in operation as a double effect mode, an external energy source may be used. The prototype’s evaporator is connected to a fan-coil placed inside an 80-m 2 laboratory that represent the average size of a Spanish housing unit. In August 2009, the cooling system was tested in the single-effect operation mode. The results show that the system is able to meet approximately 65% of the laboratory’s seasonal cooling demand, although 100% may be reached for a few days. The prototype can also operate in double-effect mode to meet the cooling demand. In that case, the prototype is fed by thermal oil, which is warmed until it reaches the process temperature in the high-temperature generator. The prototype can operate in either single-effect mode or in double-effect mode or can also operate simultaneously both modes using the components common to both modes, namely, the absorber, evaporator, condenser, solution pumps and control equipment. This paper reports the experimental results from the prototype operating separately in single-effect and

  6. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel


    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes......, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles....... Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected...

  7. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.


    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  8. Single Cigarette Sales: State Differences in FDA Advertising and Labeling Violations, 2014, United States. (United States)

    Baker, Hannah M; Lee, Joseph G L; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O


    Single cigarettes, which are sold without warning labels and often evade taxes, can serve as a gateway for youth smoking. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gives the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, including prohibiting the sale of single cigarettes. To enforce these regulations, the FDA conducted over 335,661 inspections between 2010 and September 30, 2014, and allocated over $115 million toward state inspections contracts. To examine differences in single cigarette violations across states and determine if likely correlates of single cigarette sales predict single cigarette violations at the state level. Cross-sectional study of publicly available FDA warning letters from January 1 to July 31, 2014. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. Tobacco retailer inspections conducted by FDA (n = 33 543). State cigarette tax, youth smoking prevalence, poverty, and tobacco production. State proportion of FDA warning letters issued for single cigarette violations. There are striking differences in the number of single cigarette violations found by state, with 38 states producing no warning letters for selling single cigarettes even as state policymakers developed legislation to address retailer sales of single cigarettes. The state proportion of warning letters issued for single cigarettes is not predicted by state cigarette tax, youth smoking, poverty, or tobacco production, P = .12. Substantial, unexplained variation exists in violations of single cigarette sales among states. These data suggest the possibility of differences in implementation of FDA inspections and the need for stronger quality monitoring processes across states implementing FDA inspections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. A Memetic Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Environmental Power Unit Commitment


    Li , Yan-Fu; Pedroni , Nicola; Zio , Enrico


    International audience; A multi-objective power unit commitment problem is framed to consider simultaneously the objectives of minimizing the operation cost and minimizing the emissions from the generation units. To find the solution of the optimal schedule of the generation units, a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and a local search algorithm. The power dispatch sub-problem is solved by the weighed-sum lambda...

  10. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson... (United States)


    ... probabilistic safety assessment and risk calculations presented in the FSEIS. Bellefonte Unit 1 is designed to... further examination of U.S. Census data related to neighboring block groups for minority and impoverished...

  11. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States. (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E


    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.

  12. An Asynchronous Distributed Algorithm for Solving Stochastic Unit Commitment


    Aravena Solís, Ignacio Andrés; Papavasiliou, Anthony


    We present an asynchronous algorithm for solving the stochastic unit commitment (SUC) problem using scenario decomposition. The algorithm is motivated by the scale of problem and significant differences in run times observed among scenario subproblems, which can result in inefficient use of distributed computing resources by synchronous parallel algorithms. Dual iterations are performed asynchronously using a block-coordinate subgradient descent method which allows performing block-coordinate...

  13. Trends Analysis of rhBMP Utilization in Single-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States. (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C; Meisel, Hans-Joerg


    Retrospective study. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been widely used in spinal fusion surgery, but there is little information on rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the trends and demographics of rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level PLIF. Patients who underwent single-level PLIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database, a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 100 000 patients searched in the database. A total of 2735 patients had single-level PLIF. The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 maintained at a relatively stable level (28% to 31%) from 2005 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 (9.9%) and 2011 (11.8%). The overall incidence of single-level PLIF without rhBMP-2 (0.68 cases per 100 000 patients) was statistically higher ( P level PLIF with rhBMP-2 (0.21 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 utilization was the highest in West (30.1%), followed by Midwest (26.9%), South (20.5%), and Northeast (17.8%). The highest incidence of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 was observed in the age group level PLIF. There was a 3-fold increase in the rate of PLIF without rhBMP-2 compared to PLIF with rhBMP-2, with both procedures being mainly done in patients less than 65 years of age.

  14. A tabu search algorithm for scheduling a single robot in a job-shop environment


    Hurink, Johann; Knust, Sigrid


    We consider a single-machine scheduling problem which arises as a subproblem in a job-shop environment where the jobs have to be transported between the machines by a single transport robot. The robot scheduling problem may be regarded as a generalization of the travelling-salesman problem with time windows, where additionally generalized precedence constraints have to be respected. The objective is to determine a sequence of all nodes and corresponding starting times in the given time window...

  15. Decentralized method for load sharing and power management in a hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of hybrid source PV/battery units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Guerrero, Josep M.; Oraee, Hashem


    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power...... for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  16. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.


    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  17. Adult bone strength of children from single-parent families: the Midlife in the United States Study. (United States)

    Crandall, C J; Karlamangla, A S; Merkin, S S; Binkley, N; Carr, D; Greendale, G A; Seeman, T E


    Bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental circumstances. We examined the independent associations of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood with adult bone strength indices. Longer exposure to a single-parent household in childhood was associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Because peak bone mass is acquired during childhood, bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental disadvantage. The goal of this study was to determine whether being raised in a single-parent household is associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from 708 participants (mean age 57 years) in the Midlife in the United States Biomarker Project, we examined the independent associations of composite indices of femoral neck bone strength relative to load (in three failure modes: compression, bending, and impact) in adulthood with the experience of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood. After adjustment for gender, race, menopause transition stage, age, and body mass index, each additional year of single-parent childhood was associated with 0.02 to 0.03 SD lower indices of adult femoral neck strength. In those with 9-16 years of single-parent childhood, the compression strength index was 0.41 SD lower, bending strength index was 0.31 SD lower, and impact strength index was 0.25 SD lower (all p values divorce during childhood was not by itself independently associated with adult bone strength indices. The magnitudes of these associations were unaltered by additional adjustment for lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood. Independent of parental death or divorce, growing up in a single-parent household is associated with lower femoral neck bone strength in adulthood, and this association is not entirely explained by childhood or adult socioeconomic conditions or lifestyle choices.

  18. Possible explanation for the conductance of a single quantum unit in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ihm, Jisoon; Yoon, Young-Gui; Louie, Steven G.


    The quantum conductance of a metallic carbon nanotube with one end immersed in a jellium metal is studied. We find that the incident π * -band electrons, having a very high angular momentum with respect to the tube axis, go through the tube without being scattered by the free electrons in surrounding metal and contribute a quantum unit (2e 2 /h) to the conductance. On the other hand, the incident π-band electrons, with the p z atomic orbitals in phase along the tube circumference, experience strong resonant back-scattering because the low-angular-momentum states at the Fermi level have a dominantly metallic character in the nanotube-jellium metal coexistence region. These results provide a possible explanation for the experimentally observed conductance of one quantum unit instead of two for nanotubes with one end dipped into liquid metal such as mercury. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Syncope unit in the paediatric population: A single-centre experience. (United States)

    Courtheix, Mathieu; Jalal, Zakaria; Bordachar, Pierre; Iriart, Xavier; Pillois, Xavier; Escobedo, Cécile; Rabot, Catherine; Tribout, Laetitia; Thambo, Jean-Benoit


    Syncopes are frequent in the paediatric population. Most are benign, but rare cases are caused by cardiac life-threatening diseases. Syncope units developed in the adult population have demonstrated improvement in evaluation and treatment, with a reduction in hospitalization. We report our experience of paediatric syncope management in a dedicated unit, and analyse the value of different elements in the identification of cardiac causes. This prospective study included 97 consecutive patients (mean age: 12.1±3.3 years) referred between January 2011 and June 2013 to a syncope unit with a paediatric cardiologist, a nurse, a physiotherapist and a psychologist. Patients were classified into diagnostic categories after an initial evaluation that included history, physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and Holter monitoring. The most common diagnosis was neurocardiogenic syncope (n=69, 70.4%). Fifty-two cases (81.3%) had no or less recurrence after specific management that included physiotherapy and psychological support (follow-up: 11.5±5.4 months). Psychogenic pseudosyncopes affected 20 children (20.6%). Two patients had epileptic seizures. There were five cases of cardiac syncope (5.1%): two long QT syndromes and a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia received beta-blockers; two atrioventricular complete blocks required pacemakers. One case was of indeterminate cause and received an insertable loop recorder after exhaustive investigations. Exercise-induced syncopes were significantly associated with cardiac origins (P=0.003), such as electrocardiographic abnormalities (PSyncope units in the paediatric population may be useful in the diagnostic process, to help identify rare cardiac aetiologies, and could decrease recurrence through specific management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Making multiple predictable single-unit provisional restorations using an indirect technique. (United States)

    Hansen, Paul A; Sigler, Ernie; Husemann, R Henry


    This article describes a method to fabricate single provisional restorations for multiple preparations using an indirect technique. Provisional restorations need to mimic the definitive restoration as closely as clinically possible. When multiple adjacent provisional restorations are fabricated, the ability to make each separately, with its own path of insertion and contour, aids in providing a predictable final result for the patient. Individual provisional restorations will also allow the patient to maintain better hygiene.

  1. Molecules with multiple switching units on a Au(111) surface: self-organization and single-molecule manipulation (United States)

    Mielke, Johannes; Selvanathan, Sofia; Peters, Maike; Schwarz, Jutta; Hecht, Stefan; Grill, Leonhard


    Three different molecules, each containing two azobenzene switching units, were synthesized, successfully deposited onto a Au(111) surface by sublimation and studied by scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperatures. To investigate the influence of electronic coupling between the switching units as well as to the surface, the two azo moieties were connected either via π-conjugated para-phenylene or decoupling meta-phenylene bridges, and the number of tert-butyl groups was varied in the meta-phenylene-linked derivatives. Single molecules were found to be intact after deposition as identified by their characteristic appearance in STM images. Due to their mobility on the Au(111) surface at room temperature, the molecules spontaneously formed self-organized molecular arrangements that reflected their chemical structure. While lateral displacement of the molecules was accomplished by manipulation, trans-cis isomerization processes, typical for azobenzene switches, could not be induced.

  2. A novel algorithm for demand-control of a single-room ventilation unit with a rotary heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Jansen, Anders Lund; Svendsen, Svend

    in the indoor environment. Based on these values, a demand-control algorithm varies fan speeds to change airflow rates and varies the rotational speed of the heat exchanger to modulate heat and moisture recovery. The algorithm varies airflow rates to provide free cooling and limit CO2 concentrations and varies...... with heat recovery in individual rooms. This provides a unique opportunity to meet the demands of each room with an appropriate ventilation rate, supply temperature and drying capacity. In prior publications, the authors described the development of a single-room ventilation unit with a rotary heat...... exchanger, which is commercially available in Denmark. The unit includes temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet of the supply and exhaust airflows. At the exhaust inlet, a relative humidity sensor is standard and a CO2 sensor is optional. Together these sensors detect thermal comfort and air quality...

  3. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng


    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  4. Bariatric surgery outcomes: a single-center study in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusnana S


    Full Text Available Salah Abusnana,1 Sarah Abdi,1 Brigette Tagure,1 Murtada Elbagir,1 Almantas Maleckas2 1Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ministry of Health, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 2Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, LithuaniaBackground: Bariatric surgery has become an attractive treatment for severe obesity over the last decade, due to its impacts on weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the United Arab Emirates, a country where the rate of obesity is dramatically increasing bariatric surgery has gained popularity in recent years; however, published data on its outcomes in the Emirati population are lacking.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 95 patients who underwent bariatric surgery (ie, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB] or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at the Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Weight outcomes and metabolic marker data were abstracted at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Laparoscopic RYGB was the main procedure performed by our bariatric unit. All variables demonstrated postoperative improvement. An average excess weight loss of 68% was observed at 12 months. Fat mass was the body component that decreased the most, with an average reduction of 46%. Additionally, lipid profiles were significantly different (P<0.01 at 12 months, with triglyceride levels improving by 27% and low-density lipoprotein levels improving by 21%. Similarly, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels decreased significantly (P<0.001 in patients with type 2 diabetes, with an average reduction of 73%.Conclusion: Our results show that a substantial short-term reduction in weight and significant improvements in metabolic markers followed bariatric surgery in severely obese Emirati patients. Our results are consistent with the outcomes of other internationally published studies. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of a single detector unit for the neutron detector array NEDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Palacz, M., E-mail: [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Caen (France); Di Nitto, A. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Egea, J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Erduran, M.N. [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkueltesi, Fizik Boeluemue, Nigde (Turkey); Farnea, E. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Gottardo, A. [Padova University, Padua (Italy); Hueyuek, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kownacki, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Pipidis, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Roeder, B. [LPC-Caen, ENSICAEN, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Caen, Caen (France); Soederstroem, P.-A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sanchis, E. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Tarnowski, R. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    A study of the dimensions and performance of a single detector of the future neutron detector array NEDA was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations, using GEANT4. Two different liquid scintillators were evaluated: the hydrogen based BC501A and the deuterated BC537. The efficiency and the probability that one neutron will trigger a signal in more than one detector were investigated as a function of the detector size. The simulations were validated comparing the results to experimental measurements performed with two existing neutron detectors, with different geometries, based on the liquid scintillator BC501.

  6. Simulation model of a single-stage lithium bromide-water absorption cooling unit (United States)

    Miao, D.


    A computer model of a LiBr-H2O single-stage absorption machine was developed. The model, utilizing a given set of design data such as water-flow rates and inlet or outlet temperatures of these flow rates but without knowing the interior characteristics of the machine (heat transfer rates and surface areas), can be used to predict or simulate off-design performance. Results from 130 off-design cases for a given commercial machine agree with the published data within 2 percent.

  7. 12-Channel Peltier array temperature control unit for single molecule enzymology studies using capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Craig, Douglas B; Reinfelds, Gundars; Henderson, Anna


    Capillary electrophoresis has been used to demonstrate that individual molecules of a given enzyme support different catalytic rates. In order to determine how rate varies with temperature, and determine activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules, a 12-channel Peltier array temperature control device was constructed where the temperature of each cell was separately controlled. This array was used to control the temperature of the central 30 cm of a 50 cm long capillary, producing a temperature gradient along its length. Continuous flow single β-galactosidase molecule assays were performed allowing measurement of the catalytic rates at different temperatures. Arrhenius plots were produced and the distribution of activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules was found to be 56 ± 10 kJ/mol with a range of 34-72 kJ/mol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses (United States)


    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  9. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C


    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  10. The perceived quality of interprofessional teamwork in an intensive care unit: A single centre intervention study. (United States)

    Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique


    This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.

  11. Acute extradural haematomas in children: A single neurosurgery unit's 12-year experience. (United States)

    Enicker, B; Louw, H; Madiba, T


    Acute extradural haematomas (AEDHs) occur infrequently in children. This study was undertaken to review our experience with management and outcomes of this condition in children treated in the Neurosurgery Unit at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital. A retrospective review of medical records of all children (age less than or equal to (≤) 12 years) with a diagnosis of AEDH admitted from January 2003 to December 2014 was performed. Records were analyzed for demographics, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, neuroradiology findings, management and outcomes at discharge. A total of 150 children with AEDHs were admitted during this period. The mean age was 6.6 ± 3.8 years with a peak incidence in the 7-9 year age group. There were 84 (56%) males, (M: F= 1.3:1). Sixty AEDHs resulted from road traffic crashes (40%). On admission 104 (69.3%) children were Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 13-15, 26 (17.3%) GCS 9-12 and 20 (13.4%) GCS 3-8. Haemoglobin was less than (children and the mean hospital stay was 6.9 ± 6.1 days. Four children (2.7%) died during in-hospital stay period. One hundred and forty one (94%) children had a favourable Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge. AEDHs in children carry a good prognosis, but can be potentially fatal. A vigilant approach is required when assessing these children, as early diagnosis and treatment yields gratifying results.

  12. Complete digital workflow for the production of implant-supported single-unit monolithic crowns. (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Brägger, Urs


    The aim of this case series was to introduce a complete digital workflow for the production of monolithic implant crowns. Six patients were treated with implant-supported crowns made of resin nano ceramic (RNC). Starting with an intraoral optical scan (IOS), and following a CAD/CAM process, the monolithic crowns were bonded either to a novel prefabricated titanium abutment base (group A) or to a CAD/CAM-generated individualized titanium abutment (group B) in premolar or molar sites on a soft tissue level dental implant. Economic analyses included clinical and laboratory steps. An esthetic evaluation was performed to compare the two abutment-crown combinations. None of the digitally constructed RNC crowns required any clinical adaptation. Overall mean work time calculations revealed obvious differences for group A (65.3 min) compared with group B (86.5 min). Esthetic analysis demonstrated a more favorable outcome for the prefabricated bonding bases. Prefabricated or individualized abutments on monolithic RNC crowns using CAD/CAM technology in a model-free workflow seem to provide a feasible and streamlined treatment approach for single-edentulous space rehabilitation in the posterior region. However, RNC as full-contour material has to be considered experimental, and further large-scale clinical investigations with long-term follow-up observation are necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risk Factors for Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Single United States Center Experience. (United States)

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; Gross, Lilyana; Mcnair, Bryan; McCollister, Bruce; DeSanto, Kristen; Montoya, Jose G; Shapiro, Leland; Beckham, J David


    Cryptococcal meningitis carries a high mortality. Further understanding of immune suppression factors associated with neuroinvasive infection will improve risk stratification and enhance early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to corroborate established or find novel clinical predictors for cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a matched case-control study of Cryptococcus infection in immunocompromised patients with or without cryptococcal meningitis. Data of all patients with a diagnosis of cryptococcal disease were collected at University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2015 (n = 51). Thirty patients were diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. We built a logistic regression model for risk factors associated with cryptococcal meningitis. The single-predictor univariate model found that a positive blood culture, positive serum cryptococcal antigen, current malignancy, and headaches were significantly associated with cryptococcal meningitis (p = 0.02). In the adjusted multivariate model, central nervous system disease was significantly associated with a diagnosis of HIV infection (OR 24.45, 95 % CI 1.62-350.37; p = 0.022) and a positive serum cryptococcal antigen test (OR 42.92, 95 % CI 3.26-555.55; p = 0.0055). In patients with HIV infection or a positive serum cryptococcal antigen, the pretest probability of neuroinvasive Cryptococcus infection is increased and an aggressive diagnostic evaluation should be conducted to exclude infection and consider empiric therapy.


    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F.; Gross, Lilyana; Mcnair, Bryan; McCollister, Bruce; DeSanto, Kristen; Montoya, Jose G.; Shapiro, Leland; Beckham, J. David


    Cryptococcal meningitis carries a high mortality. Further understanding of immune suppression factors associated with neuroinvasive infection will improve risk stratification and enhance early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to corroborate established or find novel clinical predictors for cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a matched case-control study of Cryptococcus infection in immunocompromised patients with or without cryptococcal meningitis. All patients with a diagnosis of cryptococcal disease were collected at University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2015 (n=51). Thirty patients were diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. We built a logistic regression model for risk factors associated with cryptococcal meningitis. The single predictor univariate model found that a positive blood culture, positive serum cryptococcal antigen, current malignancy, and headaches were significantly associated with cryptococcal meningitis (p= 0.02). In the adjusted multivariate model, central nervous system disease was significantly associated with a diagnosis of HIV infection (OR: 24.45, 95% CI: 1.62 – 350.37; p=0.022) and a positive serum cryptococcal antigen test (OR: 42.92, 95% CI: 3.26 – 555.55; p=0.0055). In patients with HIV infection or a positive serum cryptococcal antigen, the pre-test probability of neuroinvasive Cryptococcus infection is increased and an aggressive diagnostic evaluation should be conducted to exclude infection and consider empiric therapy. PMID:27502502

  15. Unplanned intensive care unit admission after general anaesthesia in children: A single centre retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Clément de Clety, Stephan; Collard, Edith; De Kock, Marc; Detaille, Thierry; Houtekie, Laurent; Jadin, Laurence; Bairy, Laurent; Veyckemans, Francis


    To determine the main causes for unplanned admission of children to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following anaesthesia in our centre. To compare the results with previous publications and propose a data sheet for the prospective collection of such information. Inclusion criteria were any patient under 16 years who had an unplanned post-anaesthetic admission to the PICU from 1999 to 2010 in our university hospital. Age, ASA score, type of procedure, origin and causes of the incident(s) that prompted admission and time of the admission decision were recorded. Out of a total of 44,559 paediatric interventions performed under anaesthesia during the study period, 85 were followed with an unplanned admission to the PICU: 67% of patients were younger than 5 years old. Their ASA status distribution from I to IV was 13, 47, 39 and 1%, respectively. The cause of admission was anaesthetic, surgical or mixed in 50, 37 and 13% of cases, respectively. The main causes of anaesthesia-related admission were respiratory or airway management problems (44%) and cardiac catheterisation complications (29%). In 62%, the admission decision was taken in the operating room. Unplanned admission to the PICU after general anaesthesia is a rare event. In our series, most cases were less than 5 years old and were associated with at least one comorbidity. The main cause of admission was respiratory distress and the main type of procedure associated with admission was cardiac catheterisation. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Single motor unit firing behavior in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Olsen, Henrik B; Blangsted, Anne K


    of a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support the attention related muscle activation. METHOD: Twelve healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC) were performed with right......BACKGROUND: Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause development of trapezius myalgia. Such a low level activity may be attention related or alternatively, be part of a general multi joint motor program providing stabilization...... of the shoulder joint as a biomechanical prerequisite for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU) firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsilateral or contralateral index finger. A modulation of the MU firing rate would support the existence...

  17. Effect of ABO blood group incompatibility on the outcome of single-unit cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning. (United States)

    Konuma, Takaaki; Kato, Seiko; Ooi, Jun; Oiwa-Monna, Maki; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Shinji; Yuji, Koichiro; Ohno, Nobuhiro; Kawamata, Toyotaka; Jo, Norihide; Yokoyama, Kazuaki; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Satoshi


    ABO blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient has been associated with poor transplant outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, its effect on the outcome of cord blood transplantation (CBT) has yet to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed 191 adult patients who received single-unit CBT after myeloablative conditioning for malignant disease in our institute. Major mismatch showed a significantly lower incidence of platelet engraftment compared with ABO match as a reference (hazard ratio, .57; P = .01). Nevertheless, there was no increase in graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and overall mortality after ABO-incompatible CBT. These data suggested that donor-recipient ABO incompatibility does not have a significant impact on outcome after myeloablative CBT for hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment Recommendations for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S.; Louis, David R.; Litaker, Mark S.; Minyé, Helena M.; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V.; Marshall, Don G.; Gilbert, Gregg H.


    Background Objectives were to: (1) quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown; and (2) test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are significantly associated with this likelihood. Methods Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In four clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. These responses were used to calculate a dentist-specific “Crown Factor” (CF; range 0–12). A higher score implies a higher likelihood to recommend a crown. Certain characteristics were tested for statistically significant associations with the CF. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, endodontically-treated, or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, Southwest practitioners, and practitioners with a balanced work load were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who use optical scanners for digital impressions. Conclusions There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. While consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied by type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Practical Implications Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture -- whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations -- prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. PMID:27492046

  19. Treatment recommendations for single-unit crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Gilbert, Gregg H


    The objectives of this study were to quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown and test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are associated significantly with this likelihood. Dentists in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In 4 clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. The authors used these responses to calculate a dentist-specific crown factor (range, 0-12). A higher score implied a higher likelihood of recommending a crown. The authors tested certain characteristics for statistically significant associations with the crown factor. A total of 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists (83%) responded. Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, or endodontically treated or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, practitioners in the Southwest, and practitioners with a balanced workload were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who used optical scanners for digital impressions. There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. Although consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied according to type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture-whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations-prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Mechanical and Thermal Stimuli on Local Field Potentials and Single Unit Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients. (United States)

    Belasen, Abigail; Youn, Youngwon; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Lai, Brant; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Rizvi, Khizer; Yeung, Philip; Shin, Damian S; Argoff, Charles; Pilitsis, Julie G


    Chronic pain is a major, debilitating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to improve pain outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Microelectrode recording allows us to measure both local field potentials (LFPs) and single neuronal unit activity (SUA). In this study, we examined how single unit and LFP oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia are impacted by mechanical and thermal sensory stimuli and explored their role in pain modulation. We assessed changes in LFPs and SUAs in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (Gpi), and globus pallidus externa (Gpe) following exposure with mechanical or thermal stimuli. Sensory thresholds were determined pre-operatively using quantitative sensory testing. Based on these data, patients were exposed to innocuous and noxious mechanical, pressure, and thermal stimuli at individualized thresholds. In the STN, LFP alpha oscillatory activity and SUA increased in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli; SUA further increased in response to noxious mechanical, noxious pressure, and noxious thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli; SUA also increased in response to innocuous thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli increased LFP gammaactivity; noxious pressure stimuli decreased low betaactivity; SUA increased in response to noxious thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli alter basal ganglia LFPs and SUAs in PD. While STN SUA increases nearly uniformly to all sensory stimuli, SUA in the pallidal nuclei respond solely to thermal stimuli. Similarly, thermal stimuli yield increases in pallidal LFP activity, but not STN activity. We speculate that DBS may provide analgesia through suppression of stimuli-specific changes in basal ganglia activity, supporting a role for these nuclei in sensory and pain processing circuits. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  1. Assessment of performance and utility of mortality prediction models in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit. (United States)

    Sathe, Prachee M; Bapat, Sharda N


    To assess the performance and utility of two mortality prediction models viz. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Secondary objectives were bench-marking and setting a base line for research. In this observational cohort, data needed for calculation of both scores were prospectively collected for all consecutive admissions to 28-bedded ICU in the year 2011. After excluding readmissions, discharges within 24 h and age predicted mortality had strong association with true mortality (R (2) = 0.98 for APACHE II and R (2) = 0.99 for SAPS II). Both models performed poorly in formal Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit testing (Chi-square = 12.8 (P = 0.03) for APACHE II, Chi-square = 26.6 (P = 0.001) for SAPS II) but showed good discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86 ± 0.013 SE (P care and comparing performances of different units without customization. Considering comparable performance and simplicity of use, efforts should be made to adapt SAPS II.

