WorldWideScience

Sample records for single unified framework

  1. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  2. A Unified Framework for Systematic Model Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A unified framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling, statistical tests and multivariate nonparametric regression. This co......-batch bioreactor, where it is illustrated how an incorrectly modelled biomass growth rate can be pinpointed and an estimate provided of the functional relation needed to properly describe it....

  3. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  4. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Savalia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit versus explicit and goal-directed versus habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops ─ basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops ─ mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  5. designing a framework for a unified electronic identity system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In this paper, a Unified Identity System is proposed where single electronic identity (eID) is issued that can be used ... online commerce and public sector organizations. Because ..... SearchUnifiedCommunications.com Definitions, Access date.

  6. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  7. Designing a framework for a unified electronic identity system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a Unified Identity System is proposed where single electronic identity (eID) is issued that can be used across the various platforms of business transaction. The activity/state diagram of the model is presented, and the means of authentication is based on the Secure Assertion Markup Language (SAML) ...

  8. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  9. Toward a Unified Framework for Web Service Trustworthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miotto, N.; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic openness of the Service-Oriented Computing vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. What does it mean that a Web service is trustworthy? How can a software agent evaluate the trustworthiness of a Web service? In this paper we present an ongoing...... research aiming at providing an answer to these key issues to realize this vision. In particular, starting from an analysis of the weaknesses of current approaches, we discuss the possibility of a unified framework for Web service trustworthiness. The founding principle of our novel framework is that “hard...

  10. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  11. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-06-01

    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  12. A unified framework for building high performance DVEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kaibin; Ma, Zhixia; Xiong, Hua

    2011-10-01

    A unified framework for integrating PC cluster based parallel rendering with distributed virtual environments (DVEs) is presented in this paper. While various scene graphs have been proposed in DVEs, it is difficult to enable collaboration of different scene graphs. This paper proposes a technique for non-distributed scene graphs with the capability of object and event distribution. With the increase of graphics data, DVEs require more powerful rendering ability. But general scene graphs are inefficient in parallel rendering. The paper also proposes a technique to connect a DVE and a PC cluster based parallel rendering environment. A distributed multi-player video game is developed to show the interaction of different scene graphs and the parallel rendering performance on a large tiled display wall.

  13. Flavor unifying schemes with a single fermionic representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Wali, K.C.

    1980-05-01

    If quarks and leptons are indeed elementary, it is natural that they belong to a single representation of a unifying group, G. It is shown that such a requirement, which is inconsistent with G = SU(N), can be satisfied within the semi-simple group G = SU(N) x SU(N). Furthermore, N = 7 emerges as the unique solution accompanied by a fermionic set that exhibits a natural generation structure

  14. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  15. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eKosse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  16. FIND--a unified framework for neural data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ralph; Egert, Ulrich; Aertsen, Ad; Nawrot, Martin P

    2008-10-01

    The complexity of neurophysiology data has increased tremendously over the last years, especially due to the widespread availability of multi-channel recording techniques. With adequate computing power the current limit for computational neuroscience is the effort and time it takes for scientists to translate their ideas into working code. Advanced analysis methods are complex and often lack reproducibility on the basis of published descriptions. To overcome this limitation we develop FIND (Finding Information in Neural Data) as a platform-independent, open source framework for the analysis of neuronal activity data based on Matlab (Mathworks). Here, we outline the structure of the FIND framework and describe its functionality, our measures of quality control, and the policies for developers and users. Within FIND we have developed a unified data import from various proprietary formats, simplifying standardized interfacing with tools for analysis and simulation. The toolbox FIND covers a steadily increasing number of tools. These analysis tools address various types of neural activity data, including discrete series of spike events, continuous time series and imaging data. Additionally, the toolbox provides solutions for the simulation of parallel stochastic point processes to model multi-channel spiking activity. We illustrate two examples of complex analyses with FIND tools: First, we present a time-resolved characterization of the spiking irregularity in an in vivo extracellular recording from a mushroom-body extrinsic neuron in the honeybee during odor stimulation. Second, we describe layer specific input dynamics in the rat primary visual cortex in vivo in response to visual flash stimulation on the basis of multi-channel spiking activity.

  17. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  18. Uniframe: A Unified Framework for Developing Service-Oriented, Component-Based Distributed Software Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raje, Rajeev R; Olson, Andrew M; Bryant, Barrett R; Burt, Carol C; Auguston, Makhail

    2005-01-01

    .... It describes how this approach employs a unifying framework for specifying such systems to unite the concepts of service-oriented architectures, a component-based software engineering methodology...

  19. On the Choice of Difference Sequence in a Unified Framework for Variance Estimation in Nonparametric Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin; Tong, Tiejun; Zhu, Lixing

    2017-01-01

    Difference-based methods do not require estimating the mean function in nonparametric regression and are therefore popular in practice. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for variance estimation that combines the linear regression method with the higher-order difference estimators systematically. The unified framework has greatly enriched the existing literature on variance estimation that includes most existing estimators as special cases. More importantly, the unified framework has also provided a smart way to solve the challenging difference sequence selection problem that remains a long-standing controversial issue in nonparametric regression for several decades. Using both theory and simulations, we recommend to use the ordinary difference sequence in the unified framework, no matter if the sample size is small or if the signal-to-noise ratio is large. Finally, to cater for the demands of the application, we have developed a unified R package, named VarED, that integrates the existing difference-based estimators and the unified estimators in nonparametric regression and have made it freely available in the R statistical program http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/.

  20. On the Choice of Difference Sequence in a Unified Framework for Variance Estimation in Nonparametric Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin

    2017-09-01

    Difference-based methods do not require estimating the mean function in nonparametric regression and are therefore popular in practice. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for variance estimation that combines the linear regression method with the higher-order difference estimators systematically. The unified framework has greatly enriched the existing literature on variance estimation that includes most existing estimators as special cases. More importantly, the unified framework has also provided a smart way to solve the challenging difference sequence selection problem that remains a long-standing controversial issue in nonparametric regression for several decades. Using both theory and simulations, we recommend to use the ordinary difference sequence in the unified framework, no matter if the sample size is small or if the signal-to-noise ratio is large. Finally, to cater for the demands of the application, we have developed a unified R package, named VarED, that integrates the existing difference-based estimators and the unified estimators in nonparametric regression and have made it freely available in the R statistical program http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/.

  1. Generic adaptation framework for unifying adaptive web-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutov, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Generic Adaptation Framework (GAF) research project first and foremost creates a common formal framework for describing current and future adaptive hypermedia (AHS) and adaptive webbased systems in general. It provides a commonly agreed upon taxonomy and a reference model that encompasses the

  2. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  3. Unifying framework for multimodal brain MRI segmentation based on Hidden Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricq, S; Collet, Ch; Armspach, J P

    2008-12-01

    In the frame of 3D medical imaging, accurate segmentation of multimodal brain MR images is of interest for many brain disorders. However, due to several factors such as noise, imaging artifacts, intrinsic tissue variation and partial volume effects, tissue classification remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a unifying framework for unsupervised segmentation of multimodal brain MR images including partial volume effect, bias field correction, and information given by a probabilistic atlas. Here-proposed method takes into account neighborhood information using a Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) model. Due to the limited resolution of imaging devices, voxels may be composed of a mixture of different tissue types, this partial volume effect is included to achieve an accurate segmentation of brain tissues. Instead of assigning each voxel to a single tissue class (i.e., hard classification), we compute the relative amount of each pure tissue class in each voxel (mixture estimation). Further, a bias field estimation step is added to the proposed algorithm to correct intensity inhomogeneities. Furthermore, atlas priors were incorporated using probabilistic brain atlas containing prior expectations about the spatial localization of different tissue classes. This atlas is considered as a complementary sensor and the proposed method is extended to multimodal brain MRI without any user-tunable parameter (unsupervised algorithm). To validate this new unifying framework, we present experimental results on both synthetic and real brain images, for which the ground truth is available. Comparison with other often used techniques demonstrates the accuracy and the robustness of this new Markovian segmentation scheme.

  4. Short communication. Economics of natural resources: in search of a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C.

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a unified theoretical framework for dealing with the optimum economic use of any type of natural resource. After formulating and economically interpreting the unified framework, the basic rules governing the economic exploitation of the different natural resources can be easily obtained by particularizing the different values of its basic parameters. Taking this approach, it is easy to understand what commonalities there are, in terms of economic logic, between the different types of natural resources. This considerably increases the amount of consilience and understanding about the discipline. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Unified framework for recognition, localization and mapping using wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Martín, Ricardo; Bandera, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Monocular approaches to simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) have recently addressed with success the challenging problem of the fast computation of dense reconstructions from a single, moving camera. Thus, if these approaches initially relied on the detection of a reduced set of interest points to estimate the camera position and the map, they are currently able to reconstruct dense maps from a handheld camera while the camera coordinates are simultaneously computed. However, these maps of 3-dimensional points usually remain meaningless, that is, with no memorable items and without providing a way of encoding spatial relationships between objects and paths. In humans and mobile robotics, landmarks play a key role in the internalization of a spatial representation of an environment. They are memorable cues that can serve to define a region of the space or the location of other objects. In a topological representation of the space, landmarks can be identified and located according to its structural, perceptive or semantic significance and distinctiveness. But on the other hand, landmarks may be difficult to be located in a metric representation of the space. Restricted to the domain of visual landmarks, this work describes an approach where the map resulting from a point-based, monocular SLAM is annotated with the semantic information provided by a set of distinguished landmarks. Both features are obtained from the image. Hence, they can be linked by associating to each landmark all those point-based features that are superimposed to the landmark in a given image (key-frame). Visual landmarks will be obtained by means of an object-based, bottom-up attention mechanism, which will extract from the image a set of proto-objects. These proto-objects could not be always associated with natural objects, but they will typically constitute significant parts of these scene objects and can be appropriately annotated with semantic information. Moreover, they will be

  6. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  7. Optimal Noise Enhanced Signal Detection in a Unified Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new framework for variable detectors is formulated in order to solve different noise enhanced signal detection optimal problems, where six different disjoint sets of detector and discrete vector pairs are defined according to the two inequality-constraints on detection and false-alarm probabilities. Then theorems and algorithms constructed based on the new framework are presented to search the optimal noise enhanced solutions to maximize the relative improvements of the detection and the false-alarm probabilities, respectively. Further, the optimal noise enhanced solution of the maximum overall improvement is obtained based on the new framework and the relationship among the three maximums is presented. In addition, the sufficient conditions for improvability or non-improvability under the two certain constraints are given. Finally, numerous examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical results and the proofs of the main theorems are given in the Appendix.

  8. Metrics for aggregating the climate effects of different emissions: a unifying framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Berntsen, T.K.; O'Neill, B.C.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Shine, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing equivalences among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the

  9. A unified framework for mechanics: Hamilton–Jacobi equation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balseiro, P; Marrero, J C; Padrón, E; Martín de Diego, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we construct Hamilton–Jacobi equations for a large variety of mechanical systems (nonholonomic systems subjected to linear or affine constraints, dissipative systems subjected to external forces, time-dependent mechanical systems etc). We recover all these, in principle, different cases, using a unified framework based on skew-symmetric algebroids with a distinguished 1-cocycle. Several examples illustrate the theory

  10. A unified framework for haplotype inference in nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Alexandros; Anastassiou, Dimitris; Wang, Xiaodong

    2012-07-01

    Many large genome-wide association studies include nuclear families with more than one child (trio families), allowing for analysis of differences between siblings (sib pair analysis). Statistical power can be increased when haplotypes are used instead of genotypes. Currently, haplotype inference in families with more than one child can be performed either using the familial information or statistical information derived from the population samples but not both. Building on our recently proposed tree-based deterministic framework (TDS) for trio families, we augment its applicability to general nuclear families. We impose a minimum recombinant approach locally and independently on each multiple children family, while resorting to the population-derived information to solve the remaining ambiguities. Thus our framework incorporates all available information (familial and population) in a given study. We demonstrate that using all the constraints in our approach we can have gains in the accuracy as opposed to breaking the multiple children families to separate trios and resorting to a trio inference algorithm or phasing each family in isolation. We believe that our proposed framework could be the method of choice for haplotype inference in studies that include nuclear families with multiple children. Our software (tds2.0) is downloadable from www.ee.columbia.edu/∼anastas/tds. © 2012 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  11. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose–Response Assessment of Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Background When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose–response assessment (“hazard characterization”) quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. Objectives We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose–response assessment. Methods We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose–response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, “effect metrics” can be specified to define “toxicologically equivalent” sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose–response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose–response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Results Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a “target human dose” (HDMI), which requires risk management–informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%–10% effect sizes. Conclusions Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk

  12. A Unified Framework for Complex Networks with Degree Trichotomy Based on Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David Shui Wing; Chen, Yi-Chao; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Weijie; Chen, Guanrong; Lui, John C S; Li, Yingtao

    2017-06-16

    This paper establishes a Markov chain model as a unified framework for describing the evolution processes in complex networks. The unique feature of the proposed model is its capability in addressing the formation mechanism that can reflect the "trichotomy" observed in degree distributions, based on which closed-form solutions can be derived. Important special cases of the proposed unified framework are those classical models, including Poisson, Exponential, Power-law distributed networks. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate a good match of the proposed model with real datasets, showing its superiority over the classical models. Implications of the model to various applications including citation analysis, online social networks, and vehicular networks design, are also discussed in the paper.

  13. Conceptual and mathematical advances in the search for a unified framework

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Olaf; Nardmann, Marc; Tolksdorf, Jürgen; Zeidler, Eberhard; Quantum field theory and gravity

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems of contemporary theoretical physics is the mathematically rigorous construction of a theory which describes gravitation and the other fundamental physical interactions within a common framework. The physical ideas which grew from attempts to develop such a theory require highly advanced mathematical methods and radically new physical concepts. This book presents different approaches to a rigorous unified description of quantum fields and gravity. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions which took place in autumn 2010 at the fifth conference "Quantum field theory and gravity - Conceptual and mathematical advances in the search for a unified framework" in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicis...

  14. A Framework for Planning a Unified Wired and Wireless ICT Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    The increase in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) has pushed the existing access networks to their limits. Whole new access networks are currently being deployed and are expected to take full advantage of the already started synergy of services converging on to one network....... Through a brief survey of synergy and technology trends, it is concluded that a future network will complementary use of wired and wireless technologies. In this context the paper proposes a framework for planning of unified wired and wireless ICT infrastructures. The framework includes different input...

  15. A Framework for Planning a Unified Wired and Wireless ICT Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) has pushed the existing access networks to their limits. Whole new access networks are currently being deployed and are expected to fully support the already started synergy of services converging on to one network. Through...... a brief survey of synergy and technology trends, it is concluded that a future network will use wired and wireless as complementary technologies. In this context the paper proposes a framework for planning of unified wired and wireless ICT infrastructures. The framework includes different input parameters...

  16. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Yang, Hongchuan

    2010-01-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs

  17. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  18. A unifying framework for k-statistics, polykays and their multivariate generalizations.

    OpenAIRE

    DI NARDO, Elvira; GUARINO G, G.; Senato, D.

    2008-01-01

    Through the classical umbral calculus, we provide a unifying syntax for single and multivariate $k$-statistics, polykays and multivariate polykays. From a combinatorial point of view, we revisit the theory as exposed by Stuart and Ord, taking into account the Doubilet approach to symmetric functions. Moreover, by using exponential polynomials rather than set partitions, we provide a new formula for $k$-statistics that results in a very fast algorithm to generate such estimators.

  19. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose-Response Assessment of Human Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose-response assessment ("hazard characterization") quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose-response assessment. We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose-response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, "effect metrics" can be specified to define "toxicologically equivalent" sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose-response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose-response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a "target human dose" (HDMI), which requires risk management-informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%-10% effect sizes. Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk management decisions.

  20. A unified statistical framework for material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun; Ye, Jong Chul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm

  1. Conceptualising paediatric health disparities: a metanarrative systematic review and unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Wang, Zhen; Finney Rutten, Lila J; van Ryn, Michelle; Griffin, Joan M; Murad, M Hassan; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason S; Beebe, Timothy J

    2017-08-04

    There exists a paucity of work in the development and testing of theoretical models specific to childhood health disparities even though they have been linked to the prevalence of adult health disparities including high rates of chronic disease. We conducted a systematic review and thematic analysis of existing models of health disparities specific to children to inform development of a unified conceptual framework. We systematically reviewed articles reporting theoretical or explanatory models of disparities on a range of outcomes related to child health. We searched Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus (database inception to 9 July 2015). A metanarrative approach guided the analysis process. A total of 48 studies presenting 48 models were included. This systematic review found multiple models but no consensus on one approach. However, we did discover a fair amount of overlap, such that the 48 models reviewed converged into the unified conceptual framework. The majority of models included factors in three domains: individual characteristics and behaviours (88%), healthcare providers and systems (63%), and environment/community (56%), . Only 38% of models included factors in the health and public policies domain. A disease-agnostic unified conceptual framework may inform integration of existing knowledge of child health disparities and guide future research. This multilevel framework can focus attention among clinical, basic and social science research on the relationships between policy, social factors, health systems and the physical environment that impact children's health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. PageRank, HITS and a unified framework for link analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Husbands, Parry; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2001-10-01

    Two popular webpage ranking algorithms are HITS and PageRank. HITS emphasizes mutual reinforcement between authority and hub webpages, while PageRank emphasizes hyperlink weight normalization and web surfing based on random walk models. We systematically generalize/combine these concepts into a unified framework. The ranking framework contains a large algorithm space; HITS and PageRank are two extreme ends in this space. We study several normalized ranking algorithms which are intermediate between HITS and PageRank, and obtain closed-form solutions. We show that, to first order approximation, all ranking algorithms in this framework, including PageRank and HITS, lead to same ranking which is highly correlated with ranking by indegree. These results support the notion that in web resource ranking indegree and outdegree are of fundamental importance. Rankings of webgraphs of different sizes and queries are presented to illustrate our analysis.

  3. A unified framework for risk and vulnerability analysis covering both safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we have seen several attempts to establish adequate risk and vulnerability analyses tools and related management frameworks dealing not only with accidental events but also security problems. These attempts have been based on different analysis approaches and using alternative building blocks. In this paper, we discuss some of these and show how a unified framework for such analyses and management tasks can be developed. The framework is based on the use of probability as a measure of uncertainty, as seen through the eyes of the assessor, and define risk as the combination of possible consequences and related uncertainties. Risk and vulnerability characterizations are introduced incorporating ideas both from vulnerability analyses literature as well as from the risk classification scheme introduced by Renn and Klinke

  4. Generalized Information Theory Meets Human Cognition: Introducing a Unified Framework to Model Uncertainty and Information Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenzo; Nelson, Jonathan D; Meder, Björn; Cevolani, Gustavo; Tentori, Katya

    2018-06-17

    Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof. However, a variety of alternative entropy metrics (Hartley, Quadratic, Tsallis, Rényi, and more) are popular in the social and the natural sciences, computer science, and philosophy of science. Particular entropy measures have been predominant in particular research areas, and it is often an open issue whether these divergences emerge from different theoretical and practical goals or are merely due to historical accident. Cutting across disciplinary boundaries, we show that several entropy and entropy reduction measures arise as special cases in a unified formalism, the Sharma-Mittal framework. Using mathematical results, computer simulations, and analyses of published behavioral data, we discuss four key questions: How do various entropy models relate to each other? What insights can be obtained by considering diverse entropy models within a unified framework? What is the psychological plausibility of different entropy models? What new questions and insights for research on human information acquisition follow? Our work provides several new pathways for theoretical and empirical research, reconciling apparently conflicting approaches and empirical findings within a comprehensive and unified information-theoretic formalism. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Unified Probabilistic Models for Face Recognition from a Single Example Image per Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Liao; Li Shen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of unified probabilistic models for face recognition from only one single example image per person. The unified models, trained on an obtained training set with multiple samples per person, are used to recognize facial images from another disjoint database with a single sample per person. Variations between facial images are modeled as two unified probabilistic models: within-class variations and between-class variations. Gaussian Mixture Models are used to approximate the distributions of the two variations and exploit a classifier combination method to improve the performance. Extensive experimental results on the ORL face database and the authors' database (the ICT-JDL database) including totally 1,750facial images of 350 individuals demonstrate that the proposed technique, compared with traditional eigenface method and some well-known traditional algorithms, is a significantly more effective and robust approach for face recognition.

  6. The unified model of vegetarian identity: A conceptual framework for understanding plant-based food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L

    2017-05-01

    By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI). The UMVI encompasses ten dimensions-organized into three levels (contextual, internalized, and externalized)-that capture the role of vegetarianism in an individual's self-concept. Contextual dimensions situate vegetarianism within contexts; internalized dimensions outline self-evaluations; and externalized dimensions describe enactments of identity through behavior. Together, these dimensions form a coherent vegetarian identity, characterizing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding being vegetarian. By unifying dimensions that capture psychological constructs universally, the UMVI can prevent discrepancies in operationalization, capture the inherent diversity of vegetarian identities, and enable future research to generate greater insight into how people understand themselves and their food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unified and Modular Modeling and Functional Verification Framework of Real-Time Image Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In VLSI industry, image signal processing algorithms are developed and evaluated using software models before implementation of RTL and firmware. After the finalization of the algorithm, software models are used as a golden reference model for the image signal processor (ISP RTL and firmware development. In this paper, we are describing the unified and modular modeling framework of image signal processing algorithms used for different applications such as ISP algorithms development, reference for hardware (HW implementation, reference for firmware (FW implementation, and bit-true certification. The universal verification methodology- (UVM- based functional verification framework of image signal processors using software reference models is described. Further, IP-XACT based tools for automatic generation of functional verification environment files and model map files are described. The proposed framework is developed both with host interface and with core using virtual register interface (VRI approach. This modeling and functional verification framework is used in real-time image signal processing applications including cellphone, smart cameras, and image compression. The main motivation behind this work is to propose the best efficient, reusable, and automated framework for modeling and verification of image signal processor (ISP designs. The proposed framework shows better results and significant improvement is observed in product verification time, verification cost, and quality of the designs.

  8. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium many-body perturbation theory: a unified framework based on the Martin-Schwinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    We present a unified framework for equilibrium and nonequilibrium many-body perturbation theory. The most general nonequilibrium many-body theory valid for general initial states is based on a time-contour originally introduced by Konstantinov and Perel'. The various other well-known formalisms of Keldysh, Matsubara and the zero-temperature formalism are then derived as special cases that arise under different assumptions. We further present a single simple proof of Wick's theorem that is at the same time valid in all these flavors of many-body theory. It arises simply as a solution of the equations of the Martin-Schwinger hierarchy for the noninteracting many-particle Green's function with appropriate boundary conditions. We further discuss a generalized Wick theorem for general initial states on the Keldysh contour and derive how the formalisms based on the Keldysh and Konstantinov-Perel'-contours are related for the case of general initial states.

  9. Unified Model of Dynamic Forced Barrier Crossing in Single Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friddle, R W

    2007-06-21

    Thermally activated barrier crossing in the presence of an increasing load can reveal kinetic rate constants and energy barrier parameters when repeated over a range of loading rates. Here we derive a model of the mean escape force for all relevant loading rates--the complete force spectrum. Two well-known approximations emerge as limiting cases; one of which confirms predictions that single-barrier spectra should converge to a phenomenological description in the slow loading limit.

  10. A unified theoretical framework for mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2016-11-28

    We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.

  11. Generic-distributed framework for cloud services marketplace based on unified ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a pattern for delivering ubiquitous and on demand computing resources based on pay-as-you-use financial model. Typically, cloud providers advertise cloud service descriptions in various formats on the Internet. On the other hand, cloud consumers use available search engines (Google and Yahoo to explore cloud service descriptions and find the adequate service. Unfortunately, general purpose search engines are not designed to provide a small and complete set of results, which makes the process a big challenge. This paper presents a generic-distrusted framework for cloud services marketplace to automate cloud services discovery and selection process, and remove the barriers between service providers and consumers. Additionally, this work implements two instances of generic framework by adopting two different matching algorithms; namely dominant and recessive attributes algorithm borrowed from gene science and semantic similarity algorithm based on unified cloud service ontology. Finally, this paper presents unified cloud services ontology and models the real-life cloud services according to the proposed ontology. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to build a cloud services marketplace where cloud providers and cloud consumers can trend cloud services as utilities. In comparison with existing work, semantic approach reduced the execution time by 20% and maintained the same values for all other parameters. On the other hand, dominant and recessive attributes approach reduced the execution time by 57% but showed lower value for recall.

  12. Generic-distributed framework for cloud services marketplace based on unified ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samer; Valli Kumari, V

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing is a pattern for delivering ubiquitous and on demand computing resources based on pay-as-you-use financial model. Typically, cloud providers advertise cloud service descriptions in various formats on the Internet. On the other hand, cloud consumers use available search engines (Google and Yahoo) to explore cloud service descriptions and find the adequate service. Unfortunately, general purpose search engines are not designed to provide a small and complete set of results, which makes the process a big challenge. This paper presents a generic-distrusted framework for cloud services marketplace to automate cloud services discovery and selection process, and remove the barriers between service providers and consumers. Additionally, this work implements two instances of generic framework by adopting two different matching algorithms; namely dominant and recessive attributes algorithm borrowed from gene science and semantic similarity algorithm based on unified cloud service ontology. Finally, this paper presents unified cloud services ontology and models the real-life cloud services according to the proposed ontology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to build a cloud services marketplace where cloud providers and cloud consumers can trend cloud services as utilities. In comparison with existing work, semantic approach reduced the execution time by 20% and maintained the same values for all other parameters. On the other hand, dominant and recessive attributes approach reduced the execution time by 57% but showed lower value for recall.

  13. BASIC ASPECTS CONCERNING THE SINGLE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the creation of a set of concepts, principles and generally accepted international accounting conventions, to which any elaboration, interpretation or enforcement of accounting and financial information would refer, IASC (later IASB has developed, in 1989, the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements that, although inspired from the American one, didn’t address predominantly only to a single category of users (investors, but several categories of representatives of accounting information demand. Nowadays, it is now known that international body of accounting normalization - IASB (International Accounting Standards Board, cooperates with the American body - FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board for the purpose of developing a Single Conceptual Framework, which is an important phase in strengthening current and future international accounting standardization process. Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, published in September 2010 by the IASB, replaced the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued in 1989 and is actually the result of the current process of updating the General framework of the IASB, but also represents the completion of an important stage in the process to develop a single conceptual framework.

  14. In quest of a systematic framework for unifying and defining nanoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomalia, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic framework for unifying and defining nanoscience based on historic first principles and step logic that led to a 'central paradigm' (i.e., unifying framework) for traditional elemental/small-molecule chemistry. As such, a Nanomaterials classification roadmap is proposed, which divides all nanomatter into Category I: discrete, well-defined and Category II: statistical, undefined nanoparticles. We consider only Category I, well-defined nanoparticles which are >90% monodisperse as a function of Critical Nanoscale Design Parameters (CNDPs) defined according to: (a) size, (b) shape, (c) surface chemistry, (d) flexibility, and (e) elemental composition. Classified as either hard (H) (i.e., inorganic-based) or soft (S) (i.e., organic-based) categories, these nanoparticles were found to manifest pervasive atom mimicry features that included: (1) a dominance of zero-dimensional (0D) core-shell nanoarchitectures, (2) the ability to self-assemble or chemically bond as discrete, quantized nanounits, and (3) exhibited well-defined nanoscale valencies and stoichiometries reminiscent of atom-based elements. These discrete nanoparticle categories are referred to as hard or soft particle nanoelements. Many examples describing chemical bonding/assembly of these nanoelements have been reported in the literature. We refer to these hard:hard (H-n:H-n), soft:soft (S-n:S-n), or hard:soft (H-n:S-n) nanoelement combinations as nanocompounds. Due to their quantized features, many nanoelement and nanocompound categories are reported to exhibit well-defined nanoperiodic property patterns. These periodic property patterns are dependent on their quantized nanofeatures (CNDPs) and dramatically influence intrinsic physicochemical properties (i.e., melting points, reactivity/self-assembly, sterics, and nanoencapsulation), as well as important functional/performance properties (i.e., magnetic, photonic, electronic, and toxicologic properties). We propose this

  15. Unifying a fragmented effort: a qualitative framework for improving international surgical teaching collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Parisa Nicole; Bernstein, Mark

    2017-09-07

    Access to adequate surgical care is limited globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To address this issue, surgeons are becoming increasingly involved in international surgical teaching collaborations (ISTCs), which include educational partnerships between surgical teams in high-income countries and those in LMICs. The purpose of this study is to determine a framework for unifying, systematizing, and improving the quality of ISTCs so that they can better address the global surgical need. A convenience sample of 68 surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicians, residents, nurses, academics, and administrators from the U.S., Canada, and Norway was used for the study. Participants all had some involvement in ISTCs and came from multiple specialties and institutions. Qualitative methodology was used, and participants were interviewed using a pre-determined set of open-ended questions. Data was gathered over two months either in-person, over the phone, or on Skype. Data was evaluated using thematic content analysis. To organize and systematize ISTCs, participants reported a need for a centralized/systematized process with designated leaders, a universal data bank of current efforts/progress, communication amongst involved parties, full-time administrative staff, dedicated funds, a scholarly approach, increased use of technology, and more research on needs and outcomes. By taking steps towards unifying and systematizing ISTCs, the quality of ISTCs can be improved. This could lead to an advancement in efforts to increase access to surgical care worldwide.

  16. Wreck removal and the Nairobi Convention - a movement towards a unified framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonnie Mikael Kern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks came into force on the 14 of April 2015 and provides a framework for wreck removal. Three central questions arise when dealing with shipwrecks; Who is responsible? What measures can and are to be taken based on such a responsibility? And lastly; how can the responsibility be enforced? The Nairobi Convention on the Removal of Wrecks addresses these questions. The registered owner of a ship bears strict liability according to the convention but can be exonerated by certain limited defenses. Measures that are to be taken include locating, marking and subsequently removing the wreck. The onus to remove the wreck is on the registered owner, but there are also options available for the State affected by the wreck should the registered owner not cooperate or be unable to contact. Finally the convention strives to ensure enforceability by compulsory insurance for ships, wherever registered, with a gross tonnage of 300 tons and above calling any port or offshore facility in a State Party. The convention also enables an Affected State to claim the insurer directly. This article will analyze the convention by the use of the convention text, its preparatory works and legal writing. The article suggests that even though the convention provides a unified framework for wreck removal, it has inclusions that may actually inhibit harmonization. The convention is also in part unclear and ambiguous. Despite this the article concludes in the convention being a natural step forward in unifying the regulation of wrecks and providing a platform to deal with wreck removal in the future.

  17. A unified framework for image retrieval using keyword and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Feng; Li, Mingling; Zhang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Bo

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, a unified image retrieval framework based on both keyword annotations and visual features is proposed. In this framework, a set of statistical models are built based on visual features of a small set of manually labeled images to represent semantic concepts and used to propagate keywords to other unlabeled images. These models are updated periodically when more images implicitly labeled by users become available through relevance feedback. In this sense, the keyword models serve the function of accumulation and memorization of knowledge learned from user-provided relevance feedback. Furthermore, two sets of effective and efficient similarity measures and relevance feedback schemes are proposed for query by keyword scenario and query by image example scenario, respectively. Keyword models are combined with visual features in these schemes. In particular, a new, entropy-based active learning strategy is introduced to improve the efficiency of relevance feedback for query by keyword. Furthermore, a new algorithm is proposed to estimate the keyword features of the search concept for query by image example. It is shown to be more appropriate than two existing relevance feedback algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  18. The SCEC Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) Software Framework for Distributing and Querying Seismic Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.; Goulet, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal seismic velocity models and datasets play a key role in regional three-dimensional numerical earthquake ground-motion simulation, full waveform tomography, modern physics-based probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis, as well as in other related fields including geophysics, seismology, and earthquake engineering. The standard material properties provided by a seismic velocity model are P- and S-wave velocities and density for any arbitrary point within the geographic volume for which the model is defined. Many seismic velocity models and datasets are constructed by synthesizing information from multiple sources and the resulting models are delivered to users in multiple file formats, such as text files, binary files, HDF-5 files, structured and unstructured grids, and through computer applications that allow for interactive querying of material properties. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software framework to facilitate the registration and distribution of existing and future seismic velocity models to the SCEC community. The UCVM software framework is designed to provide a standard query interface to multiple, alternative velocity models, even if the underlying velocity models are defined in different formats or use different geographic projections. The UCVM framework provides a comprehensive set of open-source tools for querying seismic velocity model properties, combining regional 3D models and 1D background models, visualizing 3D models, and generating computational models in the form of regular grids or unstructured meshes that can be used as inputs for ground-motion simulations. The UCVM framework helps researchers compare seismic velocity models and build equivalent simulation meshes from alternative velocity models. These capabilities enable researchers to evaluate the impact of alternative velocity models in ground-motion simulations and seismic hazard analysis applications

  19. Non-equilibrium reactive flux: A unified framework for slow and fast reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2017-10-21

    The flux formulation of reaction rate theory is recast in terms of the expectation value of the reactive flux with an initial condition that corresponds to a non-equilibrium, factorized reactant density. In the common case of slow reactive processes, the non-equilibrium expression reaches the plateau regime only slightly slower than the equilibrium flux form. When the reactants are described by a single quantum state, as in the case of electron transfer reactions, the factorized reactant density describes the true initial condition of the reactive process. In such cases, the time integral of the non-equilibrium flux expression yields the reactant population as a function of time, allowing characterization of the dynamics in cases where there is no clear separation of time scales and thus a plateau regime cannot be identified. The non-equilibrium flux offers a unified approach to the kinetics of slow and fast chemical reactions and is ideally suited to mixed quantum-classical methods.

  20. Comparing, optimizing, and benchmarking quantum-control algorithms in a unifying programming framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machnes, S.; Sander, U.; Glaser, S. J.; Schulte-Herbrueggen, T.; Fouquieres, P. de; Gruslys, A.; Schirmer, S.