  2. Single-Tooth Implant Versus Three-Unit Fixed Partial Denture: A Study of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life. (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Oh, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jimin; Jung, Yea Ji; Park, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Younhee


    Many studies have investigated the impact of prosthetic treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, most of these have been performed among fully or partially edentulous patients. Studies involving patients with a single missing tooth are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the OHRQoL between patients treated by single-tooth implants and three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) for single missing tooth restoration. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Korea with patients drawn by stratified purposive sampling based on age. OHRQoL was measured using the Korean version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14K) questionnaire. Pre- and posttreatment OHIP-14K scores were compared by paired t test. Single-tooth implants and three-unit FPDs were compared by two-sample t test. In addition, multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of treatment mode on OHIP-14K total score after adjusting the effect of demographics and clinical factors. Thirty-five patients with single-tooth implants and 36 patients with three-unit FPDs were included. All participants had a significant improvement in OHRQoL compared with before the treatment (P single-tooth implants and three-unit FPDs for single missing tooth replacement resulted in significant and similar improvement of OHRQoL.

  3. Presentation, management and outcomes in acute pituitary apoplexy: a large single-centre experience from the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Bujawansa, S; Thondam, S K; Steele, C; Cuthbertson, D J; Gilkes, C E; Noonan, C; Bleaney, C W; Macfarlane, I A; Javadpour, M; Daousi, C


    To study the presentation, management and outcomes and to apply retrospectively the Pituitary Apoplexy Score (PAS) (United Kingdom (UK) guidelines for management of apoplexy) to a large, single-centre series of patients with acute pituitary apoplexy. Retrospective analysis of casenotes at a single neurosurgical centre in Liverpool, UK. Fifty-five patients [mean age, 52·4 years; median duration of follow-up, 7 years] were identified; 45 of 55 (81%) had nonfunctioning adenomas, four acromegaly and six prolactinomas. Commonest presenting features were acute headache (87%), diplopia (47·2%) and visual field (VF) defects (36%). The most frequent ocular palsy involved the 3rd nerve (81%), followed by 6th nerve (34·6%) and multiple palsies (19%). Twenty-three patients were treated conservatively, and the rest had surgery either within 7 days of presentation or delayed elective surgery. Indications for surgery were deteriorating visual acuity and persistent field defects. Patients presenting with VF defects (n = 20) were more likely to undergo surgery (75%) than to be managed expectantly (25%). There was no difference in the rates of complete/near-complete resolution of VF deficits and cranial nerve palsies between those treated conservatively and those who underwent surgery. Endocrine outcomes were also similar. We were able to calculate the PAS for 46 patients: for the group treated with early surgery mean, PAS was 3·8 and for those managed conservatively or with delayed surgery was 1·8. Patients without VF deficits or whose visual deficits are stable or improving can be managed expectantly without negative impact on outcomes. Clinical severity based on a PAS ≥ 4 appeared to influence management towards emergency surgical intervention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe


    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  5. Optogenetic stimulation of lateral amygdala input to posterior piriform cortex modulates single-unit and ensemble odor processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eSadrian


    Full Text Available Olfactory information is synthesized within the olfactory cortex to provide not only an odor percept, but also a contextual significance that supports appropriate behavioral response to specific odor cues. The piriform cortex serves as a communication hub within this circuit by sharing reciprocal connectivity with higher processing regions, such as the lateral entorhinal cortex and amygdala. The functional significance of these descending inputs on piriform cortical processing of odorants is currently not well understood. We have employed optogenetic methods to selectively stimulate lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA afferent fibers innervating the posterior piriform cortex (pPCX to quantify BLA modulation of pPCX odor-evoked activity. Single unit odor-evoked activity of anaesthetized BLA-infected animals was significantly modulated compared with control animal recordings, with individual cells displaying either enhancement or suppression of odor-driven spiking. In addition, BLA activation induced a decorrelation of odor-evoked pPCX ensemble activity relative to odor alone. Together these results indicate a modulatory role in pPCX odor processing for the BLA complex, which could contribute to learned changes in PCX activity following associative conditioning.

  6. Experience gained from automation of starting operations in a 200-MW two-boiler single-turbine power unit equipped with once-through coal-fired boilers (United States)

    Baranov, V. N.; Ginzburg, L. N.; Gorskii, E. R.; Romanchuk, I. F.; Rul'Kovskii, V. F.; Rul'Kovskii, A. V.


    Results obtained from a large set of investigations, search for, and perfection of the technology for starting 200-MW two-boiler single-turbine power units from different thermal states are presented. An algorithm for automated starting of the boiler shell from its hot state is given as an example.

  7. Analysis of 200 consecutive cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a single unit at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Zafar, M.R.; Rehman, S.; Khalid, T.; Afshan, G.


    Objective: To evaluate the results of the first 200 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies by a single consultant / unit at a tertiary care hospital. Design: Quasi-experimental Place and Duration of Study: PNS Shifa Karachi, Pakistan from Nov 2009 to Oct 2011 Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, a consultant surgeon performed his first 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) consecutively for symptomatic gallstones irrespective of status of gallbladder. During this period, 12 open cholecystectomies were carried out and patients with choledocholithiasis were excluded from study. Data including sex, age, indications for LC, conversion to open cholecystectomy, reasons for conversion, co-morbidity, types of complication, length of hospital stay and 30-day mortality was recorded. Result: There were 200 patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Female to male ratio was 5.9:1. The mean age was 44.28+-13.38 years. Out of 200 patients 69% patients had chronic cholecystitis / biliary colic, 26.5% patients were with acute cholecystitis and 4.5% patients had diagnosis of empyema gallbladder. The mean operative time was 38.77 +- 13.73 min. Mean hospital stay was 1.2 days (range 1-6 days). Conversion rate to open surgery was 1.5%. Complications included cystic duct leakage in 0.5% patient, intraoperative bleeding in 1% patients, postoperative bleeding in 1% patients, sub hepatic biloma in 0.5% patient, port site infection in 3.5% patients, umbilical hernia in 0.5% patient and one patient presented with keloid at the umbilical port. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a reliable and safe treatment modality for symptomatic gallstones. Both rate of conversion and complications are reduced with growing experience of surgeon in laparoscopic technique. (author)

  8. Single motor unit firing behaviour in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eSøgaard


    Full Text Available Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause myalgia. The activity may be attention related or part of a general multijoint motor program providing stabilization of the shoulder girdle for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsi or contralateral index finger. Modulated firing rate would support a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support attention related activation. 12 healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC were performed with right and left index finger on a computer mouse instrumented with a trigger.Surface EMG was recorded from right and left trapezius muscle. Intramuscular EMG was recorded with a quadripolar wire electrode in the right trapezius.Surface EMG was analysed as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG was decomposed into individual MU action potential trains. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR was calculated from inter-spike interval with ISI shorter than 20 ms defined as doublets. IFR was averaged across 10 DC to show IFR modulation.Surface EMG in both right and left trapezius was 1.8-2.5%MVE. During right hand DC a total of 32 MUs were identified. Four subjects showed no activity. Four showed MU activity with weak or no variations related to the timing of DC. Four subjects showed large modulation in IFR with temporal relation to DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in 4 subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations related to DC. Doublets was found as an integrated part of MU activation in the trapezius muscle and for one subject temporarily related to DC. In conclusion, DC with ipsi- and contralateral fast movements of the index finger was found to evoke biomechanically as well as attention related activity pattern in the

  9. Tm3+-doped barium gallo-germanate glass single-mode fiber with high gain per unit length for ultracompact 1.95 µm laser (United States)

    Tang, Guowu; Wen, Xin; Huang, Kaimin; Qian, Guoquan; Lin, Wei; Cheng, Huihui; Jiang, Licheng; Qian, Qi; Yang, Zhongmin


    Heavily Tm3+-doped barium gallo-germanate glass single-mode (SM) fibers were successfully drawn. A gain per unit length of 3.6 dB/cm at 1.95 µm was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest gain per unit length reported for Tm3+-doped germanate glass SM fibers. A single-frequency fiber laser operating at 1.95 µm has been built using a 1.5-cm-long active fiber pumped by a 1568 nm fiber laser. The direct output power from the ultracompact laser cavity is 227 mW. The results show that the fibers are highly promising for high-power and ultracompact single-frequency laser applications.

  10. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married). (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  11. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao


    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  12. Understanding phengite argon closure using single grain fusion age distributions in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Brouwer, Fraukje; ter Voorde, Marlies; Wijbrans, Jan


    The preservation of 40Ar/39Ar ages of high pressure (HP) metamorphic white mica reflects an interplay of processes that mobilise 40Ar, either through mica recrystallisation or by diffusive 40Ar loss. The applicability of resulting ages for dating tectonic processes is critically dependent on whether either of these processes can be proven to be efficient and exclusively active in removing 40Ar from mica. If not, preservation of an inherited or mixed age signal in a sample must be considered for interpretation. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros has become a new focal area in the discussion of the geological significance of argon age results from multi-grain step heating experiments. While some argue that age results can directly be linked to deformation or metamorphic growth events, others interpret age results to reflect the interplay of protracted recrystallisation and partial resetting, preserving a mixed age signal. Here, we demonstrate the potential of a new approach of multiple single grain fusion dating. Using the distribution of ages at the sample, section and regional scale, we show that in Northern Syros mica ages display systematic trends that can be understood as the result of three competing processes: 1) crystallisation along the prograde to peak metamorphic path, 2) a southward trend of increasing 40Ar loss by diffusion and 3) localised and rock type dependent deformation or metamorphic reactions leading to an observed age spread typically limited to ∼10 Myr at the section scale. None of the sections yielded the anomalously old age results that would be diagnostic for significant excess 40Ar. The recorded trends in ages for each of the studied sections reflect a range of P-T conditions and duration of metamorphism. Diffusion modelling shows that in a typical subduction metamorphic loop, subtle variations in P-T-t history can explain that age contrasts occur on a regional scale but are limited on the outcrop scale. Our new approach provides a

  13. Single motor unit firing rate after stroke is higher on the less-affected side during stable low-level voluntary contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Mcnulty


    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is the most common outcome after stroke and a leading cause of adult-acquired motor disability. Single motor unit properties provide insight into the mechanisms of post-stroke motor impairment. Motor units on the more-affected side are reported to have lower peak firing rates, reduced discharge variability and a more compressed dynamic range than healthy subjects. The activity of 169 motor units was discriminated from surface EMG in 28 stroke patients during sustained voluntary contractions 10% of maximal and compared to 110 units recorded from 16 healthy subjects. Motor units were recorded in three series: ankle dorsiflexion, wrist flexion and elbow flexion. Mean firing rates after stroke were significantly lower on the more-affected than the less-affected side (p< 0.001 with no between-side differences for controls. When data were combined, firing rates on the less-affected side were significantly higher than those either on the more-affected side or healthy subjects (p< 0.001. Motor unit mean firing rate was higher in the upper-limb than the lower-limb (p< 0.05. The coefficient of variation of motor unit discharge rate was lower for motor units after stroke compared to controls for wrist flexion (p< 0.05 but not ankle dorsiflexion. However, the dynamic range of motor units was compressed only for motor units on the more-affected side during wrist flexion. Our results show that the pathological change in motor unit firing rate occurs on the less-affected side after stroke and not the more-affected side as previously reported, and suggest that motor unit behavior recorded in a single muscle after stroke cannot be generalized to muscles acting on other joints even within the same limb. These data emphasize that the less-affected side does not provide a valid control for physiological studies on the more-affected side after stroke and that both sides should be compared to data from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects.

  14. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel


    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...

  15. Single Unit Recordings of Cells Responsive to Visual, Somatic, Acoustic, and Noxious Stimuli in the Superior Colliculus of the Golden Hamster. (United States)


    NUMBER 79-191T t; __ _ _ _ _ _ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Single Unit Recordings of Cells Responsive to Visul , Somatic...8217I:I . .A The information in this thesis has been published: J. Comp. Neur. 183:269-284, "Properties of Superior Colliculus Neurons in the Golden...axons from both eyes reach both sides of the central nervous system and provide binocular information to the 6 superior colliculus and, via the

  16. Differing effects of attention in single-units and populations are well predicted by heterogeneous tuning and the normalization model of attention. (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Pestilli, Franco; Gardner, Justin L


    Single-unit measurements have reported many different effects of attention on contrast-response (e.g., contrast-gain, response-gain, additive-offset dependent on visibility), while functional imaging measurements have more uniformly reported increases in response across all contrasts (additive-offset). The normalization model of attention elegantly predicts the diversity of effects of attention reported in single-units well-tuned to the stimulus, but what predictions does it make for more realistic populations of neurons with heterogeneous tuning? Are predictions in accordance with population-scale measurements? We used functional imaging data from humans to determine a realistic ratio of attention-field to stimulus-drive size (a key parameter for the model) and predicted effects of attention in a population of model neurons with heterogeneous tuning. We found that within the population, neurons well-tuned to the stimulus showed a response-gain effect, while less-well-tuned neurons showed a contrast-gain effect. Averaged across the population, these disparate effects of attention gave rise to additive-offsets in contrast-response, similar to reports in human functional imaging as well as population averages of single-units. Differences in predictions for single-units and populations were observed across a wide range of model parameters (ratios of attention-field to stimulus-drive size and the amount of baseline response modifiable by attention), offering an explanation for disparity in physiological reports. Thus, by accounting for heterogeneity in tuning of realistic neuronal populations, the normalization model of attention can not only predict responses of well-tuned neurons, but also the activity of large populations of neurons. More generally, computational models can unify physiological findings across different scales of measurement, and make links to behavior, but only if factors such as heterogeneous tuning within a population are properly accounted for.

  17. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)


    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  18. Acute Kidney Injury Treated with Dialysis outside the Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Observational Single-Center Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr

    Full Text Available The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention.We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015. Data on comorbid conditions, renal function and drug therapy prior to AKI-D, and possible causal events were collected. Patients were grouped into those with renal hypoperfusion as the predominant cause of AKI-D (hemodynamic group and those with other causes (non-hemodynamic group.During 66 months 128 patients (57% male, mean age 69.3 years were treated. AKI-D was community-acquired in 70.3%. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (62.5%, chronic kidney disease (CKD (58.9%, coronary artery disease (CAD (46.1%, diabetes (35.9% and heart failure (34.1%. Most patients were prescribed diuretics (61.7% and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASI (57.8%; 46.1% had a combination of both. In the 88 patients with hemodynamic AKI-D (68.8% the most frequent initiating events were diarrhea (39.8%, infections (17.0% and acute heart failure (13.6%. In the 40 patients with non-hemodynamic AKI-D (31.2% interstitial nephritis (n = 15 was the prominent diagnosis. Patients with hemodynamic AKI-D were older (72.6 vs. 62.1 years, p = 0.001, suffered more often from CKD (68.2% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003, CAD (54.5% vs. 27.5%, p = 0.004 and diabetes (42.0% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.033, and were more frequently on diuretics (75.0% vs. 32.5%, p<0.001, RASI (67.0% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.002 or their combination (58.0% vs. 20.0%, p<0.001. Twenty-two (17.2% patients died and 27 (21

  19. Do cost savings from reductions in nosocomial infections justify additional costs of single-bed rooms in intensive care units? A simulation case study. (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Niknejad, Bahar; Zadeh, Rana; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen


    Evidence shows that single-patient rooms can play an important role in preventing cross-transmission and reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICUs). This case study investigated whether cost savings from reductions in nosocomial infections justify the additional construction and operation costs of single-bed rooms in ICUs. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic return-on-investment analyses of converting the space occupied by open-bay rooms to single-bed rooms in an exemplary ICU. We used the findings of a study of an actual ICU in which the association between the locations of patients in single-bed vs open-bay rooms with infection risk was evaluated. Despite uncertainty in the estimates of costs, infection risks, and length of stay, the cost savings from the reduction of nosocomial infections in single-bed rooms in this case substantially outweighed additional construction and operation expenses. The mean value of internal rate of return over a 5-year analysis period was 56.18% (95% credible interval, 55.34%-57.02%). This case study shows that although single-patient rooms are more costly to build and operate, they can result in substantial savings compared with open-bay rooms by avoiding costs associated with nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bayesian framework for prediction of future number of failures from a single group of units in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Nader


    This paper considers prediction of unknown number of failures in a future inspection of a group of in-service units based on number of failures observed from an earlier inspection. We develop a flexible Bayesian model and calculate Bayesian estimator for this unknown number and other quantities of interest. The paper also includes an illustration of our method in an example about heat exchanger. A main advantage of our approach is in its nonparametric nature. By nonparametric here we simply mean that no assumption is required about the failure time distribution of a unit

  1. An Examination of Information Technology and Its Perceived Quality Issues in Single System Hospitals in the United States (United States)

    Byrd, Linda W.


    The safety and quality of healthcare is of great concern in the United States. The positive effects of information technology reported in past research, especially case studies, has encouraged expectations that information technology may increase the quality of healthcare while reducing costs of healthcare. The goals of this study was to examine…

  2. From Chicken Breath to the Killers Lake of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning (United States)

    Delorenzo, Ron


    By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.

  3. On Lagrange Multipliers of Trust-Region Subproblems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan


    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2008), s. 763-768 ISSN 0006-3835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large-scale optimization * trust-region methods * conjugate gradients * Krylov subspaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.902, year: 2008

  4. Target representation of naturalistic echolocation sequences in single unit responses from the inferior colliculus of big brown bats (United States)

    Sanderson, Mark I.; Simmons, James A.


    Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals whose duration, repetition rate, and sweep structure change systematically during interception of prey. When stimulated with a 2.5-s sequence of 54 FM pulse-echo pairs that mimic sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of pursuit, single neurons (N=116) in the bat's inferior colliculus (IC) register the occurrence of a pulse or echo with an average of <1 spike/sound. Individual IC neurons typically respond to only a segment of the search or approach stage of pursuit, with fewer neurons persisting to respond in the terminal stage. Composite peristimulus-time-histogram plots of responses assembled across the whole recorded population of IC neurons depict the delay of echoes and, hence, the existence and distance of the simulated biosonar target, entirely as on-response latencies distributed across time. Correlated changes in pulse duration, repetition rate, and pulse or echo amplitude do modulate the strength of responses (probability of the single spike actually occurring for each sound), but registration of the target itself remains confined exclusively to the latencies of single spikes across cells. Modeling of echo processing in FM biosonar should emphasize spike-time algorithms to explain the content of biosonar images.

  5. Clinical performance of Rochette bridges used as immediate provisional restorations for single unit implants in general practice. (United States)

    Banerji, S; Sethi, A; Dunne, S M; Millar, B J


    A retrospective clinical audit of the role and survival of 69 Rochette bridges used as immediate provisional restorations for single tooth, implant-retained crowns was carried out over the period between February 1991 and May 2001. In each case the extracted tooth was immediately temporised using a Rochette bridge with a single wing and pontic and cemented to the abutment tooth without any tooth preparation (Phase I). This bridge was removed at the time of implant placement and recemented (Phase II). At the implant exposure stage the bridge was removed and discarded. In Phase I, 15.9% of the bridges required recementation and 27.5% of the bridges required recementations in phase 2; 7.2% of the bridges required recementations in both phases. An 80% probability of survival was noted after an interval of 200 days for phase I and a 78% probability of survival over the same time interval was observed for Phase II. A significant debond rate was observed when the retainer was a canine in comparison to the other bridges in Phase I. In Phase I the spring cantilever debond rate was significantly higher than that observed on the other bridges. More debondings were observed in males (25.8%) compared with females (7.9%) in Phase I. More debondings were noted in the maxilla than in the mandible in Phase II. The performance characteristics of the metal acrylic Rochette bridge observed in this report supports the conclusion that this type of restoration is an effective means of immediate temporisation for patients undergoing single tooth implant retained restorations.

  6. Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Conversion Disorder Admitted to a Single Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit, A Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Bolger, Ashlee; Collins, Andrew; Michels, Michelle; Pruitt, David


    Conversion disorder (CD) can lead to impaired functioning. Few studies present demographic and outcome data for pediatric patients. Many have had success with rehabilitation; however, further details are not known. To identify characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient rehabilitation program with CD symptoms. Retrospective study. Inpatient rehabilitation unit within a large children's hospital. All patients with diagnosis of CD or functional gait disorder (FGD) during designated time period. Data were obtained from chart review and United Data Systems for Medical Rehabilitation. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze data. A P value of conversion disorder symptoms in the 12 months following discharge, and school reentry characteristics. 30 admissions were identified that met criteria. Before diagnosis, duration of symptoms was 58 ± 145 days, physician visits averaged 1.9 ± 2.1, hospital admissions to the same hospital averaged 0.7 ± 0.9, and absence from school was 6 ± 12 weeks. Overall, 83% exhibited mixed symptoms. Length of inpatient rehabilitation stay was 8.4 ± 4.2 days with WeeFIM score change of 30 ± 11.9 (P conversion disorder and leads to sustained functional improvement and return to school after discharge. ?? Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy: four-year experience of a single team in a General Surgery Unit. (United States)

    Scerrino, G; Paladino, N C; Di Paola, V; Morfino, G; Inviati, A; Amodio, E; Gulotta, G; Bonventre, S


    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a surgical technique that has showed increasingly good results, particularly in endocrine surgery centers. The aim of this prospective, non-randomized study was to evaluate feasibility, advantages and critical aspects of MIVAT in a general surgery unit. Two hundred twenty-four patients underwent total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease from May, 2008 to April, 2011. They were divided into two groups: one underwent conventional thyroidectomy (CT), and the other underwent MIVAT. The inclusion criteria were thyroid volume ≤35 mL and main nodule size ≤35 mm. For each patient, socio-demographic variables, hospitalization data and outcome measures (complication rate, operating time, post-operative pain, observer and patient scar assessment scale [OSAS and PSAS, respectively]) were collected. Multivariate regression analyses were done to assess the principal covariates affecting these outcome measures. There were 125 MIVATs and 99 CTs performed. The two groups were characterized by difference in age (38.4 vs. 50.9 years) and thyroid volume (18.6 vs. 23.3 mL). OSAS/PSAS scores were statistically significant in the MIVAT group (Pcosmetic results. It can be performed in younger patients and in all cases in which there is a clear indication for the procedure. Its advantages were confirmed in a general surgery unit where correct indications were followed.

  8. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  9. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  10. Algorithms for solving the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas


    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem is an important subproblem of the fixed-charge transportation problem. Just a few methods have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. In this paper, solution approaches based on dynamic programming and implicit enumeration...... are revisited. It is shown how the problem size as well as the search space of a recently published dynamic programming method can be reduced by exploiting reduced cost information. Additionally, a further implicit enumeration approach relying on solution concepts for the binary knapsack problem is introduced...

  11. Digital versus analog complete-arch impressions for single-unit premolar implant crowns: Operating time and patient preference. (United States)

    Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Henny J A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Cune, Marco S


    Digital impression-making techniques are supposedly more patient friendly and less time-consuming than analog techniques, but evidence is lacking to substantiate this assumption. The purpose of this in vivo within-subject comparison study was to examine patient perception and time consumption for 2 complete-arch impression-making methods: a digital and an analog technique. Fifty participants with a single missing premolar were included. Treatment consisted of implant therapy. Three months after implant placement, complete-arch digital (Cerec Omnicam; Sirona) and analog impressions (semi-individual tray, Impregum; 3M ESPE) were made, and the participant's opinion was evaluated with a standard questionnaire addressing several domains (inconvenience, shortness of breath, fear of repeating the impression, and feelings of helplessness during the procedure) with the visual analog scale. All participants were asked which procedure they preferred. Operating time was measured with a stopwatch. The differences between impressions made for maxillary and mandibular implants were also compared. The data were analyzed with paired and independent sample t tests, and effect sizes were calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in favor of the digital procedure regarding all subjective domains (Pdigital procedure to the analog procedure. The mean duration of digital impression making was 6 minutes and 39 seconds (SD=1:51) versus 12 minutes and 13 seconds (SD=1:24) for the analog impression (PDigital impression making for the restoration of a single implant crown takes less time than analog impression making. Furthermore, participants preferred the digital scan and reported less inconvenience, less shortness of breath, less fear of repeating the impression, and fewer feelings of helplessness during the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 in a Single Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Ok Jeong; Jung, Minyoung; Kim, Minji; Yang, Hae Kyoung; Cho, Joongbum


    To compare mortality rate, the adjustment of case-mix variables is needed. The Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) 3 score is a widely used case-mix adjustment system of a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), but there has been no validation study of it in Korea. We aim to validate the PIM3 in a Korean pediatric ICU, and extend the validation of the score from those aged 0-16 to 0-18 years, as patients aged 16-18 years are admitted to pediatric ICU in Korea. A retrospective cohort study of 1,710 patients was conducted in a tertiary pediatric ICU. To validate the score, the discriminatory power was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and calibration was evaluated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. The observed mortality rate was 8.47%, and the predicted mortality rate was 6.57%. For patients aged oncological subgroup was high (18.73%), as compared to the predicted mortality rate (7.13%), and the discrimination was unacceptable (c-index = 0.66). In conclusion, the PIM3 performed well in a Korean pediatric ICU. However, the application of the PIM3 to a hemato-oncological subgroup needs to be cautioned. Further studies on the performance of PIM3 in pediatric patients in adult ICUs and pediatric ICUs of primary and secondary hospitals are needed.