    2011-01-01

    For paving the way to novel applications in quantum simulation, computation, and technology, increasingly large quantum systems have to be steered with high precision. It is a typical task amenable to numerical optimal control to turn the time course of pulses, i.e., piecewise constant control amplitudes, iteratively into an optimized shape. Here, we present a comparative study of optimal-control algorithms for a wide range of finite-dimensional applications. We focus on the most commonly used algorithms: GRAPE methods which update all controls concurrently, and Krotov-type methods which do so sequentially. Guidelines for their use are given and open research questions are pointed out. Moreover, we introduce a unifying algorithmic framework, DYNAMO (dynamic optimization platform), designed to provide the quantum-technology community with a convenient matlab-based tool set for optimal control. In addition, it gives researchers in optimal-control techniques a framework for benchmarking and comparing newly proposed algorithms with the state of the art. It allows a mix-and-match approach with various types of gradients, update and step-size methods as well as subspace choices. Open-source code including examples is made available at http://qlib.info.

  1. Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficits - a unified framework for secondary cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, A.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Quan, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    The need to address the shortcomings of urban systems - adaptation deficit - and shortcomings in response to climate change - `adaptation gap' - are both major challenges in maintaining the livability and sustainability of cities. However, the adaptation actions defined in terms of type I (addressing adaptation deficits) and type II (addressing adaptation gaps), often compete and conflict each other in the secondary cities of the global south. Extending the concept of the environmental Kuznets curve, this paper argues that a unified framework that calls for synergistic action on type I and type II adaptation is essential in order for these cities to maintain their livability, sustainability and resilience facing extreme rates of urbanization and rapid onset of climate change. The proposed framework has been demonstrated in Can Tho, Vietnam, where there are significant adaptation deficits due to rapid urbanisation and adaptation gaps due to climate change and socio-economic changes. The analysis in Can Tho reveals the lack of integration between type I and type II measures that could be overcome by closer integration between various stakeholders in terms of planning, prioritising and implementing the adaptation measures.

  2. A unified software framework for deriving, visualizing, and exploring abstraction networks for ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Christopher; Geller, James; Perl, Yehoshua; Musen, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Software tools play a critical role in the development and maintenance of biomedical ontologies. One important task that is difficult without software tools is ontology quality assurance. In previous work, we have introduced different kinds of abstraction networks to provide a theoretical foundation for ontology quality assurance tools. Abstraction networks summarize the structure and content of ontologies. One kind of abstraction network that we have used repeatedly to support ontology quality assurance is the partial-area taxonomy. It summarizes structurally and semantically similar concepts within an ontology. However, the use of partial-area taxonomies was ad hoc and not generalizable. In this paper, we describe the Ontology Abstraction Framework (OAF), a unified framework and software system for deriving, visualizing, and exploring partial-area taxonomy abstraction networks. The OAF includes support for various ontology representations (e.g., OWL and SNOMED CT's relational format). A Protégé plugin for deriving “live partial-area taxonomies” is demonstrated. PMID:27345947

  3. DPSIR - two decades of trying to develop a unifying framework for marine environmental management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Patrício

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining and assessing the links between human pressures and state-changes in marine and coastal ecosystems remains a challenge. Although there are several conceptual frameworks for describing these links, the DPSIR (Drivers – Pressures – State change – Impact – Response framework has been widely adopted. Two possible reasons for this are: either the framework fulfils a major role, resulting from convergent evolution, or the framework is used often merely because it is used often, albeit uncritically. This comprehensive review, with lessons learned after two decades of use, shows that the approach is needed and there has been a convergent evolution in approach for coastal and marine ecosystem management. There are now 25 derivative schemes and a widespread and increasing usage of the DPSIR-type conceptual framework as a means of structuring and analyzing information in management and decision-making across ecosystems. However, there is less use of DPSIR in fully marine ecosystems and even this was mainly restricted to European literature. Around half of the studies are explicitly conceptual, not illustrating a solid case study. Despite its popularity since the early 1990s among the scientific community and the recommendation of several international institutions for its application, the framework has notable weaknesses to be addressed. These primarily relate to the long standing variation in interpretation (mainly between natural and social scientists of the different components (particularly P, S and I and to over-simplification of environmental problems such that cause-effect relationships cannot be adequately understood by treating the different DPSIR components as being mutually exclusive. More complex, nested, conceptual models and models with improved clarity are required to assess pressure-state change links in marine and coastal ecosystems. Our analysis shows that, because of its complexity, marine assessment and management

  4. A unified material decomposition framework for quantitative dual- and triple-energy CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Vernekohl, Don; Han, Fei; Han, Bin; Peng, Hao; Yang, Yong; Xing, Lei; Min, James K

    2018-04-21

    Many clinical applications depend critically on the accurate differentiation and classi-fication of different types of materials in patient anatomy. This work introduces a unified framework for accurate nonlinear material decomposition and applies it, for the first time, in the concept of triple-energy CT (TECT) for enhanced material differentiation and classification as well as dual-energy CT METHODS: We express polychromatic projection into a linear combination of line integrals of material-selective images. The material decomposition is then turned into a problem of minimizing the least-squares difference between measured and estimated CT projections. The optimization problem is solved iteratively by updating the line integrals. The proposed technique is evaluated by using several numerical phantom measurements under different scanning protocols The triple-energy data acquisition is implemented at the scales of micro-CT and clinical CT imaging with commercial "TwinBeam" dual-source DECT configuration and a fast kV switching DECT configu-ration. Material decomposition and quantitative comparison with a photon counting detector and with the presence of a bow-tie filter are also performed. The proposed method provides quantitative material- and energy-selective images exam-ining realistic configurations for both dual- and triple-energy CT measurements. Compared to the polychromatic kV CT images, virtual monochromatic images show superior image quality. For the mouse phantom, quantitative measurements show that the differences between gadodiamide and iodine concentrations obtained using TECT and idealized photon counting CT (PCCT) are smaller than 8 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively. TECT outperforms DECT for multi-contrast CT imag-ing and is robust with respect to spectrum estimation. For the thorax phantom, the differences between the concentrations of the contrast map and the corresponding true reference values are smaller than 7 mg/mL for all of the realistic

  5. "And DPSIR begat DAPSI(W)R(M)!" - A unifying framework for marine environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M; Burdon, D; Atkins, J P; Borja, A; Cormier, R; de Jonge, V N; Turner, R K

    2017-05-15

    The marine environment is a complex system formed by interactions between ecological structure and functioning, physico-chemical processes and socio-economic systems. An increase in competing marine uses and users requires a holistic approach to marine management which considers the environmental, economic and societal impacts of all activities. If managed sustainably, the marine environment will deliver a range of ecosystem services which lead to benefits for society. In order to understand the complexity of the system, the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) approach has long been a valuable problem-structuring framework used to assess the causes, consequences and responses to change in a holistic way. Despite DPSIR being used for a long time, there is still confusion over the definition of its terms and so to be appropriate for current marine management, we contend that this confusion needs to be addressed. Our viewpoint advocates that DPSIR should be extended to DAPSI(W)R(M) (pronounced dap-see-worm) in which Drivers of basic human needs require Activities which lead to Pressures. The Pressures are the mechanisms of State change on the natural system which then leads to Impacts (on human Welfare). Those then require Responses (as Measures). Furthermore, because of the complexity of any managed sea area in terms of multiple Activities, there is the need for a linked-DAPSI(W)R(M) framework, and then the connectivity between marine ecosystems and ecosystems in the catchment and further at sea, requires an interlinked, nested-DAPSI(W)R(M) framework to reflect the continuum between adjacent ecosystems. Finally, the unifying framework for integrated marine management is completed by encompassing ecosystem structure and functioning, ecosystem services and societal benefits. Hence, DAPSI(W)R(M) links the socio-ecological system of the effects of changes to the natural system on the human uses and benefits of the marine system. However, to deliver these

  6. The variation management framework (VMF): A unifying graphical representation of robust design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Eifler, Tobias; Pedersen, Søren Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article a framework for robust design and variation management is proposed by combining central models to Robust Design, namely, the Quality Loss Function, the Transfer Function, and the Domains of Axiomatic Design. The Variation Management Framework (VMF) shows how variation can be mapped...... from production variation right through to the quality loss perceived by the customer for a single characteristic chain. Seven levers which can be activated to increase product quality are described and positioned on the VMF and variation metrics are proposed....

  7. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge

    2009-07-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  8. A unified framework for spiking and gap-junction interactions in distributed neuronal network simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eHahne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary simulators for networks of point and few-compartment model neurons come with a plethora of ready-to-use neuron and synapse models and support complex network topologies. Recent technological advancements have broadened the spectrum of application further to the efficient simulation of brain-scale networks on supercomputers. In distributed network simulations the amount of spike data that accrues per millisecond and process is typically low, such that a common optimization strategy is to communicate spikes at relatively long intervals, where the upper limit is given by the shortest synaptic transmission delay in the network. This approach is well-suited for simulations that employ only chemical synapses but it has so far impeded the incorporation of gap-junction models, which require instantaneous neuronal interactions. Here, we present a numerical algorithm based on a waveform-relaxation technique which allows for network simulations with gap junctions in a way that is compatible with the delayed communication strategy. Using a reference implementation in the NEST simulator, we demonstrate that the algorithm and the required data structures can be smoothly integrated with existing code such that they complement the infrastructure for spiking connections. To show that the unified framework for gap-junction and spiking interactions achieves high performance and delivers high accuracy...

  9. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce, such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a connection between vertices is an undirected edge. Moreover, we aim to find a minimal cover for the monitoring network as the optimal solution of resource allocation, which is defined as the network monitoring minimization problem (NMM. This problem is proved to be NP-hard. Second, by analyzing the latent threats, we design a novel and trusted monitoring system that can integrate incident monitoring, data analysis, risk assessment, and security warnings. This system does not touch users’ privacy data. Third, we propose a sequential model-based risk assessment method, which can predict the risk according to the text semantics. Our experimental results on web scale data demonstrate that our system is flexible enough when monitoring, which also verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

  10. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM applications for analyzing the users' opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods.

  11. A unified effective-field renormalization-group framework approach for the quenched diluted Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Douglas F.; Fittipaldi, I. P.

    1994-05-01

    A unified effective-field renormalization-group framework (EFRG) for both quenched bond- and site-diluted Ising models is herein developed by extending recent works. The method, as in the previous works, follows up the same strategy of the mean-field renormalization-group scheme (MFRG), and is achieved by introducing an alternative way for constructing classical effective-field equations of state, based on rigorous Ising spin identities. The concentration dependence of the critical temperature, Tc(p), and the critical concentrations of magnetic atoms, pc, at which the transition temperature goes to zero, are evaluated for several two- and three-dimensional lattice structures. The obtained values of Tc and pc and the resulting phase diagrams for both bond and site cases are much more accurate than those estimated by the standard MFRG approach. Although preserving the same level of simplicity as the MFRG, it is shown that the present EFRG method, even by considering its simplest size-cluster version, provides results that correctly distinguishes those lattices that have the same coordination number, but differ in dimensionality or geometry.

  12. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekriladze, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  13. Progressive image denoising through hybrid graph Laplacian regularization: a unified framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianming; Zhai, Deming; Zhao, Debin; Zhai, Guangtao; Gao, Wen

    2014-04-01

    Recovering images from corrupted observations is necessary for many real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to perform progressive image recovery based on hybrid graph Laplacian regularized regression. We first construct a multiscale representation of the target image by Laplacian pyramid, then progressively recover the degraded image in the scale space from coarse to fine so that the sharp edges and texture can be eventually recovered. On one hand, within each scale, a graph Laplacian regularization model represented by implicit kernel is learned, which simultaneously minimizes the least square error on the measured samples and preserves the geometrical structure of the image data space. In this procedure, the intrinsic manifold structure is explicitly considered using both measured and unmeasured samples, and the nonlocal self-similarity property is utilized as a fruitful resource for abstracting a priori knowledge of the images. On the other hand, between two successive scales, the proposed model is extended to a projected high-dimensional feature space through explicit kernel mapping to describe the interscale correlation, in which the local structure regularity is learned and propagated from coarser to finer scales. In this way, the proposed algorithm gradually recovers more and more image details and edges, which could not been recovered in previous scale. We test our algorithm on one typical image recovery task: impulse noise removal. Experimental results on benchmark test images demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. A Unified Framework for Measuring Stewardship Practices Applied to Digital Environmental Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stewardship maturity assessment model in the form of a matrix for digital environmental datasets. Nine key components are identified based on requirements imposed on digital environmental data and information that are cared for and disseminated by U.S. Federal agencies by U.S. law, i.e., Information Quality Act of 2001, agencies’ guidance, expert bodies’ recommendations, and users. These components include: preservability, accessibility, usability, production sustainability, data quality assurance, data quality control/monitoring, data quality assessment, transparency/traceability, and data integrity. A five-level progressive maturity scale is then defined for each component associated with measurable practices applied to individual datasets, representing Ad Hoc, Minimal, Intermediate, Advanced, and Optimal stages. The rationale for each key component and its maturity levels is described. This maturity model, leveraging community best practices and standards, provides a unified framework for assessing scientific data stewardship. It can be used to create a stewardship maturity scoreboard of dataset(s and a roadmap for scientific data stewardship improvement or to provide data quality and usability information to users, stakeholders, and decision makers.

  15. Unified framework for triaxial accelerometer-based fall event detection and classification using cumulants and hierarchical decision tree classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Satya Samyukta; Singh, Vishal; Manikandan, M Sabarimalai; Ramkumar, Barathram

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter, the authors present a unified framework for fall event detection and classification using the cumulants extracted from the acceleration (ACC) signals acquired using a single waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer. The main objective of this Letter is to find suitable representative cumulants and classifiers in effectively detecting and classifying different types of fall and non-fall events. It was discovered that the first level of the proposed hierarchical decision tree algorithm implements fall detection using fifth-order cumulants and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In the second level, the fall event classification algorithm uses the fifth-order cumulants and SVM. Finally, human activity classification is performed using the second-order cumulants and SVM. The detection and classification results are compared with those of the decision tree, naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and SVM classifiers with different types of time-domain features including the second-, third-, fourth- and fifth-order cumulants and the signal magnitude vector and signal magnitude area. The experimental results demonstrate that the second- and fifth-order cumulant features and SVM classifier can achieve optimal detection and classification rates of above 95%, as well as the lowest false alarm rate of 1.03%.

  16. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2016-09-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  17. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lo Iacono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  18. A unifying framework for metrics for aggregating the climate effect of different emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, Richard S J; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S; O’Neill, Brian C; Shine, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing ‘equivalences’ among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the relationships among them. We show, as have previous authors, that the global warming potential (GWP), used in international law to compare emissions of greenhouse gases, is a special case of the global damage potential (GDP), assuming (1) a finite time horizon, (2) a zero discount rate, (3) constant atmospheric concentrations, and (4) impacts that are proportional to radiative forcing. Both the GWP and GDP follow naturally from a cost–benefit framing of the climate change issue. We show that the global temperature change potential (GTP) is a special case of the global cost potential (GCP), assuming a (slight) fall in the global temperature after the target is reached. We show how the four metrics should be generalized if there are intertemporal spillovers in abatement costs, distinguishing between private (e.g., capital stock turnover) and public (e.g., induced technological change) spillovers. Both the GTP and GCP follow naturally from a cost-effectiveness framing of the climate change issue. We also argue that if (1) damages are zero below a threshold and (2) infinitely large above a threshold, then cost-effectiveness analysis and cost–benefit analysis lead to identical results. Therefore, the GCP is a special case of the GDP. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change uses the GWP, a simplified cost–benefit concept. The UNFCCC is framed around the ultimate goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations. Once a stabilization target has been agreed under the convention, implementation is clearly a cost-effectiveness problem. It would therefore be more consistent to use the GCP or its simplification, the GTP. (letter)

  19. Leveraging the Unified Access Framework: A Tale of an Integrated Ocean Data Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Kern, K.; Smith, B.; Schweitzer, R.; Simons, R.; Mendelssohn, R.; Diggs, S. C.; Belbeoch, M.; Hankin, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) has been functioning and capturing measurements since the mid 1990s during the very successful Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project. Unfortunately, in the current environment, some 20 years after the end of the TOGA project, sustaining the observing system is proving difficult. With the many advances in methods of observing the ocean, a group of scientists is taking a fresh look at what the Tropical Pacific Observing System requires for sustainability. This includes utilizing a wide variety of observing system platforms, including Argo floats, unmanned drifters, moorings, ships, etc. This variety of platforms measuring ocean data also provides a significant challenge in terms of integrated data management. It is recognized that data and information management is crucial to the success and impact of any observing system. In order to be successful, it is also crucial to avoid building stovepipes for data management. To that end, NOAA's Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC) has been tasked to create a testbed of integrated real time and delayed mode observations for the Tropical Pacific region in support of the TPOS. The observing networks included in the prototype are: Argo floats, OceanSites moorings, drifting buoys, hydrographic surveys, underway carbon observations and, of course, real time ocean measurements. In this presentation, we will discuss how the OSMC project is building the integrated data prototype using existing free and open source software. We will explore how we are leveraging successful data management frameworks pioneered by efforts such as NOAA's Unified Access Framework project. We will also show examples of how conforming to well known conventions and standards allows for discoverability, usability and interoperability of data.

  20. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green’s function representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-01-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green’s function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green’s function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green’s function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green’s function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green’s function retrieval. PMID:27436983

  1. A single-sided representation for the homogeneous Green's function of a unified scalar wave equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees

    2017-06-01

    A unified scalar wave equation is formulated, which covers three-dimensional (3D) acoustic waves, 2D horizontally-polarised shear waves, 2D transverse-electric EM waves, 2D transverse-magnetic EM waves, 3D quantum-mechanical waves and 2D flexural waves. The homogeneous Green's function of this wave equation is a combination of the causal Green's function and its time-reversal, such that their singularities at the source position cancel each other. A classical representation expresses this homogeneous Green's function as a closed boundary integral. This representation finds applications in holographic imaging, time-reversed wave propagation and Green's function retrieval by cross correlation. The main drawback of the classical representation in those applications is that it requires access to a closed boundary around the medium of interest, whereas in many practical situations the medium can be accessed from one side only. Therefore, a single-sided representation is derived for the homogeneous Green's function of the unified scalar wave equation. Like the classical representation, this single-sided representation fully accounts for multiple scattering. The single-sided representation has the same applications as the classical representation, but unlike the classical representation it is applicable in situations where the medium of interest is accessible from one side only.

  2. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Evert Jan

    1999-05-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction between ensemble disorder as in the normal Hall effect versus ensemble order in the plateau states. Since the order of the latter permits a view of the plateau states as a macro- or meso-scopic single system, the period integral description applies, yielding a straightforward unified description of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects.

  3. Water masses as a unifying framework for understanding the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Iudicone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific motivation for this study is to understand the processes in the ocean interior controlling carbon transfer across 30° S. To address this, we have developed a unified framework for understanding the interplay between physical drivers such as buoyancy fluxes and ocean mixing, and carbon-specific processes such as biology, gas exchange and carbon mixing. Given the importance of density in determining the ocean interior structure and circulation, the framework is one that is organized by density and water masses, and it makes combined use of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. This is achieved through application to a global ice-ocean circulation model and an ocean biogeochemistry model, with both components being part of the widely-used IPSL coupled ocean/atmosphere/carbon cycle model.

    Our main new result is the dominance of the overturning circulation (identified by water masses in setting the vertical distribution of carbon transport from the Southern Ocean towards the global ocean. A net contrast emerges between the role of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW, associated with large northward transport and ingassing, and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, associated with a much smaller export and outgassing. The differences in their export rate reflects differences in their water mass formation processes. For SAMW, two-thirds of the surface waters are provided as a result of the densification of thermocline water (TW, and upon densification this water carries with it a substantial diapycnal flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. For AAIW, principal formatin processes include buoyancy forcing and mixing, with these serving to lighten CDW. An additional important formation pathway of AAIW is through the effect of interior processing (mixing, including cabelling that serve to densify SAMW.

    A quantitative evaluation of the contribution of mixing, biology and gas exchange to the DIC evolution per water mass reveals that

  4. Unified approach for the optimization of energy and water in multipurpose batch plants using a flexible scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available & Engineering Chemistry Research Vol. 52(25)/ pp 8488-8506 Unified Approach for the Optimization of Energy and Water in Multipurpose Batch Plants Using a Flexible Scheduling Framework Omobolanle Adekola,† Jane D. Stamp,† Thokozani Majozi,*,†,‡ Anurag... Garg,§ and Santanu Bandyopadhyay⊥ †Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa ‡Modelling and Digital S ien e, S , Meiring aud oad, retoria, 02, South Africa §Centre...

  5. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...

  6. AIGO: Towards a unified framework for the Analysis and the Inter-comparison of GO functional annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defoin-Platel Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the rapid growth of available genome sequences, efforts have been made to develop automatic inference methods to functionally characterize them. Pipelines that infer functional annotation are now routinely used to produce new annotations at a genome scale and for a broad variety of species. These pipelines differ widely in their inference algorithms, confidence thresholds and data sources for reasoning. This heterogeneity makes a comparison of the relative merits of each approach extremely complex. The evaluation of the quality of the resultant annotations is also challenging given there is often no existing gold-standard against which to evaluate precision and recall. Results In this paper, we present a pragmatic approach to the study of functional annotations. An ensemble of 12 metrics, describing various aspects of functional annotations, is defined and implemented in a unified framework, which facilitates their systematic analysis and inter-comparison. The use of this framework is demonstrated on three illustrative examples: analysing the outputs of state-of-the-art inference pipelines, comparing electronic versus manual annotation methods, and monitoring the evolution of publicly available functional annotations. The framework is part of the AIGO library (http://code.google.com/p/aigo for the Analysis and the Inter-comparison of the products of Gene Ontology (GO annotation pipelines. The AIGO library also provides functionalities to easily load, analyse, manipulate and compare functional annotations and also to plot and export the results of the analysis in various formats. Conclusions This work is a step toward developing a unified framework for the systematic study of GO functional annotations. This framework has been designed so that new metrics on GO functional annotations can be added in a very straightforward way.

  7. ExaGeoStat: A High Performance Unified Framework for Geostatistics on Manycore Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulah, Sameh

    2017-08-09

    We present ExaGeoStat, a high performance framework for geospatial statistics in climate and environment modeling. In contrast to simulation based on partial differential equations derived from first-principles modeling, ExaGeoStat employs a statistical model based on the evaluation of the Gaussian log-likelihood function, which operates on a large dense covariance matrix. Generated by the parametrizable Matern covariance function, the resulting matrix is symmetric and positive definite. The computational tasks involved during the evaluation of the Gaussian log-likelihood function become daunting as the number n of geographical locations grows, as O(n2) storage and O(n3) operations are required. While many approximation methods have been devised from the side of statistical modeling to ameliorate these polynomial complexities, we are interested here in the complementary approach of evaluating the exact algebraic result by exploiting advances in solution algorithms and many-core computer architectures. Using state-of-the-art high performance dense linear algebra libraries associated with various leading edge parallel architectures (Intel KNLs, NVIDIA GPUs, and distributed-memory systems), ExaGeoStat raises the game for statistical applications from climate and environmental science. ExaGeoStat provides a reference evaluation of statistical parameters, with which to assess the validity of the various approaches based on approximation. The framework takes a first step in the merger of large-scale data analytics and extreme computing for geospatial statistical applications, to be followed by additional complexity reducing improvements from the solver side that can be implemented under the same interface. Thus, a single uncompromised statistical model can ultimately be executed in a wide variety of emerging exascale environments.

  8. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A.; Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V MAS /WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, τ c is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 10 τ c [S] 10 (τ/τ c ) > -17.0, where τ is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  9. A unified framework for unraveling the functional interaction structure of a biomolecular network based on stimulus-response experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Choo, Sang-Mok; Wellstead, Peter; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2005-08-15

    We propose a unified framework for the identification of functional interaction structures of biomolecular networks in a way that leads to a new experimental design procedure. In developing our approach, we have built upon previous work. Thus we begin by pointing out some of the restrictions associated with existing structure identification methods and point out how these restrictions may be eased. In particular, existing methods use specific forms of experimental algebraic equations with which to identify the functional interaction structure of a biomolecular network. In our work, we employ an extended form of these experimental algebraic equations which, while retaining their merits, also overcome some of their disadvantages. Experimental data are required in order to estimate the coefficients of the experimental algebraic equation set associated with the structure identification task. However, experimentalists are rarely provided with guidance on which parameters to perturb, and to what extent, to perturb them. When a model of network dynamics is required then there is also the vexed question of sample rate and sample time selection to be resolved. Supplying some answers to these questions is the main motivation of this paper. The approach is based on stationary and/or temporal data obtained from parameter perturbations, and unifies the previous approaches of Kholodenko et al. (PNAS 99 (2002) 12841-12846) and Sontag et al. (Bioinformatics 20 (2004) 1877-1886). By way of demonstration, we apply our unified approach to a network model which cannot be properly identified by existing methods. Finally, we propose an experiment design methodology, which is not limited by the amount of parameter perturbations, and illustrate its use with an in numero example.

  10. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Elena; Martí, M Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distributed settling behaviour in different settling unit processes and throughout different settling regimes (discrete, hindered and compression settling). Subsequently, a unified model framework that considers several particle classes is proposed in order to describe distributions in settling behaviour as well as the effect of variations in particle properties on the settling process. The result is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) that are valid from dilute concentrations, where they correspond to discrete settling, to concentrated suspensions, where they correspond to compression settling. Consequently, these PDEs model both PSTs and SSTs.

  11. ExaGeoStat: A High Performance Unified Framework for Geostatistics on Manycore Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulah, Sameh; Ltaief, Hatem; Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    from climate and environmental science. ExaGeoStat provides a reference evaluation of statistical parameters, with which to assess the validity of the various approaches based on approximation. The framework takes a first step in the merger of large

  12. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

  13. An unified framework to integrate biotic, abiotic processes and human activities in spatially explicit models of agricultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eVinatier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent concern over possible ways to sustain ecosystem services has triggered important research worldwide on ecosystem processes at the landscape scale. Understanding this complexity of landscape functioning calls for coupled and spatially-explicit modelling approaches. However, disciplinary boundaries have limited the number of multi-process studies at the landscape scale, and current progress in coupling processes at this scale often reveals strong imbalance between biotic and abiotic processes, depending on the core discipline of the modellers. We propose a spatially-explicit, unified conceptual framework that allows researchers from different fields to develop a shared view of agricultural landscapes. In particular,we distinguish landscape elements that are mobile in space and represent biotic or abiotic objects (for example water, fauna or flora populations, and elements that are immobile and represent fixed landscape elements with a given geometry (for example ditch section or plot. The shared representation of these elements allows setting common objects and spatio-temporal process boundaries that may otherwise differ between disciplines. We present guidelines and an assessment of the applicability of this framework to a virtual landscape system with realistic properties. This framework allows the complex system to be represented with a limited set of concepts but leaves the possibility to include current modelling strategies specific to biotic or abiotic disciplines. Future operational challenges include model design, space and time discretization, and the availability of both landscape modelling platforms and data.

  14. A unified framework for benchmark dose estimation applied to mixed models and model averaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Gerhard, Daniel; Hothorn, Ludwig A.

    2013-01-01

    for hierarchical data structures, reflecting increasingly common types of assay data. We illustrate the usefulness of the methodology by means of a cytotoxicology example where the sensitivity of two types of assays are evaluated and compared. By means of a simulation study, we show that the proposed framework......This article develops a framework for benchmark dose estimation that allows intrinsically nonlinear dose-response models to be used for continuous data in much the same way as is already possible for quantal data. This means that the same dose-response model equations may be applied to both...

  15. A Unified Framework for the Ergodic Capacity of Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2012-12-29

    We consider a spectrum sharing communication scenario in which a primary and a secondary users are communicating, simultaneously, with their respective destinations using the same frequency carrier. Both optimal power profile and ergodic capacity are derived for fading channels, under an average transmit power and an instantaneous interference outage constraints. Unlike previous studies, we assume that the secondary user has a noisy version of the cross link and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). After deriving the capacity in this case, we provide an ergodic capacity generalization, through a unified expression, that encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings. In addition, we provide an asymptotic capacity analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical results, applied for independent Rayleigh fading channels, show that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters with no effect of the cross link on the capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. Furthermore, a practical on-off power allocation scheme is proposed and is shown, through numerical results, to achieve the full capacity at high and low SNR regimes and suboptimal rates in the medium SNR regime.

  16. EvoluCode: Evolutionary Barcodes as a Unifying Framework for Multilevel Evolutionary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Benjamin; Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary systems biology aims to uncover the general trends and principles governing the evolution of biological networks. An essential part of this process is the reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary histories of these complex, dynamic networks. Unfortunately, the methodologies for representing and exploiting such complex evolutionary histories in large scale studies are currently limited. Here, we propose a new formalism, called EvoluCode (Evolutionary barCode), which allows the integration of different evolutionary parameters (eg, sequence conservation, orthology, synteny …) in a unifying format and facilitates the multilevel analysis and visualization of complex evolutionary histories at the genome scale. The advantages of the approach are demonstrated by constructing barcodes representing the evolution of the complete human proteome. Two large-scale studies are then described: (i) the mapping and visualization of the barcodes on the human chromosomes and (ii) automatic clustering of the barcodes to highlight protein subsets sharing similar evolutionary histories and their functional analysis. The methodologies developed here open the way to the efficient application of other data mining and knowledge extraction techniques in evolutionary systems biology studies. A database containing all EvoluCode data is available at: http://lbgi.igbmc.fr/barcodes.

  17. A unified framework for the statistical characterization of the SNR of amplify-and-forward multihop channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified approach to analyze the exact statistical characteristics of the harmonic mean of N ≥ 2 statistically independent and non-identically distributed random variables (RVs), which we term the N-normalized harmonic distribution (i.e., NHD distribution), for the purpose of modeling the amplify-and-forward multihop relay channels. We present exact statistical metrics for the moments-generating function (MGF), moments (Mellin moments-generating function), probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the NHD distribution. Aside from unifying past results based on the geometric-mean approximation of the harmonic-mean, our approach relies on the algebraic combination of Mellin and Laplace transforms to obtain exact single integral expressions which can be easily computed using the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature rule or can be readily expressed in terms of the multivariable Meijer\\'s G of Fox\\'s H functions. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement. The proposed formulation can be used to analyze the performance measures of the amplify-and-forward multihop relay channels such as outage probability, outage capacity, average capacity and average bit error probabilities. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. A generalized framework unifying image registration and respiratory motion models and incorporating image reconstruction, for partial image data or full images

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jamie R.; Modat, Marc; Arridge, Simon; Grimes, Helen; D'Souza, Derek; Thomas, David; O' Connell, Dylan; Low, Daniel A.; Kaza, Evangelia; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; Hawkes, David J.

    2017-06-01

    Surrogate-driven respiratory motion models relate the motion of the internal anatomy to easily acquired respiratory surrogate signals, such as the motion of the skin surface. They are usually built by first using image registration to determine the motion from a number of dynamic images, and then fitting a correspondence model relating the motion to the surrogate signals. In this paper we present a generalized framework that unifies the image registration and correspondence model fitting into a single optimization. This allows the use of ‘partial’ imaging data, such as individual slices, projections, or k-space data, where it would not be possible to determine the motion from an individual frame of data. Motion compensated image reconstruction can also be incorporated using an iterative approach, so that both the motion and a motion-free image can be estimated from the partial image data. The framework has been applied to real 4DCT, Cine CT, multi-slice CT, and multi-slice MR data, as well as simulated datasets from a computer phantom. This includes the use of a super-resolution reconstruction method for the multi-slice MR data. Good results were obtained for all datasets, including quantitative results for the 4DCT and phantom datasets where the ground truth motion was known or could be estimated.

  19. Quantum and Information Thermodynamics: A Unifying Framework Based on Repeated Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    We expand the standard thermodynamic framework of a system coupled to a thermal reservoir by considering a stream of independently prepared units repeatedly put into contact with the system. These units can be in any nonequilibrium state and interact with the system with an arbitrary strength and duration. We show that this stream constitutes an effective resource of nonequilibrium free energy, and we identify the conditions under which it behaves as a heat, work, or information reservoir. We also show that this setup provides a natural framework to analyze information erasure ("Landauer's principle") and feedback-controlled systems ("Maxwell's demon"). In the limit of a short system-unit interaction time, we further demonstrate that this setup can be used to provide a thermodynamically sound interpretation to many effective master equations. We discuss how nonautonomously driven systems, micromasers, lasing without inversion and the electronic Maxwell demon can be thermodynamically analyzed within our framework. While the present framework accounts for quantum features (e.g., squeezing, entanglement, coherence), we also show that quantum resources do not offer any advantage compared to classical ones in terms of the maximum extractable work.

  20. A unified framework for cross-modality multi-atlas segmentation of brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugenio Iglesias, Juan; Rory Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    on the similarity of image intensities. Instead, it exploits the consistency of voxel intensities within the target scan to drive the registration and label fusion, hence the atlases and target image can be of different modalities. Furthermore, the framework models the joint warp of all the atlases, introducing...

  1. A unified framework for testing in the linear regression model under unknown order of fractional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We consider hypothesis testing in a general linear time series regression framework when the possibly fractional order of integration of the error term is unknown. We show that the approach suggested by Vogelsang (1998a) for the case of integer integration does not apply to the case of fractional...

  2. Divisive normalization and neuronal oscillations in a single hierarchical framework of selective visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorrit Steven Montijn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In divisive normalization models of covert attention, spike rate modulations are commonly used as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly those in gamma-band frequencies (25 to 100 Hz. Although modulations of spike rate and synchronous oscillations are not mutually exclusive as mechanisms of attention, there has thus far been little effort to integrate these concepts into a single framework of attention. Here, we aim to provide such a unified framework by expanding the normalization model of attention with a time dimension; allowing the simulation of a recently reported backward progression of attentional effects along the visual cortical hierarchy. A simple hierarchical cascade of normalization models simulating different cortical areas however leads to signal degradation and a loss of discriminability over time. To negate this degradation and ensure stable neuronal stimulus representations, we incorporate oscillatory phase entrainment into our model, a mechanism previously proposed as the communication-through-coherence (CTC hypothesis. Our analysis shows that divisive normalization and oscillation models can complement each other in a unified account of the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. The resulting hierarchical normalization and oscillation (HNO model reproduces several additional spatial and temporal aspects of attentional modulation.

  3. Divisive normalization and neuronal oscillations in a single hierarchical framework of selective visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montijn, Jorrit Steven; Klink, P Christaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2012-01-01

    Divisive normalization models of covert attention commonly use spike rate modulations as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly in gamma-band frequencies (25-100 Hz). Although modulations of spike rate and synchronous oscillations are not mutually exclusive as mechanisms of attention, there has thus far been little effort to integrate these concepts into a single framework of attention. Here, we aim to provide such a unified framework by expanding the normalization model of attention with a multi-level hierarchical structure and a time dimension; allowing the simulation of a recently reported backward progression of attentional effects along the visual cortical hierarchy. A simple cascade of normalization models simulating different cortical areas is shown to cause signal degradation and a loss of stimulus discriminability over time. To negate this degradation and ensure stable neuronal stimulus representations, we incorporate a kind of oscillatory phase entrainment into our model that has previously been proposed as the "communication-through-coherence" (CTC) hypothesis. Our analysis shows that divisive normalization and oscillation models can complement each other in a unified account of the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. The resulting hierarchical normalization and oscillation (HNO) model reproduces several additional spatial and temporal aspects of attentional modulation and predicts a latency effect on neuronal responses as a result of cued attention.

  4. A unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2018-01-01

    We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction R2 and the leading non-local term R1□2R to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by R2 term gracefully exits...... in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation–matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated...... expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. This scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means...

  5. A unifying framework for ghost-free Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-04-01

    We propose a framework for Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories where Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts could be absent. A key ingredient is the generalized Kronecker delta. The general Lagrangians are reformulated in the language of differential forms. The absence of higher order equations of motion for the scalar modes stems from the basic fact that every exact form is closed. The well-established Lagrangian theories for spin-0, spin-1, p-form, spin-2 fields have natural formulations in this framework. We also propose novel building blocks for Lagrangian field theories. Some of them are novel nonlinear derivative terms for spin-2 fields. It is nontrivial that Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts are absent in these fully nonlinear theories.

  6. A Perfect Match Genomic Landscape Provides a Unified Framework for the Precise Detection of Variation in Natural and Synthetic Haploid Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Flores, Kim; García-Sotelo, Jair; Castillo, Alejandra; Uribe, Carina; Aguilar, Luis; Morales, Lucía; Gómez-Romero, Laura; Reyes, José; Garciarubio, Alejandro; Boege, Margareta; Dávila, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple, sensitive, precise, and essentially nonstatistical solution for the analysis of genome variation in haploid organisms. The generation of a Perfect Match Genomic Landscape (PMGL), which computes intergenome identity with single nucleotide resolution, reveals signatures of variation wherever a query genome differs from a reference genome. Such signatures encode the precise location of different types of variants, including single nucleotide variants, deletions, insertions, and amplifications, effectively introducing the concept of a general signature of variation. The precise nature of variants is then resolved through the generation of targeted alignments between specific sets of sequence reads and known regions of the reference genome. Thus, the perfect match logic decouples the identification of the location of variants from the characterization of their nature, providing a unified framework for the detection of genome variation. We assessed the performance of the PMGL strategy via simulation experiments. We determined the variation profiles of natural genomes and of a synthetic chromosome, both in the context of haploid yeast strains. Our approach uncovered variants that have previously escaped detection. Moreover, our strategy is ideally suited for further refining high-quality reference genomes. The source codes for the automated PMGL pipeline have been deposited in a public repository. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V{sub MAS}/WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, {tau}{sub c} is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 <{approx_equal} log{sub 10} {tau}{sub c} [S] <{approx_equal} 27.50 and log {sub 10}({tau}/{tau}{sub c}) > -17.0, where {tau} is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  8. A Unified 3D Mesh Segmentation Framework Based on Markov Random Field

    OpenAIRE

    Z.F. Shi; L.Y. Lu; D. Le; X.M. Niu

    2012-01-01

    3D Mesh segmentation has become an important research field in computer graphics during the past decades. Many geometry based and semantic oriented approaches for 3D mesh segmentation has been presented. In this paper, we present a definition of mesh segmentation according to labeling problem. Inspired by the Markov Random Field (MRF) based image segmentation, we propose a new framework of 3D mesh segmentation based on MRF and use graph cuts to solve it. Any features of 3D mesh can be integra...

  9. A unified framework of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriksson, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a framework of algorithms for the solution of continuous optimization and variational inequality problems. In the general algorithm, a search direction finding auxiliary problems is obtained by replacing the original cost function with an approximating monotone cost function. The proposed framework encompasses algorithm classes presented earlier by Cohen, Dafermos, Migdalas, and Tseng, and includes numerous descent and successive approximation type methods, such as Newton methods, Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel type decomposition methods for problems defined over Cartesian product sets, and proximal point methods, among others. The auxiliary problem of the general algorithm also induces equivalent optimization reformulation and descent methods for asymmetric variational inequalities. We study the convergence properties of the general algorithm when applied to unconstrained optimization, nondifferentiable optimization, constrained differentiable optimization, and variational inequalities; the emphasis of the convergence analyses is placed on basic convergence results, convergence using different line search strategies and truncated subproblem solutions, and convergence rate results. This analysis offer a unification of known results; moreover, it provides strengthenings of convergence results for many existing algorithms, and indicates possible improvements of their realizations. 482 refs

  10. A unified form of exact-MSR codes via product-matrix frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian Jheng

    2015-02-01

    Regenerating codes represent a class of block codes applicable for distributed storage systems. The [n, k, d] regenerating code has data recovery capability while possessing arbitrary k out of n code fragments, and supports the capability for code fragment regeneration through the use of other arbitrary d fragments, for k ≤ d ≤ n - 1. Minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes are a subset of regenerating codes containing the minimal size of each code fragment. The first explicit construction of MSR codes that can perform exact regeneration (named exact-MSR codes) for d ≥ 2k - 2 has been presented via a product-matrix framework. This paper addresses some of the practical issues on the construction of exact-MSR codes. The major contributions of this paper include as follows. A new product-matrix framework is proposed to directly include all feasible exact-MSR codes for d ≥ 2k - 2. The mechanism for a systematic version of exact-MSR code is proposed to minimize the computational complexities for the process of message-symbol remapping. Two practical forms of encoding matrices are presented to reduce the size of the finite field.

  11. A unified form of exact-MSR codes via product-matrix frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian Jheng; Chung, Weiho; Han, Yunghsiangsam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerating codes represent a class of block codes applicable for distributed storage systems. The [n, k, d] regenerating code has data recovery capability while possessing arbitrary k out of n code fragments, and supports the capability for code fragment regeneration through the use of other arbitrary d fragments, for k ≤ d ≤ n - 1. Minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes are a subset of regenerating codes containing the minimal size of each code fragment. The first explicit construction of MSR codes that can perform exact regeneration (named exact-MSR codes) for d ≥ 2k - 2 has been presented via a product-matrix framework. This paper addresses some of the practical issues on the construction of exact-MSR codes. The major contributions of this paper include as follows. A new product-matrix framework is proposed to directly include all feasible exact-MSR codes for d ≥ 2k - 2. The mechanism for a systematic version of exact-MSR code is proposed to minimize the computational complexities for the process of message-symbol remapping. Two practical forms of encoding matrices are presented to reduce the size of the finite field.

  12. A unified framework of image latent feature learning on Sina microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinjin; Jin, Zhigang; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale user-contributed images with texts are rapidly increasing on the social media websites, such as Sina microblog. However, the noise and incomplete correspondence between the images and the texts give rise to the difficulty in precise image retrieval and ranking. In this paper, a hypergraph-based learning framework is proposed for image ranking, which simultaneously utilizes visual feature, textual content and social link information to estimate the relevance between images. Representing each image as a vertex in the hypergraph, complex relationship between images can be reflected exactly. Then updating the weight of hyperedges throughout the hypergraph learning process, the effect of different edges can be adaptively modulated in the constructed hypergraph. Furthermore, the popularity degree of the image is employed to re-rank the retrieval results. Comparative experiments on a large-scale Sina microblog data-set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  14. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui

    2018-01-16

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  15. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  16. A Unified Point Process Probabilistic Framework to Assess Heartbeat Dynamics and Autonomic Cardiovascular Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second order nonlinearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity. We here organize a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment in clinical practice.

  17. Simultaneous Force Regression and Movement Classification of Fingers via Surface EMG within a Unified Bayesian Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Tara; Jacobs, William R; Anderson, Sean R; Worden, Keith; Rowson, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This contribution presents a novel methodology for myolectric-based control using surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals recorded during finger movements. A multivariate Bayesian mixture of experts (MoE) model is introduced which provides a powerful method for modeling force regression at the fingertips, while also performing finger movement classification as a by-product of the modeling algorithm. Bayesian inference of the model allows uncertainties to be naturally incorporated into the model structure. This method is tested using data from the publicly released NinaPro database which consists of sEMG recordings for 6 degree-of-freedom force activations for 40 intact subjects. The results demonstrate that the MoE model achieves similar performance compared to the benchmark set by the authors of NinaPro for finger force regression. Additionally, inherent to the Bayesian framework is the inclusion of uncertainty in the model parameters, naturally providing confidence bounds on the force regression predictions. Furthermore, the integrated clustering step allows a detailed investigation into classification of the finger movements, without incurring any extra computational effort. Subsequently, a systematic approach to assessing the importance of the number of electrodes needed for accurate control is performed via sensitivity analysis techniques. A slight degradation in regression performance is observed for a reduced number of electrodes, while classification performance is unaffected.

  18. A Unified Pricing of Variable Annuity Guarantees under the Optimal Stochastic Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review pricing of the variable annuity living and death guarantees offered to retail investors in many countries. Investors purchase these products to take advantage of market growth and protect savings. We present pricing of these products via an optimal stochastic control framework and review the existing numerical methods. We also discuss pricing under the complete/incomplete financial market models, stochastic mortality and optimal/sub-optimal policyholder behavior, and in the presence of taxes. For numerical valuation of these contracts in the case of simple risky asset process, we develop a direct integration method based on the Gauss-Hermite quadratures with a one-dimensional cubic spline for calculation of the expected contract value, and a bi-cubic spline interpolation for applying the jump conditions across the contract cashflow event times. This method is easier to implement and faster when compared to the partial differential equation methods if the transition density (or its moments of the risky asset underlying the contract is known in closed form between the event times. We present accurate numerical results for pricing of a Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB guarantee available on the market that can serve as a numerical benchmark for practitioners and researchers developing pricing of variable annuity guarantees to assess the accuracy of their numerical implementation.

  19. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  20. A Unified Framework of the Performance Evaluation of Optical Time-Wavelength Code-Division Multiple-Access Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaty, Elie

    In this paper, we provide an analysis to the performance of optical time-wavelength code-division multiple-access (OTW-CDMA) network when the system is working above the nominal transmission rate limit imposed by the passive encoding-decoding operation. We address the problem of overlapping in such a system and how it can directly affect the bit error rate (BER). A unified mathematical framework is presented under the assumption of one coincidence sequences with non-repeating wavelengths. A closed form expression of the multiple access interference limited BER is provided as a function of different system parameters. Results show that the performance of OTW-CDMA system may be critically affected when working above the nominal limit; an event that may happen when the network operates at high transmission rate. In addition, the impact of the derived error probability on the performance of two newly proposed MAC protocols, the S-ALOHA and the R3T, is also investigated. It is shown that for low transmission rates, the S-ALOHA is better than the R3T; while the R3T is better at very high transmission rates. However, in general it is postulated that the R3T protocol suffers a higher delay mainly because of the presence of additional modes.

  1. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Alsharoa, Ahmad; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  2. A unified framework for penalized statistical muon tomography reconstruction with edge preservation priors of lp norm type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baihui; Zhao, Ziran; Wang, Xuewu; Wu, Dufan; Zeng, Zhi; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The Tsinghua University MUon Tomography facilitY (TUMUTY) has been built up and it is utilized to reconstruct the special objects with complex structure. Since fine image is required, the conventional Maximum likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) algorithm is employed. However, due to the statistical characteristics of muon tomography and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always instable and accompanied with severe noise. In this paper, we proposed a Maximum a Posterior (MAP) algorithm for muon tomography regularization, where an edge-preserving prior on the scattering density image is introduced to the object function. The prior takes the lp norm (p>0) of the image gradient magnitude, where p=1 and p=2 are the well-known total-variation (TV) and Gaussian prior respectively. The optimization transfer principle is utilized to minimize the object function in a unified framework. At each iteration the problem is transferred to solving a cubic equation through paraboloidal surrogating. To validate the method, the French Test Object (FTO) is imaged by both numerical simulation and TUMUTY. The proposed algorithm is used for the reconstruction where different norms are detailedly studied, including l2, l1, l0.5, and an l2-0.5 mixture norm. Compared with MLSD method, MAP achieves better image quality in both structure preservation and noise reduction. Furthermore, compared with the previous work where one dimensional image was acquired, we achieve the relatively clear three dimensional images of FTO, where the inner air hole and the tungsten shell is visible.

  3. Seeking a unified framework for cerebellar function and dysfunction: from circuit operations to cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio eD‘Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the fundamental recognition of its involvement in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum is now also believed to take part in the processing of cognition and emotion. This hypothesis is recurrent in numerous papers reporting anatomical and functional observations, and it requires an explanation. We argue that a similar circuit structure in all cerebellar areas may carry out various operations using a common computational scheme. On the basis of a broad review of anatomical data, it is conceivable that the different roles of the cerebellum lie in the specific connectivity of the cerebellar modules, with motor, cognitive and emotional functions (at least partially segregated into different cerebro-cerebellar loops. We here develop a conceptual and operational framework based on multiple interconnected levels (a meta-levels hypothesis: from cellular/molecular to network mechanisms leading to generation of computational primitives, thence to high-level cognitive/emotional processing, and finally to the sphere of mental function and dysfunction. The main concept explored is that of intimate interplay between timing and learning (reminiscent of the timing and learning machine capabilities long attributed to the cerebellum, which reverberates from cellular to circuit mechanisms. Subsequently, integration within large-scale brain loops could generate the disparate cognitive/emotional and mental functions in which the cerebellum has been implicated. We propose, therefore, that the cerebellum operates as a general-purpose co-processor, whose effects depend on the specific brain centers to which individual modules are connected. Abnormal functioning in these loops could eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of major brain pathologies including not just ataxia but also dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia and depression.

  4. A unifying concept of coccolithophore sensitivity to changing carbonate chemistry embedded in an ecological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lennart Thomas; Riebesell, Ulf; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Federwisch, Luisa; Schulz, Kai Georg

    2015-06-01

    Coccolithophores are a group of unicellular phytoplankton species whose ability to calcify has a profound influence on biogeochemical element cycling. Calcification rates are controlled by a large variety of biotic and abiotic factors. Among these factors, carbonate chemistry has gained considerable attention during the last years as coccolithophores have been identified to be particularly sensitive to ocean acidification. Despite intense research in this area, a general concept harmonizing the numerous and sometimes (seemingly) contradictory responses of coccolithophores to changing carbonate chemistry is still lacking to date. Here, we present the "substrate-inhibitor concept" which describes the dependence of calcification rates on carbonate chemistry speciation. It is based on observations that calcification rate scales positively with bicarbonate (HCO3-), the primary substrate for calcification, and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can limit cell growth, whereas it is inhibited by protons (H+). This concept was implemented in a model equation, tested against experimental data, and then applied to understand and reconcile the diverging responses of coccolithophorid calcification rates to ocean acidification obtained in culture experiments. Furthermore, we (i) discuss how other important calcification-influencing factors (e.g. temperature and light) could be implemented in our concept and (ii) embed it in Hutchinson's niche theory, thereby providing a framework for how carbonate chemistry-induced changes in calcification rates could be linked with changing coccolithophore abundance in the oceans. Our results suggest that the projected increase of H+ in the near future (next couple of thousand years), paralleled by only a minor increase of inorganic carbon substrate, could impede calcification rates if coccolithophores are unable to fully adapt. However, if calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sediment dissolution and terrestrial weathering begin to increase the oceans' HCO3

  5. There is a strong need for a single unified textbook even though education in disaster mitigation covers many fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.; Song, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Areas of scientific specialties have been segmentalized nowadays. Each natural hazard are researched by scientific researchers. A huge variety of textbooks on one or few natural hazard are published by a single researcher in the world. There are possibilities are several natural disaster in one place. People have to learn from each hazard. However such disaster textbook is not unified education publish. Education in disaster mitigation covers many fields. There is a strong need for a single unified textbook. When I teach disaster education to children in kindergartens and schools, I understand students are confused by each different direction in such textbooks. "Doctor, which is right when a earthquake happens, cover my head or go out of a building? " I would like to discuss what the most valuable disaster textbook is as my following disatser handbook with audiences. This is publisehd for developping countries. You can freely download UNESCO disaster handbook following URL:http://www.icharm.pwri.go.jp/publication/pdf/handbook_on_local_disaster_management_experiences.pdf

  6. Framework for event-based semidistributed modeling that unifies the SCS-CN method, VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Parolari, A. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Porporato, A.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrologists and engineers may choose from a range of semidistributed rainfall-runoff models such as VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL, all of which predict runoff from a distribution of watershed properties. However, these models are not easily compared to event-based data and are missing ready-to-use analytical expressions that are analogous to the SCS-CN method. The SCS-CN method is an event-based model that describes the runoff response with a rainfall-runoff curve that is a function of the cumulative storm rainfall and antecedent wetness condition. Here we develop an event-based probabilistic storage framework and distill semidistributed models into analytical, event-based expressions for describing the rainfall-runoff response. The event-based versions called VICx, PDMx, and TOPMODELx also are extended with a spatial description of the runoff concept of "prethreshold" and "threshold-excess" runoff, which occur, respectively, before and after infiltration exceeds a storage capacity threshold. For total storm rainfall and antecedent wetness conditions, the resulting ready-to-use analytical expressions define the source areas (fraction of the watershed) that produce runoff by each mechanism. They also define the probability density function (PDF) representing the spatial variability of runoff depths that are cumulative values for the storm duration, and the average unit area runoff, which describes the so-called runoff curve. These new event-based semidistributed models and the traditional SCS-CN method are unified by the same general expression for the runoff curve. Since the general runoff curve may incorporate different model distributions, it may ease the way for relating such distributions to land use, climate, topography, ecology, geology, and other characteristics.

  7. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  8. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Bowker, Matthew A; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2011-11-20

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  9. A unified framework for penalized statistical muon tomography reconstruction with edge preservation priors of l{sub p} norm type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baihui [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Ziran, E-mail: zhaozr@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Xuewu; Wu, Dufan; Zeng, Zhi; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cheng, Jianping, E-mail: chengjp@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-11

    The Tsinghua University MUon Tomography facilitY (TUMUTY) has been built up and it is utilized to reconstruct the special objects with complex structure. Since fine image is required, the conventional Maximum likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) algorithm is employed. However, due to the statistical characteristics of muon tomography and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always instable and accompanied with severe noise. In this paper, we proposed a Maximum a Posterior (MAP) algorithm for muon tomography regularization, where an edge-preserving prior on the scattering density image is introduced to the object function. The prior takes the l{sub p} norm (p>0) of the image gradient magnitude, where p=1 and p=2 are the well-known total-variation (TV) and Gaussian prior respectively. The optimization transfer principle is utilized to minimize the object function in a unified framework. At each iteration the problem is transferred to solving a cubic equation through paraboloidal surrogating. To validate the method, the French Test Object (FTO) is imaged by both numerical simulation and TUMUTY. The proposed algorithm is used for the reconstruction where different norms are detailedly studied, including l{sub 2}, l{sub 1}, l{sub 0.5}, and an l{sub 2–0.5} mixture norm. Compared with MLSD method, MAP achieves better image quality in both structure preservation and noise reduction. Furthermore, compared with the previous work where one dimensional image was acquired, we achieve the relatively clear three dimensional images of FTO, where the inner air hole and the tungsten shell is visible.

  10. A unified framework for the statistical characterization of the SNR of amplify-and-forward multihop channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Kucur, Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified approach to analyze the exact statistical characteristics of the harmonic mean of N ≥ 2 statistically independent and non-identically distributed random variables (RVs), which we term the N-normalized harmonic

  11. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  12. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Post, E J

    1999-01-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction betw...

  13. An enhanced unified uncertainty analysis approach based on first order reliability method with single-level optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Tooren, Michel van

    2013-01-01

    In engineering, there exist both aleatory uncertainties due to the inherent variation of the physical system and its operational environment, and epistemic uncertainties due to lack of knowledge and which can be reduced with the collection of more data. To analyze the uncertain distribution of the system performance under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, combined probability and evidence theory can be employed to quantify the compound effects of the mixed uncertainties. The existing First Order Reliability Method (FORM) based Unified Uncertainty Analysis (UUA) approach nests the optimization based interval analysis in the improved Hasofer–Lind–Rackwitz–Fiessler (iHLRF) algorithm based Most Probable Point (MPP) searching procedure, which is computationally inhibitive for complex systems and may encounter convergence problem as well. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed to use general optimization solvers to search MPP in the outer loop and then reformulate the double-loop optimization problem into an equivalent single-level optimization (SLO) problem, so as to simplify the uncertainty analysis process, improve the robustness of the algorithm, and alleviate the computational complexity. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with two numerical examples and one practical satellite conceptual design problem. -- Highlights: ► Uncertainty analysis under mixed aleatory and epistemic uncertainties is studied. ► A unified uncertainty analysis method is proposed with combined probability and evidence theory. ► The traditional nested analysis method is converted to single level optimization for efficiency. ► The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are testified with three examples

  14. A Systematic Framework and Nanoperiodic Concept for Unifying Nanoscience: Hard/Soft Nanoelements, Superatoms, Meta-Atoms, New Emerging Properties, Periodic Property Patterns, and Predictive Mendeleev-like Nanoperiodic Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalia, Donald A; Khanna, Shiv N

    2016-02-24

    Development of a central paradigm is undoubtedly the single most influential force responsible for advancing Dalton's 19th century atomic/molecular chemistry concepts to the current maturity enjoyed by traditional chemistry. A similar central dogma for guiding and unifying nanoscience has been missing. This review traces the origins, evolution, and current status of such a critical nanoperiodic concept/framework for defining and unifying nanoscience. Based on parallel efforts and a mutual consensus now shared by both chemists and physicists, a nanoperiodic/systematic framework concept has emerged. This concept is based on the well-documented existence of discrete, nanoscale collections of traditional inorganic/organic atoms referred to as hard and soft superatoms (i.e., nanoelement categories). These nanometric entities are widely recognized to exhibit nanoscale atom mimicry features reminiscent of traditional picoscale atoms. All unique superatom/nanoelement physicochemical features are derived from quantized structural control defined by six critical nanoscale design parameters (CNDPs), namely, size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture, and elemental composition. These CNDPs determine all intrinsic superatom properties, their combining behavior to form stoichiometric nanocompounds/assemblies as well as to exhibit nanoperiodic properties leading to new nanoperiodic rules and predictive Mendeleev-like nanoperiodic tables, and they portend possible extension of these principles to larger quantized building blocks including meta-atoms.

  15. Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kaori; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-10-03

    Chromatography techniques usually use a single state in the mobile phase, such as liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid. Chromatographers manage one of these techniques for their purpose but are sometimes required to use multiple methods, or even worse, multiple techniques when the target compounds have a wide range of chemical properties. To overcome this challenge, we developed a single method covering a diverse compound range by means of a "unified" chromatography which completely bridges supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. In our method, the phase state was continuously changed in the following order; supercritical, subcritical and liquid. Moreover, the gradient of the mobile phase starting at almost 100% CO2 was replaced with 100% methanol at the end completely. As a result, this approach achieved further extension of the polarity range of the mobile phase in a single run, and successfully enabled the simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins with a wide logP range of -2.11 to 10.12. Furthermore, the 17 vitamins were exceptionally separated in 4min. Our results indicated that the use of dense CO2 and the replacement of CO2 by methanol are practical approaches in unified chromatography covering diverse compounds. Additionally, this is a first report to apply the novel approach to unified chromatography, and can open another door for diverse compound analysis in a single chromatographic technique with single injection, single column and single system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Single-Channel Noise Reduction using Unified Joint Diagonalization and Optimal Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2014-01-01

    consider two cases, where, respectively, no distortion and distortion are incurred on the desired signal. The former can be achieved when the covariance matrix of the desired signal is rank deficient, which is the case, for example, for voiced speech. In the latter case, the covariance matrix......In this paper, the important problem of single-channel noise reduction is treated from a new perspective. The problem is posed as a filtering problem based on joint diagonalization of the covariance matrices of the desired and noise signals. More specifically, the eigenvectors from the joint...

  17. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Elena; Marti, M. Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Burger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Francois, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distribu...

  18. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2014-08-01

    The joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs) are often needed for the accurate performance characterization of a wide variety of wireless communication systems. A unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables was recently presented. However, the identical distribution assumption may not be valid in several real-world applications. With this motivation in mind, we consider in this paper the more general case in which the random variables are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.d.). More specifically, we extend the previous analysis and introduce a new more general unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE receivers operating over frequency-selective fading channels with a non-uniform power delay profile. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  19. Exploring the complementarity of THz pulse imaging and DCE-MRIs: Toward a unified multi-channel classification and a deep learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X-X; Zhang, Y; Cao, J; Wu, J-L; Hadjiloucas, S

    2016-12-01

    We provide a comprehensive account of recent advances in biomedical image analysis and classification from two complementary imaging modalities: terahertz (THz) pulse imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The work aims to highlight underlining commonalities in both data structures so that a common multi-channel data fusion framework can be developed. Signal pre-processing in both datasets is discussed briefly taking into consideration advances in multi-resolution analysis and model based fractional order calculus system identification. Developments in statistical signal processing using principal component and independent component analysis are also considered. These algorithms have been developed independently by the THz-pulse imaging and DCE-MRI communities, and there is scope to place them in a common multi-channel framework to provide better software standardization at the pre-processing de-noising stage. A comprehensive discussion of feature selection strategies is also provided and the importance of preserving textural information is highlighted. Feature extraction and classification methods taking into consideration recent advances in support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers and their complex extensions are presented. An outlook on Clifford algebra classifiers and deep learning techniques suitable to both types of datasets is also provided. The work points toward the direction of developing a new unified multi-channel signal processing framework for biomedical image analysis that will explore synergies from both sensing modalities for inferring disease proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A unified framework for evaluating the risk of re-identification of text de-identification tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaiano, Martin; Middleton, Grant; Arbuckle, Luk; Kolhatkar, Varada; Peyton, Liam; Dowling, Moira; Gipson, Debbie S; El Emam, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    It has become regular practice to de-identify unstructured medical text for use in research using automatic methods, the goal of which is to remove patient identifying information to minimize re-identification risk. The metrics commonly used to determine if these systems are performing well do not accurately reflect the risk of a patient being re-identified. We therefore developed a framework for measuring the risk of re-identification associated with textual data releases. We apply the proposed evaluation framework to a data set from the University of Michigan Medical School. Our risk assessment results are then compared with those that would be obtained using a typical contemporary micro-average evaluation of recall in order to illustrate the difference between the proposed evaluation framework and the current baseline method. We demonstrate how this framework compares against common measures of the re-identification risk associated with an automated text de-identification process. For the probability of re-identification using our evaluation framework we obtained a mean value for direct identifiers of 0.0074 and a mean value for quasi-identifiers of 0.0022. The 95% confidence interval for these estimates were below the relevant thresholds. The threshold for direct identifier risk was based on previously used approaches in the literature. The threshold for quasi-identifiers was determined based on the context of the data release following commonly used de-identification criteria for structured data. Our framework attempts to correct for poorly distributed evaluation corpora, accounts for the data release context, and avoids the often optimistic assumptions that are made using the more traditional evaluation approach. It therefore provides a more realistic estimate of the true probability of re-identification. This framework should be used as a basis for computing re-identification risk in order to more realistically evaluate future text de-identification tools

  1. Visual aftereffects and sensory nonlinearities from a single statistical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, Valero; Malo, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    When adapted to a particular scenery our senses may fool us: colors are misinterpreted, certain spatial patterns seem to fade out, and static objects appear to move in reverse. A mere empirical description of the mechanisms tuned to color, texture, and motion may tell us where these visual illusions come from. However, such empirical models of gain control do not explain why these mechanisms work in this apparently dysfunctional manner. Current normative explanations of aftereffects based on scene statistics derive gain changes by (1) invoking decorrelation and linear manifold matching/equalization, or (2) using nonlinear divisive normalization obtained from parametric scene models. These principled approaches have different drawbacks: the first is not compatible with the known saturation nonlinearities in the sensors and it cannot fully accomplish information maximization due to its linear nature. In the second, gain change is almost determined a priori by the assumed parametric image model linked to divisive normalization. In this study we show that both the response changes that lead to aftereffects and the nonlinear behavior can be simultaneously derived from a single statistical framework: the Sequential Principal Curves Analysis (SPCA). As opposed to mechanistic models, SPCA is not intended to describe how physiological sensors work, but it is focused on explaining why they behave as they do. Nonparametric SPCA has two key advantages as a normative model of adaptation: (i) it is better than linear techniques as it is a flexible equalization that can be tuned for more sensible criteria other than plain decorrelation (either full information maximization or error minimization); and (ii) it makes no a priori functional assumption regarding the nonlinearity, so the saturations emerge directly from the scene data and the goal (and not from the assumed function). It turns out that the optimal responses derived from these more sensible criteria and SPCA are

  2. Signature of the CERN GoldenBook at CERN by Peters Higgs British theoretical physicist - He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    Signature of the CERN GoldenBook at CERN by Peters Higgs British theoretical physicist - He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

  3. Visit of Peters Higgs at Point 2 ALICE Experiment - British theoretical physicist, He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    Visit of Peters Higgs at Point 2 ALICE Experiment - British theoretical physicist, He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

  4. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  5. A new unified framework for the early detection of the progression to diabetic retinopathy from fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Georgios

    2017-11-01

    Human retina is a diverse and important tissue, vastly studied for various retinal and other diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness, is one of them. This work proposes a novel and complete framework for the accurate and robust extraction and analysis of a series of retinal vascular geometric features. It focuses on studying the registered bifurcations in successive years of progression from diabetes (no DR) to DR, in order to identify the vascular alterations. Retinal fundus images are utilised, and multiple experimental designs are employed. The framework includes various steps, such as image registration and segmentation, extraction of features, statistical analysis and classification models. Linear mixed models are utilised for making the statistical inferences, alongside the elastic-net logistic regression, boruta algorithm, and regularised random forests for the feature selection and classification phases, in order to evaluate the discriminative potential of the investigated features and also build classification models. A number of geometric features, such as the central retinal artery and vein equivalents, are found to differ significantly across the experiments and also have good discriminative potential. The classification systems yield promising results with the area under the curve values ranging from 0.821 to 0.968, across the four different investigated combinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GXNOR-Net: Training deep neural networks with ternary weights and activations without full-precision memory under a unified discretization framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Jiao, Peng; Pei, Jing; Wu, Zhenzhi; Li, Guoqi

    2018-04-01

    Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead. To this end, two fundamental issues are yet to be addressed. The first one is how to implement the back propagation when neuronal activations are discrete. The second one is how to remove the full-precision hidden weights in the training phase to break the bottlenecks of memory/computation consumption. To address the first issue, we present a multi-step neuronal activation discretization method and a derivative approximation technique that enable the implementing the back propagation algorithm on discrete DNNs. While for the second issue, we propose a discrete state transition (DST) methodology to constrain the weights in a discrete space without saving the hidden weights. Through this way, we build a unified framework that subsumes the binary or ternary networks as its special cases, and under which a heuristic algorithm is provided at the website https://github.com/AcrossV/Gated-XNOR. More particularly, we find that when both the weights and activations become ternary values, the DNNs can be reduced to sparse binary networks, termed as gated XNOR networks (GXNOR-Nets) since only the event of non-zero weight and non-zero activation enables the control gate to start the XNOR logic operations in the original binary networks. This promises the event-driven hardware design for efficient mobile intelligence. We achieve advanced performance compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. Furthermore, the computational sparsity

  7. Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, K.

    2009-11-01

    Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

  8. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Unified NET-MAC-PHY Cross-layer Framework for Performance Evaluation of Multi-hop Ad hoc WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing works have been evaluated the performance of 802.11 multihop networks by considering the MAC layer or network layer separately. Knowing the nature of the multi-hop ad hoc networks, many factors in different layers are crucial for study the performance of MANET. In this paper we present a new analytic model for evaluating average end-to-end throughput in IEEE 802.11e multihop wireless networks. In particular, we investigate an intricate interaction among PHY, MAC and Network layers. For instance, we incorporate carrier sense threshold, transmission power, contention window size, retransmissions retry limit, multi rates, routing protocols and network topology together. We build a general cross-layered framework to represent multi-hop ad hoc networks with asymmetric topology and asymmetric traffic. We develop an analytical model to predict throughput of each connection as well as stability of forwarding queues at intermediate nodes in saturated networks. To the best of our knowledge, it seems that our work is the first wherein general topology and asymmetric parameters setup are considered in PHY/MAC/Network layers. Performance of such a system is also evaluated through simulation. We show that performance measures of the MAC layer are affected by the traffic intensity of flows to be forwarded. More precisely, attempt rate and collision probability are dependent on traffic flows, topology and routing.