  13. Detection and identification of sources of very distant seismic events in Western United States using single array seismograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Falguni; Basu, T.K.; Arora, S.K.


    In search of a new source discriminant based on the characteristics of PP signal, a study has been made by special further processing of Gauribidanur array (GBA) seismograms of underground explosions at Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Southern Nevada and of tectonic earthquakes in five provinces in the Western United States (US), both class of events being situated in the far teleseismic distance range (120deg<Δ<131deg) where GBA lies in the core shadow zone with respect to the source region. This study aims to evolve aids of detection and identification of such distant and small seismic events using GBA data alone. Preliminary analysis of the processed short period signals from seventeen Western US earthquakes and twelve NTS explosions shows that, for a given body wave magnitude (Mb), the relative high frequency spectral content of core-refracted P waves as well as the ratio of PP to P energy for the earthquakes are in general more than those of the explosions. The PP discriminant and the third moment of frequency (TMF) along with the Mb:Ms criterion, wherever possible, seem to be promising as an effective means of identifying Western US events. It is demonstrated that by applying in tandem the above three identifiers to the set of twenty-nine known events in the magnitude range 4.8≤Mb≤5.9, all the events of Mb 4.9 and above could be identified unambiguously. (author). 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  14. Advantages and pitfalls of pocket ultrasound vs daily chest radiography in the coronary care unit: A single-user experience. (United States)

    Phillips, Colin T; Manning, Warren J


    Pocket ultrasonography may enhance patient diagnosis and care. We sought to assess pocket ultrasound in detecting common conditions in the coronary care unit (CCU) compared to portable daily chest radiography (CXR) and conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). An experienced pocket ultrasound user performed a pocket ultrasound examination for interstitial edema, pneumonia, central line seen in the right ventricle, pleural and pericardial effusions, left atrial enlargement, and cardiomegaly. Data were blindly compared to the radiologist CXR interpretation and cardiologist TTE interpretation. A total of 102 CXR and pocket ultrasound examinations were performed in 66 patients. The most common CXR indication was "interval change" (37%) and finding central line (65%). Pocket ultrasound demonstrated overall good concordance with CXR ranging from 77% for pleural effusion to 92% for pneumonia. Additionally, the pocket ultrasound examination appeared to anticipate resolution of pulmonary edema prior to the CXR. Compared to TTE, pocket ultrasound had excellent sensitivity for cardiac findings with values ranging from 85% for left atrial enlargement to 100% for cardiomegaly, but limited specificity of cardiomegaly at just 51%. In the CCU, bedside pocket ultrasound reliably diagnoses common conditions identified by CXR with the advantage of lack of ionizing radiation and the suggestion of detecting the resolution of pulmonary edema prior to CXR. Pitfalls include only modest concordance for pleural effusions and limited specificity for cardiomegaly. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine whether pocket ultrasound can reduce routine daily CXR in the CCU and other intensive care settings. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analysis of the distribution of stress and deformation in single implant-supported prosthetic units in implants of different diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salvatore MANNARINO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction When stress and strain levels in the bone-implant system exceed It's capacity, a mechanical fatigue occurs, resulting in collapse and loss of osseointegration. Objective Analyze biomechanical behavior in single implant-supported prosthesis with implants of different diameters in the posterior mandible. Material and method Three different finite element models of Cone-Morse implants with the same height were created, varying the diameter (3.3 mm, 4.1 mm and 4.8 mm. The mandibular first molar area was the location of the implant, with It´s component and overlying prosthetic crown. The jawbone was composed of cortical and cancellous bone. Refined mesh of 0.5 mm was created in the critical interfaces to be analyzed. The loading of the models was performed at the point of occlusal contact with an occlusal load of 400 N. Result Maximum stress and strain occurred in the cervical regions of the implants in all groups, either in the implants or in components as well as in the analysis of cortical bone. The greater the diameter, the lower the stress and strain found in the implant. The 3.3 mm group had the highest strain in peri-implant cortical bone, and the 4.1 mm group had the smallest deformation, significantly lower than in the 4.8 mm group. Conclusion Although the biggest implant diameter (4.8 mm appears to have lower values of stress and strain, the group of intermediate implant diameter (4.1 mm showed less deformation rate in the cortical peri-implant bone. Therefore it is concluded that the 4.1 mm implant platform presented a more biomechanically effective peri-implant bone maintenance.

  16. Anemia causes hypoglycemia in intensive care unit patients due to error in single-channel glucometers: methods of reducing patient risk. (United States)

    Pidcoke, Heather F; Wade, Charles E; Mann, Elizabeth A; Salinas, Jose; Cohee, Brian M; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E


    Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill reduces mortality but carries the risk of increased hypoglycemia. Point-of-care blood glucose analysis is standard; however, anemia causes falsely high values and potentially masks hypoglycemia. Permissive anemia is practiced routinely in most intensive care units. We hypothesized that point-of-care glucometer error due to anemia is prevalent, can be corrected mathematically, and correction uncovers occult hypoglycemia during intensive insulin therapy. The study has both retrospective and prospective phases. We reviewed data to verify the presence of systematic error, determine the source of error, and establish the prevalence of anemia. We confirmed our findings by reproducing the error in an in vitro model. Prospective data were used to develop a correction formula validated by the Monte Carlo method. Correction was implemented in a burn intensive care unit and results were evaluated after 9 mos. Burn and trauma intensive care units at a single research institution. Samples for in vitro studies were taken from healthy volunteers. Samples for formula development were from critically ill patients who received intensive insulin therapy. Insulin doses were calculated based on predicted serum glucose values from corrected point-of-care glucometer measurements. Time-matched point-of-care glucose, laboratory glucose, and hematocrit values. We previously found that anemia (hematocrit error in glucometer measurements. The error was correctible with a mathematical formula developed and validated, using prospectively collected data. Error of uncorrected point-of-care glucose ranged from 19% to 29% (p < .001), improving to < or = 5% after mathematical correction of prospective data. Comparison of data pairs before and after correction formula implementation demonstrated a 78% decrease in the prevalence of hypoglycemia in critically ill and anemic patients treated with insulin and tight glucose control (p < .001). A mathematical

  17. Impact of respiratory viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia in the intensive care unit: A single-center retrospective study. (United States)

    Loubet, Paul; Voiriot, Guillaume; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira; Neuville, Mathilde; Bouadma, Lila; Lescure, Francois-Xavier; Descamps, Diane; Timsit, Jean-François; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Visseaux, Benoit


    Data on the frequency and role of respiratory viruses (RVs) in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) are still scarce. We assessed the proportion of RVs and their impact on the outcome of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Cases of HAP were retrospectively selected among patients who underwent screening for RVs by multiplex PCR (mPCR) in the ICU of a French tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. ICU length of stay and in-hospital mortality were compared between four groups defined according to the identified pathogens: virus only (V), virus/bacteria (V/B), bacteria only (B) and no pathogen (Neg). When available, previous mPCR was retrieved in order to assess possible chronic viral carriage. Overall, 95/999 (10%) ICU patients who underwent mPCR had HAP (V(17,18%), V/B(13,14%), B(60,63%), Neg(5,5%)). Median age was 61 years and 45 (47%) were immunocompromised. Influenza (27%) and rhinovirus (27%) were the most common RVs. V/B group had higher mortality rate than B and V groups (62% vs. 40% and 35%, p=0.3) and a significantly longer length of stay (31days (18-48)) than V group (5days (3-11), p=0.0002)) and B group (14.5days (5.5-25.5), p=0.007)). Among the 15 patients with available mPCR tests before viral HAP, seven were negative and eight were positive corresponding to long-term carriage of community-acquired viruses. RVs were detected in 32% of HAP patients who underwent mPCR. Two situations were encountered: (i) acute acquired viral infection; (ii) long-term viral carriage (mostly rhinovirus) especially in immunocompromised patients complicated by a virus/bacteria coinfection. The latter was associated with a longer length of stay and a trend toward a higher mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluid balance and length of mechanical ventilation in children admitted to a single Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Vidal, Solange; Pérez, Augusto; Eulmesekian, Pablo


    Associations between cumulative fluid balance and a prolonged duration of assisted mechanical ventilation have been described in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fluid balance in the first 48 hours of assisted mechanical ventilation initiation was associated with a prolonged duration of this process among children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Retrospective cohort of patients in the PICU o, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, between 1/1/2010 and 6/30/2012. Balance was calculated in percentage of body weight; prolonged mechanical ventilation was defined as >7 days, and confounders were registered. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Two hundred and forty-nine patients were mechanically ventilated for over 48 hours; 163 were included in the study. Balance during the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation was 5.7% ± 5.86; 82 patients (50.3%) were on mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days. Age 〈 4 years old (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.38-7.48, p 0.007), respiratory disease (OR 4.94, 95% CI 1.51-16.10, p 0.008), septic shock (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.10-19.65, p 0.036), Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) 〉 10 (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.234.85, p 0.011), and positive balance 〉 13% (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.08-15.02, p 0.038) were associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. The multivariate model resulted in an OR 2.58, 95% CI: 1.17-5.58, p= 0.018 for PELOD 〉 10, and an OR 3.7, 95% CI: 0.91-14.94, p= 0.066 for positive balance 〉 13%. Regarding prolonged mechanical ventilation, the multivariate model showed an independent association with organ dysfunction (PELOD 〉 10) and a trend towards an association with positive balance 〉 13%. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis in the Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study of 102 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Min Peng

    Full Text Available Patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs are sometimes complicated with life-threatening conditions requiring intensive care unit (ICU admission. In the past, owing to the low incidence of IIM, little was known about such patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of these patients and identify their risk factors for mortality.A retrospective study was performed of IIM patients admitted over an 8-year period to the medical ICU of a tertiary referral center in China. We collected data regarding demographic features, IIM-related clinical characteristics, reasons for admission, organ dysfunction, and outcomes. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were identified through multivariate logistic regression analysis.Of the 102 patients in our cohort, polymyositis (PM, dermatomyositis (DM, and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM accounted for 23.5%, 64.7%, and 11.7% respectively. The median duration from the onset of IIM to ICU admission was 4.3 months (interquartile range [IQR], 2.6-9.4 months. Reasons for ICU admission were infection alone (39.2%, acute exacerbation of IIM alone (27.5%, the coexistence of both (27.5%, or other reasons (5.8%. Pneumonia accounted for 97% of the infections; 63.2% of infections with documented pathogens were caused by opportunistic agents. Rapid progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD was responsible for 87.5% of acute exacerbation of IIM. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score on ICU day 1 was 17 (IQR 14-20. On ICU admission, acute respiratory failure (ARF was the most common type (80.4% of organ failure. The mortality rate in the ICU was 79.4%. Factors associated with increased ICU mortality included a diagnosis of DM (including CADM, a high APACHE II score, the presence of ARF, a decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and a low lymphocyte count at the time of ICU admission.The outcome of IIM patients admitted to the ICU was extremely

  20. Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis in the Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study of 102 Patients. (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Min; Du, Bin; Wang, Qian; Weng, Li; Hu, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Chan-Yuan; Shi, Yan


    Patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are sometimes complicated with life-threatening conditions requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In the past, owing to the low incidence of IIM, little was known about such patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of these patients and identify their risk factors for mortality. A retrospective study was performed of IIM patients admitted over an 8-year period to the medical ICU of a tertiary referral center in China. We collected data regarding demographic features, IIM-related clinical characteristics, reasons for admission, organ dysfunction, and outcomes. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were identified through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 102 patients in our cohort, polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) accounted for 23.5%, 64.7%, and 11.7% respectively. The median duration from the onset of IIM to ICU admission was 4.3 months (interquartile range [IQR], 2.6-9.4 months). Reasons for ICU admission were infection alone (39.2%), acute exacerbation of IIM alone (27.5%), the coexistence of both (27.5%), or other reasons (5.8%). Pneumonia accounted for 97% of the infections; 63.2% of infections with documented pathogens were caused by opportunistic agents. Rapid progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was responsible for 87.5% of acute exacerbation of IIM. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score on ICU day 1 was 17 (IQR 14-20). On ICU admission, acute respiratory failure (ARF) was the most common type (80.4%) of organ failure. The mortality rate in the ICU was 79.4%. Factors associated with increased ICU mortality included a diagnosis of DM (including CADM), a high APACHE II score, the presence of ARF, a decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and a low lymphocyte count at the time of ICU admission. The outcome of IIM patients admitted to the ICU was extremely

  1. Traditional open-bay versus single-family room neonatal intensive care unit: a comparison of selected nutrition outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Erickson


    Full Text Available Christina Erickson1, Kendra Kattelmann1, Jessica Remington1, Cuirong Ren2, Carol C Helseth3, Dennis C Stevens31Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, 2Department of Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, SD, USABackground: In contrast to the traditional open-bay–type design of the neonatal intensive care unit (tNICU, infants in developmentally appropriate NICU (dNICU are housed in individual rooms with greater control of light and noise. Previous reports have documented positive influence of the dNICU in cardiorespiratory status, physiologic stability, and weight gain of the infants. The objective of this study was to explore selected nutrition outcomes of infants in the dNICU versus tNICU.Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted on infants with birth weight of 1500 g or less cared for in dNICU (n = 42 or tNICU (n = 31. Differences between days to reach full parenteral nutrition, full enteral nutrition, or full bottling were determined using analysis of covariance controlling for gestational age, birth weight, and clinical risk index for babies (CRIB acuity score.Results: There were no differences between the two groups in days to reach full parenteral and bottle feeding. The infants in the dNICU took fewer days to reach full enteral nutrition (20.8 days, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 17, 24.6 (dNICU vs 23.3 days, 95% CI: 17.1, 29.6 (tNICU, P = 0.04 than those in the tNICU.Conclusions: Although the two groups of infants only differed in the days to reach full enteral feeding, it is important to remember that the lack of difference may be clinically significant. Clinically, the infants in the dNICU were younger (gestational age and sicker (CRIB acuity score than the infants in the tNICU. Consequently, the results of this study support the change to dNICU, as the private room model provides a supportive environment for growth as evidenced by similar

  2. A decomposition method for network-constrained unit commitment with AC power flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhong, Haiwang; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Xie, Le


    To meet the increasingly high requirement of smart grid operations, considering AC power flow constraints in the NCUC (network-constrained unit commitment) is of great significance in terms of both security and economy. This paper proposes a decomposition method to solve NCUC with AC power flow constraints. With conic approximations of the AC power flow equations, the master problem is formulated as a MISOCP (mixed integer second-order cone programming) model. The key advantage of this model is that the active power and reactive power are co-optimised, and the transmission losses are considered. With the AC optimal power flow model, the AC feasibility of the UC result of the master problem is checked in subproblems. If infeasibility is detected, feedback constraints are generated based on the sensitivity of bus voltages to a change in the unit reactive power generation. They are then introduced into the master problem in the next iteration until all AC violations are eliminated. A 6-bus system, a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system are used to validate the performance of the proposed method, which provides a satisfactory solution with approximately 44-fold greater computational efficiency. - Highlights: • A decomposition method is proposed to solve the NCUC with AC power flow constraints • The master problem considers active power, reactive power and transmission losses. • OPF-based subproblems check the AC feasibility using parallel computing techniques. • An effective feedback constraint interacts between the master problem and subproblem. • Computational efficiency is significantly improved with satisfactory accuracy

  3. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  4. Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Injury to Corn Containing Single and Pyramided Bt Traits, and Blended or Block Refuge, in the Southern United States. (United States)

    Reisig, D D; Akin, D S; All, J N; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D; Flanders, K L; Huang, F-N; Johnson, D W; Leonard, B R; Mcleod, P J; Porter, R P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Tindall, K V; Stewart, S D; Troxclair, N N; Youngman, R R; Rice, M E


    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); and lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are lepidopteran pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing the insecticidal protein derivative from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has recently been approved as an alternative resistance management strategy in the northern United States. We conducted a two-year study with 39 experiments across 12 states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from these five species of Lepidoptera to corn expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ab, as both single and pyramided traits, a pyramid of Cry1Ab×Vip3Aa20, and a pyramid of Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt in a blended refuge. Leaf injury and kernel damage from corn earworm and fall armyworm, and stalking tunneling by southwestern corn borer, were similar in Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants compared with the Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt blended refuge averaged across five-plant clusters. When measured on an individual plant basis, leaf injury, kernel damage, stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer), and dead or injured plants (lesser cornstalk borer) were greater in the blended non-Bt refuge plants compared to Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment. When non-Bt blended refuge plants were compared to a structured refuge of non-Bt plants, no significant difference was detected in leaf injury, kernel damage, or stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer). Plant stands in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment had more stalk tunneling from sugarcane borer and plant death from lesser cornstalk borer compared to a pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab structured refuge

  5. Evaluation of a one-piece ceramic implant used for single-tooth replacement and three-unit fixed partial dentures: a prospective cohort clinical trial. (United States)

    Jung, Ronald E; Grohmann, Philipp; Sailer, Irena; Steinhart, Yann-Niclas; Fehér, Aurel; Hämmerle, Christoph; Strub, Jörg Rudolf; Kohal, Ralf


    The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of a one-piece zirconia oral implant after 1 year of function. Two centers included 60 subjects in need of implant-supported single-tooth restorations or three-unit bridges. A total of 71 zirconia one-piece implants were placed and immediately restored with a temporary reconstruction for at least 2 months. The final veneered zirconia restorations were then cemented and followed for 6 months and 1 year after insertion of the restorations. At each visit, a clinical evaluation was performed to analyze biological parameters of the implants and the neighboring teeth. A standardized periapical radiograph was taken at implant insertion, at the placement of the restorations and at the 1-year follow-up. Sixty patients with 71 implants (48 in the mandible, 23 in the maxilla) were included in this study and provided with 11 bridges and 49 crowns. Two patients with three implants (one bridge and one single crown) could not be evaluated. One patient lost his implant 5 weeks after implant insertion. Based on 58 patients, the mean survival rate was 98.3% after one year when the implants of the two patients that did not show up were not counted as lost. The mean marginal bone loss from implant insertion to the 1-year follow-up after the final prosthetic restoration was 0.78 mm with a standard deviation of 0.79 mm. The probing depth around the implants increased from 2.7 mm at insertion of the prosthetic reconstruction to 3.5 mm one year after insertion. The probing depth around the adjacent teeth remained stable at 2.5 mm. At the 1-year recall, the difference was significant. The clinical attachment levels at implants and teeth were not different at the 1-year follow-up with 3.1 mm at tooth and implant sites. The presently tested one-piece ceramic implant was successful in replacing single tooth and three-unit gaps after one year of function. Further long-term data are necessary to verify these

  6. A Solution Method for Security Constrained Unit Commitment by Lagrangian Decomposition (United States)

    Mitani, Takashi; Nara, Koichi; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Honma, Hitoshi

    Recently, deregulation of electric power industry became popular in world wide. In Japan, under partially de-regulated power industry, transmission system is operated by a power company. Although operator of the transmission system tries to determine permissions to connect generators owned by IPPs (Independent Power Producer) and PPSs (Power Producer and Supplier) through considering power congestions for typical power flow conditions, operators inevitably face the congestions of the power system when some generators are in fault conditions. In such a case, operators must resolve the congestions re-scheduling generators owned by their own companies and those owned by IPPs and PPSs. This problem can be solved though a Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC). This paper proposes a new solution algorithm for SCUC by using the Lagrangean decomposition. The method decomposes the SCUC problem into two sub-problems. One sub-problem is a decision problem which determines an operational power flow or generation schedules in which security constraints are taken into account. The other is the unit commitment problem with minimum up/down time constraints for all the units. Several numerical examples are shown to demonstrate the algorithm.

  7. Three-year analysis of zirconia implants used for single-tooth replacement and three-unit fixed dental prostheses: A prospective multicenter study. (United States)

    Balmer, Marc; Spies, Benedikt C; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E


    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the outcome of zirconia oral implants after 3 years in function. In 60 patients in need of either a single-tooth replacement or a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), a total of 71 one-piece zirconia implants were placed and immediately restored with temporary fixed prostheses. After a period of at least 2 months in the mandible and at least 4 months in the maxilla, zirconia-based reconstructions were cemented. The implants were clinically and radiologically examined at implant insertion, prosthetic delivery, at 6 months and then yearly up to 3 years. A linear mixed model was used to analyze statistically the influence of prognostic factors on changes in the marginal bone level. Seventy-one implants (48 in the mandible, 23 in the maxilla) inserted in 60 patients were restored with 49 crowns and 11 FDP. One patient lost his implant after 5 weeks. Five patients with one implant each could not be evaluated after 3 years. Based on 55 patients with a total of 66 implants, the mean survival rate was 98.5% after 3 years in function. A statistically significant mean marginal bone loss (0.70 mm ± 0.72 mm) has been detected from implant insertion to the 3-year follow-up. The largest marginal bone loss occurred between implantation and prosthetic delivery (0.67 mm ± 0.56 mm). After delivery, no statistically significant bone level change was observed (0.02 mm ± 0.59 mm). None of the investigated prognostic factors had a significant influence on changes in the marginal bone level. After 3 years in function, the investigated one-piece zirconia implant showed a high survival rate and a low marginal bone loss. The implant system was successful for single-tooth replacement and three-unit FDPs. Further investigations with long-term data are needed to confirm these findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reassessment of Non-Monosynaptic Excitation from the Motor Cortex to Motoneurons in Single Motor Units of the Human Biceps Brachii (United States)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Tazoe, Toshiki; Sakamoto, Masanori; Endoh, Takashi; Shibuya, Satoshi; Elias, Leonardo A.; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A.; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ohki, Yukari


    Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side. During tasks involving weak co-contraction of the BB and hand muscles, all stimulation methods activated MUs with short latencies. Peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) showed that responses with similar durations were induced by TES (1.9 ± 1.4 ms) and CMS (2.0 ± 1.4 ms), and these responses often showed multiple peaks with the PSTH peak having a long duration (65.3% and 44.9%, respectively). Such long-duration excitatory responses with multiple peaks were rarely observed in the finger muscles following TES or in the BB following stimulation of the Ia fibers. The responses obtained with TES were compared in the same 14 BB MUs during the co-contraction and isolated BB contraction tasks. Eleven and three units, respectively, exhibited activation with multiple peaks during the two tasks. In order to determine the dispersion effects on the axon conduction velocities (CVs) and synaptic noise, a simulation study that was comparable to the TES experiments was performed with a biologically plausible neuromuscular model. When the model included the monosynaptic-pyramidal tract, multiple peaks were obtained in about 34.5% of the motoneurons (MNs). The experimental and simulation results indicated the existence of task-dependent disparate inputs from the pyramidal tract to the MNs of the upper limb. These results suggested that intercalated interneurons are present in the spinal cord and

  9. Reassessment of Non-Monosynaptic Excitation from the Motor Cortex to Motoneurons in Single Motor Units of the Human Biceps Brachii. (United States)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Tazoe, Toshiki; Sakamoto, Masanori; Endoh, Takashi; Shibuya, Satoshi; Elias, Leonardo A; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ohki, Yukari


    Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side. During tasks involving weak co-contraction of the BB and hand muscles, all stimulation methods activated MUs with short latencies. Peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) showed that responses with similar durations were induced by TES (1.9 ± 1.4 ms) and CMS (2.0 ± 1.4 ms), and these responses often showed multiple peaks with the PSTH peak having a long duration (65.3% and 44.9%, respectively). Such long-duration excitatory responses with multiple peaks were rarely observed in the finger muscles following TES or in the BB following stimulation of the Ia fibers. The responses obtained with TES were compared in the same 14 BB MUs during the co-contraction and isolated BB contraction tasks. Eleven and three units, respectively, exhibited activation with multiple peaks during the two tasks. In order to determine the dispersion effects on the axon conduction velocities (CVs) and synaptic noise, a simulation study that was comparable to the TES experiments was performed with a biologically plausible neuromuscular model. When the model included the monosynaptic-pyramidal tract, multiple peaks were obtained in about 34.5% of the motoneurons (MNs). The experimental and simulation results indicated the existence of task-dependent disparate inputs from the pyramidal tract to the MNs of the upper limb. These results suggested that intercalated interneurons are present in the spinal cord and

  10. Linear program differentiation for single-channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearlmutter, Barak A.; Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard


    Many apparently difficult problems can be solved by reduction to linear programming. Such problems are often subproblems within larger systems. When gradient optimisation of the entire larger system is desired, it is necessary to propagate gradients through the internally-invoked LP solver....... For instance, when an intermediate quantity z is the solution to a linear program involving constraint matrix A, a vector of sensitivities dE/dz will induce sensitivities dE/dA. Here we show how these can be efficiently calculated, when they exist. This allows algorithmic differentiation to be applied...... to algorithms that invoke linear programming solvers as subroutines, as is common when using sparse representations in signal processing. Here we apply it to gradient optimisation of over complete dictionaries for maximally sparse representations of a speech corpus. The dictionaries are employed in a single...