  10. Probabilistic Models and Generative Neural Networks: Towards an Unified Framework for Modeling Normal and Impaired Neurocognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Connectionist models can be characterized within the more general framework of probabilistic graphical models, which allow to efficiently describe complex statistical distributions involving a large number of interacting variables. This integration allows building more realistic computational models of cognitive functions, which more faithfully reflect the underlying neural mechanisms at the same time providing a useful bridge to higher-level descriptions in terms of Bayesian computations. Here we discuss a powerful class of graphical models that can be implemented as stochastic, generative neural networks. These models overcome many limitations associated with classic connectionist models, for example by exploiting unsupervised learning in hierarchical architectures (deep networks) and by taking into account top-down, predictive processing supported by feedback loops. We review some recent cognitive models based on generative networks, and we point out promising research directions to investigate neuropsychological disorders within this approach. Though further efforts are required in order to fill the gap between structured Bayesian models and more realistic, biophysical models of neuronal dynamics, we argue that generative neural networks have the potential to bridge these levels of analysis, thereby improving our understanding of the neural bases of cognition and of pathologies caused by brain damage.

  11. A unified framework for modelling sediment fate from source to sink and its interactions with reef systems over geological times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Tristan; Ding, Xuesong; Webster, Jody M; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Brocard, Gilles; Pall, Jodie

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on sediment dynamics is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer from source to sink and associated morphological changes. We present a new approach based on a reduced-complexity model which computes over geological time: sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents, and development of coral reef systems. Our framework links together the main sedimentary processes driving mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system dynamics. It offers a methodology for objective and quantitative sediment fate estimations over regional and millennial time-scales. A simulation of the Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef shows: (1) how high sediment loads from catchments erosion prevented coral growth during the early transgression phase and favoured sediment gravity-flows in the deepest parts of the northern region basin floor (prior to 8 ka before present (BP)); (2) how the fine balance between climate, sea-level, and margin physiography enabled coral reefs to thrive under limited shelf sedimentation rates after ~6 ka BP; and, (3) how since 3 ka BP, with the decrease of accommodation space, reduced of vertical growth led to the lateral extension of reefs consistent with available observational data.

  12. The sociobiology of genes: the gene's eye view as a unifying behavioural-ecological framework for biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tiège, Alexis; Van de Peer, Yves; Braeckman, Johan; Tanghe, Koen B

    2017-11-22

    Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly 'gene-centred', the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene's eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with (genotypically represented) fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes within the same organism and genome. Here, we explore the explanatory potential of 'intra-organismic' and 'intra-genomic' gene-selectionism, i.e., of a behavioural-ecological 'gene's eye view' on genetic, genomic and organismal evolution. First, we give a general outline of the framework and how it complements the-to some extent-still 'organism-centred' approach of classical evolutionary theory. Secondly, we give a more in-depth assessment of its explanatory potential for biological evolution, i.e., for Darwin's 'common descent with modification' or, more specifically, for 'historical continuity or homology with modular evolutionary change' as it has been studied by evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) during the last few decades. In contrast with classical evolutionary theory, evo-devo focuses on 'within-organism' developmental processes. Given the capacity of gene-selectionism to adopt an intra-organismal gene's eye view, we outline the relevance of the latter model for evo-devo. Overall, we aim for the conceptual integration between the gene's eye view on the one hand, and more organism-centred evolutionary models (both classical evolutionary theory and evo-devo) on the other.

  13. A unified methodology for single- and multiobjective in-core fuel management optimisation based on augmented Chebyshev scalarisation and a harmony search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlünz, E.B.; Bokov, P.M.; Prinsloo, R.H.; Vuuren, J.H. van

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Unified methodology for in-core fuel management optimisation (ICFMO). • Addresses single- and multiobjective constrained and unconstrained ICFMO problems. • Augmented Chebyshev scalarising objective function with additive penalty function. • Harmony search algorithm yields high-quality solution or approximate Pareto set. • Methodology provides cycle-to-cycle optimisation decision support capabilities. - Abstract: The in-core fuel management optimisation (ICFMO) problem is the problem of finding an optimal fuel reload configuration for a nuclear reactor core. ICFMO may involve the pursuit of a single or multiple objectives, while satisfying several constraints. Very little multiobjective ICFMO research involving the fundamental notion of Pareto optimality has, however, been performed. In this paper, a unified methodology is proposed for the modelling and solution of single- and multiobjective ICFMO problems, be they constrained or unconstrained. With this methodology, ICFMO problems incorporating a variety of objectives and/or constraints may be modelled and solved rapidly, thus providing a cycle-to-cycle optimisation decision support capability for nuclear reactors. An augmented Chebyshev scalarising objective function is incorporated in the methodology for modelling any number of objectives, while an additive penalty function handles potential constraints. Furthermore, an adapted harmony search algorithm is used to solve a given ICFMO problem. The algorithm is able to yield a single solution or a nondominated set of solutions as result (depending on the number of objectives in a problem). The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated by solving (approximately) a variety of ICFMO test problems for the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor. The results indicate that the methodology may be used as an effective decision support tool for reactor operators tasked with designing reload configurations from cycle to cycle.

  14. The Unified Software Development Process and Framework Development = Birleşik Yazılım Geliştirme Süreci ve İskelet Yapılarının Geliştirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz KHAMIS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Application frameworks are a very promising software reuse technology. The development of application frameworks is a complex process. Many methodologies and approaches have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the complexities. The Unified Software Development Process directly addresses the complexity challenge of today's software applications. In this paper, we explore the role of the Unified Software Development Process together with a popular CASE tool: Rational Rose, in managing the complexity of developing application frameworks.

  15. Local Electronic Structure of a Single-Layer Porphyrin-Containing Covalent Organic Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Chen; Joshi, Trinity; Li, Huifang; Chavez, Anton D.; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Liu, Pei-Nian; Li, Hong; Dichtel, William R.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Crommie, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    We have characterized the local electronic structure of a porphyrin-containing single-layer covalent organic framework (COF) exhibiting a square lattice. The COF monolayer was obtained by the deposition of 2,5-dimethoxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde

  16. Unifying Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads

    This thesis presents the RUNE language, a semantic construction of related and tightly coupled programming constructs presented in the shape of a programming language. The major contribution is the succesfull design of a highly unified and general programming model, capable of expressing some of ...... a unified name declaration mechanism. The resulting expressiveness allows for argument covariance, dependent types and module types, plus a solution to the so-called expression problem of two way extensibility in object-oriented languages....... of the most complex type relations put forth in type systems research, without compromising such fundamental qualities as conceptuality, modularity and static typing. While many new constructs and unifications are put forth  to substantiate their conceptual validity, type rules are given to support...

  17. Why unify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Unified gauge theories such as SU(5) of particle interactions are built on the colour SU(3) and SU(2) x U(1) gauge theories which apparently describe strong and weak and electromagnetic interactions at distances as small as 10 -16 cm. In this article the classical reasons for going beyond SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) to a fully unified theory such as SU(5) are reviewed, and a new reason formulated. A class of imaginary worlds similar to our own is considered and it is shown that unification is possible only in ours. This suggests that the low-energy interactions are unique in that they are constructed to make unification possible. (author)

  18. Brains are not just neurons. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    This comment addresses the first component of Fitch's framework: the computational power of single neurons [3]. Although I agree that traditional models of neural computation have vastly underestimated the computational power of single neurons, I am hesitant to follow him completely. The exclusive focus on neurons is likely to underestimate the importance of other cells in the brain. In the last years, two such cell types have received appropriate attention by neuroscientists: interneurons and glia. Interneurons are small, tightly packed cells involved in the control of information processing in learning and memory. Rather than transmitting externally (like motor or sensory neurons), these neurons process information within internal circuits of the brain (therefore also called 'relay neurons'). Some specialized interneuron subtypes temporally regulate the flow of information in a given cortical circuit during relevant behavioral events [4]. In the human brain approx. 100 billion interneurons control information processing and are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson's.

  19. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  20. Security flows in OAuth 2.0 framework: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyriou, Marios; Dragoni, Nicola; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    struggle to maintain distinct accounts for every single service that they use. The solution to this problem is the use of a Single Sign On (SSO) framework, with a unified single account to authenticate user’s identity throughout the different services. In April 2007, AOL introduced OpenAuth framework...

  1. A novel numerical framework for self-similarity in plasticity: Wedge indentation in single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, K. J.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    -viscoplastic single crystal. However, the framework may be readily adapted to any constitutive law of interest. The main focus herein is the development of the self-similar framework, while the indentation study serves primarily as verification of the technique by comparing to existing numerical and analytical......A novel numerical framework for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed and demonstrated. Self-similar problems of this kind include processes such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. The proposed technique offers a simple and efficient method for handling...

  2. A Unified Algorithm for Channel Imbalance and Antenna Phase Center Position Calibration of a Single-Pass Multi-Baseline TomoSAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Bu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar (SAR tomography (TomoSAR system is employed in such applications as disaster remote sensing, urban 3-D reconstruction, and forest carbon storage estimation. This is because of its 3-D imaging capability in a single-pass platform. However, a high 3-D resolution of TomoSAR is based on the premise that the channel imbalance and antenna phase center (APC position are precisely known. If this is not the case, the 3-D resolution performance will be seriously degraded. In this paper, a unified algorithm for channel imbalance and APC position calibration of a single-pass multi-baseline TomoSAR system is proposed. Based on the maximum likelihood method, as well as the least squares and the damped Newton method, we can calibrate the channel imbalance and APC position. The algorithm is suitable for near-field conditions, and no phase unwrapping operation is required. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental results.

  3. General Unified Integral Controller with Zero Steady-State Error for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current regulation is crucial for operating single-phase grid-connected inverters. The challenge of the current controller is how to fast and precisely tracks the current with zero steady-state error. This paper proposes a novel feedback mechanism for the conventional PI controller. It allows...... done indicates that the widely used PR (P+Resonant) control is just a special case of the proposed control solution. The time-domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink and experimental results from a TMS320F2812 DSP based laboratory prototypes are in good agreement, which verify the effectiveness...

  4. A three-step vehicle detection framework for range estimation using a single camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kanjee, R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and validates a real-time onroad vehicle detection system, which uses a single camera for the purpose of intelligent driver assistance. A three-step vehicle detection framework is presented to detect and track the target vehicle...

  5. Functionalised metal-organic frameworks : A novel approach to stabilising single metal atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szilagyi, P.A.; Rogers, D. M.; Zaiser, I.; Callini, E; Turner, Stuart; Borgschulte, A; Züttel, A.; Geerlings, J.J.C.; Hirscher, M; Dam, B.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the potential of metal-organic frameworks for immobilising single atoms of transition metals using a model system of Pd supported on NH2-MIL-101(Cr). Our transmission electron microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy results give evidence for the first time that

  6. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Unifying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  8. The Simplest Unified Growth Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (1798) so-called preventive check...... hypothesis - that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food - the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. The current framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune...

  9. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  10. Single Pt Atoms Confined into a Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xinzuo; Shang, Qichao; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Long; Yao, Tao; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-02-01

    It is highly desirable yet remains challenging to improve the dispersion and usage of noble metal cocatalysts, beneficial to charge transfer in photocatalysis. Herein, for the first time, single Pt atoms are successfully confined into a metal-organic framework (MOF), in which electrons transfer from the MOF photosensitizer to the Pt acceptor for hydrogen production by water splitting under visible-light irradiation. Remarkably, the single Pt atoms exhibit a superb activity, giving a turnover frequency of 35 h -1 , ≈30 times that of Pt nanoparticles stabilized by the same MOF. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy further unveils that the single Pt atoms confined into the MOF provide highly efficient electron transfer channels and density functional theory calculations indicate that the introduction of single Pt atoms into the MOF improves the hydrogen binding energy, thus greatly boosting the photocatalytic H 2 production activity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  12. Controllable synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotube framework membranes and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changsik; Kwon, Taeyun; Han, Jae-Hee; Shandell, Mia; Strano, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Controlling the morphology of membrane components at the nanometer scale is central to many next-generation technologies in water purification, gas separation, fuel cell, and nanofiltration applications. Toward this end, we report the covalent assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into three-dimensional framework materials with intertube pores controllable by adjusting the size of organic linker molecules. The frameworks are fashioned into multilayer membranes possessing linker spacings from 1.7 to 3.0 nm, and the resulting framework films were characterized, including transport properties. Nanoindentation measurements by atomic force microscopy show that the spring constant of the SWNT framework film (22.6 +/- 1.2 N/m) increased by a factor of 2 from the control value (10.4 +/- 0.1 N/m). The flux ratio comparison in a membrane-permeation experiment showed that larger spacer sizes resulted in larger pore structures. This synthetic method was equally efficient on silica microspheres, which could then be etched to create all-SWNT framework, hollow capsules approximately 5 mum in diameter. These hollow capsules are permeable to organic and inorganic reagents, allowing one to form inorganic nanoparticles, for example, that become entrapped within the capsule. The ability to encapsulate functional nanomaterials inside perm-selective SWNT cages and membranes may find applications in new adsorbents, novel catalysts, and drug delivery vehicles.

  13. Beyond the Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, S.

    2018-04-01

    The key elements of the Unified Model are reviewed. The microscopic derivation of the Bohr Hamiltonian by means of adiabatic time-dependent mean field theory is presented. By checking against experimental data the limitations of the Unified Model are delineated. The description of the strong coupling between the rotational and intrinsic degrees of freedom in framework of the rotating mean field is presented from a conceptual point of view. The classification of rotational bands as configurations of rotating quasiparticles is introduced. The occurrence of uniform rotation about an axis that differs from the principle axes of the nuclear density distribution is discussed. The physics behind this tilted-axis rotation, unknown in molecular physics, is explained on a basic level. The new symmetries of the rotating mean field that arise from the various orientations of the angular momentum vector with respect to the triaxial nuclear density distribution and their manifestation by the level sequence of rotational bands are discussed. Resulting phenomena, as transverse wobbling, rotational chirality, magnetic rotation and band termination are discussed. Using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking the microscopic underpinning of the rotational degrees is refined.

  14. Towards a unified theory of cooperative breeding : The role of ecology and life history re-examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    We present quantitative models that unify several adaptive hypotheses for the evolution of cooperative breeding in a single framework: the ecological constraints hypothesis, the life-history hypothesis and the benefits-of-philopatry hypothesis. Our goal is to explain interspecific variation in the

  15. From single-shot towards general work extraction in a quantum thermodynamic framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, Jochen; Anders, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers work extraction from a quantum system to a work storage system (or weight) following Horodecki and Oppenheim (2013 Nat. Commun. 4 2059). An alternative approach is here developed that relies on the comparison of subspace dimensions without a need to introduce thermo-majorization used previously. Optimal single shot work for processes where a weight transfers from (a) a single energy level to another single energy level is then re-derived. In addition we discuss the final state of the system after work extraction and show that the system typically ends in its thermal state, while there are cases where the system is only close to it. The work of formation in the single level transfer setting is also re-derived. The approach presented now allows the extension of the single shot work concept to work extraction (b) involving multiple final levels of the weight. A key conclusion here is that the single shot work for case (a) is appropriate only when a resonance of a particular energy is required. When wishing to identify ‘work extraction’ with finding the weight in a specific available energy or any higher energy a broadening of the single shot work concept is required. As a final contribution we consider transformations of the system that (c) result in general weight state transfers. Introducing a transfer-quantity allows us to formulate minimum requirements for transformations to be at all possible in a thermodynamic framework. We show that choosing the free energy difference of the weight as the transfer-quantity one recovers various single shot results including single level transitions (a), multiple final level transitions (b), and recent results on restricted sets of multi-level to multi-level weight transfers. (paper)

  16. Developing Dynamic Single Page Web Applications Using Meteor : Comparing JavaScript Frameworks: Blaze and React

    OpenAIRE

    Yetayeh, Asabeneh

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies Meteor which is a JavaScript full-stack framework to develop interactive single page web applications. Meteor allows building web applications entirely in JavaScript. Meteor uses Blaze, React or AngularJS as a view layer and Node.js and MongoDB as a back-end. The main purpose of this study is to compare the performance of Blaze and React. A multi-user Blaze and React web applications with similar HTML and CSS were developed. Both applications were deployed on Heroku’s w...

  17. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  18. Unified Internet Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  19. A single theoretical framework for circular features processing in humans: orientation and direction of motion compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetomir eTzvetanov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common computational principles underly processing of various visual features in the cortex. They are considered to create similar patterns of contextual modulations in behavioral studies for different features as orientation and direction of motion. Here, I studied the possibility that a single theoretical framework, implemented in different visual areas, of circular feature coding and processing could explain these similarities in observations. Stimuli were created that allowed direct comparison of the contextual effects on orientation and motion direction with two different psychophysical probes: changes in weak and strong signal perception. One unique simplified theoretical model of circular feature coding including only inhibitory interactions, and decoding through standard vector average, successfully predicted the similarities in the two domains, while different feature population characteristics explained well the differences in modulation on both experimental probes. These results demonstrate how a single computational principle underlies processing of various features across the cortices.

  20. ACHP | Unified Federal Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Unified Federal Review Three logos: 1) Executive Office of the Homeland Security. Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation Review Process Please visit the new location for the Unified Federal Review located here: http://www.fema.gov/environmental-historic

  1. A novel numerical framework for self-similarity in plasticity: Wedge indentation in single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, K. J.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K. L.; Kysar, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical framework for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed and demonstrated. Self-similar problems of this kind include processes such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. The proposed technique offers a simple and efficient method for handling this class of complex problems by avoiding issues related to traditional Lagrangian procedures. Moreover, the proposed technique allows for focusing the mesh in the region of interest. In the present paper, the technique is exploited to analyze the well-known wedge indentation problem of an elastic-viscoplastic single crystal. However, the framework may be readily adapted to any constitutive law of interest. The main focus herein is the development of the self-similar framework, while the indentation study serves primarily as verification of the technique by comparing to existing numerical and analytical studies. In this study, the three most common metal crystal structures will be investigated, namely the face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structures, where the stress and slip rate fields around the moving contact point singularity are presented.

  2. A dislocation-based crystal plasticity framework for dynamic ductile failure of single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Luscher, D. J.; Wilkerson, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    A framework for dislocation-based viscoplasticity and dynamic ductile failure has been developed to model high strain rate deformation and damage in single crystals. The rate-dependence of the crystal plasticity formulation is based on the physics of relativistic dislocation kinetics suited for extremely high strain rates. The damage evolution is based on the dynamics of void growth, which are governed by both micro-inertia as well as dislocation kinetics and dislocation substructure evolution. An averaging scheme is proposed in order to approximate the evolution of the dislocation substructure in both the macroscale as well as its spatial distribution at the microscale. Additionally, a concept of a single equivalent dislocation density that effectively captures the collective influence of dislocation density on all active slip systems is proposed here. Together, these concepts and approximations enable the use of semi-analytic solutions for void growth dynamics developed in (Wilkerson and Ramesh, 2014), which greatly reduce the computational overhead that would otherwise be required. The resulting homogenized framework has been implemented into a commercially available finite element package, and a validation study against a suite of direct numerical simulations was carried out.

  3. Hydrogen adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Benard, P.; Lafi, L.; Dorval-Douville, G.; Chandonia, P.-A. [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Inst. de recherche sur l' hydrogene, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Lyubov.Lafi@uqtr.ca

    2006-07-01

    'Full text:' In recent years, several novel carbon-based microporous materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been proposed as promising adsorbents for hydrogen. Hydrogen adsorption measurements on Al-, Cr- and Zn-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are presented. The measurements were performed at temperatures ranging from 77 to 300K and pressures up to 50 atm using a volumetric approach. The maximum excess adsorption at 77K ranges from 2,8 to 3,9 wt % for the MOFs and from 1,5 to 2,5 wt % for the SWNTs. These values are reached at pressures below 40 atm. At room temperature and 40 atm, modest amounts of hydrogen are adsorbed (< 0,4 wt %). A Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) approach is used to investigate the measured adsorption isotherms and retrieve energetic and structural parameters. The adsorption enthalpy averaged over filling is found to be about 2,9 kJ/mol for the MOF-5 and about 3,6 - 4,2 kJ/mol for SWNTs. The uptake of hydrogen on SWNTs and MOF-5 appears to be due to physisorption and can be described, through the DA-model, by a traditional theory of micropore filling. (author)

  4. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kim, Dongin

    2014-01-01

    framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE

  5. Decomposing dendrophilia. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Zuidema, Willem

    2014-09-01

    The future of cognitive science will be about bridging neuroscience and behavioral studies, with essential roles played by comparative biology, formal modeling, and the theory of computation. Nowhere will this integration be more strongly needed than in understanding the biological basis of language and music. We thus strongly sympathize with the general framework that Fitch [1] proposes, and welcome the remarkably broad and readable review he presents to support it.

  6. Free vibration analysis of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes based on a computational mechanics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J. W.; Tong, L. H.; Xiang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Free vibration behaviors of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using a computational mechanics approach. Tersoff-Brenner potential is used to reflect atomic interaction between boron and nitrogen atoms. The higher-order Cauchy-Born rule is employed to establish the constitutive relationship for single-walled boron nitride nanotubes on the basis of higher-order gradient continuum theory. It bridges the gaps between the nanoscale lattice structures with a continuum body. A mesh-free modeling framework is constructed, using the moving Kriging interpolation which automatically satisfies the higher-order continuity, to implement numerical simulation in order to match the higher-order constitutive model. In comparison with conventional atomistic simulation methods, the established atomistic-continuum multi-scale approach possesses advantages in tackling atomic structures with high-accuracy and high-efficiency. Free vibration characteristics of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes with different boundary conditions, tube chiralities, lengths and radii are examined in case studies. In this research, it is pointed out that a critical radius exists for the evaluation of fundamental vibration frequencies of boron nitride nanotubes; opposite trends can be observed prior to and beyond the critical radius. Simulation results are presented and discussed.

  7. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  8. A novel control framework for nonlinear time-delayed dual-master/single-slave teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanian, A; Rezaei, S M; Khoogar, A R; Zareinejad, M; Baghestan, K

    2013-03-01

    A novel trilateral control architecture for the Dual-master/Single-slave teleoperation is proposed in this paper. This framework has been used in surgical training and rehabilitation applications. In this structure, the slave motion has been controlled by weighted summation of signals transmitted by the operator referring to task control authority through the dominance factors. The nonlinear dynamics for telemanipulators are considered which were considered as disregarded issues in previous studies of this field. Bounded variable time-delay has been considered which affects the transmitted signals in the communication channels. Two types of controllers have been offered and an appropriate stability analysis for each controller has been demonstrated. The first controller includes Proportional with dissipative gains (P+d). The second one contains Proportional and Derivative with dissipative gains (PD+d). In both cases, the stability of the trilateral control framework is preserved by choosing appropriate controller's gains. It is shown that these controllers attempt to coordinate the positions of telemanipulators in the free motion condition. The stability of the Dual-master/Single-slave teleoperation has been proved by an appropriate Lyapunov like function and the stability conditions have been studied. In addition the proposed PD+d control architecture is modified for trilateral teleoperation with internet communication between telemanipulators that caused such communication complications as packet loss, data duplication and swapping. A number of experiments have been conducted with various levels of dominance factor to validate the effectiveness of the new control architecture. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related activit...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  10. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  11. Design and evaluation of a portable intra-operative unified-planning-and-guidance framework applied to distal radius fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, Jessica; Wei, Wei; Weiten, Markus; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vetter, Sven; Franke, Jochen; John, Adrian; Egli, Adrian; Barth, Karl; Angelopoulou, Elli; Hornegger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    During a standard fracture reduction and fixation procedure of the distal radius, only fluoroscopic images are available for planning of the screw placement and monitoring of the drill bit trajectory. Our prototype intra-operative framework integrates planning and drill guidance for a simplified and improved planning transfer. Guidance information is extracted using a video camera mounted onto a surgical drill. Real-time feedback of the drill bit position is provided using an augmented view of the planning X-rays. We evaluate the accuracy of the placed screws on plastic bones and on healthy and fractured forearm specimens. We also investigate the difference in accuracy between guided screw placement versus freehand. Moreover, the accuracy of the real-time position feedback of the drill bit is evaluated. A total of 166 screws were placed. On 37 plastic bones, our obtained accuracy was [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in tip position and orientation (azimuth and elevation), respectively. On the three healthy forearm specimens, our obtained accuracy was [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. On the two fractured specimens, we attained: [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. When screw plans were applied freehand (without our guidance system), the achieved accuracy was [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text], while when they were transferred under guidance, we obtained [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text]. Our results show that our framework is expected to increase the accuracy in screw positioning and to improve robustness w.r.t. freehand placement.

  12. A unified framework for developing effective hygiene procedures for hands, environmental surfaces and laundry in healthcare, domestic, food handling and other settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Sally F.; Carling, Philip C.; Exner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hygiene procedures for hands, surfaces and fabrics are central to preventing spread of infection in settings including healthcare, food production, catering, agriculture, public settings, and home and everyday life. They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on. Although the principles are common to all, approaches currently used in different settings are inconsistent. A concern is the use of inconsistent terminology which is misleading, especially to people we need to communicate with such as the public or cleaning professionals. This paper reviews the data on current approaches, alongside new insights to developing hygiene procedures. Using this data, we propose a more scientifically-grounded framework for developing procedures that maximize protection against infection, based on consistent principles and terminology, and applicable across all settings. A key feature is use of test models which assess the state of surfaces after treatment rather than product performance alone. This allows procedures that rely on removal of microbes to be compared with those employing chemical or thermal inactivation. This makes it possible to ensure that a consistent “safety target level” is achieved regardless of the type of procedure used, and allows us deliver maximum health benefit whilst ensuring prudent usage of antimicrobial agents, detergents, water and energy. PMID:28670508

  13. Toward a unified representation system of performance-related data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailemariam, Ebenezer; Glueck, Michael; Attar, Ramtin; Tessier, Alex; McCrae, James; Khan, Azam [Autodesk Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], email: first.last@autodesk.com

    2010-07-01

    When performing a building performance analysis many interacting factors have to be taken into account. Moreover, buildings have a changing behavior due to the ever changing occupants and context. To assess a building's performance, then, an important amount of data has to be studied and the aim of this paper is to present the advances made in the creation of a unified framework where all data can be visualized in a high resolution 3D model. Existing visualization methods are combined into a single framework and both simulated and measured building performance data are used. The model has been tested on the author's office building in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The 3D model under development herein will help users make better use of their massive datasets and understand and analyze a building through its entire life whereas traditional 2D visualization methods make it difficult to interpret all data.

  14. RareVar: A Framework for Detecting Low-Frequency Single-Nucleotide Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yangyang; Xuei, Xiaoling; Li, Lang; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Edenberg, Howard J; Liu, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Accurate identification of low-frequency somatic point mutations in tumor samples has important clinical utilities. Although high-throughput sequencing technology enables capturing such variants while sequencing primary tumor samples, our ability for accurate detection is compromised when the variant frequency is close to the sequencer error rate. Most current experimental and bioinformatic strategies target mutations with ≥5% allele frequency, which limits our ability to understand the cancer etiology and tumor evolution. We present an experimental and computational modeling framework, RareVar, to reliably identify low-frequency single-nucleotide variants from high-throughput sequencing data under standard experimental protocols. RareVar protocol includes a benchmark design by pooling DNAs from already sequenced individuals at various concentrations to target variants at desired frequencies, 0.5%-3% in our case. By applying a generalized, linear model-based, position-specific error model, followed by machine-learning-based variant calibration, our approach outperforms existing methods. Our method can be applied on most capture and sequencing platforms without modifying the experimental protocol.

  15. The single-particle potential of nuclear matter in the LOCV framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Ave., 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, A. [Physics Department, Shahid Rajaei Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    The density and momentum dependence of single-particle potential (SPP) and effective mass of symmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method. The Reid68, the Reid68-{Delta} and the Av{sub 18} interactions are considered as the input nucleon-nucleon potentials. It is shown that the SPP of nuclear matter, at fixed density, is an increasing function of nucleon momentum, and it has different behavior for the Reid type potentials with respect to Av{sub 18} interaction. We find good agreements between our LOCV SPP and those coming from others many-body techniques such as the (Dirac-)Brueckner-Hartree-Foch ((D)BHF), the fermion hypernetted chain (FHNC), mean field (MF), etc. On the other hand SPP dramatically depends on the density at low and high nucleon momentums. While the effective mass of nuclear matter increases as we increase the nucleon momentum, it decreases at the Fermi surface. Again, good agreements are observed between our calculated effective mass and those coming from the methods mentioned above.

  16. Local Electronic Structure of a Single-Layer Porphyrin-Containing Covalent Organic Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Chen

    2017-12-20

    We have characterized the local electronic structure of a porphyrin-containing single-layer covalent organic framework (COF) exhibiting a square lattice. The COF monolayer was obtained by the deposition of 2,5-dimethoxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde (DMA) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP) onto a Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum followed by annealing to facilitate Schiff-base condensations between monomers. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) experiments conducted on isolated TAPP precursor molecules and the covalently linked COF networks yield similar transport (HOMO-LUMO) gaps of 1.85 ± 0.05 eV and 1.98 ± 0.04 eV, respectively. The COF orbital energy alignment, however, undergoes a significant downward shift compared to isolated TAPP molecules due to the electron-withdrawing nature of the imine bond formed during COF synthesis. Direct imaging of the COF local density of states (LDOS) via dI/dV mapping reveals that the COF HOMO and LUMO states are localized mainly on the porphyrin cores and that the HOMO displays reduced symmetry. DFT calculations reproduce the imine-induced negative shift in orbital energies and reveal that the origin of the reduced COF wave function symmetry is a saddle-like structure adopted by the porphyrin macrocycle due to its interactions with the Au(111) substrate.

  17. Unified data model for biological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.

    2014-01-01

    A data model empowers us to store, retrieve and manipulate data in a unified way. We consider the biological data consists of DNA (De-Oxyribonucleic Acid), RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein structures. In our Bioinformatics Lab (Bioinformatics Lab, Alkhawarizmi Institute of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan), we have already proposed two data models for DNA and protein structures individually. In this paper, we propose a unified data model by using the data models of TOS (Temporal Object Oriented System) after making some necessary modifications to this data model and our already proposed the two data models. This proposed unified data model can be used for the modeling and maintaining the biological data (i.e. DNA, RNA and protein structures), in a single unified way. (author)

  18. Structural characterization of framework-gas interactions in the metal-organic framework Co2(dobdc) by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miguel I; Mason, Jarad A; Bloch, Eric D; Teat, Simon J; Gagnon, Kevin J; Morrison, Gregory Y; Queen, Wendy L; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-06-01

    The crystallographic characterization of framework-guest interactions in metal-organic frameworks allows the location of guest binding sites and provides meaningful information on the nature of these interactions, enabling the correlation of structure with adsorption behavior. Here, techniques developed for in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments on porous crystals have enabled the direct observation of CO, CH 4 , N 2 , O 2 , Ar, and P 4 adsorption in Co 2 (dobdc) (dobdc 4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), a metal-organic framework bearing coordinatively unsaturated cobalt(ii) sites. All these molecules exhibit such weak interactions with the high-spin cobalt(ii) sites in the framework that no analogous molecular structures exist, demonstrating the utility of metal-organic frameworks as crystalline matrices for the isolation and structural determination of unstable species. Notably, the Co-CH 4 and Co-Ar interactions observed in Co 2 (dobdc) represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first single-crystal structure determination of a metal-CH 4 interaction and the first crystallographically characterized metal-Ar interaction. Analysis of low-pressure gas adsorption isotherms confirms that these gases exhibit mainly physisorptive interactions with the cobalt(ii) sites in Co 2 (dobdc), with differential enthalpies of adsorption as weak as -17(1) kJ mol -1 (for Ar). Moreover, the structures of Co 2 (dobdc)·3.8N 2 , Co 2 (dobdc)·5.9O 2 , and Co 2 (dobdc)·2.0Ar reveal the location of secondary (N 2 , O 2 , and Ar) and tertiary (O 2 ) binding sites in Co 2 (dobdc), while high-pressure CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 , and Ar adsorption isotherms show that these binding sites become more relevant at elevated pressures.

  19. A framework for unified Dirac gauginos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benakli Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identify the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard Model (MDGSSM as the minimal field content with Dirac gauginos allowing unification of gauge coupling. We stress that its parameter space describes also other most popular models as the MSSM, NMSSM and MRSSM. We discuss the generation of trilinear couplings in models of gauge mediation that has been overlooked in the past. We study the different source of Higgs mixings and constraints from the ƿ parameter. Finally, we provide new experimental limits on the masses of the scalar octets.

  20. A unified framework for nanosafety is needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Pozzi-Mucelli, S.; Tran, L.

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for sufficient knowledge to allow reliable assessment of the risks associated with nanomaterials. The formulation of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS) that allows safety assessment across materials is required to overcome the current need of testing each nanomaterial o...

  1. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures......, and a full identity that relates the six of them. One of these identities is the age-period-cohort identity, while the other three are relatively novel. We provide a topological overview of the diagrams that pertain to these identities. The 3-d geometric representation of the full six-way identity...

  2. A unified modeling framework for service design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe Arachchig, J.

    2013-01-01

    Service-oriented architectures are the upcoming business standard for realizing enterprise information systems, thus creating a need for analysis and design methods that are truly service-oriented. Most research on this topic so far takes a strict software engineering perspective. Separation of the

  3. Unified theory in the worldline approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Edwards

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore unified field theories based on the gauge groups SU(5 and SO(10 using the worldline approach for chiral fermions with a Wilson loop coupling to a background gauge field. Representing path ordering and chiral projection operators with functional integrals has previously reproduced the sum over the chiralities and representations of standard model particles in a compact way. This paper shows that for SU(5 the 5¯ and 10 representations – into which the Georgi–Glashow model places the left-handed fermionic content of the standard model – appear naturally and with the familiar chirality. We carry out the same analysis for flipped SU(5 and uncover a link to SO(10 unified theory. We pursue this by exploring the SO(10 theory in the same framework, the less established unified theory based on SU(6 and briefly consider the Pati–Salam model using SU(4×SU(2×SU(2.

  4. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  5. Unified analysis of ensemble and single-complex optical spectral data from light-harvesting complex-2 chromoproteins for gaining deeper insight into bacterial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajusalu, Mihkel; Kunz, Ralf; Rätsep, Margus; Timpmann, Kõu; Köhler, Jürgen; Freiberg, Arvi

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes are very efficient at converting photons into excitons and transferring them to reaction centers, where the energy is stored in a chemical form. Optical properties of the complexes are known to change significantly in time and also vary from one complex to another; therefore, a detailed understanding of the variations on the level of single complexes and how they accumulate into effects that can be seen on the macroscopic scale is required. While experimental and theoretical methods exist to study the spectral properties of light-harvesting complexes on both individual complex and bulk ensemble levels, they have been developed largely independently of each other. To fill this gap, we simultaneously analyze experimental low-temperature single-complex and bulk ensemble optical spectra of the light-harvesting complex-2 (LH2) chromoproteins from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila in order to find a unique theoretical model consistent with both experimental situations. The model, which satisfies most of the observations, combines strong exciton-phonon coupling with significant disorder, characteristic of the proteins. We establish a detailed disorder model that, in addition to containing a C2-symmetrical modulation of the site energies, distinguishes between static intercomplex and slow conformational intracomplex disorders. The model evaluations also verify that, despite best efforts, the single-LH2-complex measurements performed so far may be biased toward complexes with higher Huang-Rhys factors.

  6. Reversible conversion of valence-tautomeric copper metal-organic frameworks dependent single-crystal-to-single-crystal oxidation/reduction: a redox-switchable catalyst for C-H bonds activation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wu, Jie; Song, Chuanjun; Ding, Ran; Qiao, Yan; Hou, Hongwei; Chang, Junbiao; Fan, Yaoting

    2015-06-28

    Upon single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) oxidation/reduction, reversible structural transformations take place between the anionic porous zeolite-like Cu(I) framework and a topologically equivalent neutral Cu(I)Cu(II) mixed-valent framework. The unique conversion behavior of the Cu(I) framework endowed it as a redox-switchable catalyst for the direct arylation of heterocycle C-H bonds.

  7. Grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on a pedagogical introduction that attempts to unify the strong and electroweak interactions. Unifying groups discussed include SU(5), SO(10), and E 6 . Particular attention is paid to the questions of whether the low-energy gauge group (that accessible at accelerator experiments in the foreseeable future) extends beyond SU(3) x SU(2) L x U(1). Low-energy studies of neutral-current effects, direct production of gauge bosons, and new fermions all can shed light on this question. Brief remarks are made concerning the role of monopoles, cosmic strings, baryogenesis, supersymmetry, and higher dimensions in this program

  8. Cromatografia unificada Unified chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study encompasses an overview of the principles of unified chromatography as well as the principles of chromatographic techniques as applied to unified systems, which include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, high temperature and high pressure liquid chromatography, micro-liquid chromatography, enhanced fluidity chromatography, and solvating gas chromatography. Theoretical considerations and individual instrumental parameters such as mobile phase, sample introduction system, columns, and detection system are also discussed. Future applications of this separation approach are discussed.

  9. Cosmology and unified gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraifeartaigh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.

  10. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  11. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences

  12. Ionic Exchange of Metal-Organic Frameworks to Access Single Nickel Sites for Efficient Electroreduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changming; Dai, Xinyao; Yao, Tao; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jian; Wei, Shiqiang; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2017-06-21

    Single-atom catalysts often exhibit unexpected catalytic activity for many important chemical reactions because of their unique electronic and geometric structures with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein we adopt metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to assist the preparation of a catalyst containing single Ni sites for efficient electroreduction of CO 2 . The synthesis is based on ionic exchange between Zn nodes and adsorbed Ni ions within the cavities of the MOF. This single-atom catalyst exhibited an excellent turnover frequency for electroreduction of CO 2 (5273 h -1 ), with a Faradaic efficiency for CO production of over 71.9% and a current density of 10.48 mA cm -2 at an overpotential of 0.89 V. Our findings present some guidelines for the rational design and accurate modulation of nanostructured catalysts at the atomic scale.

  13. Unified electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    A unified European electricity market means a unification and harmonisation of functioning of the national electricity market into one European Market or into one entity. It gives an opportunity to Slovenske elektrarne to open room for their wider activity within Europe where common rules for cross-boarder trade and markets functioning will apply. (author)

  14. Unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of researches into Unified Field Theory over the past seven years are presented. The subject is dealt with in chapters entitled: the choice of affine connection, algebraic properties of the vector fields, field laws obtained from the affine connection based on the path integral method, application to quantum theory and cosmology, interpretation of physical theory in terms of geometry. (U.K.)

  15. Finite unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  16. Finite unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1993-01-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  17. Performance Analysis of FSO Links over Unified Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    , then, present unified exact closed-form expressions for various statistical characteristics of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system. We capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed

  18. A Numerical Framework for Self-Similar Problems in Plasticity: Indentation in Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    A new numerical framework specialized for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed. Self-similarity in plasticity is encountered in a number of different problems such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. To date, such problems are handled by traditional Lagrangian...... procedures that may be associated with severe numerical difficulties relating to sufficient discretization, moving contact points, etc. In the present work, self-similarity is exploited to construct the numerical framework that offers a simple and efficient method to handle self-similar problems in history...... numerical simulations [3] when possible. To mimic the condition for the analytical predictions, the wedge indenter is considered nearly flat and the material is perfectly plastic with a very low yield strain. Under these conditions, [1][2] proved analytically the existence of discontinuities in the slip...

  19. Reversible Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Structural Transformation in a Mixed-Ligand 2D Layered Metal-Organic Framework: Structural Characterization and Sorption Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3D supramolecular network, [Cd(bipy(C4O4(H2O2]·3H2O (1 (bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine and C4O42− = dianion of H2C4O4, constructed by mixed-ligand two-dimensional (2D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs has been reported and structurally determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method and characterized by other physicochemical methods. In 1, the C4O42− and bipy both act as bridging ligands connecting the Cd(II ions to form a 2D layered MOF, which are then extended to a 3D supramolecular network via the mutually parallel and interpenetrating arrangements among the 2D-layered MOFs. Compound 1 shows a two-step dehydration process with weight losses of 11.0% and 7.3%, corresponding to the weight-loss of three guest and two coordinated water molecules, respectively, and exhibits an interesting reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC structural transformation upon de-hydration and re-hydration for guest water molecules. The SCSC structural transformation have been demonstrated and monitored by single-crystal and X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetic analysis studies.

  20. Gauge coupling unification from unified theories in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Higher dimensional grand unified theories, with gauge symmetry breaking by orbifold compactification, possess SU(5) breaking at fixed points, and do not automatically lead to tree-level gauge coupling unification. A new framework is introduced that guarantees precise unification--even the leading loop threshold corrections are predicted, although they are model dependent. Precise agreement with the experimental result, α s exp =0.117±0.002, occurs only for a unique theory, and gives α s KK =0.118±0.004±0.003. Remarkably, this unique theory is also the simplest, with SU(5) gauge interactions and two Higgs hypermultiplets propagating in a single extra dimension. This result is more successful and precise than that obtained from conventional supersymmetric grand unification, α s SGUT =0.130±0.004±Δ SGUT . There is a simultaneous solution to the three outstanding problems of 4D supersymmetric grand unified theories: a large mass splitting between Higgs doublets and their color triplet partners is forced, proton decay via dimension five operators is automatically forbidden, and the absence of fermion mass relations amongst light quarks and leptons is guaranteed, while preserving the successful m b /m τ relation. The theory necessarily has a strongly coupled top quark located on a fixed point and part of the lightest generation propagating in the bulk. The string and compactification scales are determined to be around 10 17 GeV and 10 15 GeV, respectively

  1. The Unified Theory of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2002-01-01

    The unified theory of physics unifies various phenomena in our observable universe and other universes. The unified theory is based on the zero-energy universe and the space-object structures. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the space-object structures. The unified theory is divided into five parts: the space-object structures, cosmology, the periodic table of elementary particles, the galaxy formation, and the extreme force field. The sp...

  2. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of single hazard surveillance in livestock production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhen; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is essential for surveillance organizations (such as food safety authorities) when making scientifically based decisions on optimization of resource allocation. To enable this, quantitative decision support tools are required at two levels of analysis: (1) single-hazard surveillance system and (2) surveillance portfolio. This paper addresses the first level by presenting a conceptual approach for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems. The concept includes objective and subjective aspects of single-hazard surveillance system analysis: (1) a simulation part to derive an efficient set of surveillance setups based on the technical surveillance performance parameters (TSPPs) and the corresponding surveillance costs, i.e., objective analysis, and (2) a multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate the impacts of the hazard surveillance, i.e., subjective analysis. The conceptual approach was checked for (1) conceptual validity and (2) data validity. Issues regarding the practical use of the approach, particularly the data requirement, were discussed. We concluded that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the practicability of the approach depends on data availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the present status of these theories and of their observational and experimental implications. In section II, I briefly review the standard SU 3 sup(c) x SU 2 x U 1 model of the strong and electroweak interactions. Although phenomenologically successful, the standard model leaves many questions unanswered. Some of these questions are addressed by grand unified theories, which are defined and discussed in Section III. The Georgi-Glashow SU 5 model is described, as are theories based on larger groups such as SO 10 , E 6 , or SO 16 . It is emphasized that there are many possible grand unified theories and that it is an experimental problem not only to test the basic ideas but to discriminate between models. (orig./HSI)

  4. Operation Unified Protector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at se nærmere på erfaringerne fra den maritime kampagne under den militære indsats i konflikten i Libyen i 2011, som i NATO regi blev kendt som Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Dækningen i de danske medier fokuserede primært på luftkampagnen, hvilket må tilskrives,...

  5. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  6. Study of inclusive single-jet production in the framework of kt-factorization unintegrated parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is intended to study the double-differential cross section of the inclusive single-jet production as the functions of the transverse momentum and the rapidity of the jet in the high-energy hadron-hadron collisions. The angular-ordering-constraint kt-factorization framework is used to calculate the above cross section that is available experimentally. The conditions are taken in accordance with the LHC experiments. The results are compared and analyzed using the existing CMS LHC data. The scheme-dependent unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) of Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) and Martin-Ryskin-Watt (MRW) in the leading-order and the next-to-leading order (NLO) are used to predict the input partonic UPDF. The utilized phenomenological frameworks prove to be relatively successful in generating satisfactory results compared to the different experiment data, such as CMS (8 and 13 TeV). Extensive discussions and comparisons are made regarding the behavior of the contributing partonic subprocesses. Finally, it is shown that the application of the KMR UPDF to the single-jet differential cross sections have better agreement with the CMS data; on the other hand, they are very similar to those of NLO-MRW.

  7. Unifying Complexity and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  8. Electronic, structural, and substrate effect properties of single-layer covalent organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Liangbo; Zhu, Pan; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recently synthesized two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) exhibit high surface area, large pore size, and unique structural architectures, making them promising materials for various energy applications. Here, a total of nine COFs structures, including two deposited on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, are investigated using density functional theory, quasi-particle many-body theory within the GW approximation, and an image charge model. The structures considered belong to two major families (thiophene-based COF-n (T-COF-n) and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-x (TAPP-x)) differing from the presence of B—O or C=N linkers. While T-COF-n structures are shown to constitute planar networks, TAPP-x systems can display non-negligible corrugation due to the out-of-plane rotation of phenyl rings. We find that the electronic properties do not differ significantly when altering the chain molecules within each family. Many-body effects are shown to lead to large band-gap increase while the presence of the substrate yields appreciable reductions of the gaps, due to substrate polarization effects

  9. Aspects of extra dimensional supersymmetric unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichet, S.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and to make the link with passed and upcoming experiments. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In the first chapter, we will briefly review the sequence of arguments leading to the Higgs mechanism, then to the different concepts underlying physics beyond the Standard Model, and to the paradigm of extra dimensional supersymmetric grand unified theories. At each level of the argumentation, we will mention the different solutions available. The second chapter introduces more formally supersymmetry and extra dimensions, focusing in particular on the aspects of symmetry breaking. Then, in the third chapter, we present in details the two frameworks of extra dimensional theories in which we worked, called supersymmetric gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) and holographic grand unification (HGU) as well as the developments and modifications we brought to them. The fourth chapter is devoted to the low energy viability of the GHU framework, as well as its phenomenological implications. The fifth chapter presents a more generic study of the property of GUT-scale degenerate Higgs mass matrix, common to both frameworks. Finally, the sixth chapter is devoted to the viability and phenomenological implications of the HGU framework, with special emphasis on lepton flavour violation. This quantitative study takes properly into account effects of matrix anarchy, as well as exact flavour observables. The results obtained should generalize, at least qualitatively, to any other model with similar localization and supersymmetry breaking features

  10. Finite Unified Theories and the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Zoupanos, George

    2012-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) realising an old field theory dream, and moreover have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. Based on this theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTs have been constructed. Here we review two FUT models based on the SU(5) gauge group, which can be seen as special, restricted and thus very predictive versions of the MSSM. We show that from the requirement of correct prediction of quark masses and other experimental constraints a light Higgs-boson mass in the range M_h ~ 121 - 126 GeV is predicted, in striking agreement with recent experimental results from ATLAS and CMS. The model furthermore naturally predicts a relatively heavy spectrum with colored supersymmetric particles above ~ 1.5 TeV in agreement with the non-observation of those particles at the LHC.

  11. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  12. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  13. Unified Bohm criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Fusion@ÖAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  14. Systematic Investigation of Controlled Nanostructuring of Mn 12 Single-Molecule Magnets Templated by Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulakh, Darpandeep [Department of Chemistry; amp, Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States; Xie, Haomiao [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States; Shen, Zhe [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States; Harley, Alexander [Department of Chemistry; amp, Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States; Zhang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Yakovenko, Andrey A. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Dunbar, Kim R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States; Wriedt, Mario [Department of Chemistry; amp, Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States

    2017-05-25

    This is the first systematic study exploring metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for the controlled nanostructuring of molecular magnets. We report the incorporation of seven single-molecule magnets (SMMs) of general composition [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(OH2)4], with R = CF3 (1), (CH3)CCH2 (2), CH2Cl (3), CH2Br (4), CHCl2 (5), CH2But (6), and C6H5 (7), into the hexagonal channel pores of a mesoporous MOF host. The resulting nanostructured composites combine the key SMM properties with the functional properties of the MOF. Synchrotron-based powder diffraction with difference envelope density analysis, physisorption analysis (surface area and pore size distribution), and thermal analyses reveal that the well-ordered hexagonal structure of the host framework is preserved, and magnetic measurements indicate that slow relaxation of the magnetization, characteristic of the corresponding Mn12 derivative guests, occurs inside the MOF pores. Structural host–guest correlations including the bulkiness and polarity of peripheral SMM ligands are discussed as fundamental parameters influencing the global SMM@MOF loading capacities. These results demonstrate that employing MOFs as platforms for the nanostructuration of SMMs is not limited to a particular host–guest system but potentially applicable to a multitude of other molecular magnets. Such fundamental findings will assist in paving the way for the development of novel advanced spintronic devices.

  15. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  16. TOWARDS A UNIFIED VIEW OF METAHEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ghazali Talbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This talk provides a complete background on metaheuristics and presents in a unified view the main design questions for all families of metaheuristics and clearly illustrates how to implement the algorithms under a software framework to reuse both the design and code. The key search components of metaheuristics are considered as a toolbox for: - Designing efficient metaheuristics (e.g. local search, tabu search, simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, particle swarm optimization, scatter search, ant colonies, bee colonies, artificial immune systems for optimization problems. - Designing efficient metaheuristics for multi-objective optimization problems. - Designing hybrid, parallel and distributed metaheuristics. - Implementing metaheuristics on sequential and parallel machines.

  17. Direction: unified theory of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valko, P.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly characterized are the individual theories, namely, the general relativity theory, the Kaluza-Klein theory, the Weyl theory, the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the supergravity theory, and the superstring theory. The history is recalled of efforts aimed at creating a unified theory of interactions, and future prospects are outlined. (M.D.). 2 figs

  18. Grand unified theories. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives an introduction to the construction of grand unified theories on the base of the SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Especially he discusses the proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, and cosmological implications in connection with grand unified theories. (orig./HSI)

  19. Proton decay in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions which violate the conservation of baryon and lepton number represent an intrinsic part of all grand unified theories (GUTs) of strong and electroweak interactions. These new interactions - predicted within the framework of GUTs - generate B and L violating four-fermion interactions via the exchange of superheavy particles which cannot be ascribed a well-defined baryon or lepton number. The effective coupling constant of these four-fermion interactions might be large enough to make the proton decay detectable by the present generation of experiments. In this review the basic concepts of conventional as well as supersymmetric GUTs relevant for proton decay are sketched. The baryon number violating sector of grand unified theories is discussed in more detail. Special emphasis is laid on the various selection rules arising as consequences of low-energy gauge invariance and supersymmetry for proton decay. These selection rules already determine the coarse pattern of the resulting decay modes and branching ratios without any reference to or detailed knowledge of the underlying grand unified theory. Finally the numerous theoretical predictions are summarized and confronted with experiment. (Author)

  20. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorp, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a

  1. A Unifying Approach to Axiomatic Non-Expected Utility Theories: Correction and Comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Chew; L.G. Epstein (Larry); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractChew and Epstein attempted to provide a unifying axiomatic framework for a number of generalizations of expected utility theory. Wakker pointed out that Theorem A, on which the central unifying proposition is based, is false. In this note, we apply Segal′s result to prove that Theorem 2

  2. A unifying approach to axiomatic non-expected utility theories: correction and comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, C.S.; Epstein, L.G.; Wakker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Chew and Epstein attempted to provide a unifying axiomatic framework for a number of generalizations of expected utility theory. Wakker pointed out that Theorem A, on which the central unifying proposition is based, is false. In this note, we apply Segal's result to prove that Theorem 2 is

  3. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Using 3D Nanoporous Carbon and Cobalt Oxide Electrodes Synthesized from a Single Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Tang, Jing; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Nakato, Teruyuki; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-06-23

    Nanoporous carbon and nanoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) materials have been selectively prepared from a single metal-organic framework (MOF) (zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-67) by optimizing the annealing conditions. The resulting ZIF-derived carbon possesses highly graphitic walls and a high specific surface area of 350 m(2)·g(-1), while the resulting ZIF-derived nanoporous Co3O4 possesses a high specific surface area of 148 m(2)·g(-1) with much less carbon content (1.7 at%). When nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 were tested as electrode materials for supercapacitor application, they showed high capacitance values (272 and 504 F·g(-1), respectively, at a scan rate of 5 mV·s(-1)). To further demonstrate the advantages of our ZIF-derived nanoporous materials, symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were also fabricated using nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes. Improved capacitance performance was successfully realized for the ASC (Co3O4//carbon), better than those of the SSCs based on nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 materials (i.e., carbon//carbon and Co3O4//Co3O4). The developed ASC with an optimal mass loading can be operated within a wide potential window of 0.0-1.6 V, which leads to a high specific energy of 36 W·h·kg(-1). More interestingly, this ASC also exhibits excellent rate capability (with the highest specific power of 8000 W·kg(-1) at a specific energy of 15 W·h·kg(-1)) combined with long-term stability up to 2000 cycles.

  4. Relating mechanical properties and chemical bonding in an inorganic-organic framework material: a single-crystal nanoindentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin Chong; Furman, Joshua D; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2009-10-14

    We report the application of nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to establish the fundamental relationships between mechanical properties and chemical bonding in a dense inorganic-organic framework material: Ce(C(2)O(4))(HCO(2)), 1. Compound 1 is a mixed-ligand 3-D hybrid which crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group, in which its three basic building blocks, i.e. the inorganic metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) chains and the two organic bridging ligands, (oxalate and formate) are all oriented perpendicular to one another. This unique architecture enabled us to decouple the elastic and plastic mechanical responses along the three primary axes of a single crystal to understand the contribution associated with stiff vs compliant basic building blocks. The (001)-oriented facet that features rigid oxalate ligands down the c-axis exhibits the highest stiffness and hardness (E approximately 78 GPa and H approximately 4.6 GPa). In contrast, the (010)-oriented facet was found to be the most compliant and soft (E approximately 43 GPa and H approximately 3.9 GPa), since the formate ligand, which is the more compliant building block within this framework, constitutes the primary linkages down the b-axis. Notably, intermediate stiffness and hardness (E approximately 52 GPa and H approximately 4.1 GPa) were measured on the (100)-oriented planes. This can be attributed to the Ce-O-Ce chains that zigzag down the a-axis (Ce...Ce metal centers form an angle of approximately 132 degrees) and also the fact that the 9-coordinated CeO(9) polyhedra are expected to be geometrically more compliant. Our results present the first conclusive evidence that the crystal orientation dominated by inorganic chains is not necessarily more robust from the mechanical properties standpoint. Rigid organic bridging ligands (such as oxalate), on the other hand, can be used to produce greater stiffness and hardness properties in a chosen crystallographic orientation. This study demonstrates that

  5. Toward a Unified Theory of Work: Organizational Simulations and Policy Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The Department of Defense needs an integrated MPT planning and management system. We believe that a unified theory of work is needed to provide a framework and to guide and focus related research and development...

  6. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  7. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  8. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner). Hybrid of Shunt and Series compensator. Compensate both Current Quality and Voltage Quality. Costlier Solution as it involves two set of Inverters.

  9. Model of unified gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author)

  10. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  11. A Unified Model of Performance for Predicting the Effects of Sleep and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kamimori, Gary H; Moon, James E; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2016-10-01

    Existing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance cannot predict the beneficial effects of caffeine across the spectrum of sleep loss conditions, limiting their practical utility. Here, we closed this research gap by integrating a model of caffeine effects with the recently validated unified model of performance (UMP) into a single, unified modeling framework. We then assessed the accuracy of this new UMP in predicting performance across multiple studies. We hypothesized that the pharmacodynamics of caffeine vary similarly during both wakefulness and sleep, and that caffeine has a multiplicative effect on performance. Accordingly, to represent the effects of caffeine in the UMP, we multiplied a dose-dependent caffeine factor (which accounts for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of caffeine) to the performance estimated in the absence of caffeine. We assessed the UMP predictions in 14 distinct laboratory- and field-study conditions, including 7 different sleep-loss schedules (from 5 h of sleep per night to continuous sleep loss for 85 h) and 6 different caffeine doses (from placebo to repeated 200 mg doses to a single dose of 600 mg). The UMP accurately predicted group-average psychomotor vigilance task performance data across the different sleep loss and caffeine conditions (6% caffeine resulted in improved predictions (after caffeine consumption) by up to 70%. The UMP provides the first comprehensive tool for accurate selection of combinations of sleep schedules and caffeine countermeasure strategies to optimize neurobehavioral performance. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization.  With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...

  13. A Unified Model of Performance for Predicting the Effects of Sleep and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Kamimori, Gary H.; Moon, James E.; Balkin, Thomas J.; Reifman, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Existing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance cannot predict the beneficial effects of caffeine across the spectrum of sleep loss conditions, limiting their practical utility. Here, we closed this research gap by integrating a model of caffeine effects with the recently validated unified model of performance (UMP) into a single, unified modeling framework. We then assessed the accuracy of this new UMP in predicting performance across multiple studies. Methods: We hypothesized that the pharmacodynamics of caffeine vary similarly during both wakefulness and sleep, and that caffeine has a multiplicative effect on performance. Accordingly, to represent the effects of caffeine in the UMP, we multiplied a dose-dependent caffeine factor (which accounts for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of caffeine) to the performance estimated in the absence of caffeine. We assessed the UMP predictions in 14 distinct laboratory- and field-study conditions, including 7 different sleep-loss schedules (from 5 h of sleep per night to continuous sleep loss for 85 h) and 6 different caffeine doses (from placebo to repeated 200 mg doses to a single dose of 600 mg). Results: The UMP accurately predicted group-average psychomotor vigilance task performance data across the different sleep loss and caffeine conditions (6% caffeine resulted in improved predictions (after caffeine consumption) by up to 70%. Conclusions: The UMP provides the first comprehensive tool for accurate selection of combinations of sleep schedules and caffeine countermeasure strategies to optimize neurobehavioral performance. Citation: Ramakrishnan S, Wesensten NJ, Kamimori GH, Moon JE, Balkin TJ, Reifman J. A unified model of performance for predicting the effects of sleep and caffeine. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1827–1841. PMID:27397562

  14. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., join together to perform some or all of their activities as a unified business or business system. They may accomplish such unification through agreements, franchises, grants, leases, or other arrangements... others so that they constitute a single business or unified business system. Whether in any particular...

  15. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  16. Seismic monitoring: a unified system for research and verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thigpen, L.

    1979-01-01

    A system for characterizing either a seismic source or geologic media from observational data was developed. This resulted from an examination of the forward and inverse problems of seismology. The system integrates many seismic monitoring research efforts into a single computational capability. Its main advantage is that it unifies computational and research efforts in seismic monitoring. 173 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  17. Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Wali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.

  18. SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermisek, Radovan

    The origin of the fermion mass hierarchy is one of the most challenging problems in elementary particle physics. In the standard model fermion masses and mixing angles are free parameters. Supersymmetric grand unified theories provide a beautiful framework for physics beyond the standard model. In addition to gauge coupling unification these theories provide relations between quark and lepton masses within families, and with additional family symmetry the hierarchy between families can be generated. We present a predictive SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model with D 3 x U(1) family symmetry. The hierarchy in fermion masses is generated by the family symmetry breaking D 3 x U(1) → ZN → nothing. This model fits the low energy data in the charged fermion sector quite well. We discuss the prediction of this model for the proton lifetime in light of recent SuperKamiokande results and present a clear picture of the allowed spectra of supersymmetric particles. Finally, the detailed discussion of the Yukawa coupling unification of the third generation particles is provided. We find a narrow region is consistent with t, b, tau Yukawa unification for mu > 0 (suggested by b → sgamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A0 ˜ -1.9m16, m10 ˜ 1.4m16, m16 ≳ 1200 GeV and mu, M1/2 ˜ 100--500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  19. Unified string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    String theories offer a way of realizing the potential of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein and much more. They represent a radical departure from ordinary quantum field theory, but in the direction of increased symmetry and structure. They are based on an enormous increase in the number of degrees of freedom, since in addition to fermionic coordinates and extra dimensions, the basic entities are extended one dimensional objects instead of points. Correspondingly the symmetry group is greatly enlarged, in a way that we are only beginning to comprehend. At the very least this extended symmetry contains the largest group of symmetries that can be contemplated within the framework of point field theories-those of ten-dimensional supergravity and super Yang-Mills theory. Types of string theories and the phenomenology to be expected from them are reviewed

  20. Experimental status of unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilen'kij, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard SU(2)xU(1) theory is discussed. It is based on an assumption that the left components of fields form doublets, and the rignt ones - singlets. From the weak interaction lagrangian an expression is obtained for the effective hamiltonian describing neutrino-lepton processes. The results of discussing the experimental status of the unified theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions are in agreement with the simplest version of the unified theories - the Weinberg-Salam theory. It has been noted that the accuracy of the experiments (not exceeding 20%) is insufficient and no information is available on diagonal terms of the hamiltonian

  1. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  2. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  3. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n s = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton

  4. A unified approach to the Darwin approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Todd B.; Apte, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two basic approaches to the Darwin approximation. The first involves solving the Maxwell equations in Coulomb gauge and then approximating the vector potential to remove retardation effects. The second approach approximates the Coulomb gauge equations themselves, then solves these exactly for the vector potential. There is no a priori reason that these should result in the same approximation. Here, the equivalence of these two approaches is investigated and a unified framework is provided in which to view the Darwin approximation. Darwin's original treatment is variational in nature, but subsequent applications of his ideas in the context of Vlasov's theory are not. We present here action principles for the Darwin approximation in the Vlasov context, and this serves as a consistency check on the use of the approximation in this setting

  5. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  6. a Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach to Modal Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1998-04-01

    One important current focus of modal identification is a reformulation of modal parameter estimation algorithms into a single, consistent mathematical formulation with a corresponding set of definitions and unifying concepts. Particularly, a matrix polynomial approach is used to unify the presentation with respect to current algorithms such as the least-squares complex exponential (LSCE), the polyreference time domain (PTD), Ibrahim time domain (ITD), eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), rational fraction polynomial (RFP), polyreference frequency domain (PFD) and the complex mode indication function (CMIF) methods. Using this unified matrix polynomial approach (UMPA) allows a discussion of the similarities and differences of the commonly used methods. the use of least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS), double least squares (DLS) and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods is discussed in order to take advantage of redundant measurement data. Eigenvalue and SVD transformation methods are utilized to reduce the effective size of the resulting eigenvalue-eigenvector problem as well.

  7. Toward a Unified Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Saundra

    After discussing the nature of theory itself, the author explains her concept of the Unified Communication Theory, which rests on the assumption that there exists in all living structures a potential communication factor which is delimited by species and ontogeny. An organism develops "symbol fixation" at the level where its perceptual abilities…

  8. A model unified field equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perring, J.K.; Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The classical solutions of a unified field theory in a two-dimensional space-time are considered. This system, a model of a interacting mesons and baryons, illustrates how the particle can be built from a wave-packet of mesons and how reciprocally the meson appears as a tightly bound combination of particle and antiparticle. (author). 6 refs

  9. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  10. The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML

    OpenAIRE

    Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...

  11. Benefits of a Unified LaSRS++ Simulation for NAS-Wide and High-Fidelity Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Patricia; Madden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The LaSRS++ high-fidelity vehicle simulation was extended in 2012 to support a NAS-wide simulation mode. Since the initial proof-of-concept, the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulation is maturing into a research-ready tool. A primary benefit of this new capability is the consolidation of the two modeling paradigms under a single framework to save cost, facilitate iterative concept testing between the two tools, and to promote communication and model sharing between user communities at Langley. Specific benefits of each type of modeling are discussed along with the expected benefits of the unified framework. Current capability details of the LaSRS++ NAS-wide simulations are provided, including the visualization tool, live data interface, trajectory generators, terminal routing for arrivals and departures, maneuvering, re-routing, navigation, winds, and turbulence. The plan for future development is also described.

  12. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance treated with unified model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, PAE

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual similarity between current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is exploited by utilizing a unified single-particle model accounting for both types of magnetoresistance. By defining structures composed of ferromagnetic,

  13. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-02

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a "data modeler" tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  14. A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSU Jong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework,gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the clectroweak theory.By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)]color in fiat space-time,we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field,which couples universally to all gluons,quarks and anti-quarks.The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same ‘effective Riemann metric tensors' in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit.The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments.The unified model suggests that all gravitational,strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework.

  15. A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HSU Jongping

    2012-01-01

    Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework, gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the electroweak theory. By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)] color in flat space-time, we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field, which couples universally to all gluons, quarks and anti-quarks. The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same 'effective Riemann metric tensors’ in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit. The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments. The unified model suggests that all gravitational, strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework. (author)

  16. Unified theory of effective interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo, E-mail: k-takaya@sophia.ac.jp

    2016-09-15

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh–Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin–Wigner, and Bloch–Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa–Kuo and the extended Lee–Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  17. Split supersymmetry in unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings

  18. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  19. Argumentation and Inference: A Unified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fouqueré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper to use Ludics as a unified framework for the analysis of dialogue and the reasoning system. Not only is Ludics a logical theory, but it may also be built by means of concepts of game theory. We first present the main concepts of Ludics. A design is an abstraction and a generalization of the concept of proof. Interaction between designs is equivalent to cut elimination or modus ponens in logical theories. It appears to be a natural means for representing dialogues and also for reasoning. A design is a set of sequences of alternate actions, similar to a move in game theory. We apply Ludics to argumentative dialogues. We discuss how to model the speech acts of argumentative dialogues in terms of dialogue acts. A dialogue act is given by a Ludics action together with the expression that reveals the action in a turn of speech. We show also how arguments may be stored in a commitment state used for reasoning. Finally we revisit an example of juridical dialogue that has been analyzed by Prakken in a different framework.

  20. Unified theory of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildermuth, K.; Tang, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to describe a microscopic nuclear theory which can be used to consider all low-energy nuclear phenomena from a unified viewpoint. In this theory, the Pauli principle is completely taken into account and translationally invariant wave functions are always employed. It can be utilized to study reactions initiated not only by nucleons but also by arbitrary composite particles

  1. Supported Single-Site Ti(IV) on a Metal–Organic Framework for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiyuan [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Liu, Dong [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Zhang, Guanghui [Department; Yang, Dali [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; López-Encarnación, Juan M. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Xu, Yunjie [Department; Ferrandon, Magali S. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Niklas, Jens [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Poluektov, Oleg G. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Jellinek, Julius [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Lei, Aiwen [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Bunel, Emilio E. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Delferro, Massimiliano [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States

    2017-10-10

    ABSTRACT: A stable and structurally well-defined titanium alkoxide catalyst supported on a metal-organic-framework (MOF) of UiO-67 topology (ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2) was synthesized and fully characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, including BET, TGA, PXRD, XAS, DRIFT, SEM, and DFT computations. The Ti-functionalized MOF was demonstrated active for the catalytic hydroboration of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin as the boron source. Compared to traditional homogeneous and supported hydroboration catalysts, ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2 is completely recyclable and reusable, making it a promising hydroboration catalyst alternative for green and sustainable chemical synthesis. DFT calculations suggest that the catalytic hydroboration proceeds via a (1) hydride transfer between the active Ti-hydride species and a carbonyl moiety (rate determining step), and (2) alkoxide transfer (intramolecular σ-bond metathesis) to generate the boronate ester product.

  2. A simple framework for assessing the trade-off between the climate impact of aviation carbon dioxide emissions and contrails for a single flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Irvine, E; J Hoskins, B; P Shine, K

    2014-01-01

    Persistent contrails are an important climate impact of aviation which could potentially be reduced by re-routing aircraft to avoid contrailing; however this generally increases both the flight length and its corresponding CO 2 emissions. Here, we provide a simple framework to assess the trade-off between the climate impact of CO 2 emissions and contrails for a single flight, in terms of the absolute global warming potential and absolute global temperature potential metrics for time horizons of 20, 50 and 100 years. We use the framework to illustrate the maximum extra distance (with no altitude changes) that can be added to a flight and still reduce its overall climate impact. Small aircraft can fly up to four times further to avoid contrailing than large aircraft. The results have a strong dependence on the applied metric and time horizon. Applying a conservative estimate of the uncertainty in the contrail radiative forcing and climate efficacy leads to a factor of 20 difference in the maximum extra distance that could be flown to avoid a contrail. The impact of re-routing on other climatically-important aviation emissions could also be considered in this framework. (letters)

  3. Solvent-induced controllable synthesis, single-crystal to single-crystal transformation and encapsulation of Alq3 for modulated luminescence in (4,8)-connected metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ya-Qian; Jiang, Hai-Long; Li, Shun-Li; Xu, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    In this work, for the first time, we have systematically demonstrated that solvent plays crucial roles in both controllable synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their structural transformation process. With solvent as the only variable, five new MOFs with different structures have been constructed, in which one MOF undergoes solvent-induced single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation that involves not only solvent exchange but also the cleavage and formation of coordination bonds. Particularly, a significant crystallographic change has been realized through an unprecedented three-step SCSC transformation process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the obtained MOF could be an excellent host for chromophores such as Alq3 for modulated luminescent properties.