  11. Sequential introduction of single room isolation and hand hygiene campaign in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care unit. (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Chan, W M; Lau, Eric H Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Li, Iris W S; Ho, P L; Yuen, K Y


    After renovation of the adult intensive care unit (ICU) with installation of ten single rooms, an enhanced infection control program was conducted to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our hospital. Since the ICU renovation, all patients colonized or infected with MRSA were nursed in single rooms with contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA infection in the ICU was monitored during 3 different phases: the baseline period (phase 1); after ICU renovation (phase 2) and after implementation of a hand hygiene campaign with alcohol-based hand rub (phase 3). Patients infected with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species were chosen as controls because they were managed in open cubicles with standard precautions. Without a major change in bed occupancy rate, nursing workforce, or the protocol of environmental cleansing throughout the study period, a stepwise reduction in ICU onset nonbacteraemic MRSA infection was observed: from 3.54 (phase 1) to 2.26 (phase 2, p = 0.042) and 1.02 (phase 3, p = 0.006) per 1000-patient-days. ICU onset bacteraemic MRSA infection was significantly reduced from 1.94 (phase 1) to 0.9 (phase 2, p = 0.005) and 0.28 (phase 3, p = 0.021) per 1000-patient-days. Infection due to ESBL-producing organisms did not show a corresponding reduction. The usage density of broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluoroquinolones increased from phase 1 to 3. However a significant trend improvement of ICU onset MRSA infection by segmented regression analysis can only be demonstrated when comparison was made before and after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. This suggests that the deaths of fellow healthcare workers from an occupational acquired infection had an overwhelming effect on their compliance with infection control measures. Provision of single room isolation facilities and promotion of hand hygiene practice are important. However compliance with

  12. Implementation of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology in a single-center hemodialysis unit: comparing paper vs electronic records. (United States)

    Rossi, Megan; Campbell, Katrina Louise; Ferguson, Maree


    There is little doubt surrounding the benefits of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) to dietetics practice; however, evidence to support the most efficient method of incorporating these into practice is lacking. The main objective of our study was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of an electronic and a manual paper-based system for capturing the Nutrition Care Process and IDNT in a single in-center hemodialysis unit. A cohort of 56 adult patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were followed for 12 months. During the first 6 months, patients received the usual standard care, with documentation via a manual paper-based system. During the following 6-month period (Months 7 to 12), nutrition care was documented by an electronic system. Workload efficiency, number of IDNT codes used related to nutrition-related diagnoses, interventions, monitoring and evaluation using IDNT, nutritional status using the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Tool of Quality of Life were the main outcome measures. Compared with paper-based documentation of nutrition care, our study demonstrated that an electronic system improved the efficiency of total time spent by the dietitian by 13 minutes per consultation. There were also a greater number of nutrition-related diagnoses resolved using the electronic system compared with the paper-based documentation (PDietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Meta-analysis of Magnetic Marker Monitoring Data to Characterize the Movement of Single Unit Dosage Forms Though the Gastrointestinal Tract Under Fed and Fasting Conditions. (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Weitschies, Werner; Karlsson, Mats O


    To develop a model predicting movement of non-disintegrating single unit dosage forms (or "tablet") through the gastrointestinal tract and characterizing the effect of food intake, based on Magnetic Marker Monitoring data, allowing real-time location of a magnetically labeled formulation. Five studies including 30 individuals in 94 occasions under 3 food status were considered. The mean residence time (MRT) of the tablet and the effect of food intake in proximal (PS) and distal stomach (DS), small intestine (SI), ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) were estimated using a Markov model for probabilities of movement. Under fasting conditions, tablet MRTs were 9.4 min in PS, 10.4 in DS, 246 in SI, 545 in AC, 135 in TC, and 286 in DC. A meal taken simultaneous to tablet intake prolonged tablet MRT to 99 min in PS and to 232 in DS; probability of gastric emptying increased of 89% each hour from 2.25 h after meal. The effect of a gastroileac reflex, caused by a secondary meal, accelerated the transit from terminal SI to AC. This model-based knowledge can be used as a part of mechanism-based models for drug absorption, applied for bottom-up predictions and/or top-down estimation.

  14. Atomic-scale measurement of structure and chemistry of a single-unit-cell layer of LaAlO3 embedded in SrTiO3. (United States)

    Jia, Chun-Lin; Barthel, Juri; Gunkel, Felix; Dittmann, Regina; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Houben, Lothar; Lentzen, Markus; Thust, Andreas


    A single layer of LaAlO3 with a nominal thickness of one unit cell, which is sandwiched between a SrTiO3 substrate and a SrTiO3 capping layer, is quantitatively investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. By the use of an aberration-corrected electron microscope and by employing sophisticated numerical image simulation procedures, significant progress is made in two aspects. First, the structural as well as the chemical features of the interface are determined simultaneously on an atomic scale from the same specimen area. Second, the evaluation of the structural and chemical data is carried out in a fully quantitative way on the basis of the absolute image contrast, which has not been achieved so far in materials science investigations using high-resolution electron microscopy. Considering the strong influence of even subtle structural details on the electronic properties of interfaces in oxide materials, a fully quantitative interface analysis, which makes positional data available with picometer precision together with the related chemical information, can contribute to a better understanding of the functionality of such interfaces.

  15. Secreted protein gene derived-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SP-SNPs) reveal population diversity and differentiation of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the United States. (United States)

    Xia, Chongjing; Wan, Anmin; Wang, Meinan; Jiwan, Derick A; See, Deven R; Chen, Xianming


    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a powerful molecular marker technique that has been widely used in population genetics and molecular mapping studies for various organisms. However, the technique has not been used for studying Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the wheat stripe rust pathogen. In this study, we developed over a hundred secreted protein gene-derived SNP (SP-SNP) markers and used 92 markers to study the population structure of Pst. From 352 isolates collected in the United States, we identified 242 multi-locus genotypes. The SP-SNP genotypes had a moderate, but significant correlation with the virulence phenotype data. Clustering of the multi-locus genotypes was consistent by various analyses, revealing distinct genetic groups. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant differences between the eastern and western US Pst populations. High heterozygosity was found in the US population with significant differences identified among epidemiological regions. Analysis of population differentiation revealed that populations between the eastern and western US were highly differentiated while moderate differentiation was found in populations within the western or eastern US. Isolates from the western US were more diverse than isolates from the eastern US. The information is useful for guiding the disease management in different epidemiological regions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the marginal fit of single-unit, complete-coverage ceramic restorations fabricated after digital and conventional impressions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Tsirogiannis, Panagiotis; Reissmann, Daniel R; Heydecke, Guido


    the marginal discrepancy of single-unit ceramic restorations fabricated after digital or conventional impressions. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Effects of the Single-Family Room Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on 18- to 24-Month Bayley Scores of Preterm Infants. (United States)

    Vohr, Betty; McGowan, Elisabeth; McKinley, Leslie; Tucker, Richard; Keszler, Lenore; Alksninis, Barbara


    To determine the effects of human milk and social/environmental disparities on developmental outcomes of infants born preterm cared for in a single-family room (SFR) neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Outcomes were compared between infants weighing ?1250 g cared for in an open-bay NICU (1/2007-8/2009) (n?=?394) and an SFR NICU (1/2010-12/2011) (n?=?297). Human milk provision at 1 week, 4 weeks and discharge, and 4 week volume (mL/kg/day) were analyzed. At 18-24 months of age, the Bayley III was administered. Group differences were evaluated and multiple linear regression analyses were run. Infants cared for in the SFR NICU had higher Bayley III cognitive and language scores, higher rates of human milk provision at 1 and 4 weeks, and higher human milk volume at 4 weeks. In adjusted regression models, the SFR NICU was associated with a 2.55-point increase in Bayley cognitive scores and 3.70-point increase in language scores. Every 10?mL/kg/day increase of human milk at 4 weeks was independently associated with increases in Bayley cognitive, language, and motor scores (0.29, 0.34, and 0.24, respectively). Medicaid was associated with decreased cognitive (?4.11) and language (?3.26) scores, and low maternal education and non-white race with decreased language scores (?4.7 and ?5.8, respectively). Separate models by insurance status suggest there are differential benefits from SFR NICU and human milk between infants with Medicaid and private insurance. Infants born preterm cared for in the SFR NICU have higher Bayley language and cognitive scores and receive more human milk. Independent effects on outcomes were derived from SFR NICU, provision of human milk, and social and environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Network-constrained AC unit commitment under uncertainty: A Benders' decomposition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasri, Amin; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Conejo, Antonio J.


    This paper proposes an efficient solution approach based on Benders’ decomposition to solve a network-constrained ac unit commitment problem under uncertainty. The wind power production is the only source of uncertainty considered in this paper, which is modeled through a suitable set of scenarios...... intractable, into a mixed-integer linear master problem and a set of nonlinear, but continuous subproblems, one per scenario. In addition, to temporally decompose the proposed ac unit commitment problem, a heuristic technique is used to relax the inter-temporal ramping constraints of the generating units....... Numerical results from a case study based on the IEEE one-area reliability test system (RTS) demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach...

  19. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L


    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance, a signifi......The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  20. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of the Adaptation of Single-Unit Screw-Retained Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture Abutments After Mechanical Cycling. (United States)

    Markarian, Roberto Adrian; Galles, Deborah Pedroso; Gomes França, Fabiana Mantovani

    To measure the microgap between dental implants and custom abutments fabricated using different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) methods before and after mechanical cycling. CAD software (Dental System, 3Shape) was used to design a custom abutment for a single-unit, screw-retained crown compatible with a 4.1-mm external hexagon dental implant. The resulting stereolithography file was sent for manufacturing using four CAD/CAM methods (n = 40): milling and sintering of zirconium dioxide (ZO group), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) sintered via selective laser melting (SLM group), fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy (MM group), and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder (AM group). Prefabricated titanium abutments (TI group) were used as controls. Each abutment was placed on a dental implant measuring 4.1× 11 mm (SA411, SIN) inserted into an aluminum block. Measurements were taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (×4,000) on four regions of the implant-abutment interface (IAI) and at a relative distance of 90 degrees from each other. The specimens were mechanically aged (1 million cycles, 2 Hz, 100 N, 37°C) and the IAI width was measured again using the same approach. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test. After mechanical cycling, the best adaptation results were obtained from the TI (2.29 ± 1.13 μm), AM (3.58 ± 1.80 μm), and MM (1.89 ± 0.98 μm) groups. A significantly worse adaptation outcome was observed for the SLM (18.40 ± 20.78 μm) and ZO (10.42 ± 0.80 μm) groups. Mechanical cycling had a marked effect only on the AM specimens, which significantly increased the microgap at the IAI. Custom abutments fabricated using fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder demonstrated the best adaptation results at the IAI, similar to those obtained with commercial prefabricated titanium abutments after mechanical cycling. The

  1. The association between intensive care unit-acquired hypernatraemia and mortality in critically ill patients with cerebrovascular diseases: a single-centre cohort study in Japan. (United States)

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Fujita, Yoshiro; Nomura, Rie; Watanabe, Kenshi; Maekawa, Michitaka; Yamakawa, Taishi; Katsuno, Takayuki; Maruyama, Shoichi


    Hypernatraemia is one of the major electrolyte disorders associated with mortality among critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). It is unclear whether this applies to patients with cerebrovascular diseases in whom high sodium concentrations may be allowed in order to prevent cerebral oedema. This study aimed to examine the association between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and the prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A retrospective cohort study. The incidence of ICU-acquired hypernatraemia was assessed retrospectively in a single tertiary care facility in Japan. Adult patients (≥18 years old) whose length of stay in ICU was >2 days and those whose serum sodium concentrations were 130-149 mEq/L on admission to ICU were included. 28-day in-hospital mortality risk was assessed by Cox regression analysis. Hypernatraemia was defined as serum sodium concentration ≥150 mEq/L. Using multivariate analysis, we examined whether ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and the main symptom present at ICU admission were associated with time to death among ICU patients. We also evaluated how the maximum and minimum sodium concentrations during ICU stay were associated with mortality, using restricted cubic splines. Of 1756 patients, 121 developed ICU-acquired hypernatraemia. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed an association between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and 28-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.07 (95% CI 2.12 to 4.44)). The interaction between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with 28-day mortality (HR, 3.03 (95% CI 1.29 to 7.15)). The restricted cubic splines analysis of maximum serum sodium concentration in ICU patients determined a threshold maximum of 147 mEq/L. There was no significant association between minimum sodium concentration and mortality. ICU-acquired hypernatraemia was associated with an increased mortality rate among critically ill patients with cerebrovascular

  2. Neuromuscular organization of avian flight muscle: architecture of single muscle fibres in muscle units of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeon (Columba livia) (United States)

    Sokoloff, A. J.


    The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.

  3. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L


    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  4. United States housing, 2012 (United States)

    Delton Alderman


    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  5. Current predictive models do not accurately differentiate between single and multi gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism: a retrospective cohort study of two endocrine surgery units. (United States)

    Edafe, O; Collins, E E; Ubhi, C S; Balasubramanian, S P


    Background Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) for primary hyperparathyroidism is dependent upon accurate prediction of single-gland disease on the basis of preoperative imaging and biochemistry. The aims of this study were to validate currently available predictive models of single-gland disease in two UK cohorts and to determine if these models can facilitate MIP. Methods This is a retrospectively cohort study of 624 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in two centres between July 2008 and December 2013. Two recognised models: CaPTHUS (preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone, ultrasound, sestamibi, concordance imaging) and Wisconsin Index (preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone) were validated for their ability to predict single-gland disease. Results The rates of single- and multi-gland disease were 491 (79.6%) and 126 (20.2%), respectively. Cure rates in centres 1 and 2 were 93.2% and 93.8%, respectively (P = 0.789). The positive predictive value (PPV) of CaPTHUS score . 3 in predicting single-gland disease was 84.6%, compared with 100% in the original report. CaPTHUS . 4 and 5 had a PPV of 85.1 and 87.1, respectively. There were no differences in Wisconsin Index (WIN) between patients with single- and multi-gland (P = 0.573). A WIN greater than 1600 and weight of excised gland greater than 1 g had a positive predictive value of 86.7% for single-gland disease. Conclusions The use of CaPTHUS and WIN indices without intraoperative adjuncts (such as IOPTH) had the potential to result in failure to cure in up to 15% (CaPTHUS) and 13% (WIN) of patients treated by MIP targeting a single enlarged gland.

  6. Duality-Free Decomposition Based Data-Driven Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Yang, Qingrun; Liu, Xiyuan


    for wind power outputs and then it optimizes the unit commitment under the worst-case probability distribution. However, this model suffers from huge computational burden, as a large number of scenarios are considered. To tackle this issue, a duality-free decomposition method is proposed in this paper......To incorporate the superiority of both stochastic and robust approaches, a data-driven stochastic optimization is employed to solve the security-constrained unit commitment model. This approach makes the most use of the historical data to generate a set of possible probability distributions...... be decomposed into independent sub-problems to be solved in parallel, which further improves the computational efficiency. A numerical study on an IEEE 118-bus system with practical data of a wind power system has demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposal....

  7. Trimethyloxonium modification of single batrachotoxin-activated sodium channels in planar bilayers. Changes in unit conductance and in block by saxitoxin and calcium (United States)

    Worley JF; French, RJ; Krueger, BK


    Single batrachotoxin-activated sodium channels from rat brain were modified by trimethyloxonium (TMO) after incorporation in planar lipid bilayers. TMO modification eliminated saxitoxin (STX) sensitivity, reduced the single channel conductance by 37%, and reduced calcium block of inward sodium currents. These effects always occurred concomitantly, in an all-or-none fashion. Calcium and STX protected sodium channels from TMO modification with potencies similar to their affinities for block. Calcium inhibited STX binding to rat brain membrane vesicles and relieved toxin block of channels in bilayers, apparently by competing with STX for the toxin binding site. These results suggest that toxins, permeant cations, and blocking cations can interact with a common site on the sodium channel near the extracellular surface. It is likely that permeant cations transiently bind to this superficial site, as the first of several steps in passing inward through the channel. PMID:2419487

  8. Investigation of a Spinel-forming Cu-Mn Foam as an Oxygen Electrode Contact Material in a Solid Oxide Cell Single Repeating Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Wulff, Anders Christian; Sun, Xiufu


    and steels. The consequence is a low layer and interface strength. A metallic copper manganese foam, which is oxidized under operation conditions into a conductive Cu1+xMn2–xO4 spinel, is presented in this work as a viable contact solution. The foam has been electrochemically tested in a single repeating...... and moderate degradation rates, the CuMn foam presented itself as an interesting cathode contact solution....

  9. An Up-to-15-Year Comparison of the Survival and Complication Burden of Three-Unit Tooth-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses and Implant-Supported Single Crowns. (United States)

    Walton, Terry R


    To assess and compare the outcomes and economic complication burden of three-unit tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (TFDPs) and implant-supported single crowns (ISCs) provided to a sequential cohort in a specialist prosthodontic practice over a 15-year period. Sequential patients requiring replacement of a single missing tooth between 1996 and 2010 with a metal-ceramic three-unit TFDP (n = 145 patients, n = 174 prostheses) or ISC (n = 174 patients, n = 220 prostheses) were included. Prostheses subjectively judged at insertion to have an unfavorable 10-year prognosis (17 TFDPs, 0 ISCs) were removed from statistical analyses. The estimated cumulative survival (ECS) was calculated with the life table actuarial method and standard errors calculated with the Greenwood formula. Differences in outcomes between all prostheses and those replacing only anterior or only posterior teeth were assessed with the log rank test. Complication incidence, severity, and economic burden, measured in time/cost accounting units (TAUs), were tallied and compared descriptively. The 15-year ECS did not differ for 112 TFDPs (92.75% ± 3.28%) and 81 ISCs (95.95% ± 2.92%) replacing posterior teeth. However, the 15-year ECS was significantly greater for 139 ISCs (93.33% ± 6.44%) than for 45 TFDPs (82.82% ± 6.50%) replacing anterior teeth. The economic burden of nonterminal complications for both prostheses was low (mean = 0.3 and 0.2 TAUs per prosthesis for TFDPs and ISCs, respectively). This equated to 3 TAUs/100 years in clinical service and 4 TAUs/100 years in clinical service for the TFDPs and ISCs, respectively. The survival of three-unit TFDPs and ISCs over 15 years was not statistically different when replacing posterior teeth, but ISCs survived significantly better when replacing anterior teeth. The complication rates of the TFDPs and ISCs were similar, but the economic burden for the TFDPs was greater.

  10. Single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery in the lower limbs with spastic cerebral palsy: Experience from a rehabilitation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam


    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery (Single Event Multiple Level Resections, SEMLR on deformities and locomotion in patients with cerebral palsy (CP with static contracture(s in lower limbs. Patients and Methods: Study included 34 patients (M:F, 23:11 with mean age of 9.53 ± 3.92 years (4-16 years. Among them 22 had diplegia and four each had quadriplegia and right and left hemiplegia. Fourteen patients (41.2% had their intelligence quotient (IQ in the normal range (IQ ≥ 80, while others had mental retardation (MR of varying severity: borderline MR (IQ = 70-79 in 12, mild MR (IQ = 50-69 in 5, and moderate MR (IQ = 35-49 in patients 3. All patients underwent surgery (total number of procedures 153, average 4.5 procedures/patient over a period of 30 months (April 2005 to September 2007. Improvement in functional abilities and locomotion was assessed using Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS scores and by physical examination. Results: Significant improvement in function was observed ( P = 0.000 after surgery when comparing the preoperative and postoperative GMFCS scores. All patients were maintaining ambulation at a mean follow-up duration of 13.12 ± 6.07 months (3-24 months, with five patients using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO, 22 using ankle-foot orthoses (AFO, and six patients using knee gaiters. Sixteen patients were using walker, and two were using crutches as assistive devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that CP patients with good trunk control and static contractures at multiple joints in the lower limbs can be made ambulant with single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery. It has to be a team effort of the surgeon and the rehabilitation team in the postoperative period for the attainment of satisfactory goal.

  11. Duquesne Light Company`s burner modification for NO{sub x} RACT compliance on a 200 MW single face fired pulverized coal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bionda, J.P. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gabrielson, J.E.; Hallo, A.


    This paper discusses the result of a research test program conducted on Duquesne Light Company`s Elrama Unit 4. The program was designed to determine the viability of achieving compliance with the recently enacted PA DER Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) regulations. These regulations stipulate presumptive RACT requirements for wall fired boilers which include the installations and operation of low NO{sub x} burners with separated overfire air. Duquesne Light Company contracted Energy Systems, Associates (ESA) to aide in the design and testing of a novel low NO{sub x} burner design and separated overfire air system. By modifying the coal burners, it has been possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions by 50% to 60% on Unit 4, with minimal impact to the unburned carbon in the ash. The burner modifications create fuel rich streams which are surrounded by air rich zones in the primary flame region, thus staging combustion at the burner. Additional NO{sub x} reductions are realized when the combustion is further staged by use of the separated overfire air system.

  12. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend


    on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C......The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping ofSalmonellaTennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States. (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A Mahdi


    In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S . Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S . Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. One seventy-six S . Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representative SNP markers were selected by comparing the sequences of three representative S . Tennessee strains with different multi-locus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeats from our collection. The set of eighty-four SNP markers showed 100% typeability for the 176 strains, with the nucleotide diversity ranging from 0.011 to 0.107 (mean = 0.049 ± 0.018, median = 0.044) for each marker. Among the four clades and nine subtypes generated by the SNP typing, subtype 1, which comprised 142 S . Tennessee strains, was the most predominant. The dominance of single-strain clones in subtype 1 revealed that S . Tennessee is highly clonal regardless of outbreak-association, source, or period of isolation, suggesting the presence of an S . Tennessee strain prototype. Notably, a minimum 18 SNP set was able to determine clonal S . Tennessee strains with similar discrimination power, potentially allowing more rapid and economic strain genotyping for both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak.

  14. The Effect of Music Therapy Entrainment on Physiologic Measures of Infants in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Single Case Withdrawal Pilot Study. (United States)

    Yurkovich, Jennifer; Burns, Debra S; Harrison, Tondi


    Although evidence suggests music therapy lowers the heart rate of ill adults undergoing painful procedures and premature infants in the NICU, the effect of music therapy interventions on physiologic response in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) being cared for in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the music therapy entrainment on physiologic responses of infants with CHD in the CICU. Five infants in the CICU received music therapy entrainment 3-5 times per week for up to 3 weeks. Sessions took place both prior to and after the infant's surgical cardiac repair. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturations were recorded every 15 seconds for 20 minutes prior to the intervention (baseline), during the 20-minute music therapy entrainment (intervention), and for 20 minutes after the intervention (return to baseline). Comparisons of baseline to intervention measures were based on means, standard deviations, and derivatives of the signal. Four of 5 infants experienced a decrease in average heart and respiratory rates as well as improvement in the derivative of the heart rate signal. Greater improvements were found when infants were located in the open bay and were receiving sedatives or narcotics. Our findings provide initial evidence that music therapy entrainment may be a valuable intervention to support improved physiologic stability in infants with CHD.

  15. Color tuning in alert macaque V1 assessed with fMRI and single-unit recording shows a bias toward daylight colors. (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Liu, Yang O; Lafer-Sousa, Luis; Wiest, Michael C; Conway, Bevil R


    Colors defined by the two intermediate directions in color space, "orange-cyan" and "lime-magenta," elicit the same spatiotemporal average response from the two cardinal chromatic channels in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). While we found LGN functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to these pairs of colors were statistically indistinguishable, primary visual cortex (V1) fMRI responses were stronger to orange-cyan. Moreover, linear combinations of single-cell responses to cone-isolating stimuli of V1 cone-opponent cells also yielded stronger predicted responses to orange-cyan over lime-magenta, suggesting these neurons underlie the fMRI result. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that V1 recombines LGN signals into "higher-order" mechanisms tuned to noncardinal color directions. In light of work showing that natural images and daylight samples are biased toward orange-cyan, our findings further suggest that V1 is adapted to daylight. V1, especially double-opponent cells, may function to extract spatial information from color boundaries correlated with scene-structure cues, such as shadows lit by ambient blue sky juxtaposed with surfaces reflecting sunshine. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. Impact of one-to-one tutoring on fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) passing rate in a single center experience outside the United States: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Gheza, Federico; Raimondi, Paolo; Solaini, Leonardo; Coccolini, Federico; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Portolani, Nazario; Tiberio, Guido Alberto Massimo


    Outside the US, FLS certification is not required and its teaching methods are not well standardized. Even if the FLS was designed as "stand alone" training system, most of Academic Institution offer support to residents during training. We present the first systematic application of FLS in Italy. Our aim was to evaluate the role of mentoring/coaching on FLS training in terms of the passing rate and global performance in the search for resource optimization. Sixty residents in general surgery, obstetrics & gynecology, and urology were selected to be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, practicing FLS with the goal of passing a simulated final exam. The control group practiced exclusively with video material from SAGES, whereas the interventional group was supported by a mentor. Forty-six subjects met the requirements and completed the trial. For the other 14 subjects no results are available for comparison. One subject for each group failed the exam, resulting in a passing rate of 95.7%, with no obvious differences between groups. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any difference between the groups for FLS tasks. We confirm that methods other than video instruction and deliberate FLS practice are not essential to pass the final exam. Based on these results, we suggest the introduction of the FLS system even where a trained tutor is not available. This trial is the first single institution application of the FLS in Italy and one of the few experiences outside the US. Trial Number: NCT02486575 ( ).