  4. The Unified Levelling Network of Sarawak and its Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Z. A. M.; Yazid, A. M.; Ming, T. K.; Yazid, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    The height reference network of Sarawak has seen major improvement in over the past two decades. The most significant improvement was the establishment of extended precise leveling network of which is now able to connect all three major datum points at Pulau Lakei, Original and Bintulu. Datum by following the major accessible routes across Sarawak. This means the leveling network in Sarawak has now been inter-connected and unified. By having such a unified network leads to the possibility of having a common single least squares adjustment been performed for the first time. The least squares adjustment of this unified levelling network was attempted in order to compute the height of all Bench Marks established in the entire levelling network. The adjustment was done by using MoreFix levelling adjustment package developed at FGHT UTM. The computational procedure adopted is linear parametric adjustment by minimum constraint. Since Sarawak has three separate datums therefore three separate adjustments were implemented by utilizing datum at Pulau Lakei, Original Miri and Bintulu Datum respectively. Results of the MoreFix unified adjustment agreed very well with adjustment repeated using Starnet. Further the results were compared with solution given by Jupem and they are in good agreement as well. The difference in height analysed were within 10mm for the case of minimum constraint at Pulau Lakei datum and with much better agreement in the case of Original Miri Datum.

  5. THE UNIFIED LEVELLING NETWORK OF SARAWAK AND ITS ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. M. Som

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The height reference network of Sarawak has seen major improvement in over the past two decades. The most significant improvement was the establishment of extended precise leveling network of which is now able to connect all three major datum points at Pulau Lakei, Original and Bintulu. Datum by following the major accessible routes across Sarawak. This means the leveling network in Sarawak has now been inter-connected and unified. By having such a unified network leads to the possibility of having a common single least squares adjustment been performed for the first time. The least squares adjustment of this unified levelling network was attempted in order to compute the height of all Bench Marks established in the entire levelling network. The adjustment was done by using MoreFix levelling adjustment package developed at FGHT UTM. The computational procedure adopted is linear parametric adjustment by minimum constraint. Since Sarawak has three separate datums therefore three separate adjustments were implemented by utilizing datum at Pulau Lakei, Original Miri and Bintulu Datum respectively. Results of the MoreFix unified adjustment agreed very well with adjustment repeated using Starnet. Further the results were compared with solution given by Jupem and they are in good agreement as well. The difference in height analysed were within 10mm for the case of minimum constraint at Pulau Lakei datum and with much better agreement in the case of Original Miri Datum.

  6. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  7. Einstein's theory of unified fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnelat, Marie Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or 'didactic exposition' of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research whic

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Video Games: Towards a Unified Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Safadi, Firas

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in complexity. With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of these environments is pressing. Although machine learning techniques are being successfully applied in a multitude of d...

  9. A unified framework for data modeling on medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J; Cortez, P; Rocha, M; Abelha, A; Machado, J; Alves, V; Basto, S; Botelho, H; Neves, J

    1999-01-01

    Medical Information Systems (MIS) are seen as a way of optimizing the use of existing health-care infrastructure, without resorting to new and costly hospital (re)construction. The qualitative (re)design of such an environment requires a basic understanding of patient and doctors related characteristics and capabilities. Patient care, patient education, medical education, and clinical research need to be considered to meet the basic requirements on the level of services desirable, determined on the basis of the patient's length of stay; i.e., used for modeling the significant entities of such a world. The aim is to extract conclusions for the level of services provided to the users. One's concept will capture, as well as will integrate, the basic design principles under which MIS may be set.

  10. A unified framework for diversity gradients : The adaptive trait continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Stefanescu, Constanti; Vila, Roger; Dinca, Vlad; Font, Xavier; Penuelas, Josep

    Aim Adaptive trait continua are axes of covariation observed in multivariate trait data for a given taxonomic group. These continua quantify and summarize life-history variation at the inter-specific level in multi-specific assemblages. Here we examine whether trait continua can provide a useful

  11. Towards a Unifying Process Framework for Services Knowledge Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorathia, V.S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Morin, Jean-Henry; Ralyté, Jolita; Snene, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Activities concerned with the design, planning and execution of services are becoming increasingly complex. This is due to the involvement of many different stakeholders, the complexity of the service systems themselves, and the dynamic nature of their organizational and ICT environments. Service

  12. A Unifying Framework for the Problem of Adjudicating Conflicting Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    the structure of such a space. In this paper, we generalize their analysis upon presenting and studying a general family of operators inspired by three apparently unrelated approaches to the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. We study the structural properties of this family and show, in particular......In a recent paper, Thomson and Yeh [Operators for the adjudication of conflicting claims, Journal of Economic Theory 143 (2008) 177-198] introduced the concept of operators on the space of rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. They focussed on three operators in order to uncover...

  13. A unifying framework for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Moreno-Terero, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    operators in order to uncover the structure of such a space. In this paper, we generalize their analysis upon presenting and studying a general family of operators inspired by three apparently unrelated approaches to the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. We study the structural properties......In a recent paper, Thomson and Yeh [Thomson, W., Yeh, C.-H., 2008. Operators for the adjudication of conflicting claims. Journal of Economic Theory 143, 177–198] introduced the concept of operators on the space of rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. They focused on three...... of this family and show, in particular, that most of Thomson and Yeh’s results are specific cases of our study....

  14. A novel unified expression for the capacity and bit error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    function (MGF)-based unified expression for the ABEP and AC of single and multiple link communications with maximal ratio combining. In addition, this paper proposes the hyper-Fox's H fading model as a unified fading distribution of a majority of the well

  15. On SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) grand unified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Yu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A set of general propositions is considered which ground the choice of the SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) group as a unified symmetry group. According to these propositions the group SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) is the most natural unified group, it is the maximal symmetry group of the kinetic term of the lagrangian single family which conserves the fermion number. A new principle is introduced. According to this principle, the mirror doubling of the fermion spectrum, necessary for renormalizability of the given unified model is, on the other hand, a manifestation of the extended conformal invariance at short distances [ru

  16. A mathematical modeling framework to evaluate the performance of single diode and double diode based SPV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Bana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the performance of a PV system, a reliable and accurate simulation design of PV systems before being installed is a necessity. The present study concerns the development of single and double diode model of solar PV system and ensures the best suited model under specific environmental condition for accurate performance prediction. The information provided in the manufacturers’ data sheet is not sufficient for developing a Simulink based single and double diode models of PV module. These parameters are crucial to predict accurate performance of a PV module. These parameters of the proposed solar PV models have been calculated using an efficient iterative technique. This paper compares the simulation results of both the models with manufacturer’s data sheet to investigate the accuracy and validity. A MATLAB/Simulink based comparative performance analysis of these models under inconsistent atmospheric conditions and the effect of variations in model parameters has been carried out. Despite the simplicity, these models are highly sensitive and respond to a slight variation in temperature and insolation. It is observed that double diode PV model is more accurate under low intensity insolation or shading condition. The performance evaluation of the models under present study will be helpful to understand the I-V curves, which will enable us in predicting the solar PV system power production under variable input conditions.

  17. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  18. Theory and applications of structured light single pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, Robert J.; Stockton, Patrick A.; Pezeshki, Ali; Bartels, Randy A.

    2018-02-01

    Many single-pixel imaging techniques have been developed in recent years. Though the methods of image acquisition vary considerably, the methods share unifying features that make general analysis possible. Furthermore, the methods developed thus far are based on intuitive processes that enable simple and physically-motivated reconstruction algorithms, however, this approach may not leverage the full potential of single-pixel imaging. We present a general theoretical framework of single-pixel imaging based on frame theory, which enables general, mathematically rigorous analysis. We apply our theoretical framework to existing single-pixel imaging techniques, as well as provide a foundation for developing more-advanced methods of image acquisition and reconstruction. The proposed frame theoretic framework for single-pixel imaging results in improved noise robustness, decrease in acquisition time, and can take advantage of special properties of the specimen under study. By building on this framework, new methods of imaging with a single element detector can be developed to realize the full potential associated with single-pixel imaging.

  19. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J

    2002-01-01

    Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...

  20. Influence of Guest Exchange on the Magnetization Dynamics of Dilanthanide Single-Molecule-Magnet Nodes within a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejing; Vieru, Veacheslav; Feng, Xiaowen; Liu, Jun-Liang; Zhang, Zhenjie; Na, Bo; Shi, Wei; Wang, Bing-Wu; Powell, Annie K; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Gao, Song; Cheng, Peng; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-17

    Multitopic organic linkers can provide a means to organize metal cluster nodes in a regular three-dimensional array. Herein, we show that isonicotinic acid N-oxide (HINO) serves as the linker in the formation of a metal-organic framework featuring Dy2 single-molecule magnets as nodes. Importantly, guest solvent exchange induces a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation between the phases Dy2(INO)4(NO3)2⋅2 solvent (solvent=DMF (Dy2-DMF), CH3CN (Dy2-CH3CN)), thereby switching the effective magnetic relaxation barrier (determined by ac magnetic susceptibility measurements) between a negligible value for Dy2-DMF and 76 cm(-1) for Dy2-CH3CN. Ab initio calculations indicate that this difference arises not from a significant change in the intrinsic relaxation barrier of the Dy2 nodes, but rather from a slowing of the relaxation rate of incoherent quantum tunneling of the magnetization by two orders of magnitude. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-06-24

    Abstract?In this paper, we propose a new unified differential evolution (uDE) algorithm for single objective global optimization. Instead of selecting among multiple mutation strategies as in the conventional differential evolution algorithm, this algorithm employs a single equation as the mutation strategy. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexbility for broader exploration of different mutation strategies. Numerical tests using twelve basic unimodal and multimodal functions show promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to convential differential evolution algorithms.

  2. Unified theory for stochastic modelling of hydroclimatic processes: Preserving marginal distributions, correlation structures, and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hydroclimatic processes come in all "shapes and sizes". They are characterized by different spatiotemporal correlation structures and probability distributions that can be continuous, mixed-type, discrete or even binary. Simulating such processes by reproducing precisely their marginal distribution and linear correlation structure, including features like intermittency, can greatly improve hydrological analysis and design. Traditionally, modelling schemes are case specific and typically attempt to preserve few statistical moments providing inadequate and potentially risky distribution approximations. Here, a single framework is proposed that unifies, extends, and improves a general-purpose modelling strategy, based on the assumption that any process can emerge by transforming a specific "parent" Gaussian process. A novel mathematical representation of this scheme, introducing parametric correlation transformation functions, enables straightforward estimation of the parent-Gaussian process yielding the target process after the marginal back transformation, while it provides a general description that supersedes previous specific parameterizations, offering a simple, fast and efficient simulation procedure for every stationary process at any spatiotemporal scale. This framework, also applicable for cyclostationary and multivariate modelling, is augmented with flexible parametric correlation structures that parsimoniously describe observed correlations. Real-world simulations of various hydroclimatic processes with different correlation structures and marginals, such as precipitation, river discharge, wind speed, humidity, extreme events per year, etc., as well as a multivariate example, highlight the flexibility, advantages, and complete generality of the method.

  3. Estimating High-Frequency Based (Co-) Variances: A Unified Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voev, Valeri; Nolte, Ingmar

    We propose a unified framework for estimating integrated variances and covariances based on simple OLS regressions, allowing for a general market microstructure noise specification. We show that our estimators can outperform, in terms of the root mean squared error criterion, the most recent...... and commonly applied estimators, such as the realized kernels of Barndorff-Nielsen, Hansen, Lunde & Shephard (2006), the two-scales realized variance of Zhang, Mykland & Aït-Sahalia (2005), the Hayashi & Yoshida (2005) covariance estimator, and the realized variance and covariance with the optimal sampling...

  4. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  5. A unified plant information network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederauer, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Technology is bringing power plants fully into the age of computerization. Microcomputers, data base managers, networking, and friendly, expert software are principal technology factors. Monitoring will improve, and the number and power of computers is increasing. The huge information flow will cause computers to be integrated into a communication network. The total plant operating triangle includes process, engineering, and management systems. The total network will integrate all of these into a Total Unified Plant Information Network (TUPIN). Software will take the type of information beyond monitored data. Analysis will improve through direct access to logical, physical, and procedural models by end users. Information management will improve through widespread use of hierarchical, relational, and expert data base managers. Expert systems will aid in diagnostics and interpretation. The goal is to automate plant operations to enhance safety and performance and to reduce cost by making both the plants and the personnel more expert

  6. Phenomenology of unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    Part I of these lectures treats the standard Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, discussing in turn its basic structure and weak neutral currents, charged currents, mixing angles and CP violation, and the phenomenology of weak vector and Higgs bosons. Part II of the lectures discusses the structure of theories of dynamical symmetry breaking such as technicolour, phenomenological consequences, frustrations and alternatives. The third part of these lectures offers the standard menu of grand unified theories (GUTs) of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, including an hors d'oeuvre of constraints on the parameters of the standard model, a main course of baryon number violating processes, and desserts which violate lepton number and CP. The fourth and final part goes through different attempts to remedy the inadequacies of previous theories by invoking supersymmetry and reaching out towards gravitation. (orig./HSI)

  7. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  8. A unifying philosophy of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.

  9. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  10. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  11. U.S. Military Presence in a Post-Unified Korea: Is It Required

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Printz, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    In a future geo-political environment where North and South Korea are unified under a single government with single economic and military systems how will this shift in the strategic environment impact U.S. diplomacy the U.S...

  12. Depth Reconstruction from Single Images Using a Convolutional Neural Network and a Condition Random Field Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Yiguang

    2018-04-24

    This paper presents an effective approach for depth reconstruction from a single image through the incorporation of semantic information and local details from the image. A unified framework for depth acquisition is constructed by joining a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and a continuous pairwise Conditional Random Field (CRF) model. Semantic information and relative depth trends of local regions inside the image are integrated into the framework. A deep CNN network is firstly used to automatically learn a hierarchical feature representation of the image. To get more local details in the image, the relative depth trends of local regions are incorporated into the network. Combined with semantic information of the image, a continuous pairwise CRF is then established and is used as the loss function of the unified model. Experiments on real scenes demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and that the approach obtains satisfactory results.

  13. Depth Reconstruction from Single Images Using a Convolutional Neural Network and a Condition Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective approach for depth reconstruction from a single image through the incorporation of semantic information and local details from the image. A unified framework for depth acquisition is constructed by joining a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN and a continuous pairwise Conditional Random Field (CRF model. Semantic information and relative depth trends of local regions inside the image are integrated into the framework. A deep CNN network is firstly used to automatically learn a hierarchical feature representation of the image. To get more local details in the image, the relative depth trends of local regions are incorporated into the network. Combined with semantic information of the image, a continuous pairwise CRF is then established and is used as the loss function of the unified model. Experiments on real scenes demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and that the approach obtains satisfactory results.

  14. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  15. Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarlane, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    .... This report asserts that a single unifying definition of user-interruption and the accompanying practical taxonomy would be useful theoretical tools for driving effective investigation of this crucial...

  16. Lanthanum-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Specific Detection of Sudan Virus RNA Conservative Sequences down to Single-Base Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Pei-Pei; Wu, Ke-Yang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Li-Ping; Li, Min-Min; Chen, Jin-Xiang

    2017-12-18

    Reactions of La(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O with the polar, tritopic quaternized carboxylate ligands N-carboxymethyl-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H 3 CmdcpBr) and N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H 3 CbdcpBr) afford two water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of {[La 4 (Cmdcp) 6 (H 2 O) 9 ]} n (1, 3D) and {[La 2 (Cbdcp) 3 (H 2 O) 10 ]} n (2, 2D). MOFs 1 and 2 absorb the carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-tagged probe DNA (P-DNA) and quench the fluorescence of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The nonemissive P-DNA@MOF hybrids thus formed in turn function as sensing platforms to distinguish conservative linear, single-stranded RNA sequences of Sudan virus with high selectivity and low detection limits of 112 and 67 pM, respectively (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). These hybrids also exhibit high specificity and discriminate down to single-base mismatch RNA sequences.

  17. The single-process biochemical reaction of Rubisco: a unified theory and model with the effects of irradiance, CO₂ and rate-limiting step on the kinetics of C₃ and C₄ photosynthesis from gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazdaghi, Hadi

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis is the origin of oxygenic life on the planet, and its models are the core of all models of plant biology, agriculture, environmental quality and global climate change. A theory is presented here, based on single process biochemical reactions of Rubisco, recognizing that: In the light, Rubisco activase helps separate Rubisco from the stored ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), activates Rubisco with carbamylation and addition of Mg²(+), and then produces two products, in two steps: (Step 1) Reaction of Rubisco with RuBP produces a Rubisco-enediol complex, which is the carboxylase-oxygenase enzyme (Enco) and (Step 2) Enco captures CO₂ and/or O₂ and produces intermediate products leading to production and release of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) and Rubisco. PGA interactively controls (1) the carboxylation-oxygenation, (2) electron transport, and (3) triosephosphate pathway of the Calvin-Benson cycle that leads to the release of glucose and regeneration of RuBP. Initially, the total enzyme participates in the two steps of the reaction transitionally and its rate follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. But, for a continuous steady state, Rubisco must be divided into two concurrently active segments for the two steps. This causes a deviation of the steady state from the transitional rate. Kinetic models are developed that integrate the transitional and the steady state reactions. They are tested and successfully validated with verifiable experimental data. The single-process theory is compared to the widely used two-process theory of Farquhar et al. (1980. Planta 149, 78-90), which assumes that the carboxylation rate is either Rubisco-limited at low CO₂ levels such as CO₂ compensation point, or RuBP regeneration-limited at high CO₂. Since the photosynthesis rate cannot increase beyond the two-process theory's Rubisco limit at the CO₂ compensation point, net photosynthesis cannot increase above zero in daylight, and since there is always respiration at

  18. Towards a Unified Conceptualization of Reshoring and Insourcing Decisions and Their Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foerstl, Kai; Kirchoff, Jon; Bals, Lydia

    Recently the reshoring and insourcing decisions are widely discussed within the operations management as well as international business communities. Within this study we clarify the distinct patterns of these two phenomena and develop a unified, theory-based framework on their joint and respective...

  19. Towards a Unified Conceptualization of Reshoring and Insourcing Decisions and Directions for Future Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foerstl, Kai; Kirchoff, Jon; Bals, Lydia

    Recently the reshoring and insourcing decisions are widely discussed within the Purchasing and Supply Management community. With this study we conceptualize the two phenomena in a unified framework and provide grounded theory on their joint and respective drivers. Based on these findings we......, and opportunities to further study organizational readiness and the decision making process and its actors....

  20. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch

  1. Performance Analysis of FSO Links over Unified Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). We, then, present unified exact closed-form expressions for various statistical characteristics of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system. We capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Unified creep-plasticity model for halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior

  3. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of p...

  4. Towards a unified fronthaul-backhaul data plane for 5G The 5G-Crosshaul project approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaliere, Fabio; Iovanna, Paola; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Baranda, Jorge; Núñez-Martínez, José; Lin, Kun-Yi; Chang, Hsien-Wen; Chanclou, Philippe; Farkas, Peter; Gomes, Jessé; Cominardi, Luca; Mourad, Alain; De La Oliva, Antonio; Hernández, José Alberto; Larrabeiti, David

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a study of key aspects in the design of a flexible unified data plane capable of integrating both fronthaul and backhaul transport in future 5G systems. In this study, we first review candidate access and multiplexing technologies from the state of the art and assess their capability to support legacy and new fronthaul and backhaul traffic. We then propose a new design framework for the targeted flexible unified data plane, featuring a primary packet-switching path supporte...

  5. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  6. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  7. The unified theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobocman, W.

    A unified nuclear reaction theory is a formalism for the scattering reactions of many-body nuclear systems which is capable of describing both direct interaction and compound nucleus formation processes. The Feshbach projection operator formalism is the original unified nuclear reaction theory. An alternative unified nuclear reaction theory called the X-matrix formalism is described. The X-matrix formalism is a generalization of the Brown-de Dominicis formalism. It does not require projection operators and is readly applied to rearrangement collisions

  8. A Unified Model of Geostrophic Adjustment and Frontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Shakespeare, Callum

    2013-11-01

    Fronts, or regions with strong horizontal density gradients, are ubiquitous and dynamically important features of the ocean and atmosphere. In the ocean, fronts are associated with enhanced air-sea fluxes, turbulence, and biological productivity, while atmospheric fronts are associated with some of the most extreme weather events. Here, we describe a new mathematical framework for describing the formation of fronts, or frontogenesis. This framework unifies two classical problems in geophysical fluid dynamics, geostrophic adjustment and strain-driven frontogenesis, and provides a number of important extensions beyond previous efforts. The model solutions closely match numerical simulations during the early stages of frontogenesis, and provide a means to describe the development of turbulence at mature fronts.

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SWIFT/X-RAY TELESCOPE DATA. IV. SINGLE POWER-LAW DECAYING LIGHT CURVES VERSUS CANONICAL LIGHT CURVES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR A UNIFIED ORIGIN OF X-RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Enwei; Lue Houjun; Hou Shujin; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing

    2009-01-01

    By systematically analyzing the Swift/XRT light curves detected before 2009 July, we find 19 light curves that monotonously decay as a single power law (SPL) with an index of 1 ∼ 1.7 from tens (or hundreds) of seconds to ∼10 5 s post the gamma-ray burst (GRB) trigger. They are apparently different from the canonical light curves characterized by a shallow-to-normal decay transition. We compare the observations of the prompt gamma rays and the X-rays for these two samples of GRBs (SPL vs. canonical). No statistical difference is found in the prompt gamma-ray properties for the two samples. The X-ray properties of the two samples are also similar, although the SPL sample tends to have a slightly lower neutral hydrogen absorption column for the host galaxies and a slightly larger energy release compared with the canonical sample. The SPL X-ray Telescope (XRT) light curves in the burst frame gradually merge into a conflux, and their luminosities at 10 5 s are normally distributed at log L/ergs s -1 = 45.6 ± 0.5. The normal decay segment of the canonical XRT light curves has the same feature. Similar to the normal decay segment, the SPL light curves satisfy the closure relations and therefore can be roughly explained with external shock models. In the scenario that the X-rays are the afterglows of the GRB fireball, our results indicate that the shallow decay would be due to energy injection into the fireball and the total energy budget after injection for both samples of GRBs is comparable. More intriguing, we find that a prior X-ray emission model proposed by Yamazaki is more straightforward to interpret the observed XRT data. We show that the zero times (T 0 ) of the X-rays are 10 2 -10 5 s prior to the GRB trigger for the canonical sample, and satisfy a log-normal distribution. The negligible T 0 's of the SPL sample are consistent with being the tail of T 0 distributions at low end, suggesting that the SPL sample and the canonical sample may be from a same

  10. Theory of thermoluminescence gamma dose response: The unified interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive theory of thermoluminescence (TL) dose response, the unified interaction model (UNIM). The UNIM is based on both radiation absorption stage and recombination stage mechanisms and can describe dose response for heavy charged particles (in the framework of the extended track interaction model - ETIM) as well as for isotropically ionising gamma rays and electrons (in the framework of the TC/LC geminate recombination model) in a unified and self-consistent conceptual and mathematical formalism. A theory of optical absorption dose response is also incorporated in the UNIM to describe the radiation absorption stage. The UNIM is applied to the dose response supralinearity characteristics of LiF:Mg,Ti and is especially and uniquely successful in explaining the ionisation density dependence of the supralinearity of composite peak 5 in TLD-100. The UNIM is demonstrated to be capable of explaining either qualitatively or quantitatively all of the major features of TL dose response with many of the variable parameters of the model strongly constrained by ancilliary optical absorption and sensitisation measurements

  11. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  12. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby approve and direct the implementation of the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title...

  13. Development of unified gauge theories: retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction and development of unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg and Lee contributions to this study are mainly considered as personal recollections

  14. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  15. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Thorp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a state or competent authority is governed.Concerning international climate law, however, there is a certain shortcoming. The failure to comprehend a unified constitutional framework of lex specialis principles could debilitate intra and inter-regime governance and lead to uncertainties. At one time, uncertainties incite the law-making process. At another time, they constrain it. Such a shortcoming may lead to inconsistencies in interpreting consequential climate norms. It may thwart dispute resolution and it may impede climate negotiations. To traverse this abyss, the inquiry uses instruments of legal philosophy (the philosophy of language, legal systematics (the study of legal systems, and legal hermeneutics (the legal practice of interpretation to delineate, distinguish and unify lex specialis principles that could form the foundations of a universal constitutional framework of international climate law. In doing so, it shows that climate justice is a function of the quality of the legal system.

  16. The inherent dangers of using computable general equilibrium models as a single integrated modelling framework for sustainability impact assessment. A critical note on Boehringer and Loeschel (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrieciu, S. Serban

    2007-01-01

    The search for methods of assessment that best evaluate and integrate the trade-offs and interactions between the economic, environmental and social components of development has been receiving a new impetus due to the requirement that sustainability concerns be incorporated into the policy formulation process. A paper forthcoming in Ecological Economics (Boehringer, C., Loeschel, A., in press. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: status quo and prospects, Ecological Economics.) claims that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models may potentially represent the much needed 'back-bone' tool to carry out reliable integrated quantitative Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs). While acknowledging the usefulness of CGE models for some dimensions of SIA, this commentary questions the legitimacy of employing this particular economic modelling tool as a single integrating modelling framework for a comprehensive evaluation of the multi-dimensional, dynamic and complex interactions between policy and sustainability. It discusses several inherent dangers associated with the advocated prospects for the CGE modelling approach to contribute to comprehensive and reliable sustainability impact assessments. The paper warns that this reductionist viewpoint may seriously infringe upon the basic values underpinning the SIA process, namely a transparent, heterogeneous, balanced, inter-disciplinary, consultative and participatory take to policy evaluation and building of the evidence-base. (author)

  17. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  18. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  19. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. A unified momentum equation approach for computing thermal residual stresses during melting and solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Haram; Ki, Hyungson

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present a novel numerical method for computing thermal residual stresses from a viewpoint of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). In a thermal processing of a material, residual stresses are developed as the material undergoes melting and solidification, and liquid, solid, and a mixture of liquid and solid (or mushy state) coexist and interact with each other during the process. In order to accurately account for the stress development during phase changes, we derived a unified momentum equation from the momentum equations of incompressible fluids and elastoplastic solids. In this approach, the whole fluid-structure system is treated as a single continuum, and the interaction between fluid and solid phases across the mushy zone is naturally taken into account in a monolithic way. For thermal analysis, an enthalpy-based method was employed. As a numerical example, a two-dimensional laser heating problem was considered, where a carbon steel sheet was heated by a Gaussian laser beam. Momentum and energy equations were discretized on a uniform Cartesian grid in a finite volume framework, and temperature-dependent material properties were used. The austenite-martensite phase transformation of carbon steel was also considered. In this study, the effects of solid strains, fluid flow, mushy zone size, and laser heating time on residual stress formation were investigated.

  1. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  2. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K.; Nevasmaa, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A. [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K; Nevasmaa, P [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. The Goddard multi-scale modeling system with unified physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-K. Tao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1 a cloud-resolving model (CRM, (2 a regional-scale model, the NASA unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF, and (3 a coupled CRM-GCM (general circulation model, known as the Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework or MMF. The same cloud-microphysical processes, long- and short-wave radiative transfer and land-surface processes are applied in all of the models to study explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-surface interactive processes in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator for comparison and validation with NASA high-resolution satellite data.

    This paper reviews the development and presents some applications of the multi-scale modeling system, including results from using the multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols. In addition, use of the multi-satellite simulator to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model-simulated precipitation processes will be discussed as well as future model developments and applications.

  5. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  6. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  7. A unified transmission loss allocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Qifeng; Abur, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A new unified method which allocates transmission losses either to buses in a pool market or to individual transactions in a bilateral contract market is presented in this paper. A detailed derivation of the method is given. A bus-loss matrix and a transaction-loss matrix are developed to show the interactions between bus injections and transactions. It is further demonstrated that the ''Physical-power-flow-based'' method can be obtained as an approximation of this unified approach under certain simplifying assumptions. Test systems are used to illustrate how the proposed method behaves under different possible scenarios. (author)

  8. Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

    2008-08-01

    We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.

  9. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  10. Prospects of a Unified Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Simonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the trend among management systems towards a common structure and the inclusion of additional areas of corporate concern (quality, environment, occupational health and safety and social responsibility) is outlined. The article suggests that a large part of the work associated...... with implementing and maintaining standardised management systems can be rationalised by developing a ?unified system?. The unified system is proposed to consist of a common basic standard of general managerial methodology expandable with supplements, which are related to the specific areas of concern...

  11. Pattern of neutrino mixing in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    It was found previously in SO(10) grand unified theories that if the neutrinos have a Dirac mass and a right-handed Majorana mass (approx. 10 15 GeV) but no left-handed Majorana mass, there is small ν/sub e/ mixing but ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub tau/ mixing can be substantial. This problem is reexamined on the basis of a formalism that assumes that the up, down, lepton, and neutrino mass matrices arise from a single complex 10 and a single 126 Higgs boson. This formalism determines the Majorana mass matrix in terms of quark mass matrices. Adopting three different sets of quark mass matrices that produce acceptable fermion mass ratios and Cabbibo mixing produces results consistent with the above; however, in the optimum case, ν/sub e/ - ν/sub μ/ mixing can be of the order of the Cabbibo angle

  12. Foundations to the unified psycho-cognitive engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Backus, George A.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.

    2010-10-01

    This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological engine. The engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting among themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted theories of behavioral psychology with those of behavioral economics to produce a unified simulation of human response from stimuli through executed behavior. The engine explicitly recognizes emotive and reasoned contributions to behavior and simulates the dynamics associated with cue processing, learning, and choice selection. Most importantly, the model parameterization can come from available media or survey information, as well subject-matter-expert information. The framework design allows the use of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis to manage confidence in using the analysis results for intervention decisions.

  13. The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl

    2010-02-01

    A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.

  14. Rhythmic Degradation Explains and Unifies Circadian Transcriptome and Proteome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lück

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rich mammalian cellular circadian output affects thousands of genes in many cell types and has been the subject of genome-wide transcriptome and proteome studies. The results have been enigmatic because transcript peak abundances do not always follow the peaks of gene-expression activity in time. We posited that circadian degradation of mRNAs and proteins plays a pivotal role in setting their peak times. To establish guiding principles, we derived a theoretical framework that fully describes the amplitudes and phases of biomolecules with circadian half-lives. We were able to explain the circadian transcriptome and proteome studies with the same unifying theory, including cases in which transcripts or proteins appeared before the onset of increased production rates. Furthermore, we estimate that 30% of the circadian transcripts in mouse liver and Drosophila heads are affected by rhythmic posttranscriptional regulation.

  15. Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Peterson, Garry D

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dependence as a unifying construct in defining Alzheimer's disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Trent; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Sano, Mary; Schmitt, Frederick; Aisen, Paul; Leibman, Christopher; Mucha, Lisa; Ryan, J Michael; Sullivan, Sean D; Spackman, D Eldon; Neumann, Peter J; Cohen, Joshua; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in relation to patient dependence and offers a unifying conceptual framework for dependence in AD. Clinicians typically characterize AD by symptomatic impairments in three domains: cognition, function, and behavior. From a patient's perspective, changes in these domains, individually and in concert, ultimately lead to increased dependence and loss of autonomy. Examples of dependence in AD range from a need for reminders (early AD) to requiring safety supervision and assistance with basic functions (late AD). Published literature has focused on the clinical domains as somewhat separate constructs and has given limited attention to the concept of patient dependence as a descriptor of AD progression. This article presents the concept of dependence on others for care needs as a potential method for translating the effect of changes in cognition, function, and behavior into a more holistic, transparent description of AD progression. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Toward a unified method for analysing and teaching Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    , drawing on key theories and methods from both communications- and interaction-theory. The aim is to provide a single unified method for analysing interaction, through means of video analysis and then applying theories, with proven mutual compatibility, to reach a desired granularity of study.......This abstract aims to present key aspect of a future paper, which outlines the ongoing development ofa unified method for analysing and teaching Human-Robot-Interaction. The paper will propose a novel method for analysing both HRI, interaction with other forms of technologies and fellow humans...