  17. The Up-to-14-Year Survival and Complication Burden of 256 TiUnite Implants Supporting One-Piece Cast Abutment/Metal-Ceramic Implant-Supported Single Crowns. (United States)

    Walton, Terry R

    To assess the estimated cumulative survival (ECS) and explore the technical and biologic complications of 256 TiUnite implants (Nobel Biocare) supporting one-piece cast abutment/metal-ceramic implant-supported single crowns (ISCs) in situ for up to 14 years. A prospective sequentially recruited cohort of 207 patients received 256 metal-ceramic ISCs on TiUnite implants between 2001 and 2014. All but 24 patients with 27 crowns were clinically evaluated between January 2014 and April 2015 in conjunction with or in addition to their tailored maintenance program. Radiographs were obtained, and any previously recorded treatments associated with the crowns were tabulated. The ECS and standard errors were calculated with the life table actuarial method and Greenwood's formula, respectively. The log rank test was applied to assess differences between anterior and posterior crowns. Complication incidence, severity, and economic burden, measured in time/cost accounting units (TAUs), were tallied and compared descriptively. Independent groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and related groups with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The mean clinical service time of the crowns was 5.61 years (44 ≥ 10 years). The 14-year ECS was 95.95% ± 3.20% with no significant difference between anterior and posterior prostheses. Only seven implants lost marginal bone ≥ one thread from the time of crown insertion. There were 30 nonterminal complications (16 biologic, 14 mechanical). The associated economic burden was low (n = 35 TAUs). High gold-alloy one-piece cast abutment/metal-ceramic ISCs on TiUnite implants exhibited excellent longevity and few complications over 14 years.

  18. Whole Genome and Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Associated with an Outbreak Linked to Cheese, United States, 2013 (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Carleton, Heather; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Muruvanda, Tim; Wang, Charles; Kastanis, George; Katz, Lee S.; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Moore, Terence; Stones, Robert; Blankenship, Joseph; Salter, Monique; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Evans, Peter S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.


    ABSTRACT Epidemiological findings of a listeriosis outbreak in 2013 implicated Hispanic-style cheese produced by company A, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on clinical isolates and representative isolates collected from company A cheese and environmental samples during the investigation. The results strengthened the evidence for cheese as the vehicle. Surveillance sampling and WGS 3 months later revealed that the equipment purchased by company B from company A yielded an environmental isolate highly similar to all outbreak isolates. The whole genome and core genome multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses results were compared to demonstrate the maximum discriminatory power obtained by using multiple analyses, which were needed to differentiate outbreak-associated isolates from a PFGE-indistinguishable isolate collected in a nonimplicated food source in 2012. This unrelated isolate differed from the outbreak isolates by only 7 to 14 SNPs, and as a result, the minimum spanning tree from the whole genome analyses and certain variant calling approach and phylogenetic algorithm for core genome-based analyses could not provide differentiation between unrelated isolates. Our data also suggest that SNP/allele counts should always be combined with WGS clustering analysis generated by phylogenetically meaningful algorithms on a sufficient number of isolates, and the SNP/allele threshold alone does not provide sufficient evidence to delineate an outbreak. The putative prophages were conserved across all the outbreak isolates. All outbreak isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 and serotype 1/2b and had an identical inlA sequence which did not have premature stop codons. IMPORTANCE In this outbreak, multiple analytical approaches were used for maximum discriminatory power. A PFGE-matched, epidemiologically unrelated isolate had high genetic similarity to the outbreak

  19. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas


    expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical...... interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1...

  20. Immediate occlusal loading of single lower molars using Brånemark System Wide-Platform TiUnite implants: an interim report of a prospective open-ended clinical multicenter study. (United States)

    Calandriello, Roberto; Tomatis, Massimiliano; Vallone, Roberto; Rangert, Bo; Gottlow, Jan


    First and second molars in the lower jaw are the most commonly missing teeth. As in other jaw regions with tooth loss, implant therapy is an attractive concept. Owing to the wide dimension of the molar teeth, wide implants seem to be a natural choice. However, wide implants in posterior mandibular regions sometimes present a problem. As an oxidized surface seems to facilitate implant integration and to result in a stronger fixation to bone, it was hypothesized that this surface would improve the performance of wide implants in posterior mandibles. As high initial stability most often is achieved in this region, it was hypothesized that the load per se is not a problem. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate immediate loading of Brånemark System TiUnite Wide-Platform implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) supporting single molar crowns in the lower jaw. The study includes 44 patients treated in three separate private dental offices between March 2001 and June 2002. A total of 50 implants were placed, and all implants have passed the 6-month follow-up; 24 have been followed up for 1 year. All implants were provided with provisional crowns in centric occlusion at the time of surgery. No implant has been lost. Marginal bone levels were found in accordance with normal biologic width requirements. Resonance frequency analysis showed high and consistent implant stability. No biomechanical problems were found associated with the use of wide implants, and the potential physiologic problem in dense mandibular bone was eliminated. Although limited by being a short-term study, the result encourages immediate loading of single Brånemark System TiUnite Wide-Platform implants placed in the molar regions in the lower jaw.

  1. Light energy transmission and Vickers hardness ratio of bulk-fill resin based composites at different thicknesses cured by a dual-wave or a single-wave light curing unit. (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Naaman, Reem Khalil; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed


    To quantify light energy transmission through two bulk-fill resin-based composites and to measure the top to bottom surface Vickers hardness ratio (VHratio) of samples of various incremental thicknesses, using either a single-wave or dual-wave light curing unit (LCU). Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and SonicFill (SF) were studied. Using MARC-RC, the irradiance delivered to the top surface of the samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm thick (n= 5 for each thickness) was adjusted to 800 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds (16 J/cm2) using either a single-wave, Bluephase or a dual-wave, Bluephase G2 LCUs. Light energy transmission through to the bottom surface of the specimens was measured at real time using MARC-RC. The Vickers hardness (VH) was determined using Vickers micro hardness tester and the VHratio was calculated. Data were analyzed using a general linear model in Minitab 16; α= 0.05. TECBF was more translucent than SF (Pcured with the dual-wave Bluephase G2). SF showed significantly higher VH ratio than TECBF at all different thickness levels (P 0.05). TECBF showed significantly greater VH ratio when cured with the single-wave Bluephase than when using the dual-wave Bluephase G2 (Plight energy through to the bottom surface and the VHratio are material dependent. Although TECBF is more translucent than SF, it showed lower VHratio compared to SF when cured with dual-wave Bluephase G2.

  2. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F


    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  3. A Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm Using an Incomplete Solution of the Subproblem (United States)


    MURRAY* AND FRANCISCO J. PRIETOt *Systems Optimization Laboratory Department of Operations Research Stanford University tDept. de Automitica, Ingenieria ...The search direction The algorithm described in Section 2 allows for considerable flexibility of design. We de - scribe here the specific choices made...and Sons, Chichester/New York/Brisbane/Toronto/Singapore). [Fra88] C. Fraley (1988), Software performance on nonlinear least-squares problems, SOL

  4. New multicell model for describing the atomic structure of La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} piezoelectric crystal: Unit cells of different compositions in the same single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)


    Accurate X-ray diffraction study of langasite (La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14}) single crystal has been performed using the data obtained on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 90.5 K. Within the known La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} model, Ga and Si cations jointly occupy the 2d site. A new model of a “multicell” consisting of two different unit cells is proposed. Gallium atoms occupy the 2d site in one of these cells, and silicon atoms occupy this site in the other cell; all other atoms correspondingly coordinate these cations. This structure implements various physical properties exhibited by langasite family crystals. The conclusions are based on processing four data sets obtained with a high resolution (sin θ/λ ≤ 1.35 Å{sup –1}), the results reproduced in repeated experiments, and the high relative precision of the study (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1; at 295 K, a = 8.1652(6) Å, c = 5.0958(5) Å, R/wR = 0.68/0.68%, 3927 independent reflections; at 90.5 K, a = 8.1559(4) Å, c = 5.0913(6) Å, R/wR = 0.92/0.93%, 3928 reflections).

  5. Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on a Realizable Energy Delivery Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu


    Full Text Available Security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC is an important tool for independent system operators in the day-ahead electric power market. A serious issue arises that the energy realizability of the staircase generation schedules obtained in traditional SCUC cannot be guaranteed. This paper focuses on addressing this issue, and the basic idea is to formulate the power output of thermal units as piecewise-linear function. All individual unit constraints and systemwide constraints are then reformulated. The new SCUC formulation is solved within the Lagrangian relaxation (LR framework, in which a double dynamic programming method is developed to solve individual unit subproblems. Numerical testing is performed for a 6-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system on Microsoft Visual C# .NET platform. It is shown that the energy realizability of generation schedules obtained from the new formulation is guaranteed. Comparative case study is conducted between LR and mixed integer linear programming (MILP in solving the new formulation. Numerical results show that the near-optimal solution can be obtained efficiently by the proposed LR-based method.

  6. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike


    .... Army Alaska, will be the first Army unit manned under the Unit Manning Initiative. The Army's intent for unit manning is to improve combat readiness and cohesion while setting conditions for improved soldier and family well...

  7. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.


    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  8. Single Purpose Satellite Systems


    Watkins, Warren


    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  9. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.


    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  10. Generating Units (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  11. UNIT, TIBET. (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.


  12. Functions of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate chains in brain development. Critical roles of E and iE disaccharide units recognized by a single chain antibody GD3G7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purushothaman, A.; Fukuda, J.; Mizumoto, S.; Dam, G.B. ten; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Kitagawa, H.; Mikami, T.; Sugahara, K.


    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) have been implicated in the processes of neural development in the brain. In this study, we characterized developmentally regulated brain CS/DS chains using a single chain antibody, GD3G7, produced by the phage display technique. Evaluation of the

  13. Turnley Unit (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  14. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia


    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  15. 12 CFR 541.10 - Dwelling unit. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling unit. 541.10 Section 541.10 Banks and... FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.10 Dwelling unit. The term dwelling unit means the unified combination of rooms designed for residential use by one family, other than a single-family dwelling. ...

  16. [Conservation Units. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  18. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva


    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  19. Filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Nagao, Koji; Akiyama, Toshio; Tanaka, Fumikazu; Osumi, Akira; Hirao, Yasuhiro.


    The filter unit is used by attaching to a dustproof mask, and used in a radiation controlled area such as in a nuclear power plant. The filter unit comprises sheet-like front and back filtering members disposed vertically in parallel, a spacer for keeping the filtering members to a predetermined distance and front and back covering members for covering the two filtering members respectively. An electrostatic filter prepared by applying resin-fabrication to a base sheet comprising 100% by weight of organic fibers as fiber components, for example, wool felt, synthetic fiber non-woven fabric, wool and synthetic fiber blend non-woven fabric and then electrifying the resin is used for the filtering members. Then, residue of ashes can be eliminated substantially or completely after burning them. (I.N.)

  20. United snakes. (United States)

    Liang, Jianming; McInerney, Tim; Terzopoulos, Demetri


    Since their debut in 1987, snakes (active contour models) have become a standard image analysis technique with several variants now in common use. We present a framework called "United Snakes", which has two key features. First, it unifies the most popular snake variants, including finite difference, B-spline, and Hermite polynomial snakes in a consistent finite element formulation, thus expanding the range of object modeling capabilities within a uniform snake construction process. Second, it embodies the idea that the heretofore presumed competing technique known as "live wire" or "intelligent scissors" is in fact complementary to snakes and that the two techniques can advantageously be combined by introducing an effective hard constraint mechanism. The United Snakes framework amplifies the efficiency and reproducibility of the component techniques, and it offers more flexible interactive control while further minimizing user interactions. We apply United Snakes to several different medical image analysis tasks, including the segmentation of neuronal dendrites in EM images, dynamic chest image analysis, the quantification of growth plates in MR images and the isolation of the breast region in mammograms, demonstrating the generality, accuracy and robustness of the tool.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark


    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  2. CYP3A5 Mediates Effects of Cocaine on Human Neocorticogenesis: Studies using an In Vitro 3D Self-Organized hPSC Model with a Single Cortex-Like Unit. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Chen, Jia; Kindberg, Abigail A; Bendriem, Raphael M; Spivak, Charles E; Williams, Melanie P; Richie, Christopher T; Handreck, Annelie; Mallon, Barbara S; Lupica, Carl R; Lin, Da-Ting; Harvey, Brandon K; Mash, Deborah C; Freed, William J


    Because of unavoidable confounding variables in the direct study of human subjects, it has been difficult to unravel the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the human fetal brain, as well as the cellular and biochemical mechanisms involved. Here, we propose a novel approach using a human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based 3D neocortical organoid model. This model retains essential features of human neocortical development by encompassing a single self-organized neocortical structure, without including an animal-derived gelatinous matrix. We reported previously that prenatal cocaine exposure to rats during the most active period of neural progenitor proliferation induces cytoarchitectural changes in the embryonic neocortex. We also identified a role of CYP450 and consequent oxidative ER stress signaling in these effects. However, because of differences between humans and rodents in neocorticogenesis and brain CYP metabolism, translation of the research findings from the rodent model to human brain development is uncertain. Using hPSC 3D neocortical organoids, we demonstrate that the effects of cocaine are mediated through CYP3A5-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of neocortical progenitor cell proliferation, induction of premature neuronal differentiation, and interruption of neural tissue development. Furthermore, knockdown of CYP3A5 reversed these cocaine-induced pathological phenotypes, suggesting CYP3A5 as a therapeutic target to mitigate the deleterious neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cocaine exposure in humans. Moreover, 3D organoid methodology provides an innovative platform for identifying adverse effects of abused psychostimulants and pharmaceutical agents, and can be adapted for use in neurodevelopmental disorders with genetic etiologies.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic fluid collections' transmural drainage outcomes in 100 consecutive cases of pseudocysts and walled off necrosis: a single-centre experience from the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Shekhar, Chander; Maher, Ben; Forde, Colm; Mahon, Brinder Singh


    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage is a minimally invasive first-line modality for the drainage of pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) resulting in a shorter hospital stay and less morbidity compared with surgical cystogastrostomy. Our aim is to evaluate potential differences in the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided transmural drainage (EUS-TD) drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) and walled-off necrosis (WON). We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive EUS-guided drainages of PFC utilising EUS reports; clinical notes and imaging with follow-up (FU) to 12 months. All procedures were undertaken under conscious sedation with EUS guidance alone (without fluoroscopy) and placement of plastic double pigtail stents. In these 100 sequential cases, there were 78 cases of PP and 22 cases of WON. All 22/22(100%) cases of WON had successful EUS-guided stent placement. In 2/22(9%), there was little or no clinical improvement. These two patients required further computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage and one of these patients (1/22) (4.5%) developed recurrence within 12 months FU after removal of stents. In case of PP, overall stent placement was successful in 76/78 (97%) patients, but 6/78(8%) required 2nd EUS procedure after failure to show clinical improvement; 3/78(2.5%) required further CT-guided drainage. The overall complication rate was 9%(9/100) with 4%(4/100) requiring endoscopic or CT-guided intervention with no overall 30-day mortality. This is the largest series from a single UK centre demonstrating that EUS-guided cystogastrostomy of PFC drainage using plastic double pigtail stents is sufficient in majority of cases with PFC including that of WON, with or without infection.

  4. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow


    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  5. NZG 201 portable spectrometric unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursa, P.; Novakova, O.; Slezak, V.

    The NZG 201 spectrometric unit is a portable single-channel processing unit supplied from the mains or a battery which allows the qualitative and quantitative measurement of different types of ionizing radiation when connected to a suitable detection unit. The circuit layout and the choice of control elements makes the spectrometric unit suitable for use with scintillation detector units. The spectrometric unit consists of a pulse amplifier, an amplitude pulse analyzer, a pulse counter, a pulse rate counter with an output for a recorder, a high voltage source and a low voltage source. The block diagram is given. All circuits are modular and are mounted on PCB's. The apparatus is built in a steel cabinet with a raised edge which protects the control elements. The linear pulse amplifier has a maximum gain of 1024, the pulse counter has a maximum capacity of 10 6 -1 imp and time resolution better than 0.5 μs. The temperature interval at which the apparatus is operational is 0 to 45 degC, its weight is 12.5 kg and dimensions 36x280x310 mm, energy range O.025 to 2.5 MeV, for 137 Cs the energy resolution is 8 to 10%. The spectrometric unit NZG 2O1 may, with regard to its parameters, number and range of control elements, be used as a universal measuring unit. (J.P.)

  6. United States housing, first quarter 2013 (United States)

    Delton Alderman


    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  7. Termination unit (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK


    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  8. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann


    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  9. Single-unit pattern generators for quadruped locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Gregory; Risi, Sebastian; Snyder, Charles R


    Legged robots can potentially venture beyond the limits of wheeled vehicles. While creating controllers for such robots by hand is possible, evolutionary algorithms are an alternative that can reduce the burden of hand-crafting robotic controllers. Although major evolutionary approaches to legged...

  10. Northeast Hub Partners and United Salts Single Source Determination (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Field Organizations: Unit Status Reporting (United States)


    gloves 2 pair per individual Chem prot overshoes 2 pair per individual Notes: 1 Units equipped with M17-, M24-, and M25-series protective masks will...1 box per) and collective protective shelter (3 boxes per). CAT 4 (IPE) Protective suit (BDO, JSLIST), chem prot gloves , chem prot over- shoes, CB...assigned but not available to the home station. 7 A military mother of a newborn is not available for four months after the child’s birth. (A single

  12. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally


    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  13. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.


    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  14. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs...... of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water...... production for solar desalination units....

  15. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben


    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  16. The Standard Joint Unit. (United States)

    Casajuana Kögel, Cristina; Balcells-Olivero, María Mercedes; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Teixidó, Lídia; Colom, Joan; Nutt, David John; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni


    Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015-June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in the last 60 days, without cognitive impairment or language barriers, answered a questionnaire on cannabis use and were asked to donate a joint to further determine their 9-THC and Cannabidiol (CBD) content. 492 participants donated 315 valid joints. Donators were on average 29 years old, mostly men (77%), single (75%), with at least secondary studies (73%) and in active employment (63%). Marijuana joints (N=232) contained a median of 6.56mg of 9-THC (Interquartile range-IQR=10,22) and 0.02mg of CBD (IQR=0.02); hashish joints (N=83) a median of 7.94mg of 9-THC (IQR=10,61) and 3.24mg of CBD (IQR=3.21). Participants rolled 4 joints per gram of cannabis and paid 5€ per gram (median values). Consistent 9-THC-content in joints lead to a SJU of 7mg of 9-THC, the integer number closest to the median values shared by both cannabis types. Independently if marijuana or hashish, 1 SJU = 1 joint = 0.25 g of cannabis = 7 mg of 9-THC. For CBD, only hashish SJU contained relevant levels. Similarly to the Standard Drink Unit for alcohol, the SJU is useful for clinical, epidemiological and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.


    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  18. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary. (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  19. Self-assembly of mixed-valence Co(II/III) and Ni(II) clusters: azide-bridged 1D single chain coordination polymers comprised of tetranuclear units, tetranuclear Co(II/III) complexes, ferromagnetically coupled azide-bridged tetranuclear, and hexanuclear Ni(II) complexes: synthesis, structural, and magnetic properties. (United States)

    Tandon, Santokh S; Bunge, Scott D; Rakosi, Robert; Xu, Zhiqiang; Thompson, Laurence K


    One-pot reactions between 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol (DFMP) and 2-aminoethanol (AE) in the presence of cobalt(II) salts [Co(ClO4)2, CoCl2, Co(CH3CO2)2, Co(NO3)2] and sodium azide result in the self-assembly of novel one-dimensional single chain mixed-valence cobalt coordination polymers {[Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)3]ClO(4).5H2O.CH3OH}n (1), {[Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)3]Cl.H2O}n (2) in which tetra-cobalt cationic units are bridged by symmetrical 1,3-azides, forming single chains; mixed valence neutral tetranuclear clusters [Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)4]CH3OH.2H2O (3), [Co2(II)Co2(III)(HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)2(CH3CO2)2].2CH3OH.2H2O (4), and the cationic cluster [Co2(II) Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(CH3OH)2(N3)2](NO3)2 (5). In all these reactions, H3L, the potentially pentadentate (N2O3), trianionic double Schiff base ligand 2,6-bis[(2-hydroxy-ethylimino)-methyl]-4-methylphenol is formed. The reaction between DFMP and AE in the presence of nickel(ii) salts and sodium azide in methanol-water mixture results in the self-assembly of ferromagnetically coupled hexanuclear complexes [Ni6(H2L)2(HL-1)2(H2O)2(N3)6](ClO4)(2).2CH3OH (6), and [Ni6(H2L)2(HL-1)2(CH3OH)2(N3)6](BF4)2 (7), involving double (H3L) and single (H2L-1) Schiff base ligands, and a neutral tetranuclear complex [Ni4(H2L)2(OCH3)2(CH3CO2)2(N3)2] (8) with only double Schiff-base (H3L). In these complexes, the nature of the anion and the reaction conditions seem to play an important role in directing the formation of tetranuclear, hexanuclear or polymeric clusters. All complexes involve divacant double cubane-type cores containing three to four different types of bridging ligands (phenoxy, azido, methoxy/alkoxy, and acetate). Variable temperature magnetic properties of these spin coupled clusters have been investigated and magneto-structural correlations have been established.

  20. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes. ¶. S R C VIVEKCHAND1 and A GOVINDARAJ1,2,*. 1Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur PO, Bangalore 560 064, India. 2Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science ...

  1. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...... shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages...

  2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  3. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  4. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  5. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair


    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  6. Understanding Single Adulthood. (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  7. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard


    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  8. Unit cost of Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit. (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, R; Nguyen, T H; Chen, T M


    Appropriate pricing for medical services of not-for-profit hospital is necessary. The prices should be fair to the public and should be high enough to cover the operative costs of the organization. The purpose of this study was to determine the cost and unit cost of medical services performed at the Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit (MDU), Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX from the healthcare provider's perspective. MDU costs were retrieved from the Financial Department for fiscal year 2006. The patients' statistics were acquired from medical records for the same period. Unit cost calculation was based on the official method of hospital accounting. The overall unit cost for each patient visit was $673.99 United States dollar (USD). The detailed unit cost of nurse visit, new patient visit, follow-up visit, consultation, Mohs and non-Mohs procedure were, respectively, $368.27, $580.09, $477.82, $585.52, $1,086.12 and $858.23 USD. With respect to a Mohs visit, the unit cost per lesion and unit cost per stage were $867.89 and $242.30 USD respectively. Results from this retrospective study provide information that may be used for pricing strategy and resource allocation by the administrative board of MDU.

  9. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  10. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst


    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  11. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram


    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  12. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter


    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  13. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  14. Magnetic remanence in single atoms. (United States)

    Donati, F; Rusponi, S; Stepanow, S; Wäckerlin, C; Singha, A; Persichetti, L; Baltic, R; Diller, K; Patthey, F; Fernandes, E; Dreiser, J; Šljivančanin, Ž; Kummer, K; Nistor, C; Gambardella, P; Brune, H


    A permanent magnet retains a substantial fraction of its saturation magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field. Realizing magnetic remanence in a single atom allows for storing and processing information in the smallest unit of matter. We show that individual holmium (Ho) atoms adsorbed on ultrathin MgO(100) layers on Ag(100) exhibit magnetic remanence up to a temperature of 30 kelvin and a relaxation time of 1500 seconds at 10 kelvin. This extraordinary stability is achieved by the realization of a symmetry-protected magnetic ground state and by decoupling the Ho spin from the underlying metal by a tunnel barrier. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James


    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  16. Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 4, 2015 ... the discharge of fit ICU patients to the ward (95.3%), transfer patients not receiving acute care to high dependency unit or recovery room (70.3%), or create additional ICU beds (42.2%). Chi‑square test showed a significant difference between single and married respondents with regard to clinical doubt (P ...

  17. Note on the natural system of units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    express L, M and T and therefore all other physical magnitudes in terms of the primary ones. In this Note we take stand with the conventional choice of natural units, making a single change for GN (Newton's constant) so as to avoid the square roots in expressing length, mass and time. We analyse the new proposal in the ...

  18. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi


    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  19. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.


    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  20. Single scattering properties of hydrosols (United States)

    Mukherjee, L.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.


    The single scattering or inherent optical properties (IOPs) of hydrosols play an important role in the complete study of ocean optics, ocean color remote sensing, and ocean biogeochemistry research. Measurements show that hydrosols can be of various sizes and shapes, which suggests that general non-spherical models should be considered for the study of IOPs of hydrosols. In this work, the IOPs of randomly oriented non-spherical hydrosols of both absorbing and non-absorbing types are modeled using the Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA). We have defined the degree of optical non-sphericity (DONS) and investigated the dependence of DONS on refractive indices, sizes, and aspect ratios. For particles with non-unit aspect ratios, the magnitude of DONS increases with an increase of refractive index and aspect ratio. In general, the value of DONS increases with increase in particle size. The variation of DONS with respect to refractive indices and aspect ratios of the hydrosols makes it an important parameter in the study of ocean optics. Dependence of backscattering fraction on non-sphericity, size, and aspect ratio of the hydrosols is also demonstrated. The modeling of single scattering properties of hydrosols with different microphysical parameters would help to interpret the ocean radiation field measured by in situ or remote sensing sensors. Understanding the IOPs of hydrosols would lead to better radiative transfer models in ocean waters and new remote sensing technologies of hydrosol compositions.

  1. Stresses of Single Parenting (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  2. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill


    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  3. Single Beam Holography. (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.


    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  4. United Leukodystrophy Foundation (United States)

    ... for his ... Read More 26 June 2017 5K & Volleyball The United Leukodystrophy Foundation sends out a great ... Nebraska, the Sinnott Sand Bar ran its annual volleyball tournament, ... Read More Copyright © United Leukodystrophy Foundation, Inc. ...

  5. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  6. United States Pharmacopeial Convention (United States)

    ... crisis. Learn More Containing drug costs in the United States The FDA is currently exploring a variety of ... Notices Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sitemap © The United States Pharmacopeial Convention ×

  7. United Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  8. A Work in Progress: The United Kingdom's Campaign Against Radicalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wither, James


    ...) for a united Ireland. However, the death toll from a single attack never exceeded twenty-nine and the British public developed a certain stoicism in the face of intermittent bombings in London and other British cities...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) is an optical disdrometer based on single particle extinction that measures particle size and fall velocity. This APU consists of...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) is an optical disdrometer based on single particle extinction that measures particle size and fall velocity. This APU consists of...

  11. Modular weapon control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.


    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  12. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones. (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J


    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  13. Single-Mode VCSELs (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  14. Multiprocessor realisation of a PCM channel unit for SCPC systems (United States)

    Bacs, E.; Uhereczky, L.

    The selection of the proper architecture for the PCM channel unit of the Single Channel Per Channel system is discussed. The transmit, receive, and voice detector functions of the PCM channel unit are examined. The performance of wired logic, bit-slice, and MOS microprocessor units is evaluated based on power consumption, development requirements, flexibility, components, packaging density, maintenance, and cost. The MOS microprocessor was selected as the speech detector unit for the Intelsat/Intersputnik. The design of the speech detector unit which consists of two receive and two transmit microprocessors is described.

  15. A New Symmetrical Unit for Breakwater Armour : First Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salauddin, M.; Broere, A.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Bijl, E.


    A new and symmetrical single layer armour unit, the crablock, has been designed in the UAE. One breakwater was reconstructed with crablock, but very limited testing had been performed. Just to become more acquainted with this new unit, pre-competitive research at a university has been performed,

  16. Single-Photon Optomechanics (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.


    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  17. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.


    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  18. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae


    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  19. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav


    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  20. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten


    Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839......, and increased likelihood of spontaneous vaginal birth. FMU care may be considered as an adequate alternative to OU care for low-risk women. Pregnant prospective mothers should be given an informed choice of place of birth, including information on transfer....

  1. First Tests on the Symmetrical Breakwater Armor Unit Crablock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salauddin, M; Broere, A.; van der Meer, J.W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Bijl, E


    Single layer concrete armor systems are being widely used nowadays in the design of rubble mound breakwaters. Recently, a new concrete armor unit has been developed and applied as single layer armor system in the repair works of one damaged breakwater at Al Fujeirah, UAE. It has a symmetrical

  2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger


    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  5. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis


    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  6. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  7. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus


    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  8. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia


    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  9. Single reusable spacecraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  10. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  11. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  12. Beyond the Single Story (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina


    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  13. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles (United States)

    Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallavardin, S.; Froyd, K. D.; Johnston, M. V.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Reinard, M. S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Wexler, A. S.


    Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  14. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.


    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  15. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  16. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  17. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  18. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  19. Simple Multiplexing Hand-Held Control Unit (United States)

    Hannaford, Blake


    Multiplexer consists of series of resistors, each shunted by single-pole, single-throw switch. User operates switches by pressing buttons or squeezing triggers. Prototype includes three switches operated successfully in over 200 hours of system operations. Number of switches accommodated determined by signal-to-noise ratio of current source, noise induced in control unit and cable, and number of bits in output of analog-to-digital converter. Because many computer-contolled robots have extra analog-to-digital channels, such multiplexer added at little extra cost.

  20. The aesthetic unit principle of facial aging. (United States)

    Tan, Susan L; Brandt, Michael G; Yeung, Jeffrey C; Doyle, Philip C; Moore, Corey C


    In youth, facial aesthetic units flow together without perceptible division. The face appears as a single dynamic structure with a smooth contour and very little if any shadowing between different anatomical regions. As one ages, facial aesthetic units slowly become distinct. This process may be a consequence of differences in skin thickness, composition of subcutaneous tissue, contour of the facial skeleton, and location of facial ligaments. Although the impact of aesthetic unit separation is clinically apparent, its fundamental role in perceived facial aging has not yet been defined empirically. To evaluate and define the effect of aesthetic unit separation on facial aging and to empirically validate the rationale for the blending of aesthetic units as a principle for facial rejuvenation. We prepared the photographs of 7 women for experimental evaluation of the presence or absence of facial aesthetic unit separation. Photographic stimuli were then presented to 24 naive observers in a blinded paired comparison. For each stimulus pair, observers were asked to select the facial photograph that they considered to be more youthful in appearance. Each stimulus was compared with all others. We calculated a preference score for the total number of times any photograph was chosen to be more youthful compared with all others. Paired t tests were used to compare the preference scores between the facial stimuli with and without aesthetic unit separation. We generated 4032 responses for analysis. Photographs without facial aesthetic unit separation were consistently judged to be more youthful than their aged original or modified counterparts, with mean preference scores of 0.66 and 0.33, respectively (P ≤ .047). When we selected the paired stimulus that directly compared one photograph with aesthetic unit separation with another with blended aesthetic units (2015 pairs), observers indicated that the photograph with the blended aesthetic unit was younger 95% of the time

  1. Quantities, Units, and Symbols. (United States)

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  2. REACH. Refrigeration Units. (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  3. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  4. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui


    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  5. Watching single molecules dance (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  6. Mechanoenzymatics and Nanoassembly of Single Molecules (United States)

    Puchner, Elias M.; Gaub, Hermann E.

    We investigated the muscle enzyme, titin kinase, by means of single-molecule force spectroscopy. Our results show that the binding of ATP, which is the first step of its signaling cascade controlling the muscle gene expression and protein turnover, is mechanically induced. The detailed determination of barrier positions in the mechanical activation pathway and the corresponding functional states allow structural insight, by comparing the experiment with molecular dynamics simulations. From our results, we conclude that titin kinase acts as a natural force sensor controlling the muscle build-up. To study the interplay of functional units, we developed the single-molecule cut-and-paste technique, which combines the precision of AFM with the selectivity of DNA hybridization. Functional units can be assembled one-by-one in an arbitrarily predefined pattern, with an accuracy that is better than 11 nm. The cyclic assembly process is optically monitored and mechanically recorded by force-extension traces. Using biotin as a functional unit attached to the transported DNA, patterns of binding sites may be created, to which streptavidin-modified nanoobjects like fluorescent nanoparticles can specifically self-assemble in a second step.

  7. Single rotor turbine engine (United States)

    Platts, David A.


    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  8. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  9. Numerical test for single concrete armour layer on breakwaters


    Anastasaki, E; Latham, J-P; Xiang, J


    The ability of concrete armour units for breakwaters to interlock and form an integral single layer is important for withstanding severe wave conditions. In reality, displacements take place under wave loading, whether they are small and insignificant or large and representing serious structural damage. In this work, a code that combines finite- and discrete-element methods which can simulate motion and interaction among units was used to conduct a numerical investigation. Various concrete ar...

  10. Recent Developments in United Airways Disease


    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; La Rosa, Mario; Salpietro, Carmelo; Marseglia, Gian Luigi


    The nose and lung are both part of the respiratory tract. Often the diseases affecting the nose and/or the bronchi are treated separately. However, in recent years, numerous studies have highlighted the fact that the respiratory system is a single entity and the concept of "united airway disease" has become more and more important. The unity of the respiratory tract is confirmed both from a morphological and from a functional point of view. Nevertheless, this concept is also confirmed for the...

  11. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer? (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia


    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S


    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  13. Effect of preparation convergence on retention of multiple unit restorations - An in vitrostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Nag Vinnakota


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Convergence angle (CA is one of the major determinant factors in the retention of single as well as multiple units. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of preparation convergence on the retention of multiple unit restorations. Materials and Methods: Nickel-chromium alloy single crowns as well as three, six and nine multiple unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs were casted for standardized milled dies that simulate canine, premolar and molar teeth machined with two different degrees of convergence, 12 (n = 55 and 20 (n = 55. The dies were threaded on rectangular metal platforms with the help of retainer shaft in the proper position to model either single or multiple preparations. The casted crowns and FPDs were cemented and retention tested by securing the units in an Instron universal testing machine. The tabulated values were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney test. Results: Single and multiple units with 12° CA needed greater force to dislodge compared to 20°, but this difference was not statistically significant for single units of premolar (P > 0.05. Irrespective of the angle, there was a simultaneous statistically significant increase in retention as the number of units increased in FPDs, except for the difference between 3 and 6 units in 20° group (P > 0.05. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of emphasizing on CA, during canine and molar preparation for single units as well as preparation of canines for 6 units FPDs.

  14. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.


    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  15. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia


    MusiClub United nations Orchestra An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact:

  16. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.


    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  17. Accountable Care Units: A Disruptive Innovation in Acute Care Delivery. (United States)

    Castle, Bryan W; Shapiro, Susan E


    Accountable Care Units are a disruptive innovation that has moved care on acute care units from a traditional silo model, in which each discipline works separately from all others, to one in which multiple disciplines work together with patients and their families to move patients safely through their hospital stay. This article describes the "what," "how," and "why" of the Accountable Care Units model as it has evolved in different locations across a single health system and includes the lessons learned as different units and hospitals continue working to implement the model in their complex care environments.

  18. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis. (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J


    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.


    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  20. Analysis of Single Event Evoked Potentials. (United States)


    stimuli is available in the literature, and since this study deals with single responses, an assumption had to be made before the information in the...Figue 4 Repon e mocekroadpten.trp atrsadt ln 0m10 4 4 22 A S10 2D 3 40 5 64 10 i 13 10 II0 Visul wo (miautes) of side of dck Figure 5. The effect of unit...differences in their average evoked responses. These responses will also lend themselves to detection based on information from multiple electrodes because

  1. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis


    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  2. Cereal Crops Research Unit (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  3. Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.


    This presentation will include information about Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) technology, NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) tasks, The test setup, test parameter considerations, lessons learned, collaborations, a roadmap, NEPP partners, results to date, and future plans.

  4. Airborne Power Supply Unit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Airborne Power Supply Unit (APSU) is a programmable DC/DC converter that can supply multiple constant voltage or constant current outputs in a small enclosure,...

  5. Operable Unit Boundaries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  6. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit (United States)

    Leger, Heather


    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  7. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.


    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  8. Unit Commitment Solution Methods


    Sayeed Salam


    An effort to develop a unit commitment approach capable of handling large power systems consisting of both thermal and hydro generating units offers a large profitable return. In order to be feasible, the method to be developed must be flexible, efficient and reliable. In this paper, various proposed methods have been described along with their strengths and weaknesses. As all of these methods have some sort of weaknesses, a comprehensive algorithm that combines the stren...

  9. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.


    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  10. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...

  11. A Novel Hardware Efficient Reconfigurable 32-Bit Arithmetic Unit for Binary, BCD and Floating Point Operands


    Mohit Tyagi,; Kavita Khare


    This paper provides the details for novel adder/subtractor arithmetic unit that combines Binary, Binary Code Decimal (BCD) and single precision Binary floating point operations in a single structure. The unit is able to perform effective addition-subtraction operations on unsigned, sign-magnitude, and various complement representations. The design is runtime reconfigurable or can be implemented in ASIC as a runtime configurable unit and maximum utilization of hardware resource are the feature...

  12. Accelerated aging of IG units : North American test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahdy, H.


    Both Canadian and American standards have been in place for decades to determine argon gas concentration in insulating glass (IG) units. Efforts are underway to harmonize the IG standards to have acceptable test methods for the durability of IG units and to implement a single certification program for both Canada and the United States. One way to test the durability and integrity of the edge seal on IG units is to subject them to accelerated aging cycles in a controlled environment. This paper summarizes the Canadian, American and the harmonized test methods used in testing the integrity of the seal and the determination of argon gas in IG units. The Canadian standard (CAN/CGSB 12.8) encompasses the following tests: initial seal of units, initial dew point, initial argon concentration, failure analysis (water immersion test), weather cycling, volatile fogging (UV), dew point measurement after weather cycling, high humidity cycling, and final argon concentration. American ASTM E773 and ASTM E774 differ from the Canadian standard in the sequence of testing and the rating of IG units, creating problems for certification of units being shipped across the border. It was noted that adopting a single certification program for Canada and the United States would bring economic benefits to both consumers and manufacturers. 7 refs., 5 figs

  13. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  14. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  15. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui


    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  16. Coronary single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Kober, G.; Satter, P.; Gruentzig, A.; Myler, R.; Sterzer, S.


    The seven-years-survival rate is about 80 percent with respect to the most favourable long-time prognosis for coronary single vessel diseases under conservative therapy. In this contribution the control angiography of 76 patients after aorto-coronary bypass operation or transluminal angioplastic is reported. Only two patients subjected to a bypass operation. The recidivity rate is 10 percent after an operation, whereby it is not possible to make a recidivity prognosis. If a recidivity shows up it is being developped during the first three months. If the control angiography three months after the operation shows a good result, then a favourable steady state result can be expected. A comparison of the result with four different centers is given. (APR) [de

  17. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.


    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg


    and briefly describe the methods that are preferred for SNP typing in forensic genetics. In addition, we will illustrate how SNPs can be used as investigative leads in the police investigation by discussing the use of ancestry informative markers and forensic DNA phenotyping. Modern DNA sequencing......Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  19. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry


    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  20. Hall Effect in Bulk-Doped Organic Single Crystals. (United States)

    Ohashi, Chika; Izawa, Seiichiro; Shinmura, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Watase, Seiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Hiramoto, Masahiro


    The standard technique to separately and simultaneously determine the carrier concentration per unit volume (N, cm -3 ) and the mobility (μ) of doped inorganic single crystals is to measure the Hall effect. However, this technique has not been reported for bulk-doped organic single crystals. Here, the Hall effect in bulk-doped single-crystal organic semiconductors is measured. A key feature of this work is the ultraslow co-deposition technique, which reaches as low as 10 -9 nm s -1 and enables us to dope homoepitaxial organic single crystals with acceptors at extremely low concentrations of 1 ppm. Both the hole concentration per unit volume (N, cm -3 ) and the Hall mobility (μ H ) of bulk-doped rubrene single crystals, which have a band-like nature, are systematically observed. It is found that these rubrene single crystals have (i) a high ionization rate and (ii) scattering effects because of lattice disturbances, which are peculiar to this organic single crystal. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zinc (tris) thiourea sulphate (ZTS): A single crystal neutron diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    near IR laser radiations. In this study, the crystal structure of ZTS has been ob- tained in detail by single crystal neutron diffraction technique. Using the structural parameters and an existing formalism [1] based on the theory of bond polarizability, the contributions from each of the structural groups in the unit cell to the total.

  2. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 5-6. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes ... Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur PO, Bangalore 560 064, India; Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  3. A local view on single and coupled molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Hernando Campos, J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob; Garcia Parajo, M.F.


    The paper focuses on a novel approach to reveal ultrafast dynamics in single molecules. The main strength of the approach is towards ultrafast processes in extended multi-chromophoric molecular assemblies. Excitonically coupled systems consisting of 2 and 3 rigidly linked perylene-diimide units in a

  4. Analysis of Army Transformation and the Effects on Customer Ordering Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colacicco, Joseph M


    ... behavior, and other potential sources of variance in ordering behavior. The subproblems were answered through an examination of the supply document histories of two Brigades, one legacy Brigade (Unit 1...

  5. Mechanical strainer unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, J.B.; Netkowicz, R.J.; Schnall, I.H.


    The mechanical strainer unit is connected to a flanged conduit which originates in and extends out of a suppression chamber in a nuclear reactor. The strainer includes a plurality of centrally apertured plates positioned along a common central axis and in parallel and spaced relationship. The plates have a plurality of bores radially spaced about the central axis. Spacer means such as washers are positioned between adjacent plates to maintain the plates is spaced relationship and form communicating passages of a predetermined size to the central apertures. Connecting means such as bolts or studs extend through the aligned bores to maintain the unit in assembled relationship and secure the unit to the pipe. By employing perforated plates and blocking off certain of the communicating passages, a dual straining effect can be achieved

  6. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.


    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  7. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics


    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  8. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.


    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  9. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.


    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  10. SI Units to be Used in Place of Imperial Units and Old Metric Units (United States)

    Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1975


    A table lists the following quantities in imperial units, old metric units, and SI units: mass, force, energy, torque, power, pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity, frequency, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic viscosity. (MLH)

  11. NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 14. (United States)



  12. Outdoorsman, Unit I. (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The first of three units of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program is designed to teach basic campcraft skills and to promote environmental awareness for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The manual contains information and instruction on; special responsibilities in the outdoors (including conservation and clean up),…

  13. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida


    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  14. United Kingdom's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, S.M.


    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation

  15. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart


    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  16. Unit 16 - Output


    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.


    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  17. Planter unit test stand (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  18. Unit 34: Overlay Operators


    Unit 34, CCTP; Pitts, Teresa A.


    This unit describes types, example uses and implementation of different overlay operations. Using commands in ESRI’s Arc/Info, it summarizes necessary pre-overlay and overlay tasks in an example application in which locations for Gypsy Moth traps must be determined.

  19. A Case of Units. (United States)

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.; Bradshaw, D'Lynn


    Presents a case study of young children measuring on the playground to illustrate the development of understanding of units of measurement and the importance of teachers capitalizing on the informal mathematical situations that arise naturally in children's conversations. (Author/NB)

  20. Single particle tomography in EMAN2. (United States)

    Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Flanagan, John; Schmid, Michael F; Ludtke, Steven J


    Single particle tomography (SPT or subtomogram averaging) offers a powerful alternative to traditional 2-D single particle reconstruction for studying conformationally or compositionally heterogeneous macromolecules. It can also provide direct observation (without labeling or staining) of complexes inside cells at nanometer resolution. The development of computational methods and tools for SPT remains an area of active research. Here we present the EMAN2.1 SPT toolbox, which offers a full SPT processing pipeline, from particle picking to post-alignment analysis of subtomogram averages, automating most steps. Different algorithm combinations can be applied at each step, providing versatility and allowing for procedural cross-testing and specimen-specific strategies. Alignment methods include all-vs-all, binary tree, iterative single-model refinement, multiple-model refinement, and self-symmetry alignment. An efficient angular search, Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration and both threaded and distributed parallelism are provided to speed up processing. Finally, automated simulations, per particle reconstruction of subtiltseries, and per-particle Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) correction have been implemented. Processing examples using both real and simulated data are shown for several structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor


    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.


    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great details recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental resu...

  2. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn


    The purpose of this report is to identify the key challenges with current Army personnel policies and to provide recommendations that would reduce the impact of single parents on Army unit readiness...

  3. Unconventional wisdom [Entergy's economic management of five disparate nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.


    The conventional wisdom is that a competitive nuclear power programme requires standard plants, multi-unit sites and economies of scale. Entergy Operations, Inc (EOI) in the USA has five nuclear units of two reactor types, acquired from five vendors and located on four sites separated by hundreds of miles. EOI set two bench marks in its aim to deliver electricity at the market price from each of its nuclear units while meeting the costs of O and M, fuel, capital investment and overheads. The first was to become the best operator of each type of its differently designed units. The second was to combine the sense of ownership and expertise of single unit operators with the flexibility and efficiency of multi-unit sites. In order to achieve this, EOI aims to operate the five units as though they were on one site. Central to this plan is a set of peer groups, each of which deals with an aspect of plant operation, sharing good practice across all the units. Building on this, increasingly during outages, employees are brought in from other units rather than employing outside contractors. Although EOI employees are more expensive on an hourly basis they are two to three times more efficient than outside contractors. The peer group concept is also leading to rationalisation of expertise as groups become identified with particular specialisations which back-up teams working on other units. (U.K.)

  4. 76 FR 23839 - United States (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Lucasfilm Ltd.; Public Comments and...)-(h), the United States hereby publishes below the comments received on the proposed Final Judgment in United States v. Lucasfilm Ltd., Civil Action No. 1:10-CV-02220, which was filed in the United States...

  5. 75 FR 81651 - United States (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Lucasfilm Ltd.; Proposed Final Judgment... Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in United States of America v. Lucasfilm Ltd., Civil Case No. 1:10-cv-02220. On December 21, 2010, the United...

  6. Advances in single chain technology. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A


    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  7. Patient dose in neonatal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smans, K.; Struelens, L.; Smet, M.; Bosmans, H.; Vanhavere, F.


    Lung disease represents one of the most life-threatening conditions in prematurely born children. In the evaluation of the neonatal chest, the primary and most important diagnostic study is therefore the chest radiograph. Since prematurely born children are very sensitive to radiation, those radiographs may lead to a significant radiation detriment. Hence, knowledge of the patient dose is necessary to justify the exposures. A study to assess the patient doses was started at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Univ. Hospital in Leuven. Between September 2004 and September 2005, prematurely born babies underwent on average 10 X-ray examinations in the NICU. In this sample, the maximum was 78 X-ray examinations. For chest radiographs, the median entrance skin dose was 34 μGy and the median dose area product was 7.1 2 . By means of conversion coefficients, the measured values were converted to organ doses. Organ doses were calculated for three different weight classes: extremely low birth weight infants ( 2500 g). The doses to the lungs for a single chest radiograph for infants with extremely low birth weights, low birth weights and normal birth weights were 24, 25 and 32 μGy, respectively. (authors)

  8. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.


    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  9. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.


    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  10. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede


    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  11. Distributed model based control of multi unit evaporation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudi Samyudia


    In this paper, we present a new approach to the analysis and design of distributed control systems for multi-unit plants. The approach is established after treating the effect of recycled dynamics as a gap metric uncertainty from which a distributed controller can be designed sequentially for each unit to tackle the uncertainty. We then use a single effect multi-unit evaporation system to illustrate how the proposed method is used to analyze different control strategies and to systematically achieve a better closed-loop performance using a distributed model-based controller

  12. Waterproof detection units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, H.; Svobodova, B.; Novakova, O.; Pavlicek, Z.

    The waterproof detection units are produced in two variants. Types ND 3501 A, ND 3501 B consist of a Tescint (NaI(Tl) scintillator with photomultiplier 61 PK 503) and a high voltage divider. They only differ in the length of the high voltage coaxial cable VLEOY 50-2.95 which can be supplied in lengths of 2 and 10 meters. Type ND 3502 comprises an additional 241 Am radionuclide. White silicon rubber is used as a reflector. (H.S.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  14. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.


    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  15. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.


    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  16. Hoechst plans Mexican unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.; Alperowicz, N.


    Hoechst is considering plans to build its first ethoxylates project in Mexico, Mark Sijthoff, head of surfactants and auxiliaries for Hoechst`s specialty chemical business unit, tells CW. The company expects to make a decision on the 30,000-m.t./year project by the end of the year. Sijthoff would not disclose the site or where ethylene oxide (EO) feed would be obtained. The plan may depend on results of the privatization of Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), which is the only producer of EO in Mexico. Hoechst is part of a consortium bidding on the privatization. Sources say the unit will be built at Quimica Hoechst`s Coatzacoalcos site, close to Pemex`s EO plants at Cangregera and Morelos. A planned EO expansion at Morelos will probably move ahead when the sell-off is completed. Sijthoff says that Hoechst is also looking at improving its US surfactants position, although the company has no plans to expand ethoxylates, as there is {open_quotes}plenty of capacity.{close_quotes} Hoechst started up a 150-million lbs/year plant at Clear Lake, TX last year, ending a tolling agreement with Union Carbide. In addition, Rhone-Poulenc recently started a unit at Marcus Hook, PA, and Condea Vista is doubling its ethoxylation capacity at Lake Charles, LA. Meanwhile, Hoechst is still considering construction of 30,000-m.t./year ethoxylation plant in India or China. A decision is expected later this year.

  17. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif


    The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that inco...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...... and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men...

  18. LMFBR steam generators in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Hayden, O.


    Experience has been gained in the UK on the operation of LMFBR Steam Generator Units (SGU) over a period of 20 years from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). The DFR steam generator featured a double barrier and therefore did not represent a commercial design. PFR, however, faced the challenge of a single wall design and it is experience from this which is most valuable. The PFR reactor went critical in March 1974 and the plant operating history since then has been dominated by experience with leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the high performance U-tubes SGU's. Operation at high power using the full complement of three secondary sodium circuits was delayed until July 1976 by the occurrence of leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the superheater and reheater units which are fabricated in stainless steel. Repairs were carried out to the two superheaters and they were returned to service. The reheater tube bundle was removed from circuit after sodium was found to have entered the steam side. When the sodium had been removed and inspection carried out it was decided not to recover the unit. Since 1976 the remaining five stainless steel units have operated satisfactorily. This year a replacement reheater unit has been installed. This is of a new design in 9-Cr-Mo ferritic steel using a sleeve through which the steam tube passes to eliminate the tube to tube plate weld. Despite a few early leaks in evaporator tube to tube plate welds up to 1979, these failures did not initially present a major problem. However, in 1980 the rate of evaporator weld failures increased and despite the successful application of a shot peening process to eliminate stress corrosion failures from the water side of the weld, failures traced to the sodium side continued. A sleeving process was developed for application to complete evaporator units on a production basis with the objective of bypassing the welds at each end of the 500 tubes. The decision

  19. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.


    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  20. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver


    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  1. Single-cavity SLED device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, B.A.


    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here

  2. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils


    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  3. Quantum transport through single molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Oliveros, E.A.


    This thesis describes three-terminal transport measurements through single molecules. The interest in this field stems from the dream that single molecules will form the building blocks for future nanoscale electronic devices. The advantages are their small size -nanometers-, and their synthetic

  4. Student Engagement at Two Single-Sex Colleges: Hampden-Sydney and Sweet Briar (United States)

    Simms, Edith L.


    Since the 1960s the higher educational system in the United States has steadily lost its single-sex colleges; and as of 2008 only 51 women's and four men's institutions remain (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008). Many of the previous single-sex schools have admitted members of the opposite sex, giving in to the national trend of…

  5. 29 CFR 779.223 - Control where ownership vested in individual or single organization. (United States)


    ... organization. 779.223 Section 779.223 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... in individual or single organization. Ownership, sufficient to exercise “control,” of course, exists where total ownership is vested in a single person, family unit, partnership, corporation, or other...

  6. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor (United States)

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.


    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great detail recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report the coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental results are well explained by the rate-equation theory developed in parallel with the experiment.