  18. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Analysis of English literatures related to unified evaluation models for global warming; 1999 nendo chikyu ondanka togo hyoka model kanren eibun shiryo no bunseki choa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper summarizes the basic materials related to unified evaluation models for global warming. The unified evaluation is a disciplinary process to combine, interpret and share the information from different scientific disciplinary areas in such a form that the whole cause and effect chain can be evaluated from a macroscopic view. The process has higher utilization value than the evaluation overemphasizing a single academic area, and can provide decision makers with useful information. The process is suitable to model complex interactions and feedback mechanisms in diversified scenes such as climate change. The unified evaluation can identify the policy criteria along with a measure framework having consistency. The evaluation process is repetitive and continuous, wherein a science community can convey comprehensive knowledge and finding to a decision making community. In turn, the decision making side can feed back the experiences and achievements in learning. Execution of the evaluation requires different approaches, such as judgement of specialists including the modeling methods and experience, discovery as a result of applying the policies, and survey methods. The paper also describes the gaming conception, scenario analysis, and unification evaluation methods. (NEDO)

  19. Towards a Grand Unified Theory of sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul S

    2017-12-01

    Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MBAT: A scalable informatics system for unifying digital atlasing workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sane Nikhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital atlases provide a common semantic and spatial coordinate system that can be leveraged to compare, contrast, and correlate data from disparate sources. As the quality and amount of biological data continues to advance and grow, searching, referencing, and comparing this data with a researcher's own data is essential. However, the integration process is cumbersome and time-consuming due to misaligned data, implicitly defined associations, and incompatible data sources. This work addressing these challenges by providing a unified and adaptable environment to accelerate the workflow to gather, align, and analyze the data. Results The MouseBIRN Atlasing Toolkit (MBAT project was developed as a cross-platform, free open-source application that unifies and accelerates the digital atlas workflow. A tiered, plug-in architecture was designed for the neuroinformatics and genomics goals of the project to provide a modular and extensible design. MBAT provides the ability to use a single query to search and retrieve data from multiple data sources, align image data using the user's preferred registration method, composite data from multiple sources in a common space, and link relevant informatics information to the current view of the data or atlas. The workspaces leverage tool plug-ins to extend and allow future extensions of the basic workspace functionality. A wide variety of tool plug-ins were developed that integrate pre-existing as well as newly created technology into each workspace. Novel atlasing features were also developed, such as supporting multiple label sets, dynamic selection and grouping of labels, and synchronized, context-driven display of ontological data. Conclusions MBAT empowers researchers to discover correlations among disparate data by providing a unified environment for bringing together distributed reference resources, a user's image data, and biological atlases into the same spatial or semantic context

  1. Synchronization of the unified chaotic systems using a sliding mode controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, Mohamed; Smaoui, Nejib; Salim, Haitham

    2009-01-01

    The unified chaotic system incorporates the behaviors of the Lorenz, the Chen and the Lue chaotic systems. This paper deals with the synchronization of two identical unified chaotic systems where the slave system is assumed to have a single input. A sliding mode controller is proposed to synchronize the two systems. The asymptotic convergence to zero of the errors between the states of the master and the slave systems is shown. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the proposed controller; they indicate that the designed controller is able to synchronize the unified chaotic systems. Also, simulation results show that the proposed control scheme is robust to random bounded disturbances acting on the master system. Moreover, the proposed scheme is applied to the secure communications field, where simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is effective.

  2. The unified coordination language UnCL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.V. Guillen Scholten (Juan); J.F. Jacob (Joost)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we show how to use a (subset) of UML as an Unified Coordination Language (UnCL) that is based on a separation of concerns between coordination and computation. As such UnCL provides a general language for the coordination of, in particular, object-oriented applications. The

  3. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  4. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  5. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  6. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space (Su(3)/U(1)xU(1))/Z{sub 2} giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.).

  7. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space [Su(3)/U(1)xU(1)]/Z 2 giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.)

  8. Toward a Unified Theory of Human Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this unified theory of human reasoning is to specify what constitutes reasoning and to characterize the psychological distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory views reasoning as the controlled and mediated application of three processes (encoding, comparison and selective combination) to inferential rules. (JAZ)

  9. IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...

  10. Unified Treatment of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Potentials: Quasi-Exact Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradaran, M.; Panahi, H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Schrödinger equation for a class of spherically symmetric potentials in a simple and unified manner using the Lie algebraic approach within the framework of quasi-exact solvability. We illustrate that all models give rise to the same basic differential equation, which is expressible as an element of the universal enveloping algebra of sl(2). Then, we obtain the general exact solutions of the problem by employing the representation theory of sl(2) Lie algebra.

  11. A Systematic Hardware Sharing Method for Unified Architecture Design of H.264 Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitransform techniques have been widely used in modern video coding and have better compression efficiency than the single transform technique that is used conventionally. However, every transform needs a corresponding hardware implementation, which results in a high hardware cost for multiple transforms. A novel method that includes a five-step operation sharing synthesis and architecture-unification techniques is proposed to systematically share the hardware and reduce the cost of multitransform coding. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, a unified architecture is designed using the method for all of the six transforms involved in the H.264 video codec: 2D 4 × 4 forward and inverse integer transforms, 2D 4 × 4 and 2 × 2 Hadamard transforms, and 1D 8 × 8 forward and inverse integer transforms. Firstly, the six H.264 transform architectures are designed at a low cost using the proposed five-step operation sharing synthesis technique. Secondly, the proposed architecture-unification technique further unifies these six transform architectures into a low cost hardware-unified architecture. The unified architecture requires only 28 adders, 16 subtractors, 40 shifters, and a proposed mux-based routing network, and the gate count is only 16308. The unified architecture processes 8 pixels/clock-cycle, up to 275 MHz, which is equal to 707 Full-HD 1080 p frames/second.

  12. Radial and Regge excitations in unified, grand unified and subconstituent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Necessary group theoretic conditions for all elementary gauge bosons and fermions of an arbitrary renormalizable gauge theory to lie on Regge trajectories are reviewed. It is then argued that in properly unified gauge theories all particles of a given spin lie on Regge trajectories. This then implies that a properly unified gauge theory has no local U(1) factor groups, and no massive fermion singlets. A consideration of the general pattern of Regge and radial recurrences to be expected in quantum field theories suggests that the presence or absence of spin 3/2 quarks and/or leptons in the TeV region will provide crucial clues to enable one to distinguish between various classes of unified, grand unified, and subconstituent models. The correct interpretation of such excited fermions will require correlation with the higgs boson mass and possible radial and Regge excitations of the weak vector bosons. (orig.)

  13. Unified treatment of the classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    Classical and Quantum Mechanics are unified in the sense that almost all axioms of both mechanics are identical. The only distinction is the explicit form of one algebraic identity. The unified theory is applied to scattering problem. (Z.M.)

  14. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.

  15. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  16. UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UDASH (Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography is a unified and high-quality temperature and salinity data set for the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas north of 65° N for the period 1980–2015. The archive aims at including all publicly available data and so far consists of 288 532 oceanographic profiles measured mainly with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD probes, bottles, mechanical thermographs and expendable thermographs. The data were collected by ships, ice-tethered profilers, profiling floats and other platforms. To achieve a uniform quality level, suitable for a wide range of oceanographic analyses, approximately 74 million single measurements of temperature and salinity were thoroughly quality checked. A large number of duplicate and erroneous profiles were detected and not included in the archive. Data outliers were flagged for quick identification. The final archive provides a unique and simple way of accessing most of the available temperature and salinity data for the Arctic Ocean and can be downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.872931.

  17. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  18. Applying Laban's Movement Framework in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Terence W.

    2007-01-01

    This article recommends raising the bar in elementary physical education by using Laban's movement framework to develop curriculum content in the areas of games, gymnastics, and dance (with physical fitness concepts blended in) in order to help students achieve the NASPE content standards. The movement framework can permeate and unify an…

  19. A Resource Based Framework for Planning and Replanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a rigorous unifying framework for both planning and replanning, extending an existing logic-based approach to resource-based planning. The primitive concepts in this Action Resource Framework (ARF) are actions and resources. Actions consume and produce resources. Plans are structures

  20. A single competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce: discussing the potential value add

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sharon Mary; Thomas, Janelle

    2014-01-01

    This brief discusses the policy implications of a research study commissioned by Health Workforce Australia (HWA) within its health workforce innovation and reform work program. The project explored conceptually complex and operationally problematic concepts related to developing a whole-of-workforce competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce and culminated with the production of three reports published by HWA. The project raised important queries as to whether such a concept is desirable, feasible or implementable – in short what is the potential value add and is it achievable? In setting the scene for discussion, the foundation of the project’s genesis and focus of the study are highlighted. A summary of key definitions related to competency-based education and training frameworks and competency-based career frameworks are provided to further readers’ commonality of understanding. The nature of the problem to be solved is explored and the potential value-add for the Australian health workforce and its key constituents proposed. The paper concludes by discussing relevance and feasibility issues within Australia’s current and changing healthcare context along with the essential steps and implementation realities that would need to be considered and actioned if whole-of-workforce frameworks were to be developed and implemented. PMID:25279384

  1. Unified tractable model for downlink MIMO cellular networks using stochastic geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-07-26

    Several research efforts are invested to develop stochastic geometry models for cellular networks with multiple antenna transmission and reception (MIMO). On one hand, there are models that target abstract outage probability and ergodic rate for simplicity. On the other hand, there are models that sacrifice simplicity to target more tangible performance metrics such as the error probability. Both types of models are completely disjoint in terms of the analytic steps to obtain the performance measures, which makes it challenging to conduct studies that account for different performance metrics. This paper unifies both techniques and proposes a unified stochastic-geometry based mathematical paradigm to account for error probability, outage probability, and ergodic rates in MIMO cellular networks. The proposed model is also unified in terms of the antenna configurations and leads to simpler error probability analysis compared to existing state-of-the-art models. The core part of the analysis is based on abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by assuming Gaussian signaling. To this end, the accuracy of the proposed framework is verified against state-of-the-art models as well as system level simulations. We provide via this unified study insights on network design by reflecting system parameters effect on different performance metrics. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  3. Can the laws of physics be unified ?

    CERN Document Server

    Langacker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes our current understanding of nature's fundamental particles and their interactions, yet gaps remain. For example, it does not include a quantum theory of gravity, nor does it explain the existence of dark matter. Once complete, however, the standard model could provide a unified description of the very building blocks of the universe. Researchers have been chasing this dream for decades, and many wonder whether such a dream can ever be made a reality. Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified? is a short introduction to this exciting frontier of physics. The book is accessibly written for students and researchers across the sciences, and for scientifically minded general readers. Paul Langacker begins with an overview of the key breakthroughs that have shaped the standard model, and then describes the fundamental particles, their interactions, and their role in cosmology. He goes on to explain field theory, internal symmetries, Yang-Mills theories, strong and electro...

  4. Unified-field theory: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Beginning with the expounding of Einstein understanding of advantages and disadvantages of general relativity theory, the authors proceed to consideration of what the complete unified theory have to be according to Einstein. The four theories which can be considered as ''unified'', namely weyl and Calutsa ones, worked out a half of century ago, and twistor twisting and supersymmetry theories, nowadays attracting attention, are briefly described and discussed. The authors come to a conclusion that achievements in elementary-particle physics have to affect any future theory, that this theory has to explain the principle contradictions between classical and quantum field theories, and that finally it can lead to change of the modern space-time model as a four-dimensional variety

  5. Capistrano unified school district works with San Onofre NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterfield, M.A.; Cramer, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    A unique arrangement has the science coordinator for Capistrano Unified School District's (CUSD) grades kindergarten through eight (K-8) as a part-time contract employee at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS). The purpose is to assess the science capabilities at SONGS useful to CUSD teachers and to assist in making them available. This is different from the usual single-teacher renewal program or from part-time employment. This creates several unique situations for SONGS and the 23 K-8 schools in CUSD, supplementing the existing program of optional science field trips to SONGS. This approach also interests the developing mind in science before being turned off by uninteresting, user-unfriendly, bookish approaches

  6. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  7. Group sparse multiview patch alignment framework with view consistency for image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Luo, Yong; You, Xinge; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2014-07-01

    No single feature can satisfactorily characterize the semantic concepts of an image. Multiview learning aims to unify different kinds of features to produce a consensual and efficient representation. This paper redefines part optimization in the patch alignment framework (PAF) and develops a group sparse multiview patch alignment framework (GSM-PAF). The new part optimization considers not only the complementary properties of different views, but also view consistency. In particular, view consistency models the correlations between all possible combinations of any two kinds of view. In contrast to conventional dimensionality reduction algorithms that perform feature extraction and feature selection independently, GSM-PAF enjoys joint feature extraction and feature selection by exploiting l(2,1)-norm on the projection matrix to achieve row sparsity, which leads to the simultaneous selection of relevant features and learning transformation, and thus makes the algorithm more discriminative. Experiments on two real-world image data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of GSM-PAF for image classification.

  8. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  9. Towards a Unified Global ICT Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun

    2006-01-01

    A successful evolution towards a unified global WAN platform allowing for the coexistence and interoperability of all kind of services requires careful planning of the next generation global cooperative wired and wireless information infrastructure. The absence of commonly agreed upon and adopted...... to be solved can be found in the interrelation between communication, connectivity and convergence. This paper will focus on steps to be taken in planning the physical infrastructure as a prerequisite for a successful evolution....

  10. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  11. The group manifold approach to unified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, T.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures start with a synopsis of historical results in the construction of unified theories of gravity. The author keeps some mathematical rigour throughout the lectures. He gives a provisional description of supermanifolds and a set of formal rules intended to manipulate superforms or supermanifolds. Super Lie groups are discussed as well as the dimensional reduction of gravity theories, the Kaluza-Klein theory. A formal introduction of supersymmetry is given. (Auth.)

  12. Unifying Ancient and Modern Geometries Through Octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Kurt, Levent; Khalfan, Amish

    2016-01-01

    We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues' theorem, Monge's theorem and Ceva's theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications. (paper)

  13. Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory in which the neutrino mass matrix is determined by the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism was investigated. With an arbitrary real right-handed Majorana mass matrix which incorporates three neutrino mass scales, the effects of the up-quark mass matrix are found to be dominant and as a result no significant mixing of ν/sub e/ occurs, while ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub γ/ mixing can be substantial

  14. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  15. Cosmic strings in unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Some spontaneously broken gauge theories can give rise to stringlike vacuum structures (vortices). It has been pointed out by Vilenkin that in grand unified theories these can be sufficiently massive to have cosmological implications, e.g., in explaining the formation of galaxies. The circumstances in which such structures occur are examined. They do not occur in the simplest grand unified theories, but can occur in some more elaborate models which have been proposed. The cross section for the scattering of elementary particles by strings is estimated. This is used to evaluate the effect of collisions on the dynamics of a collapsing circular string, with particular attention to the question of whether energy dissipation by collision can reduce the rate of formation of black holes by collapsed strings, which may be unacceptably large in models where strings occur. It is found that the effect of collisions is not important in the case of grand unified strings, although it can be important for lighter strings

  16. Coset realization of unifying W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, R.; Huebel, R.

    1994-06-01

    We construct several quantum coset W-algebras, e.g. sl(2,R)/U(1) and sl(2,R)+sl(2,R)/sl(2,R), and argue that they are finitely nonfreely generated. Furthermore, we discuss in detail their role as unifying W-algebras of Casimir W-algebras. We show that it is possible to give coset realizations of various types of unifying W-algebras, e.g. the diagonal cosets based on the symplectic Lie algebras sp(2n) realize the unifying W-algebras which have previously been introduced as 'WD -n '. In addition, minimal models of WD -n are studied. The coset realizations provide a generalization of level-rank-duality of dual coset pairs. As further examples of finitely nonfreely generated quantum W-algebras we discuss orbifolding of W-algebras which on the quantum level has different properties than in the classical case. We demonstrate in some examples that the classical limit according to Bowcock and Watts of these nonfreely finitely generated quantum W-algebras probably yields infinitely nonfreely generated classical W-algebras. (orig.)

  17. Unified strength theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  18. A unified view on weakly correlated recurrent networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro eGrytskyy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of neuron models used in contemporary theoretical neuroscience to investigate specific properties of covariances in the spiking activity raises the question how these models relate to each other. In particular it is hard to distinguish between generic properties of covariances and peculiarities due to the abstracted model. Here we present a unified view on pairwise covariances in recurrent networks in the irregular regime. We consider the binary neuron model, the leaky integrate-and-fire model, and the Hawkes process. We show that linear approximation maps each of these models to either of two classes of linear rate models, including the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a special case. The distinction between both classes is the location of additive noise in the rate dynamics, which is located on the output side for spiking models and on the input side for the binary model. Both classes allow closed form solutions for the covariance. For output noise it separates into an echo term and a term due to correlated input. The unified framework enables us to transfer results between models. For example, we generalize the binary model and the Hawkes process to the situation with synaptic conduction delays and simplify derivations for established results. Our approach is applicable to general network structures and suitable for the calculation of population averages. The derived averages are exact for fixed out-degree network architectures and approximate for fixed in-degree. We demonstrate how taking into account fluctuations in the linearization procedure increases the accuracy of the effective theory and we explain the class dependent differences between covariances in the time and the frequency domain. Finally we show that the oscillatory instability emerging in networks of integrate-and-fire models with delayed inhibitory feedback is a model-invariant feature: the same structure of poles in the complex frequency plane determines the

  19. Quantifying non-classical and beyond-quantum correlations in the unified operator formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, Joshua; Piani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Acin et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 140404) introduced a unified framework for the study of no-signalling correlations. Such a framework is based on the notion of local quantum measurements, but, in order to account for beyond-quantum correlations, global pseudo-states that are not positive semidefinite are allowed. After a short review of the formalism, we consider its use in the quantification of both general non-local and beyond-quantum correlations. We argue that the unified framework for correlations provides a simple approach to such a quantification, in particular when the quantification is meant to be operational and meaningful in a resource-theory scenario, i.e., when considering the processing of resources by means of non-resources. We relate different notions of robustness of correlations, both at the level of (pseudo-)states and abstract probability distributions, with particular focus on the beyond-quantum robustness of correlations and pseudo-states. We revisit known results and argue that, within the unified framework, the relation between the two levels—that of operators and that of probability distributions—is very strict. We point out how the consideration of robustness at the two levels leads to a natural framework for the quantification of entanglement in a device-independent way. Finally, we show that the beyond-quantum robustness of the non-positive operators needed to achieve beyond-quantum correlations coincides with their negativity and their distance from the set of quantum states. As an example, we calculate the beyond-quantum robustness for the case of a noisy Popescu–Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  20. Noise-aware dictionary-learning-based sparse representation framework for detection and removal of single and combined noises from ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Udit; Ramkumar, Barathram; Sabarimalai Manikandan, M

    2017-02-01

    Automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) signal enhancement has become a crucial pre-processing step in most ECG signal analysis applications. In this Letter, the authors propose an automated noise-aware dictionary learning-based generalised ECG signal enhancement framework which can automatically learn the dictionaries based on the ECG noise type for effective representation of ECG signal and noises, and can reduce the computational load of sparse representation-based ECG enhancement system. The proposed framework consists of noise detection and identification, noise-aware dictionary learning, sparse signal decomposition and reconstruction. The noise detection and identification is performed based on the moving average filter, first-order difference, and temporal features such as number of turning points, maximum absolute amplitude, zerocrossings, and autocorrelation features. The representation dictionary is learned based on the type of noise identified in the previous stage. The proposed framework is evaluated using noise-free and noisy ECG signals. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly reduce computational load as compared with conventional dictionary learning-based ECG denoising approaches. Further, comparative results show that the method outperforms existing methods in automatically removing noises such as baseline wanders, power-line interference, muscle artefacts and their combinations without distorting the morphological content of local waves of ECG signal.

  1. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article was formulated and solved the problem of conditional nonlinear technical and economic optimization of the distance between intermediate supports, uniform in height, during the design of the cable metro lines in highly urban-ized city environment. The optimization problem involves a single-criterion objective function that expresses the cost of construction of the cable metro line (total cost of intermediate supports and their foundations, traction and carrying steel cables and technical equipment. The specified objective function subject to minimization by finding the optimal combination of the distance between intermediate supports and tension carrying ropes with accounting constructive, modal, structural and planning constraints in the form of nonlinear inequalities. The optimization algorithm was based on the direct method of optimization type, Hooke-Jeeves, which was modified taking into account the need of varying the height of intermediate supports with a constant step equal to the step of unification. When constructing the objective function were considered three possible forms sagging of carrying ropes, which can be implemented for various values of the efforts of their tension. Analysis was done of the influence of the step unification and minimum size of interme-diate supports on their optimum step, the cost of intermediate supports, the cost of 1 km cable metro line for different values of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief along the cable metro line. The graph of height of uni-fied supports from the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief has discrete-step type. With the increase of the step unify the discreteness increases: the width of the range of angles of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief within which the height of the supports remains constant, increases. The graph of step installation of unified supports along the cable metro line from the angle of the longitudinal

  2. Model of unified gauge fields; Le modele des champs de jauge unifies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite Lopes, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author) 22 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Unified approach to redshift in cosmological/black hole spacetimes and synchronous frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporensky, A. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.; Popov, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    Usually, interpretation of redshift in static spacetimes (for example, near black holes) is opposed to that in cosmology. In this methodological note, we show that both explanations are unified in a natural picture. This is achieved if, considering the static spacetime, one (i) makes a transition to a synchronous frame, and (ii) returns to the original frame by means of local Lorentz boost. To reach our goal, we consider a rather general class of spherically symmetric spacetimes. In doing so, we construct frames that generalize the well-known Lemaitre and Painlevé-Gullstand ones and elucidate the relation between them. This helps us to understand, in a unifying approach, how gravitation reveals itself in different branches of general relativity. This framework can be useful for general relativity university courses.

  4. UUI: Reusable Spatial Data Services in Unified User Interface at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Bryant, Keith; Pham, Long B.

    2016-01-01

    Unified User Interface (UUI) is a next-generation operational data access tool that has been developed at Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center(GES DISC) to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key data services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard -SSW), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other legacy spatial data services. UUI has been built based on a flexible infrastructure of reusable web services self-contained building blocks that can easily be plugged into spatial applications, including third-party clients or services, to easily enable new functionality as new datasets and services become available. In this presentation, we will discuss our experience in designing UUI services based on open industry standards. We will also explain how the resulting framework can be used for a rapid development, deployment, and integration of spatial data services, facilitating efficient access and dissemination of spatial data sets.

  5. Supersymmetric grand unified theories from quarks to strings via SUSY GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Raby, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    These course-tested lectures provide a technical introduction to Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), as well as a personal view on the topic by one of the pioneers in the field. While the Standard Model of Particle Physics is incredibly successful in describing the known universe it is, nevertheless, an incomplete theory with many free parameters and open issues. An elegant solution to all of these quandaries is the proposed theory of SUSY GUTs. In a GUT, quarks and leptons are related in a simple way by the unifying symmetry and their electric charges are quantized, further the relative strength of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces are predicted. SUSY GUTs additionally provide a framework for understanding particle masses and offer candidates for dark matter. Finally, with the extension of SUSY GUTs to string theory, a quantum-mechanically consistent unification of the four known forces (including gravity) is obtained. The book is organized in three sections: the first section contai...

  6. UUI: Reusable Spatial Data Services in Unified User Interface at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Pham, L.

    2016-12-01

    Unified User Interface (UUI) is a next-generation operational data access tool that has been developed at Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key data services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard - SSW), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other legacy spatial data services. UUI has been built based on a flexible infrastructure of reusable web services - self-contained building blocks that can easily be plugged into spatial applications, including third-party clients or services, to easily enable new functionality as new datasets and services become available. In this presentation, we will discuss our experience in designing UUI services based on open industry standards. We will also explain how the resulting framework can be used for a rapid development, deployment, and integration of spatial data services, facilitating efficient access and dissemination of spatial data sets.

  7. Impact of Beads and Drops on a Repellent Solid Surface: A Unified Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S.; Fromental, J.-M.; Mora, S.; Phou, Ty; Ramos, L.; Ligoure, C.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate freely expanding sheets formed by ultrasoft gel beads, and liquid and viscoelastic drops, produced by the impact of the bead or drop on a silicon wafer covered with a thin layer of liquid nitrogen that suppresses viscous dissipation thanks to an inverse Leidenfrost effect. Our experiments show a unified behavior for the impact dynamics that holds for solids, liquids, and viscoelastic fluids and that we rationalize by properly taking into account elastocapillary effects. In this framework, the classical impact dynamics of solids and liquids, as far as viscous dissipation is negligible, appears as the asymptotic limits of a universal theoretical description. A novel material-dependent characteristic velocity that includes both capillary and bulk elasticity emerges from this unified description of the physics of impact.

  8. Towards a Unified Theory of Health-Disease: I. Health as a complex model-object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory building is one of the most crucial challenges faced by basic, clinical and population research, which form the scientific foundations of health practices in contemporary societies. The objective of the study is to propose a Unified Theory of Health-Disease as a conceptual tool for modeling health-disease-care in the light of complexity approaches. With this aim, the epistemological basis of theoretical work in the health field and concepts related to complexity theory as concerned to health problems are discussed. Secondly, the concepts of model-object, multi-planes of occurrence, modes of health and disease-illness-sickness complex are introduced and integrated into a unified theoretical framework. Finally, in the light of recent epistemological developments, the concept of Health-Disease-Care Integrals is updated as a complex reference object fit for modeling health-related processes and phenomena.

  9. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  10. Unified theory of ballooning instabilities and temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    A unified theory of temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes and ballooning instabilities is developed using kinetic theory in banana regimes. All known results, such as electrostatic and purely magnetic trapped particle modes and ideal MHD ballooning modes (or shear Alfven waves) are readily derived from our single general dispersion relation. Several new results from ion-ion collision and trapped particle modification of ballooning modes are derived and discussed and the interrelationship between those modes is established. 24 refs

  11. Different Modeling Aspects and Energy Systems of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC): An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Payal; Shrivastava, Amit; Khare, Anula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper highlights the classification of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) to enhance the electric power quality at distribution levels. It aims to present a broad overview on the different possible UPQC system configurations for single-phase (two-wire) and three-phase (three-wire and four-wire) networks, different modeling approaches and backup energy storages, and recent developments in the field. It is noticed that several researchers have used different names for the U...

  12. Capacity enhancement and flexible operation of unified power quality conditioner in smart and microgrid network

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem, Shafiuzzaman Khan; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to design Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC), termed as distributed UPQC (D-UPQC), for smart or microgrid network where capacity enhancement and flexible operation of UPQC are the important issues. This paper shows the possibility of capacity enhancement and operational flexibility of UPQC through a coordinated control of existing resources. This UPQC consists of a single unit series active power filter (APFse) and multiple shunt APF (APFsh) units in a...

  13. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  14. LEP constraints on grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Utpal

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments on grand unified theories (GUTs) in the context of the LEP measurements of the coupling constants are reviewed. The three coupling constants at the electroweak scale have been measured at LEP quite precisely. One can allow these couplings to evolve with energy following the renormalization group equations for the various groups and find out whether all the coupling constants meet at any energy. It was pointed out that the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory fails to satisfy this test. However, various extensions of the theory are still allowed. These extensions include (i) supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, with some arbitrariness in the susy breaking scale arising from the threshold corrections, (ii) non-susy SU(5) GUTs with additional fermions as well as Higgs multiplets, which has masses of the order of TeV, and (iii) non-renormalizable effect of gravity with a fine tuned relation among the coupling constants at the unification energy. The LEP results also constrain GUTs with an intermediate symmetry breaking scale. By adjusting the intermediate symmetry breaking scale, one usually can have unification, but these theories get constrained. For example, the left-right symmetric theories coming from GUTs can be broken only at energies higher than about ∼10 10 GeV. This implies that if right handed gauge bosons are found at energies lower than this scale, then that will rule out the possibility of grand unification. Another recent interesting development on the subject, namely, low energy unification, is discussed in this context. All the coupling constants are unified at energies of the order of ∼10 8 GeV when they are embedded in an SU(15)GUT, with some particular symmetry breaking pattern. But even in this case the results of the intermediate symmetry breaking scale remain unchanged. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  15. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  16. Using a socioecological framework to understand the career choices of single- and double-degree nursing students and double-degree graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Noelene; Harrison, Linda; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Untested changes in nursing education in Australia, such as the introduction of double degrees in nursing, necessitate a new research approach to study nursing career pathways. A review of the literature on past and present career choice theories demonstrates these are inadequate to gain an understanding of contemporary nursing students' career choices. With the present worldwide shortage of nurses, an understanding of career choice becomes a critical component of recruitment and retention strategies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an ecological system approach based on Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development can be used to understand and examine the influences affecting nursing students' and graduates' career development and career choices. Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model was adapted to propose a new Nursing Career Development Framework as a way of conceptualizing the career development of nursing students undertaking traditional bachelor of nursing and nontraditional double-degree nursing programs. This Framework is then applied to a study of undergraduate nurses' career decision making, using a sequential explanatory mixed method study. The paper demonstrates the relevance of this approach for addressing challenges associated with nursing recruitment, education, and career choice.

  17. Cosmotopological relation for a unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J. J. van der

    2007-01-01

    I present an argument, based on the topology of the universe, why there are three generations of fermions. The argument implies a preferred unified gauge group of SU(5), but with SO(10) representations of the fermions. The breaking pattern SU(5)→SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) is preferred over the pattern SU(5)→SU(4)xU(1). On the basis of the argument one expects an asymmetry in the early universe microwave data, which might have been detected already

  18. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-01-01

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  19. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    and specialization of classes (inheritance) are considered different abstractions. We present a new programming language, Lapis, that unifies inheritance and program specialization at the conceptual, syntactic, and semantic levels. This paper presents the initial development of Lapis, which uses inheritance...... with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented...

  20. Improvements on a Unified Dark Matter Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Popolo A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, by means of a spherical collapse model, the effect of shear, rotation, and baryons on a generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg dominated universe. We show that shear, rotation, and the presence of baryons slow down the collapse compared to the simple spherical collapse model. The slowing down in the growth of density perturbation is able to solve the instability of the unified dark matter (UDM models described in previous papers (e.g. Sandvik et al. 2004 at the linear perturbation level, as also shown by a direct comparison of our model with previous results.

  1. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  2. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  3. Solvent exchange in a metal–organic framework single crystal monitored by dynamic in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Jordan M.; Walton, Ian M.; Bateman, Gage; Benson, Cassidy A.; Mitchell, Travis; Sylvester, Eric; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Benedict, Jason B. (UC); (Buffalo)

    2017-07-25

    Understanding the processes by which porous solid-state materials adsorb and release guest molecules would represent a significant step towards developing rational design principles for functional porous materials. To elucidate the process of liquid exchange in these materials, dynamicin situX-ray diffraction techniques have been developed which utilize liquid-phase chemical stimuli. Using these time-resolved diffraction techniques, the ethanol solvation process in a flexible metal–organic framework [Co(AIP)(bpy)0.5(H2O)]·2H2O was examined. The measurements provide important insight into the nature of the chemical transformation in this system including the presence of a previously unreported neat ethanol solvate structure.

  4. A unified view of "how allostery works".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    The question of how allostery works was posed almost 50 years ago. Since then it has been the focus of much effort. This is for two reasons: first, the intellectual curiosity of basic science and the desire to understand fundamental phenomena, and second, its vast practical importance. Allostery is at play in all processes in the living cell, and increasingly in drug discovery. Many models have been successfully formulated, and are able to describe allostery even in the absence of a detailed structural mechanism. However, conceptual schemes designed to qualitatively explain allosteric mechanisms usually lack a quantitative mathematical model, and are unable to link its thermodynamic and structural foundations. This hampers insight into oncogenic mutations in cancer progression and biased agonists' actions. Here, we describe how allostery works from three different standpoints: thermodynamics, free energy landscape of population shift, and structure; all with exactly the same allosteric descriptors. This results in a unified view which not only clarifies the elusive allosteric mechanism but also provides structural grasp of agonist-mediated signaling pathways, and guides allosteric drug discovery. Of note, the unified view reasons that allosteric coupling (or communication) does not determine the allosteric efficacy; however, a communication channel is what makes potential binding sites allosteric.

  5. DataSpread: Unifying Databases and Spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, Mangesh; Sun, Bofan; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Xinyan; Chang, Kevin ChenChuan; Parameswaran, Aditya

    2015-08-01

    Spreadsheet software is often the tool of choice for ad-hoc tabular data management, processing, and visualization, especially on tiny data sets. On the other hand, relational database systems offer significant power, expressivity, and efficiency over spreadsheet software for data management, while lacking in the ease of use and ad-hoc analysis capabilities. We demonstrate DataSpread, a data exploration tool that holistically unifies databases and spreadsheets. It continues to offer a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet front-end, while in parallel managing all the data in a back-end database, specifically, PostgreSQL. DataSpread retains all the advantages of spreadsheets, including ease of use, ad-hoc analysis and visualization capabilities, and a schema-free nature, while also adding the advantages of traditional relational databases, such as scalability and the ability to use arbitrary SQL to import, filter, or join external or internal tables and have the results appear in the spreadsheet. DataSpread needs to reason about and reconcile differences in the notions of schema, addressing of cells and tuples, and the current "pane" (which exists in spreadsheets but not in traditional databases), and support data modifications at both the front-end and the back-end. Our demonstration will center on our first and early prototype of the DataSpread, and will give the attendees a sense for the enormous data exploration capabilities offered by unifying spreadsheets and databases.

  6. Unifying hydrotropy under Gibbs phase rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-13

    The task of elucidating the mechanism of solubility enhancement using hydrotropes has been hampered by the wide variety of phase behaviour that hydrotropes can exhibit, encompassing near-ideal aqueous solution, self-association, micelle formation, and micro-emulsions. Instead of taking a field guide or encyclopedic approach to classify hydrotropes into different molecular classes, we take a rational approach aiming at constructing a unified theory of hydrotropy based upon the first principles of statistical thermodynamics. Achieving this aim can be facilitated by the two key concepts: (1) the Gibbs phase rule as the basis of classifying the hydrotropes in terms of the degrees of freedom and the number of variables to modulate the solvation free energy; (2) the Kirkwood-Buff integrals to quantify the interactions between the species and their relative contributions to the process of solubilization. We demonstrate that the application of the two key concepts can in principle be used to distinguish the different molecular scenarios at work under apparently similar solubility curves observed from experiments. In addition, a generalization of our previous approach to solutes beyond dilution reveals the unified mechanism of hydrotropy, driven by a strong solute-hydrotrope interaction which overcomes the apparent per-hydrotrope inefficiency due to hydrotrope self-clustering.