  7. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef industry. L.L. Benyshek* and J.K. Bertrand ... cattle industry is accepting, in fact, demanding estimates of genetic values on yearling bulls. Single and multiple analy- ses are ... teristic in a directed fashion without change of the genetic material (mutation) or ...

  8. Magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in the intensive care unit: Do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are important electrolytes involved in the regulation of homeostasis. However the utility in monitoring them in critically ill patients is still unclear. We therefore undertook a prospective, non-interventional, single center study in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in ...

  9. Improving Emergency Attendance and Mortality – The Case for Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to find the effect of the Unit Separation Model (USM) on the quality of emergency care delivery in a developing country. METHODS: The study compared the outcomes (attendance and mortality) in a Single Emergency Model (SEM) with a USM, over a two-year period. Two groups ...

  10. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup


    framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  11. Improving Emergency Attendance and Mortality – The Case for Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Emergency attendance and mortality which are reliable indicators of quality of care, have been of concern to many health institutions. Different models are being proposed to improve emergency outcomes in different parts of the world. A model to separate a single emergency Unit into multiple emergency ...

  12. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.


    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  13. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.


    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)


    CERN Document Server

    Thoulet, S


    Le module TIMING UNIT est en charge de générer les timings spécifiques nécessaires aux différents modules électroniques dans la chaine de traitement des Transformateurs de mesure du courant de faisceau continu pour le LHC. Ce module produit entre autres les timings pour la séquence de calibration, l’acquisition de l’offset en l’absence de faisceau mais aussi la possibilité de simuler un faisceau.

  15. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.


    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  16. A Timing Single Channel Analyzer with pileup rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, J.; Nachbar, H.U.


    A Timing Single Channel Analyzer is described as normally used in nuclear physics applications for measuring certain ranges of energy spectra. The unit accepts unipolar or bipolar gaussian shaped or rectangular pulses and includes a special pileup rejection circuit. Because of its good timing performance high resolution timing and coincidence measurements are possible. The differential analyzer, trigger and timing modes and the function of external strobe and gate signals are explained. Parts of the circuit are illustrated by help of block diagrams and pulse schematics. An essential part of the unit is the pileup rejection circuit. Following theoretical reflections the circuit is described and some measurement results are reported. (orig.) [de

  17. Unit Commitment: A New Truncated Method of Unit Combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility industry can reduce its fuel cost by proper commitment of schedulable generating unit. In this paper, a new truncation of unit combinations is proposed which will greatly reduce the number of unit combinations to be considered for large systems. A dynamic programming optimization based digital computer ...

  18. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  19. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes


    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.


    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete?s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional s...

  20. Avaliação dos contatos oclusais em próteses provisórias unitárias implantossuportadas confeccionadas com e sem arco facial Evaluación de los contactos oclusales en prótesis temporales unitarias implantosoportadas montadas en articuladores semiajustables con arco facial Assessment of occlusal contacts in implant-based single temporal prostheses in a semi-adjusted articulator using the facial arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Zamperini


    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o número dos contatos oclusais obtidos em próteses provisórias unitárias sobre implantes posteriores, montadas em articulador semi-ajustável a partir da utilização de arco facial e de plano de Camper. Dez pacientes que procuraram uma clínica particular foram selecionados para confecção de próteses sobre implantes unitários previamente instalados. Para cada paciente foram confeccionadas duas próteses provisórias, obtidas sob diferentes condições: (1 montagem dos modelos utilizando arco facial e (2 montagem com plano de Camper. As próteses foram confeccionadas e ajustadas em laboratório, e instaladas por um único operador. Os contatos oclusais obtidos em cada condição foram evidenciados e fotografados, sendo então submetidos à avaliação e quantificação por um segundo profissional, cego para as condições de montagem. Os números obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Mann Witney, e um nível de 5 % de significância foi utilizado. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os números de contatos oclusais, quando as próteses foram confeccionadas com arco facial ou plano de Camper (p> 0,05. Para confecção de próteses provisórias unitárias sobre implantes posteriores, o uso do plano de Camper para montagem em articulador não diferiu significantemente do arco facial, considerando o número de contatos oclusais.Este estudio evaluó el número de los contactos oclusales obtenidos en las prótesis temporales, montados en articulador semiajustable por el uso de arco facial y el plano de Camper. Diez pacientes que buscaron una clínica privada fueron seleccionados para las prótesis de implantes unitarios previamente instalados. Para cada paciente se hicieron dos prótesis temporales, que fueron obtenidas bajo condiciones diferentes: montaje de modelos con uso de arco facial y montaje con plano de Camper. Las prótesis fueron hechas, ajustadas e instaladas por un solo operador en el

  1. Single banking supervision and the single supervisory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.


    Full Text Available A resolution seems to have been found for the banking crisis. The first steps have been made towards the construction of the Economic and Monetary Union, steps involving the single supervision of banks, in order to avoid the discount of a new financial crisis on the expense of the EU state members. The Single Supervisory Mechanism – SSM is to become effective as of March 1, 2014, at the earliest.

  2. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units (United States)


    might be focused on these dimensions. Is cohesion more difficult to build in multinational units comprised of contingents that come from individualistic ...societies or collectivistic societies? How the PD, uncertainty avoidance, and other dimensions affect multinational unit cohesion? Are military

  3. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) is an optical disdrometer based on single particle extinction that measures particle size and fall velocity. This APU consists of...

  5. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John


    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  6. 75 FR 34156 - United States (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Amcor, Ltd., et al.; Proposed Final... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in United States of America v. Amcor Ltd., et al., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv-00973. On June 10...

  7. 77 FR 27481 - United States (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al.; Public... U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), the United States hereby publishes below the comment received on the proposed Final Judgment in United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al., Civil Action No. 1:11-CV-02276-EGS, which...

  8. 78 FR 4439 - United States (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State... January 10, 2013, the United States filed a Complaint alleging that the Defendants and other competing...

  9. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  10. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan. (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  11. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software (United States)

    Banker, M. W.


    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  12. Learning unit: Thin lenses (United States)

    Nita, L.-S.


    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  13. Single-electron thermal noise. (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Akira


    We report the observation of thermal noise in the motion of single electrons in an ultimately small dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The nanometer-scale transistors that compose the DRAM resolve the thermal noise in single-electron motion. A complete set of fundamental tests conducted on this single-electron thermal noise shows that the noise perfectly follows all the aspects predicted by statistical mechanics, which include the occupation probability, the law of equipartition, a detailed balance, and the law of kT/C. In addition, the counting statistics on the directional motion (i.e., the current) of the single-electron thermal noise indicate that the individual electron motion follows the Poisson process, as it does in shot noise.

  14. Single-employer Pension Plans (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  15. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  16. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  17. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters


    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo


    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  18. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA


    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  19. Single--stranded DNA mycoplasmaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniloff, J.; Das, J.; Nowak, J.A.


    Two general types of single--stranded DNA bacteriophases have been described, icosahedral virions (e.g., 0X174) and filamentous virions (e.g., M13). Mycoplasmavirus MVL51 appears to represent another type of single--stranded DNA phage, with a genome size close to that of 0X174 and a nonlytic mode of infection like that of filamentous phages. The bullet shaped MVL51 morphology is unlike that of other known phages.

  20. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank


    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  1. UNITED KINGDOM: under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data

  2. United Kingdom offshore surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To date, the reconnaissance mapping programme of the inner continental shelf of the United Kingdom has absorbed almost the entire effort of the offshore programme. Activities now, however, are much more diverse. Clients include government departments and public and private industry, and there are also the strategic and basis research projects in support of the Core Programme. Attention is now being turned to the remaining unexplored areas of the UK shelf. These include the Rockall Trough, the Hatton Rockall Basin, the Faeroe-Shetland Channel and the Norwegian Sea to the west and north of Scotland; and also the coastal strip around the UK extending one to two kilometres offshore, which was inaccessible to the large ships that conducted the first phase of the shelf survey. (author).

  3. Multi-Unit Considerations for Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, S.; Boring, R.; Banaseanu, G.; Akl, Y.; Chatri, H.


    This paper uses the insights from the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) methodology to help identify human actions currently modeled in the single unit PSA that may need to be modified to account for additional challenges imposed by a multi-unit accident as well as identify possible new human actions that might be modeled to more accurately characterize multi-unit risk. In identifying these potential human action impacts, the use of the SPAR-H strategy to include both errors in diagnosis and errors in action is considered as well as identifying characteristics of a multi-unit accident scenario that may impact the selection of the performance shaping factors (PSFs) used in SPAR-H. The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accident will be addressed to further help identify areas where improved modeling may be required. While these multi-unit impacts may require modifications to a Level 1 PSA model, it is expected to have much more importance for Level 2 modeling. There is little currently written specifically about multi-unit HRA issues. A review of related published research will be presented. While this paper cannot answer all issues related to multi-unit HRA, it will hopefully serve as a starting point to generate discussion and spark additional ideas towards the proper treatment of HRA in a multi-unit PSA.

  4. Prototype detection unit for the CHIPS experiment (United States)

    Pfützner, Maciej M.


    CHIPS (CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS) is an R&D project aiming to develop novel cost-effective neutrino detectors, focused on measuring the CP-violating neutrino mixing phase (δ CP). A single detector module, containing an enclosed volume of purified water, would be submerged in an existing lake, located in a neutrino beam. A staged approach is proposed with first detectors deployed in a flooded mine pit in Northern Minnesota, 7 mrad off-axis from the existing NuMI beam. A small proof-of-principle model (CHIPS-M) has already been tested and the first stage of a fully functional 10 kt module (CHIPS-10) is planned for 2018. One of the instruments submerged on board of CHIPS-M in autumn 2015 was a prototype detection unit, constructed at Nikhef. The unit contains hardware borrowed from the KM3NeT experiment, including 16 3 inch photomultiplier tubes and readout electronics. In addition to testing the mechanical design and data acquisition, the detector was used to record a large sample of cosmic ray muon events. The collected data is valuable for characterising the cosmic muon background and validating a Monte Carlo simulation used to optimise future designs. This paper introduces the CHIPS project, describes the design of the prototype unit, and presents the results of a preliminary data analysis.

  5. The Use of Importance Measures for Quantification of Multi-unit Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Gon


    In this paper, we focus on the quantification of the multi-unit accident sequences frequencies, i.e., conditional core damage probability (CCDP) for a MUI from the SUR model. The paper proposes a method for the estimation of the r-units CCDP considered the interunit dependency, using importance measures. Note that the 1 st and 2 nd terms in the left hand side of the equation have different units of risk measure, i.e., reactor operating year and site operating year, respectively. The total risk of multi-unit reactor accidents concurred by the independent accident sequences each single-unit (the 1 st term in the right-hand side of the Equation 1) can approximate the sum of n single-unit risk conservatively. It corresponds to the traditional multi-unit risk profile concept having used since post-PSA era. Simultaneously, the Equation 1 represent that multi-unit risk within a site with n units has been underestimated as much as the amount of the 2 nd term (MUR by multi-unit initiators), which consists of three parts: 1) the frequency estimation of a MUI, , 2) the quantification of the multi-unit accident sequences frequencies for a MUI, , and 3) the multi-unit consequence analysis for a MUI. The paper proposes a method for the estimation of the r-units CCDP considered the inter-unit dependency, using importance measures. It can facilitate the treatment of the inter-unit dependencies in the multi-unit risk model and can give more comprehensive and more practicable technical platform for estimating multi-unit site risk

  6. Research highlights: microfluidic-enabled single-cell epigenetics. (United States)

    Dhar, Manjima; Khojah, Reem; Tay, Andy; Di Carlo, Dino


    Individual cells are the fundamental unit of life with diverse functions from metabolism to motility. In multicellular organisms, a single genome can give rise to tremendous variability across tissues at the single-cell level due to epigenetic differences in the genes that are expressed. Signals from the local environment or a history of signals can drive these variations, and tissues have many cell types that play separate roles. This epigenetic heterogeneity is of biological importance in normal functions such as tissue morphogenesis and can contribute to development or resistance of cancer, or other disease states. Therefore, an improved understanding of variations at the single cell level are fundamental to understanding biology and developing new approaches to combating disease. Traditional approaches to characterize epigenetic modifications of chromatin or the transcriptome of cells have often focused on blended responses of many cells in a tissue; however, such bulk measures lose spatial and temporal differences that occur from cell to cell, and cannot uncover novel or rare populations of cells. Here we highlight a flurry of recent activity to identify the mRNA profiles from thousands of single-cells as well as chromatin accessibility and histone marks on single to few hundreds of cells. Microfluidics and microfabrication have played a central role in the range of new techniques, and will likely continue to impact their further development towards routine single-cell epigenetic analysis.

  7. Single VDTA Based Dual Mode Single Input Multioutput Biquad Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey


    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual mode, single input multioutput (SIMO biquad filter configuration using single voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA, three capacitors, and a grounded resistor. The proposed topology can be used to synthesize low pass (LP, high pass (HP, and band pass (BP filter functions. It can be configured as voltage mode (VM or current mode (CM structure with appropriate input excitation choice. The angular frequency (ω0 of the proposed structure can be controlled independently of quality factor (Q0. Workability of the proposed biquad configuration is demonstrated through PSPICE simulations using 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS process parameters.

  8. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens


    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  9. A study of the motor unit action potential by means of computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, P.A.M.; Boon, K.L.; Stegeman, D.F.


    In order to study the motor unit action potential a computer simulation model was developed. It is based on the superposition of single muscle fibre potentials of the fibres belonging to the motor unit. The parameters which characterize each fibre (spatial position, diameter, and a dispersion of

  10. Multi-unit price promotions and their impact on purchase decisions and sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Salome; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Natter, Martin


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of different multi-unit promotions (MUPs) and a single-unit promotion (SUP) on store-level sales and consumer-level purchase probability and quantity decision. Design/methodology/approach - The paper combines two empirical studies. Study 1

  11. In-vitro Characterization of Optimized Multi-Unit Dosage Forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    22: 2342–2343. Folloniner N and Doelker E. Biopharmaceutical comparison of oral multiple-unit and single unit sustained–release dosage forms .STP Pharma. Sciences. 1992; 2: 141-155. Vial–Bernasconi AC, Doelker E and Buri P (1988). Prolonged release Capsules; divided and monolithic forms. STP Pharma Sciences.

  12. [United theory of aging]. (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G


    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  13. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system. (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh


    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru


    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  15. 24 CFR 92.258 - Elder cottage housing opportunity (ECHO) units. (United States)


    ... designed to be installed adjacent to existing single-family dwellings. (b) Eligible owners. The owner of a HOME-assisted ECHO unit may be: (1) The owner-occupant of the single-family host property on which the... elderly or disabled family as defined in 24 CFR 5.403 and must also be a low-income family. (d) Applicable...

  16. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  17. Portable Virtual Training Units (United States)

    Malone, Reagan; Johnston, Alan


    The Mission Operations Lab initiated a project to design, develop, deliver, test, and validate a unique training system for astronaut and ground support personnel. In an effort to keep training costs low, virtual training units (VTUs) have been designed based on images of actual hardware and manipulated by a touch screen style interface for ground support personnel training. This project helped modernized the training system and materials by integrating them with mobile devices for training when operators or crew are unavailable to physically train in the facility. This project also tested the concept of a handheld remote device to control integrated trainers using International Space Station (ISS) training simulators as a platform. The portable VTU can interface with the full-sized VTU, allowing a trainer co-located with a trainee to remotely manipulate a VTU and evaluate a trainee's response. This project helped determine if it is useful, cost effective, and beneficial for the instructor to have a portable handheld device to control the behavior of the models during training. This project has advanced NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) VTU capabilities with modern and relevant technology to support space flight training needs of today and tomorrow.

  18. Units of rotational information (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping


    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  19. United Kingdom position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined

  20. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, S.; Williams, P.


    The possession of nuclear weapons by the United Kingdom has long been a controversial issue in British politics, and among historians and strategists. Part of the controversy has revolved around questions of motivation. Why did the British Government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee develop nuclear weapons? Why have successive British governments maintained and, in fact, modernized the national nuclear force? This paper reports that a frequent response to these questions is to place the issue of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the UK into a post-colonial context. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Britain was a great power with global assets and commitments. After the Empire was reduced in size and importance, however, and eventually swept away, Britain could not longer claim to be a superpower in any modern sense. Nevertheless, it is suggested, British policy makers had developed a foreign policy based upon certain assumptions about Britain's position and power and they were reluctant to relinquish these assumptions. Furthermore, it is contended, the decision to develop nuclear weapons was taken to reinforce what were the pretensions of a medium power, and the continued obsession of successive British governments with nuclear weapons provides evidence that Britain has still not come to terms with its reduced role and limited influence. In short, the British infatuation with nuclear weapons over the past 40 years is best explained in terms of concerns about status

  1. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  2. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim


    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  3. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.


    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  4. Relocating an intensive care unit: An exploratory qualitative study. (United States)

    Lin, Frances Fengzhi; Foster, Michelle; Chaboyer, Wendy; Marshall, Andrea


    As new hospitals are built to replace old and ageing facilities, intensive care units are being constructed with single patient rooms rather than open plan environments. While single rooms may limit hospital infections and promote patient privacy, their effect on patient safety and work processes in the intensive care unit requires greater understanding. Strategies to manage changes to a different physical environment are also unknown. This study aimed to identify challenges and issues as perceived by staff related to relocating to a geographically and structurally new intensive care unit. This exploratory ethnographic study, underpinned by Donabedian's structure, process and outcome framework, was conducted in an Australian tertiary hospital intensive care unit. A total of 55 participants including nurses, doctors, allied health professionals, and support staff participated in the study. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group and eight individual interviews, and reviewed the hospital's documents specific to the relocation. After sorting the data deductively into structure, process and outcome domains, the data were then analysed inductively to identify themes. Three themes emerged: understanding of the relocation plan, preparing for the uncertainties and vulnerabilities of a new work environment, and acknowledging the need for change and engaging in the relocation process. A systematic change management strategy, dedicated change leadership and expertise, and an effective communication strategy are important factors to be considered in managing ICU relocation. Uncertainty and staff anxiety related to the relocation must be considered and supports put in place for a smooth transition. Work processes and model of care that are suited to the new single room environment should be developed, and patient safety issues in the single room setting should be considered and monitored. Future studies on managing multidisciplinary work processes during intensive care unit

  5. Allographic agraphia for single letters. (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo


    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  6. From joint to single audits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank


    This study analyses audit quality differences between audits by a single big audit firm and joint audits with either one or two big audit firms. We exploit the unique situation in Denmark beginning on 1 January 2005, at which time a long-standing mandatory joint audit system for listed companies...... was replaced by a voluntary joint audit system. First, we report the results of a survey of Danish CFOs’ views on and their experiences with the choice of single or joint audits and their perceptions of audit quality. Second, based on data from the mandatory joint audit abolition year and the following two...... years, we test the audit quality differences using abnormal accruals. Most CFOs perceive that audit quality by a single big four audit firm is the same as it is in joint audits with either one or two big four audit firms. The results of our empirical analysis are in line with the perceptions. We find...

  7. Actuator digital interface unit (AIU). [control units for space shuttle data system (United States)


    Alternate versions of the actuator interface unit are presented. One alternate is a dual-failure immune configuration which feeds a look-and-switch dual-failure immune hydraulic system. The other alternate is a single-failure immune configuration which feeds a majority voting hydraulic system. Both systems communicate with the data bus through data terminals dedicated to each user subsystem. Both operational control data and configuration control information are processed in and out of the subsystem via the data terminal which yields the actuator interface subsystem, self-managing within its failure immunity capability.

  8. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph


    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  9. Single transverse mode protein laser (United States)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat


    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  10. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José


    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  11. Algebraic characteristics and satisfiability threshold of random Boolean equations (United States)

    Guo, Binghui; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yifan; Zheng, Zhiming


    The satisfiability of a class of random Boolean equations named massive algebraic system septated to linear and nonlinear subproblems is studied in this paper. On one hand, the correlation between the magnetization of generators and the clustering of solutions of the linear subproblem is investigated by analyzing the Gaussian elimination process. On the other hand, the characteristics of maximal elements of solutions of the nonlinear subproblem are studied by introducing the partial order among solutions. Based on the algebraic characteristics of these two subproblems, the upper and lower bounds of satisfiability threshold of massive algebraic system are obtained by unit-clause propagation and leaf-removal process, and coincide as the ratio of nonlinear equations q>0.739 in which analytical values of the satisfiability threshold can be derived. Furthermore, a complete algorithm with heuristic decimation is proposed to observe the approximation of the satisfiability threshold, which performs more efficiently than the classical ones.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  13. United States Strategy for Mexico (United States)


    vulnerability to non-state actors and the strategic importance of Mexico in our security strategy. The nineteen terrorists that high-jacked aircraft for the...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT UNITED STATES STRATEGY FOR MEXICO by Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Centner United States Army National Guard COLONEL...number. 1. REPORT DATE 3. DATES COVERED 18 MAR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER United States Strategy for Mexico 5b

  14. Localised irradiance distribution found in dental light curing units. (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-Luc; Price, Richard B T; Labrie, Daniel; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Sullivan, Braden


    To measure the localised irradiance and wavelength distributions from dental light curing units (LCUs) and establish a method to characterise their output. Using a laboratory grade integrating sphere spectrometer system (Labsphere and Ocean Optics) the power, irradiance, and spectral emission were measured at the light tips of four LCUs: one plasma-arc (PAC) unit, one single peak blue light-emitting diode (blue-LED) unit, and two polywave LED (poly-LED) units. A beam profiler camera (Ophir Spiricon) was used to record the localised irradiance across the face of the light tips. The irradiance-calibrated beam profile images were then divided into 45 squares, each 1mm(2). Each square contained the irradiance information received from approximately 3200 pixels. The mean irradiance value within each square was calculated, and the distribution of irradiance values among these 45 squares across the tip-ends was examined. Additionally, the spectral emission was recorded at various regions across each light tip using the integrating sphere with a 4-mm diameter entrance aperture. The localised irradiance distribution was inhomogeneous in all four lights. The irradiance distribution was most uniformly distributed across the PAC tip. Both the irradiance and spectral emission from the poly-LED units were very unevenly distributed. Reporting a single irradiance value or a single spectral range to describe the output from a curing light is both imprecise and inappropriate. Instead, an image of both the irradiance distribution and the distribution of the spectral emission across the light tip should be provided. The localised beam irradiance profile at the tip of dental LCUs is not uniform. Poly-LED units may deliver spectrally inhomogeneous irradiance profiles. Depending on the photoinitiator used in the RBC and the orientation of the LCU over the tooth, this non-uniformity may cause inadequate and inhomogeneous resin polymerisation, leading to poor physical properties, and

  15. The Executive Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit III). (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the executive process. The unit uses case studies of presidential decision making such as the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Cuba Bay of Pigs and quarantine decisions, and the Little Rock decision. A case study of…

  16. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual. (United States)

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  17. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.


    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring

  18. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.


    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  19. Single port Billroth I gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Huddy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Experience has allowed increasingly complex procedures to be undertaken by single port surgery. We describe a technique for single port Billroth I gastrectomy with a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis in the resection of a benign tumour diagnosed incidentally on a background of cholelithiasis. Materials and Methods: Single port Billroth I gastrectomy and cholecystectomy was performed using a transumbilical quadport. Flexible tipped camera and straight conventional instruments were used throughout the procedure. The stomach was mobilised including a limited lymph node dissection and resection margins in the proximal antrum and duodenum were divided with a flexible tipped laparoscopic stapler. The lesser curve was reconstructed and an intracorporal hand sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed using unidirectional barbed sutures. Intraoperative endoscopy confirmed the anastomosis to be patent without leak. Results: Enteral feed was started on the day of surgery, increasing to a full diet by day 6. Analgesic requirements were a patient-controlled analgesia morphine pump for 4 postoperative days and paracetamol for 6 days. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged on the eighth day. Histology confirmed gastric submucosal lipoma. Discussion: As technology improves more complex procedures are possible by single port laparoscopic surgery. In this case, flexible tipped cameras and unidirectional barbed sutures have facilitated an intracorporal hand-sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis. Experience will allow such techniques to become mainstream.

  20. Single-Pilot Workload Management (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy


    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  1. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.


    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  2. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G


    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  3. Single cell electroporation on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero, Ana


    In this thesis the results of the development of microfluidic cell trap devices for single cell electroporation are described, which are to be used for gene transfection. The performance of two types of Lab-on-a-Chip trapping devices was tested using beads and cells, whereas the functionality for

  4. CERN single sign on solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormancey, E


    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page

  5. Single photon searches at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebeek, R.


    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  6. Single photon searches at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.


    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented

  7. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  8. A Single-Pulse Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne


    A single-pulse integrator is described. It gives a relative measure of the integral of the output signal from a coil monitor on the Risø 10 MeV linear accelerator, and displays the value on a digital voltmeter. The reproduccibility is found to be better than ±1% for an accelerated pulse charge...

  9. Acceleration of single pixel imaging (United States)

    Nitta, K.


    A method for single pixel imaging (SPI) is introduced. The method is proposed to accelerate optical measurement. The method is also useful for high-definition imaging. The processing procedure of the method is described and some features of the based on the proposed method is described.

  10. United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Marjorie A


    A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and Congress concerning United Nations peacekeeping is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace...

  11. Transfusion strategy in hematological intensive care unit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Chantepie, Sylvain P; Mear, Jean-Baptiste; Guittet, Lydia; Dervaux, Benoît; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Jardin, Fabrice; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Vilque, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly


    Packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is required in hematology patients treated with chemotherapy for acute leukemia, autologous (auto) or allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In certain situations like septic shock, hip surgery, coronary disease or gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a restrictive transfusion strategy is associated with a reduction of infection and death. A transfusion strategy using a single PRBC unit has been retrospectively investigated and showed a safe reduction of PRBC consumption and costs. We therefore designed a study to prospectively demonstrate that the transfusion of a single PRBC unit is safe and not inferior to standard care. The 1versus2 trial is a randomized trial which will determine if a single-unit transfusion policy is not inferior to a double-unit transfusion policy. The primary endpoint is the incidence of severe complication (grade ≥ 3) defined as stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, elevated troponin level, intensive care unit transfer, death, new pulmonary infiltrates, and transfusion-related infections during hospital stays. The secondary endpoint is the number of PRBC units transfused per patient per hospital stay. Two hundred and thirty patients will be randomized to receive a single unit or double unit every time the hemoglobin level is less than 8 g/dL. All patients admitted for induction remission chemotherapy, auto-HSCT or allo-HSCT in hematology intensive care units will be eligible for inclusion. Sample size calculation has determined that a patient population of 230 will be required to prove that the 1-unit PRBC strategy is non-inferior to the 2-unit PRBC strategy. Hemoglobin threshold for transfusion is below 8 g/dL. Estimated percentage of complication-free hospital stays is 93 %. In a non-inferiority hypothesis, the number of patients to include is 230 with a power of 90 % and an alpha risk of 5 %. 14-128; NCT02461264

  12. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede


    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  13. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics. (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue


    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94. (United States)

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is topresent the result of a research aimed at designing and developing a household dejluoridiation unit that is simple, inexpensive and that uses locally manufactured. Aluminum. Sulfate that will reduce the jluoride concentration to the recommended range. The dejluoridation unit developed by.

  16. Unit 903: Approaches to Grammar. (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This unit is intended to give ninth-grade students a brief survey of the changes in the study of language from the time of the Greeks to the present. Organized to proceed from the teacher's introduction of a subject to class examination and discussion of an excerpt from a grammarian's work, the unit focuses on the belief that a grammarian's…

  17. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.


    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  18. Edison Home Community Study Unit. (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  19. Definitions of Quantities and Units. (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.


    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  20. United States mineral resources (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.


    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  1. Faster catalog matching on Graphics Processing Units (United States)

    Lee, M. A.; Budavári, T.


    One of the most fundamental problems in observational astronomy is the cross-identification of sources. Observations are made at different times in different wavelengths with separate instruments, resulting in a large set of independent observations. The scientific outcome is often limited by our ability to quickly perform associations across catalogs. The matching, however, is difficult scientifically, statistically as well as computationally. The former two require detailed physical modeling and advanced probabilistic concepts; the latter is due to the large volumes of data and the problem's combinatorial nature. In order to tackle the computational challenge and to prepare for future surveys we developed a new implementation on Graphics Processing Units. Our solution scales across multiple devices and can process hundreds of trillions of crossmatch candidates per second in a single machine.

  2. The responsibility to care for single homeless people. (United States)

    Crane, M; Warnes, A M


    This paper examines the reasons why in contemporary Britain many single homeless people with severe physical and mental health problems and welfare needs do not receive the treatment, care and financial support that they manifestly need, and in particular considers the interaction between their personal characteristics and the organisation and the obligations of services. Homelessness is a complex concept associated with problems of housing, health, social care and income. The greatest weaknesses of the service system are that no single agency has a statutory responsibility to ensure that vulnerable homeless people are served, and none of the generalist welfare agencies have a duty to seek out those who do not present. As a result, single homeless people fall between the housing, health and social services and amass exceptional unmet needs. The paper appraises the approaches to single homeless people's problems that have recently been introduced by the Rough Sleepers' Unit (RSU), and discusses the ways in which current reforms of the welfare services may impact on the situation of homeless people. With the possibility that the RSU's prime responsibility for commissioning single homeless people's services will transfer to local authorities in 2002, the paper concludes by specifying the implications for voluntary and statutory providers and makes recommendations about the attribution of the responsibility to care for this vulnerable group.

  3. Initial experience with single-port robotic hysterectomy. (United States)

    Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira; Machado, Andréa Maria Novaes; Podgaec, Sérgio; Barison, Gustavo Anderman Silva


    This article presents the first series of robotic single-port hysterectomy cases performed at a hospital in Brazil. From November 2014 to October 2016, 11 patients were indicated to undergo, and nine of them were submitted to single-port hysterectomy using da Vinci Single-Site® platform. However, in two patients, due to multiple previous abdominal surgeries, large uterine volume, and/or a uterus with no mobility, a pneumoperitoneum was performed with a Verres needle, and the pelvic cavity was assessed using a 5mm optics endoscope. In these cases, single-port surgery was not recommended; therefore, multiportal robotic access was chosen, and no intercurrent events were reported. Nine single-port cases were operated on by the same surgeon at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Patient data analyzed included age, body mass index, previous surgeries, and clinical diagnosis. Surgical data included operative time, skin incision, report of intraoperative complications, need for conversion to laparotomy, need for transfer to intensive care unit, need for blood transfusion, inadvertent injury to other organs, length of hospital stay, and death. All cases were completed with da Vinci Single-Site® system, with no intercurrent events. Four patients presented with adenomyosis as the surgical indication, two had uterine myoma, one endometrial cancer, one endometrial polyp, and one desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. The mean age of patients was 44 years (range, 40 to 54 years), and body mass index varied between 23.4 and 33.2kg/m2 (mean 26.4). No complications occurred in any of the cases, such as intestinal or bladder injury, bleeding, or the need for a second surgery. All nine procedures were completed with the robotic single-port access, and no patient required a blood transfusion. Although this study merely presented an initial series of patients submitted to robotic single-port surgery, it demonstrated that the method is feasible and safe, suggesting the possible use of

  4. Charge transport in single crystal organic semiconductors (United States)

    Xie, Wei

    Organic electronics have engendered substantial interest in printable, flexible and large-area applications thanks to their low fabrication cost per unit area, chemical versatility and solution processability. Nevertheless, fundamental understanding of device physics and charge transport in organic semiconductors lag somewhat behind, partially due to ubiquitous defects and impurities in technologically useful organic thin films, formed either by vacuum deposition or solution process. In this context, single-crystalline organic semiconductors, or organic single crystals, have therefore provided the ideal system for transport studies. Organic single crystals are characterized by their high chemical purity and outstanding structural perfection, leading to significantly improved electrical properties compared with their thin-film counterparts. Importantly, the surfaces of the crystals are molecularly flat, an ideal condition for building field-effect transistors (FETs). Progress in organic single crystal FETs (SC-FETs) is tremendous during the past decade. Large mobilities ~ 1 - 10 cm2V-1s-1 have been achieved in several crystals, allowing a wide range of electrical, optical, mechanical, structural, and theoretical studies. Several challenges still remain, however, which are the motivation of this thesis. The first challenge is to delineate the crystal structure/electrical property relationship for development of high-performance organic semiconductors. This thesis demonstrates a full spectrum of studies spanning from chemical synthesis, single crystal structure determination, quantum-chemical calculation, SC-OFET fabrication, electrical measurement, photoelectron spectroscopy characterization and extensive device optimization in a series of new rubrene derivatives, motivated by the fact that rubrene is a benchmark semiconductor with record hole mobility ~ 20 cm2V-1s-1. With successful preservation of beneficial pi-stacking structures, these rubrene derivatives form

  5. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  6. Life Experience Starter Unit: Set No. 1. (United States)

    Meyen, Edward L.; Carr, Donald L.

    Developmental steps to writing life experience units for the educable retarded are outlined and six units are partially completed. Objectives of the unit, sub-units, core activities, resource materials, vocabulary words, and lesson plans are provided for primary units on school orientation and clothing, intermediate units on grooming and taking a…

  7. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.


    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  8. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States. (United States)

    Bown, K. J.; Ellis, B. A.; Birtles, R. J.; Durden, L. A.; Lello, J.; Begon, M.; Bennett, M.


    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

  9. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States. (United States)

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M


    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.

  10. Single-port laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology: seven years of experience at a single institution. (United States)

    Moulton, Laura; Jernigan, Amelia M; Carr, Caitlin; Freeman, Lindsey; Escobar, Pedro F; Michener, Chad M


    Single-port laparoscopy has gained popularity within minimally invasive gynecologic surgery for its feasibility, cosmetic outcomes, and safety. However, within gynecologic oncology, there are limited data regarding short-term adverse outcomes and long-term hernia risk in patients undergoing single-port laparoscopic surgery. The objective of the study was to describe short-term outcomes and hernia rates in patients after single-port laparoscopy in a gynecologic oncology practice. A retrospective, single-institution study was performed for patients who underwent single-port laparoscopy from 2009 to 2015. A univariate analysis was performed with χ 2 tests and Student t tests; Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards determined time to hernia development. A total of 898 patients underwent 908 surgeries with a median follow-up of 37.2 months. The mean age and body mass index were 55.7 years and 29.6 kg/m 2 , respectively. The majority were white (87.9%) and American Society of Anesthesiologists class II/III (95.5%). The majority of patients underwent surgery for adnexal masses (36.9%) and endometrial hyperplasia/cancer (37.3%). Most women underwent hysterectomy (62.7%) and removal of 1 or both fallopian tubes and/or ovaries (86%). Rate of adverse outcomes within 30 days, including reoperation (0.1%), intraoperative injury (1.4%), intensive care unit admission (0.4%), venous thromboembolism (0.3%), and blood transfusion, were low (0.8%). The rate of urinary tract infection was 2.8%; higher body mass index (P = .02), longer operative time (P = .02), smoking (P = .01), hysterectomy (P = .01), and cystoscopy (P = .02) increased the risk. The rate of incisional cellulitis was 3.5%. Increased estimated blood loss (P = .03) and endometrial cancer (P = .02) were independent predictors of incisional cellulitis. The rate for surgical readmissions was 3.4%; higher estimated blood loss (P = .03), longer operative time (P = .02), chemotherapy alone (P = .03), and

  11. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de


    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.


    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  13. [Contact wear related to single- and multi-unit dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Spijker, A. van 't; Kuin, D.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.


    Occlusal surfaces of teeth and restorations wear by repeated antagonistic contact. Two-body wear is the result of direct contact between occlusal surfaces. In cases of three-body wear, food is found between antagonistic teeth. Contact wear is expressed predominantly by abrasion and material fatigue.

  14. Transplant tourism in the United States: a single-center experience. (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Madhira, Bhaskara R; Gjertson, David; Lipshutz, Gerald; Cecka, J Michael; Pham, Phuong-Thu; Wilkinson, Alan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Danovitch, Gabriel M


    Transplant "tourism" typically refers to the practice of traveling outside the country of residence to obtain organ transplantation. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of 33 kidney transplant recipients who traveled abroad for transplant and returned to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for follow-up. Posttransplantation outcomes were compared between tourists and a matched cohort of patients who underwent transplantation at UCLA (matched for age, race, transplant year, dialysis time, previous transplantation, and donor type). Median follow-up time was 487 d (range 68 to 3056). Compared with all patients who underwent transplantation at UCLA, tourists included more Asians and had shorter dialysis times. Most patients traveled to their region of ethnicity with the majority undergoing transplantation in China (44%), Iran (16%), and the Philippines (13%). Living unrelated transplants were most common. Tourists presented to UCLA a median of 35 d after transplantation. Four patients required urgent hospitalization, three of whom lost their grafts. Seventeen (52%) patients had infections, with nine requiring hospitalization. One patient lost her graft and subsequently died from complications related to donor-contracted hepatitis B. One-year graft survival was 89% for tourists and 98% for the matched UCLA cohort (P = 0.75). The rate of acute rejection at 1 yr was 30% in tourists and 12% in the matched cohort. Tourists had a more complex posttransplantation course with a higher incidence of acute rejection and severe infectious complications.

  15. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?


    Rodal,MJN.; Barbosa,MRV.; Thomas,WW.


    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic C...

  16. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant... (United States)


    ... facility, a wind farm, a methane- gas cofiring facility, and several small solar photovoltaic facilities... use the existing natural draft cooling towers, water intake channel and pumping station, blowdown... including wind, solar, biomass, and hydropower. All of these energy resources have a place in TVA's plans...

  17. Abortion politics in the United States, 1972-1994: from single issue to ideology. (United States)

    Hout, M


    This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success.

  18. Membrane protein nanoclustering as a functional unit of immune cells : from nanoscopy to single molecule dynamics


    Torreño Piña, Juan Andrés


    Premi Extraordinari de Doctorat, promoció 2014-2015. Àmbit de Ciències State-of-the-art biophysical techniques featuring high temporal and spatial resolution have allowed for the first time the direct visualization of individual transmembrane proteins on the cell membrane. These techniques have revealed that a large amount of molecular components of the cell membrane do not organize in a random manner but they rather grouped together forming so-called clusters at the nanoscale. Moreover, t...

  19. Influence of the Density Law on Various Fissile Single Unit and Array Storage Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.T.


    The advancement of computational technology has resulted in the wide-spread availability of powerful radiation transport Monte Carlo codes. Prevailing practices today rely heavily on Monte Carlo codes to provide the basis for assessing the reactivity of various fissile systems for nuclear criticality safety (NCS). In 1958, Weinberg and Wigner expressed their concerns on a 'deplorable trend in reactor design - the tendency to substitute a code for a theory'. Unfortunately, their concerns have largely become a reality in many modern NCS practices. lacking the time or information to understand the underlying neutron physics of the fissile system under consideration is indeed a deplorable trend. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many features of criticality hand calculation methods are indeed based upon the fundamentals of the density law and that many correlations of important physics parameters can be more easily understood from such a perspective. Historically, the density law was recognized by many pioneers in the field, including during the Manhattan Project. However, it was by and large an 'oral tradition' in that bits and pieces of great physical insights of the pioneers were scattered in many earlier publications. This paper attempts to bring together some of the 'jewels' of the pioneers which might have been lost or forgotten.

  20. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Spijker, A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.


    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are

  1. Pillared MFI zeolite nanosheets of a single-unit-cell thickness. (United States)

    Na, Kyungsu; Choi, Minkee; Park, Woojin; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Osamu; Ryoo, Ryong


    Zeolite MFI nanosheets of 2-nm thickness have been hydrothermally synthesized via cooperative assembly between silica and an organic surfactant, which is functionalized with a diquaternary ammonium group. The zeolite nanosheets have been further assembled into their ordered multilamellar mesostructure through hydrophobic interactions between the surfactant tails located outside the zeolite nanosheet. This assembly process involves successive transformations from an initially hexagonal mesophase to a multilamellar mesophase without crystallinity and then to a lamellar mesophase with a crystalline zeolite framework. The mesopore volume in the interlamellar space could be retained by supporting the zeolite nanosheets with silica pillars, as in pillared clays, even after surfactant removal by calcination. The mesopore diameters could be controlled according to the surfactant tail lengths. Due to the interlamellar structural coherence, the hierarchically mesoporous/microporous zeolite could exhibit small-angle X-ray diffraction peaks up to the fourth-order reflections corresponding to the interlayer distance. In addition, an Ar adsorption analysis and transmission electron microscopic investigation indicated that the pillars were highly likely to be built with an MFI structure. The present approach using a zeolite structure-directing functional group contained in a surfactant would be suitable for the synthesis of other related nanomorphous zeolites in the future.

  2. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJN. Rodal

    Full Text Available Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  3. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit? (United States)

    Rodal, M J N; Barbosa, M R V; Thomas, W W


    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence--absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica) and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga) of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity: results from 10 years in a single neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Coutinho


    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina of preterm newborns and is an important and preventable cause of visual impairment in childhood. This study aimed to assess the incidence and main risk factors associated with the development of ROP in the last 10 years at Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca in Lisbon, Portugal.Methods: Observational and retrospective study conducted between 2005 and 2014 at Hospital Prof. Doctor Fernando Fonseca. The study included newborns of gestational age < 32 weeks. We analyzed maternal, prenatal and neonatal factors associated with the development of ROP. Statistical analysis were performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a multiple logistic regression model was carried out with a significance level α = 0.05.Results: 527 premature infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks were studied, of which 165 developed ROP. 60 of these patients needed treatment. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for the development of ROP were maternal infection in pregnancy, low birth weight, low gestational age, low Apgar score at 5 minutes, need for oxygen therapy until the 28th day of life, a high score on the CRIB and SNAPPE2 scales, use of surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for ROP were the presence of neonatal sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus and a high score on the neonatal SNAPPE2 scale.Conclusions: We found a ROP incidence rate of 31.3%, with risk factors similar to those observed in other studies.

  5. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...... interfere destructively or constructively. Destructive interference effects in electron transport could potentially improve thermo-electrics, organic logic circuits and energy harvesting. We have investigated destructive interference in off-resonant transport through organic molecules, and have found a set...

  6. Nursing Actions in practicing inpatient advocacy in a Burn Unit


    Nogario,Aline Carniato Dalle; Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Ramos,Aline Marcelino; Oliveira,Aline Cristina Calçada de


    OBJECTIVEUnderstanding nursing actions in the practice of inpatient advocacy in a burn unit.METHODA single and descriptive case study, carried out with nurses working in a referral burn center in southern Brazil. Data were collected through focus group technique, between February and March 2014, in three meetings. Data was analysed through discursive textual analysis.RESULTSThree emerging categories were identified, namely: (1) instructing the patient; (2) protecting the patient; and (3) ensu...



    Kumar Vikash; Mishra Santosh Kumar; Lather Amit; Vikas; Singh Ranjit


    Pellets have been used in the pharmaceutical industry for more than four decades, with the advent of controlled release technology, that the full impact of the inherent advantages of pellets over single unit dosage forms have been realized, not only has focused on refining and optimizing existing pelletization techniques, but also focused on the development of novel approaches and procedures for manufacturing of pellets. The present review outlines the manufacturing and evaluation of pellets....

  8. Single-molecule magnets ``without'' intermolecular interactions (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Vergnani, L.; Rodriguez-Douton, M. J.; Cornia, A.; Neugebauer, P.; Barra, A. L.; Sorace, L.; Sessoli, R.


    Intermolecular magnetic interactions (dipole-dipole and exchange) affect strongly the magnetic relaxation of crystals of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), especially at low temperature, where quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) dominates. This leads to complex many-body problems [l]. Measurements on magnetically diluted samples are desirable to clearly sort out the behaviour of magnetically-isolated SMMs and to reveal, by comparison, the effect of intermolecular interactions. Here, we diluted a Fe4 SMM into a diamagnetic crystal lattice, affording arrays of independent and iso-oriented magnetic units. We found that the resonant tunnel transitions are much sharper, the tunneling efficiency changes significantly, and two-body QTM transitions disappear. These changes have been rationalized on the basis of a dipolar shuffling mechanism and of transverse dipolar fields, whose effect has been analyzed using a multispin model. Our findings directly prove the impact of intermolecular magnetic couplings on the SMM behaviour and disclose the magnetic response of truly-isolated giant spins in a diamagnetic crystalline environment.[4pt] [1] W. Wernsdorfer, at al, PRL 82, 3903 (1999); PRL 89, 197201 (2002); Nature 416, 406 (2002); IS Tupitsyn, PCE Stamp, NV Prokof'ev, PRB 69, 132406 (2004).

  9. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.


    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  10. Laproendoscopic single site oesophageal diverticulectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu


    Full Text Available Epiphrenic divericula are uncommon disorders of the lower oesophagus, which are symptomatic in only 15-20% of cases. The optimum treatment modality for such cases remains an oesophageal diverticulectomy with long myotomy with or without an antireflux operation. Recently, this is increasingly being done through the laparoscopic approach. Here we describe the first reported case of oesophageal diverticulectomy through the laparoendoscopic single site approach. A 57-year-old man presented to us with 6 months history of dysphagia and regurgitation. Patient was investigated with upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy, barium swallow, CECT chest and abdomen, oesophageal manometry and 24 hour pH study. He was diagnosed to have lower oesophageal diverticulum with mildly elevated pressure readings in manometric studies with normal peristalsis. Based on his symptoms, he was taken up for surgery. A laparoscopic transhiatal oesophageal diverticulectomy with myotomy was done through laparoendoscopic single site technique. The procedure lasted 160 min. There was no intraoperative complication. Gastrograffin study was done on postoperative day 2 following which he was started on liquids. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on fourth day. He remained asymptomatic on follow up. Oesophageal diverticulectomy is possible through laparoendoscopic single site approach if necessary expertise is available.

  11. Single-Cell Western Blotting. (United States)

    Sinkala, Elly; Herr, Amy E


    Little headway has been made in single cell protein analysis, aside from tools that rely solely on antibody-probe based detection (i.e., flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry), which are limited by low specificity and multiplexing capabilities. To address these protein analysis gaps, we have introduced a single-cell western blot (scWestern). The protein assay is capable of highly specific analysis by coupling antibody-based detection with a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) protein separation. Cells are settled via gravity into polyacrylamide (PA) microwells, chemically lysed in the wells, and then subjected to PAGE through the walls of the microwells and into the surrounding PA gel. Over a thousand single-cell separations are performed simultaneously, and multiple protein targets of interest are investigated. After PAGE separation, photo-immobilization of all proteins to the gel allows for antibody probing and lends to the archival quality of the scWestern assay where new proteins targets can be investigated months after the initial separations are performed.

  12. Single-cell western blotting. (United States)

    Quadri, Syed M S


    Cell heterogeneity is a variation in cellular processes in functionally similar cells. Cells from the same tissue which are considered genetically identical may have difference in size, structure, and level of protein expression which can lead to major impact on the functions of cell leading to difference in physiological consequences. Single-cell proteome-wide studies are used to detect cell heterogeneity. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry do play an important role in evaluating cell heterogeneity. However, these methods are based on separation by antibodies with limited specificity. Cross-reactivity can occur leading to bias in result. Western blot is done to separate the proteins according to molecular weight. Therefore, off-target and on-target signals can be discriminated. Detection of protein expression from a tissue can be done with the help of western blot. However, it is unable to differentiate protein expression of individual cells. For detection of this cell-to-cell variation, a highly advanced technique termed "single-cell western blotting" is carried out. Single-cell western blot has enabled us to detect protein expression at cellular level at a fairly advanced high resolution using a western blot designed to assess cell heterogeneity.

  13. Measuring single-cell density. (United States)

    Grover, William H; Bryan, Andrea K; Diez-Silva, Monica; Suresh, Subra; Higgins, John M; Manalis, Scott R


    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of approximately 500 cells per hour with a density precision of 0.001 g mL(-1). We observe that the intrinsic cell-to-cell variation in density is nearly 100-fold smaller than the mass or volume variation. As a result, we can measure changes in cell density indicative of cellular processes that would be otherwise undetectable by mass or volume measurements. Here, we demonstrate this with four examples: identifying Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes in a culture, distinguishing transfused blood cells from a patient's own blood, identifying irreversibly sickled cells in a sickle cell patient, and identifying leukemia cells in the early stages of responding to a drug treatment. These demonstrations suggest that the ability to measure single-cell density will provide valuable insights into cell state for a wide range of biological processes.

  14. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin


    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  15. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Design of a Single-Layer Microchannel for Continuous Sheathless Single-Stream Particle Inertial Focusing. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Fei; Li, Weihua; Wang, Xiaohao


    High-throughput, high-precision single-stream focusing of microparticles has a potentially wide range of applications in biochemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this work, we develop a sheathless three-dimensional (3D) particle-focusing method in a single-layer microchannel. This novel microchannel consists of periodic high-aspect-ratio curved channels and straight channels. The proposed method takes advantage of both the curved channels, which induce Dean flow to promote particle migration, and straight channels, which suppress the remaining stirring effects of Dean flow to stabilize the achieved particle focusing. The 3D particle focusing is demonstrated experimentally, and the mechanism is analyzed theoretically. The effects of flow rate, particle size, and cycle number on the focusing performance were also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that polystyrene particles with diameters of 5-20 μm can be focused into a 3D single file within seven channel cycles, with the focusing accuracy up to 98.5% and focusing rate up to 98.97%. The focusing throughput could reach up to ∼10 5 counts/min. Furthermore, its applicability to biological cells is also demonstrated by 3D focusing of HeLa and melanoma cells and bovine blood cells in the proposed microchannel. The proposed sheathless passive focusing scheme, featuring a simple channel structure, small footprint (9 mm × 1.2 mm), compact layout, and uncomplicated fabrication procedure, holds great promise as an efficient 3D focusing unit for the development of next-generation on-chip flow cytometry.

  17. Sexual behaviours on acute inpatient psychiatric units. (United States)

    Bowers, L; Ross, J; Cutting, P; Stewart, D


    The purpose of the study was to assess the types and frequency of sexual behaviours displayed by patients during the first 2 weeks of admission to acute psychiatric units and what relationship these have to other challenging patient behaviours. The method used was a survey of sexual behaviours, conflict and containment events carried out by 522 patients during the first 2 weeks of admission in 84 wards in 31 hospitals in the South East of England. Incidents of sexual behaviour were common, with 13% of patients responsible for at least one incident. Although exposure was the most frequent of these behaviours, non-consensual sexual touching, was instigated by 1 in 20 patients. There were no differences in the numbers of sexual events between single sex and mixed gender wards. Few associations were found with the demographic features of perpetrators, although all those engaging in public masturbation were male, and male patients were more likely to sexually touch another without their consent. Single sex wards do not seem to necessarily offer significant protection to potentially vulnerable victims. Perpetrators do not seem to be predictable in advance, nor was there any common set or pattern of disruptive behavioural events indicating that a sexual incident was about to occur. © 2013 Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office/Queen's Printer for Scotland and Institute of Psychiatry.

  18. Quick setup of test unit for accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.; D'Ottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Nemesure, S.; Morris, J.


    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.



    Broumi, Said; Talea, Mohamed; Bakali, Assia; Smarandache, Florentin


    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  20. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou


    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...