  7. A unified dynamics for micro and macrosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1985-12-01

    An explicit model allowing a unified description of micro and macrosystems is exhibited. Firstly, a modified quantum dynamics for the description of macroobjects is constructed and it is shown that it forbids the occurrence of linear superpositions of states localized in far away spatial regions and induces an evolution agreeing with classical mechanics. This dynamics also allows a description of the evolution in terms of trajectories. To set up a unified description of all physical phenomena, a modification of the dynamics, with respect to the standard Hamiltonian one, is then postulated also for microscopic systems. It is shown that one can consistently deduce from it the previously considered dynamics for the centre of mass of macroscopic systems. Choosing in an appropriate way the parameters of the so obtained model one can show that the standard quantum theory for microobjects, the quantum mechanical wave packet reduction with fixed pointer positions, and the classical behaviour for macroobjects can be all derived in a consistent way. Moreover, in the case of a macroscopic system one can obtain, by means of appropriate approximations, a description of the evolution in terms of a phase-space density distribution obeying a Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. (author)

  8. Group theory for unified model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, R.

    1981-01-01

    The results gathered here on simple Lie algebras have been selected with attention to the needs of unified model builders who study Yang-Mills theories based on simple, local-symmetry groups that contain as a subgroup the SUsup(w) 2 x Usup(w) 1 x SUsup(c) 3 symmetry of the standard theory of electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. The major topics include, after a brief review of the standard model and its unification into a simple group, the use of Dynkin diagrams to analyze the structure of the group generators and to keep track of the weights (quantum numbers) of the representation vectors; an analysis of the subgroup structure of simple groups, including explicit coordinatizations of the projections in weight space; lists of representations, tensor products and branching rules for a number of simple groups; and other details about groups and their representations that are often helpful for surveying unified models, including vector-coupling coefficient calculations. Tabulations of representations, tensor products, and branching rules for E 6 , SO 10 , SU 6 , F 4 , SO 9 , SO 5 , SO 8 , SO 7 , SU 4 , E 7 , E 8 , SU 8 , SO 14 , SO 18 , SO 22 , and for completeness, SU 3 are included. (These tables may have other applications.) Group-theoretical techniques for analyzing symmetry breaking are described in detail and many examples are reviewed, including explicit parameterizations of mass matrices. (orig.)

  9. Toward a unified approach to dose-response modeling in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews dose-response models that are used in ecotoxicology. The focus lies on clarification of differences and similarities between models, and as a side effect, their different guises in ecotoxicology are unravelled. A look at frequently used dose-response models reveals major discrepancies, among other things in naming conventions. Therefore, there is a need for a unified view on dose-response modeling in order to improve the understanding of it and to facilitate communication and comparison of findings across studies, thus realizing its full potential. This study attempts to establish a general framework that encompasses most dose-response models that are of interest to ecotoxicologists in practice. The framework includes commonly used models such as the log-logistic and Weibull models, but also features entire suites of models as found in various guidance documents. An outline on how the proposed framework can be implemented in statistical software systems is also provided.

  10. Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a parameterized source and specific boundary conditions. The system of linear equations so formed is solved to yield the source activity distribution for a set of acquired projections. For the studies presented here, the equations are solved using the EM (Maximum Likelihood) algorithm although other solution algorithms, such as Least Squares, could be employed. While the present results specifically consider the reconstruction of camera-based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographic (SPECT) images, the technique is equally valid for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) if a Monte Carlo model of such a system is used. As a preliminary evaluation, experimentally acquired SPECT phantom studies for imaging Tc-99m (140 keV) are presented which demonstrate the quantitative compensation for scatter and attenuation for a two dimensional (single slice) reconstruction. The algorithm may be expanded in a straight forward manner to full three dimensional reconstruction including compensation for out of plane scatter

  11. Unified Deep Learning Architecture for Modeling Biology Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Cao, Chengyuan; Xia, Xiaoyan; Lu, Qiang

    2017-10-09

    Prediction of the spatial structure or function of biological macromolecules based on their sequence remains an important challenge in bioinformatics. When modeling biological sequences using traditional sequencing models, characteristics, such as long-range interactions between basic units, the complicated and variable output of labeled structures, and the variable length of biological sequences, usually lead to different solutions on a case-by-case basis. This study proposed the use of bidirectional recurrent neural networks based on long short-term memory or a gated recurrent unit to capture long-range interactions by designing the optional reshape operator to adapt to the diversity of the output labels and implementing a training algorithm to support the training of sequence models capable of processing variable-length sequences. Additionally, the merge and pooling operators enhanced the ability to capture short-range interactions between basic units of biological sequences. The proposed deep-learning model and its training algorithm might be capable of solving currently known biological sequence-modeling problems through the use of a unified framework. We validated our model on one of the most difficult biological sequence-modeling problems currently known, with our results indicating the ability of the model to obtain predictions of protein residue interactions that exceeded the accuracy of current popular approaches by 10% based on multiple benchmarks.

  12. Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Nash

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  13. Sfermion mass degeneracy, superconformal dynamics, and supersymmetric grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko

    2002-01-01

    We discuss issues in a scenario where hierarchical Yukawa couplings are generated through the strong dynamics of superconformal field theories (SCFTs). Independently of the mediation mechanism of supersymmetry breaking, the infrared convergence property of SCFTs can provide an interesting solution to the supersymmetric flavor problem; sfermion masses are suppressed around the decoupling scale of SCFTs and eventually become degenerate to some degree, thanks to family-independent radiative corrections governed by the gaugino masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We discuss under what conditions the degeneracy of the sfermion mass can be estimated in a simple manner. We also discuss the constraints from lepton flavor violations. We then explicitly study sfermion mass degeneracy within the framework of grand unified theories coupled to SCFTs. It is found that the degeneracy for right-handed sleptons becomes worse in the conventional SU(5) model than in the MSSM. On the other hand, in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model, each right-handed lepton is still an SU(5) singlet, whereas the B-ino mass M 1 is determined by two independent gaugino masses of SU(5)xU(1). These two properties enable us to have an improved degeneracy for the right-handed sleptons. We also speculate on how further improvement can be obtained in the SCFT approach

  14. Toward a unifying taxonomy and definition for meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jonathan D.; Newberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the norm of fabricatIng new terminology from a first-person perspective. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on the historically well-established and commonly accepted third-person paradigm of Affect and Cognition, borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation which clearly distinguishes “method” from “state” and is conceptualized as a dynamic process which is inclusive of six related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings. PMID:24312060

  15. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  16. Unifying screening processes within the PROSPR consortium: a conceptual model for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaber, Elisabeth F; Kim, Jane J; Schapira, Marilyn M; Tosteson, Anna N A; Zauber, Ann G; Geiger, Ann M; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2015-06-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  18. Unified reduction principle for the evolution of mutation, migration, and recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, Lee; Liberman, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Modifier-gene models for the evolution of genetic information transmission between generations of organisms exhibit the reduction principle: Selection favors reduction in the rate of variation production in populations near equilibrium under a balance of constant viability selection and variation production. Whereas this outcome has been proven for a variety of genetic models, it has not been proven in general for multiallelic genetic models of mutation, migration, and recombination modification with arbitrary linkage between the modifier and major genes under viability selection. We show that the reduction principle holds for all of these cases by developing a unifying mathematical framework that characterizes all of these evolutionary models. PMID:28265103

  19. Minimal supersymmetric grand unified theory: Symmetry breaking and the particle spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajc, Borut; Melfo, Alejandra; Senjanovic, Goran; Vissani, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    We discuss in detail the symmetry breaking and related issues in the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric grand unified theory. We find all the possible patterns of symmetry breaking, compute the associated particle spectrum and study its impact on the physical scales of the theory. In particular, the complete mass matrices of the SU(2) doublets and the color triplets are computed in connection with the doublet-triplet splitting and the d=5 proton decay. We explicitly construct the two light Higgs doublets as a function of the Higgs superpotential parameters. This provides a framework for the analysis of phenomenological implications of the theory, to be carried out in a second paper

  20. Unifying flipped SU(5) in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, Ilja

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that embedding a four-dimensional flipped SU(5) model in a five-dimensional SO(10) model preserves the best features of both flipped SU(5) and SO(10). The missing partner mechanism, which naturally achieves both doublet-triplet splitting and suppression of d=5 proton decay operators, is realized as in flipped SU(5), while the gauge couplings are unified as in SO(10). The masses of down quarks and charged leptons, which are independent in flipped SU(5), are related by the SO(10). Distinctive patterns of quark and lepton masses can result. The gaugino mass M 1 is independent of M 3 and M 2 , which are predicted to be equal

  1. Covariant extensions and the nonsymmetric unified field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, K.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of generally covariant extension of Lorentz invariant field equations, by means of covariant derivatives extracted from the nonsymmetric unified field, is considered. It is shown that the contracted curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of a covariant gauge derivative which contains the gauge derivative corresponding to minimal coupling, if the universal constant p, characterizing the nonsymmetric theory, is fixed in terms of Planck's constant and the elementary quantum of charge. By this choice the spinor representation of the linear connection becomes closely related to the spinor affinity used by Infeld and Van Der Waerden (Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. Kl.; 9:380 (1933)) in their generally covariant formulation of Dirac's equation. (author)

  2. SUGERE - a unified system for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Jordao, Elizabete

    2005-01-01

    Generation and disposal of wastes has been responsible for many economical, ecological and public health problems. In order to manage hazardous wastes in an environment friendly manner, many technical and administrative procedures should be implemented, including prevention, control of generation, and final disposal. A software named SUGERE - a unified system for waste management - is being developed. It is an easy to use tool that integrates all the steps involved in hazardous and radioactive waste management. This system is intended to help generators, transporters and owners of treatment, storage and disposal facilities to manage hazardous and radioactive wastes, by assuring compliance with environmental laws and consumer requirements. This paper presents the current status of the SUGERE software, developed using Borland Delphi package. The nuclear industry is used as a reference for developing this work. (author)

  3. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  4. A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2017-01-01

    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity of functions exist in this strict sense as well. The theory depends on an internal physiological or neural process that mimics an organism's fitness, and modulates the organism's variability accordingly. The structure of the internal process can be subdivided into subprocesses that monitor specific functions in an organism. The theory matches well with each intuition on a previously published list of intuited ideas about biological functions, including intuitions that have posed difficulties for other theories.

  5. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  6. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopoulos, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  7. OPC from data access to unified architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jurgen; Burke, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    OPC stands for Openness, Productivity, and Collaboration, symbolizing the new possibilities opening up in automation technology. The main objective of the new OPC generation Unified Architecture is to facilitate global interoperability and to define an information and data-exchange mechanism that is service oriented, multivendor, and cross-platform capable – from the field device on the shop floor to the ERP system on the factory level. This book includes information on: - the birth, objectives, and fundamentals of OPC and OPC UA, - the technical specifications that currently exist and those that are in preparation, - the procedures for designing and implementing components, - a transparent presentation of the technology through application possibilities and examples, and - the outlook for the future of OPC and OPC UA. Important perspectives and updates in this new edition include - the new era and the exciting application possibilities developing with OPC UA, - the new OPC UA specifications, - the devel...

  8. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction into Grand Unified Theories. After a discussion of the general features to be expected in any such theory, and of the motivations for them, a detailed presentation of SU(5) theory is given. The group structures, particle multiplets, gauge and Higgs bosons are explained. The two stages of spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Higgs model, are calculated individually and in combination. Fermion mass matrices and relations between quark and lepton masses are derived. predictions of SU(5) theory, calculated using renormalization group methods, are derived. The chapter ends with discussions that bring together particle physics and cosmology, including the baryon asymmetry problem, phase transitions in the very early universe, and singularities like domain walls, vortex lines and monopoles. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. On the History of Unified Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goenner Hubert F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give a review of the history of the classical aspects of unified field theories in the 20th century. It includes brief technical descriptions of the theories suggested, short biographical notes concerning the scientists involved, and an extensive bibliography. The present first installment covers the time span between 1914 and 1933, i.e., when Einstein was living and working in Berlin - with occasional digressions into other periods. Thus, the main theme is the unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields augmented by short-lived attempts to include the matter field described by Schrödinger's or Dirac's equations. While my focus lies on the conceptual development of the field, by also paying attention to the interaction of various schools of mathematicians with the research done by physicists, some prosopocraphical remarks are included.

  10. Supersymmetric grand unified theories and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1983-01-01

    By examining the behavior of supersymmetric grand unified theories (GUT's) in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUT's. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry-breaking scale in the manner of Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out

  11. New ideas about unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.

    1986-01-01

    An outline of the physical concepts evolution is given from the ancient philosophers to the present time. With qualitative explanations about the meaning of the theories that is the milestones of these concepts evolution, it mentions the ideas which lead the studies to the conception of a unified field theory. Chronologically, it has brief information about the ideas of Laplace (mechanical determinism), Maxwell (the field concept), Einsten (the space-time structure), Heisenberg and Schroedinger (the quantum mechanics), Dirac (the relativistic quantum and the antiparticles), Gell-Mann (the quarks), Weinberg-Salam (Weak interactions and eletromagnetic unification), H. Georgi and S. Glashon (strong interactions plus Weinberg-Salam), Kaluza-Klein (a fifth space-time coordinate), and Zumino-Weiss (supersymmetry and supergravity). (G.D.F.) [pt

  12. Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, W.

    1982-01-01

    A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)

  13. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  14. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  15. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  17. Unified SU(4) color models in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of constructing unified models with SU(4) as the color group via a unifying group defined in ten dimensions are examined. Four dimensional theories are recovered using the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction scheme. Candidate models are considered in order to highlight some of the difficulties in constructing realistic four dimensional theories. 30 refs

  18. Unifying principles of irreversibility minimization for efficiency maximization in steady-flow chemically-reactive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sankaran; Edwards, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced

  19. webinos project deliverable: Phase 1 Security Framework

    OpenAIRE

    webinos consortium

    2011-01-01

    The webinos project aims to deliver a cross-device web application runtime environment, providing a unified development platform and standardized inter-device communication and interaction. This document contains the first iteration of the technical security and privacy framework designed for the webinos project. It accompanies two other documents - D3.1 System Specification and D3.2 API Specifications - and refers to concepts developed in them. The security and privacy architecture aims to p...

  20. Supply chain management: a framework of understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Deirdre; Vlok, Pieter-Jan

    2014-01-01

    The topic of supply chain management (SCM) is complex to understand because it encompasses many different flows of activities, components, functions, and role-players. The literature is scattered across multiple functions, varies in scope, and is often confined to certain elements within SCM. This article aims to provide a literature overview of SCM. It is explained with the aid of a newly-developed framework of understanding that offers a graphical representation of the term. It unifies and ...

  1. A Unified Scaling Law in Spiral Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda; Sofue; Wada

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the origin of a unified scaling relation in spiral galaxies. Observed spiral galaxies are spread on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of luminosity L, radius R, and rotation velocity V. The plane is expressed as L~&parl0;VR&parr0;alpha in the I passband, where alpha is a constant. On the plane, observed galaxies are distributed in an elongated region which looks like the shape of a surfboard. The well-known scaling relations L-V (Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), V-R (also the TF relation), and R-L (Freeman's law) can be understood as oblique projections of the surfboard-like plane into two-dimensional spaces. This unified interpretation of the known scaling relations should be a clue to understand the physical origin of all the relations consistently. Furthermore, this interpretation can also explain why previous studies could not find any correlation between TF residuals and radius. In order to clarify the origin of this plane, we simulate formation and evolution of spiral galaxies with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, including cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback. Initial conditions are set to 14 isolated spheres with two free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum. The cold dark matter (h=0.5, Omega0=1) cosmology is considered as a test case. The simulations provide the following two conclusions: (1) The slope of the plane is well reproduced but the zero point is not. This zero-point discrepancy could be solved in a low-density (Omega00.5) cosmology. (2) The surfboard-shaped plane can be explained by the control of galactic mass and angular momentum.

  2. A novel unified expression for the capacity and bit error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of the average binary error probabilities (ABEP) and average capacity (AC) of wireless communications systems over generalized fading channels have been considered separately in past years. This paper introduces a novel moment generating function (MGF)-based unified expression for the ABEP and AC of single and multiple link communications with maximal ratio combining. In addition, this paper proposes the hyper-Fox\\'s H fading model as a unified fading distribution of a majority of the well-known generalized fading environments. As such, the authors offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated, and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. The mathematical formulism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of the authors\\' newly derived results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  3. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  4. Unified description of perturbation theory and band center anomaly in one-dimensional Anderson localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kai; Qin, Shaojing; Wang, Chuilin

    2011-01-01

    We calculated numerically the localization length of one-dimensional Anderson model with diagonal disorder. For weak disorder, we showed that the localization length changes continuously as the energy changes from the band center to the boundary of the anomalous region near the band edge. We found that all the localization lengths for different disorder strengths and different energies collapse onto a single curve, which can be fitted by a simple equation. Thus the description of the perturbation theory and the band center anomaly were unified into this equation. -- Highlights: → We study the band center anomaly of one-dimensional Anderson localization. → We study numerically the Lyapunov exponent through a parametrization method of the transfer matrix. → We give a unified equation to describe the band center anomaly and perturbation theory.

  5. A Marked Point Process Framework for Extracellular Electrical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Loza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulations are an important component of extracellular electrical potentials (EEP, such as the Electroencephalogram (EEG, Electrocorticogram (ECoG and Local Field Potentials (LFP. This spatially temporal organized multi-frequency transient (phasic activity reflects the multiscale spatiotemporal synchronization of neuronal populations in response to external stimuli or internal physiological processes. We propose a novel generative statistical model of a single EEP channel, where the collected signal is regarded as the noisy addition of reoccurring, multi-frequency phasic events over time. One of the main advantages of the proposed framework is the exceptional temporal resolution in the time location of the EEP phasic events, e.g., up to the sampling period utilized in the data collection. Therefore, this allows for the first time a description of neuromodulation in EEPs as a Marked Point Process (MPP, represented by their amplitude, center frequency, duration, and time of occurrence. The generative model for the multi-frequency phasic events exploits sparseness and involves a shift-invariant implementation of the clustering technique known as k-means. The cost function incorporates a robust estimation component based on correntropy to mitigate the outliers caused by the inherent noise in the EEP. Lastly, the background EEP activity is explicitly modeled as the non-sparse component of the collected signal to further improve the delineation of the multi-frequency phasic events in time. The framework is validated using two publicly available datasets: the DREAMS sleep spindles database and one of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI competition datasets. The results achieve benchmark performance and provide novel quantitative descriptions based on power, event rates and timing in order to assess behavioral correlates beyond the classical power spectrum-based analysis. This opens the possibility for a unifying point process framework of

  6. Enhancement of Ag-Based Plasmonic Photocatalysis in Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Borane by the Assistance of Single-Site Ti-Oxide Moieties within a Silica Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2017-03-13

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have gained great attention owing to their interesting plasmonic properties and efficient catalysis under visible-light irradiation. In this study, an Ag-based plasmonic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica with isolated and tetrahedrally coordinated single-site Ti-oxide moieties, namely, Ag/Ti-SBA-15, was designed with the purpose of utilizing the broad spectral range of solar energy. The Ti-SBA-15 support allows the deposition of small Ag NPs with a narrow size distribution. The chemical structure, morphology, and optical properties of the prepared catalyst were characterized by techniques such as UV/Vis, FT extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission SEM, TEM, and N 2 physisorption studies. The catalytic activity of Ag/Ti-SBA-15 in hydrogen production from ammonia borane by hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in comparison with Ag/SBA-15 without Ti-oxide moieties and Ag/TiO 2 /SBA-15 involving agglomerated TiO 2 , both in the dark and under light irradiation. Improved electron transfer under light irradiation caused by the creation of heterojunctions between Ag NPs and Ti-oxide moieties explains the results obtained in the present study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Coral Reef and Hardbottom from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Coral reef and Hardbottom areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified...

  8. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Miller, Helen; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C.

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphologically complex structures of fluorescently labelled proteins present in clusters of other types of cells.

  9. New limit on logotropic unified dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C. Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a logotropic perfect dark fluid has recently been proposed, where deviations with respect to the standard ΛCDM model are dependent on a single parameter B. In this paper we show that the requirement that the linear growth of cosmic structures on comoving scales larger than 8h−1Mpc is not significantly affected with respect to the standard ΛCDM result provides the strongest limit to date on the model (B<6×10−7, an improvement of more than three orders of magnitude over previous upper limits on the value of B. We further show that this limit rules out the logotropic Unified Dark Energy model as a possible solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model, including the cusp problem of Dark Matter halos or the missing satellite problem, as well as the original version of the model where the Planck energy density was taken as one of the two parameters characterizing the logotropic dark fluid.

  10. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at transplanckian energies ($E\\gg M_P$) and small deflection angles. We show that --- owing to the graviton's spin 2 --- such limiting form unifies the soft- and Regge- regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter $b$-space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on $\\hbar/R \\sim M_P^2/E \\ll M_P$, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one na\\"ively expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering correction...

  11. Evaluating Multicore Algorithms on the Unified Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Savage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges to achieving good performance on multicore architectures is the effective utilization of the underlying memory hierarchy. While this is an issue for single-core architectures, it is a critical problem for multicore chips. In this paper, we formulate the unified multicore model (UMM to help understand the fundamental limits on cache performance on these architectures. The UMM seamlessly handles different types of multiple-core processors with varying degrees of cache sharing at different levels. We demonstrate that our model can be used to study a variety of multicore architectures on a variety of applications. In particular, we use it to analyze an option pricing problem using the trinomial model and develop an algorithm for it that has near-optimal memory traffic between cache levels. We have implemented the algorithm on a two Quad-Core Intel Xeon 5310 1.6 GHz processors (8 cores. It achieves a peak performance of 19.5 GFLOPs, which is 38% of the theoretical peak of the multicore system. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms compiler-optimized and auto-parallelized code by a factor of up to 7.5.

  12. Superforce the search for a grand unified theory of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Many scientists believe we are on the verge of a "Theory of Everything" - a complete unification of all the fundamental forces and particles of nature. In this book, the physicist and author Paul Davies gives an account of the quest for a superforce that will explain how the physical universe is put together. The book describes the bewildering array of subatomic particles that have been discovered in recent years, and shows how their properties form abstract patterns and mathematical symmetries, hinting at deep linkages. It explains how the forces that act between these particles may require the existence of unseen extra dimensions of space, and why the latest bizarre theory suggests that the basic entities out of which all matter is built may not be particles at all, but strings. Aimed at the general reader, this account shows that a unified theory may be within our grasp, and that a single superforce may acmcount not only for the nature of matter, but even for the manner in which the universe came into exis...

  13. An interdimensional correlation framework for real-time estimation of six degree of freedom target motion using a single x-ray imager during radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Bertholet, J.; Kim, J.-H.; O'Brien, R.; Booth, J. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Keall, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intrafraction tumour motion monitoring needs to include both 3D translations and 3D rotations. Presently, methods to estimate the rotation motion require the 3D translation of the target to be known first. However, ideally, translation and rotation should be estimated concurrently. We present the first method to directly estimate six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) motion from the target’s projection on a single rotating x-ray imager in real-time. This novel method is based on the linear correlations between the superior-inferior translations and the motion in the other five degrees-of-freedom. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in silico with 81 liver tumour motion traces from 19 patients with three implanted markers. The ground-truth motion was estimated using the current gold standard method where each marker’s 3D position was first estimated using a Gaussian probability method, and the 6DoF motion was then estimated from the 3D positions using an iterative method. The 3D position of each marker was projected onto a gantry-mounted imager with an imaging rate of 11 Hz. After an initial 110° gantry rotation (200 images), a correlation model between the superior-inferior translations and the five other DoFs was built using a least square method. The correlation model was then updated after each subsequent frame to estimate 6DoF motion in real-time. The proposed algorithm had an accuracy (±precision) of  -0.03  ±  0.32 mm, -0.01  ±  0.13 mm and 0.03  ±  0.52 mm for translations in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions respectively; and, 0.07  ±  1.18°, 0.07  ±  1.00° and 0.06  ±  1.32° for rotations around the LR, SI and AP axes respectively on the dataset. The first method to directly estimate real-time 6DoF target motion from segmented marker positions on a 2D imager was devised. The algorithm was evaluated using 81

  14. Unified Tractable Model for Large-Scale Networks Using Stochastic Geometry: Analysis and Design

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-12-01

    The ever-growing demands for wireless technologies necessitate the evolution of next generation wireless networks that fulfill the diverse wireless users requirements. However, upscaling existing wireless networks implies upscaling an intrinsic component in the wireless domain; the aggregate network interference. Being the main performance limiting factor, it becomes crucial to develop a rigorous analytical framework to accurately characterize the out-of-cell interference, to reap the benefits of emerging networks. Due to the different network setups and key performance indicators, it is essential to conduct a comprehensive study that unifies the various network configurations together with the different tangible performance metrics. In that regard, the focus of this thesis is to present a unified mathematical paradigm, based on Stochastic Geometry, for large-scale networks with different antenna/network configurations. By exploiting such a unified study, we propose an efficient automated network design strategy to satisfy the desired network objectives. First, this thesis studies the exact aggregate network interference characterization, by accounting for each of the interferers signals in the large-scale network. Second, we show that the information about the interferers symbols can be approximated via the Gaussian signaling approach. The developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for uplink and downlink cellular networks literature. It aligns the tangible decoding error probability analysis with the abstract outage probability and ergodic rate analysis. Furthermore, it unifies the analysis for different antenna configurations, i.e., various multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Accordingly, we propose a novel reliable network design strategy that is capable of appropriately adjusting the network parameters to meet desired design criteria. In addition, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoffs imposed by differently favored

  15. Making Learning Personally Meaningful: A New Framework for Relevance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    Personal relevance goes by many names in the motivation literature, stemming from a number of theoretical frameworks. Currently these lines of research are being conducted in parallel with little synthesis across them, perhaps because there is no unifying definition of the relevance construct within which this research can be situated. In this…

  16. A Modeling Framework for Schedulability Analysis of Distributed Avionics Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Pujie; Zhai, Zhengjun; Nielsen, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework for schedulability analysis of distributed integrated modular avionics (DIMA) systems that consist of spatially distributed ARINC-653 modules connected by a unified AFDX network. We model a DIMA system as a set of stopwatch automata (SWA) in UPPAAL...

  17. Teaching Introductory Business Statistics Using the DCOVA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David M.; Stephan, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Introductory business statistics students often receive little guidance on how to apply the methods they learn to further business objectives they may one day face. And those students may fail to see the continuity among the topics taught in an introductory course if they learn those methods outside a context that provides a unifying framework.…

  18. A Unifying model of perfusion and motion applied to reconstruction of sparsely sampled free-breathing myocardial perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The clinical potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents a unifying model of perfusion and motion in which respiratory motion becomes an integral part of myocardial perfusion...... quantification. Hence, the need for tedious manual motion correction prior to perfusion quantification is avoided. In addition, we demonstrate that the proposed framework facilitates the process of reconstructing DCEMRI from sparsely sampled data in the presence of respiratory motion. The paper focuses primarily...... on the underlying theory of the proposed framework, but shows in vivo results of respiratory motion correction and simulation results of reconstructing sparsely sampled data....

  19. An integrative model of auditory phantom perception: tinnitus as a unified percept of interacting separable subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Weisz, Nathan; Londero, Alain; Schlee, Winnie; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Langguth, Berthold

    2014-07-01

    Tinnitus is a considered to be an auditory phantom phenomenon, a persistent conscious percept of a salient memory trace, externally attributed, in the absence of a sound source. It is perceived as a phenomenological unified coherent percept, binding multiple separable clinical characteristics, such as its loudness, the sidedness, the type (pure tone, noise), the associated distress and so on. A theoretical pathophysiological framework capable of explaining all these aspects in one model is highly needed. The model must incorporate both the deafferentation based neurophysiological models and the dysfunctional noise canceling model, and propose a 'tinnitus core' subnetwork. The tinnitus core can be defined as the minimal set of brain areas that needs to be jointly activated (=subnetwork) for tinnitus to be consciously perceived, devoid of its affective components. The brain areas involved in the other separable characteristics of tinnitus can be retrieved by studies on spontaneous resting state magnetic and electrical activity in people with tinnitus, evaluated for the specific aspect investigated and controlled for other factors. By combining these functional imaging studies with neuromodulation techniques some of the correlations are turned into causal relationships. Thereof, a heuristic pathophysiological framework is constructed, integrating the tinnitus perceptual core with the other tinnitus related aspects. This phenomenological unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple, parallel, dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature. Communication between these different subnetworks is proposed to occur at hubs, brain areas that are involved in multiple subnetworks simultaneously. These hubs can take part in each separable subnetwork at different frequencies. Communication between the subnetworks is proposed to occur at

  20. Seismic analysis of long tunnels: A review of simplified and unified methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismic analysis of long tunnels is important for safety evaluation of the tunnel structure during earthquakes. Simplified models of long tunnels are commonly adopted in seismic design by practitioners, in which the tunnel is usually assumed as a beam supported by the ground. These models can be conveniently used to obtain the overall response of the tunnel structure subjected to seismic loading. However, simplified methods are limited due to the assumptions that need to be made to reach the solution, e.g. shield tunnels are assembled with segments and bolts to form a lining ring and such structural details may not be included in the simplified model. In most cases, the design will require a numerical method that does not have the shortcomings of the analytical solutions, as it can consider the structural details, non-linear behavior, etc. Furthermore, long tunnels have significant length and pass through different strata. All of these would require large-scale seismic analysis of long tunnels with three-dimensional models, which is difficult due to the lack of available computing power. This paper introduces two types of methods for seismic analysis of long tunnels, namely simplified and unified methods. Several models, including the mass-spring-beam model, and the beam-spring model and its analytical solution are presented as examples of the simplified method. The unified method is based on a multiscale framework for long tunnels, with coarse and refined finite element meshes, or with the discrete element method and the finite difference method to compute the overall seismic response of the tunnel while including detailed dynamic response at positions of potential damage or of interest. A bridging scale term is introduced in the framework so that compatibility of dynamic behavior between the macro- and meso-scale subdomains is enforced. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the simplified and the unified methods.

  1. Graph-based stochastic control with constraints: A unified approach with perfect and imperfect measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of stochastic optimal control (possibly with imperfect measurements) in the presence of constraints. We propose a computationally tractable framework to address this problem. The method lends itself to sampling-based methods where we construct a graph in the state space of the problem, on which a Dynamic Programming (DP) is solved and a closed-loop feedback policy is computed. The constraints are seamlessly incorporated to the control policy selection by including their effect on the transition probabilities of the graph edges. We present a unified framework that is applicable both in the state space (with perfect measurements) and in the information space (with imperfect measurements).

  2. Pragmatic Information as a Unifying Biological Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a developed reading of Roederer’s interpretation of pragmatic information as a good candidate for a Unifying Information Concept required for an as-yet-unavailable Science of Information. According to pragmatic information, information and information processing are exclusive attributes of biological systems related to the very definition of life. I will apply the notion to give new accounts in the following areas: (1 quantum interpretation: based on a modified version of David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics, I propose an ontological, information-based interpretation of quantum mechanics which, unlike Roederer’s interpretation, satisfies all conditions of pragmatic information; (2 artificial intelligence: the notion successfully distinguishes natural living systems from artifacts and natural non-living systems, providing a context to pose an information-based argument against the thesis of Strong Artificial Intelligence; (3 phenomenal consciousness: I will use pragmatic information to modify and update Chalmers’s Double-aspect Theory of Information to be explanatorily more powerful regarding the physical aspect of his theory; (4 causation: based on pragmatic information, I pose a new account of causation which differentiates causation in biology from causation in natural abiotic world.

  3. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic-scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are "random environment" settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic-scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark's law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)-in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes-and present "randomized counterparts" to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  4. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Link R. Swanson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function.

  5. Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.

  6. Constraints on grand unified superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Lopez, J.L.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Advanced Research Center

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate some constraints on the construction of grand unified superstring theories (GUSTs) using higher level Kac-Moody algebras on the world-sheet. In the most general formulation of the heterotic string in four dimensions, an analysis of the basic GUST model-building constraints, including a realistic hidden gauge group, reveals that there are no E 6 models and any SO(10) models can only exist at level-5. Also, any such SU(5) models can exist only for levels 4≤k≤19. These SO(10) and SU(5) models risk having many large, massless, phenomenologically troublesome representations. We also show that with a suitable hidden sector gauge group, it is possible to avoid free light fractionally charged particles, which are endemic to string derived models. We list all such groups and their representations for the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model. We conclude that a sufficiently binding hidden sector gauge group becomes a basic model-building constraint. (orig.)

  7. A Unified Model for Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Roth, Nathaniel; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Miller, M. Coleman

    2018-06-01

    In the past few years wide-field optical and UV transient surveys and X-ray telescopes have allowed us to identify a few dozen candidate tidal disruption events (TDEs). While in theory the physical processes in TDEs are ubiquitous, a few distinct classes of TDEs have been observed. Some TDEs radiate mainly in NUV/optical, while others produce prominent X-rays. Moreover, relativistic jets have been observed in only a handful of TDEs. This diversity might be related to the details of the super-Eddington accretion and emission physics relevant to TDE disks. In this Letter, we utilize novel three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations to study the super-Eddington compact disk phase expected in TDEs. Consistent with previous studies, geometrically thick disks, wide-angle optically thick fast outflows, and relativistic jets are produced. The outflow density and velocity depend sensitively on the inclination angle, and hence so does the reprocessing of emission produced from the inner disk. We then use Monte Carlo radiative transfer to calculate the reprocessed spectra and find that that the observed ratio of optical to X-ray fluxes increases with increasing inclination angle. This naturally leads to a unified model for different classes of TDEs in which the spectral properties of the TDE depend mainly on the viewing angle of the observer with respect to the orientation of the disk.

  8. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2018-01-01

    How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function. PMID:29568270

  9. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  10. Fermion Masses and Mixing in SUSY Grand Unified Gauge Models with Extended Gut Gauge Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chih-Lung

    2005-04-05

    The authors discuss a class of supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified gauge (GUT) models based on the GUT symmetry G x G or G x G x G, where G denotes the GUT group that has the Standard Model symmetry (SU(3){sub c} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}) embedded as a subgroup. As motivated from string theory, these models are constructed without introducing any Higgs field of rani two or higher. Thus all the Higgs fields are in the fundamental representations of the extended GUT symmetry or, when G = SO(10), in the spinorial representation. These Higgs fields, when acquiring their vacuum expectation values, would break the extended GUT symmetry down to the Standard Model symmetry. In this dissertation, they argue that the features required of unified models, such as the Higgs doublet-triplet splitting, proton stability, and the hierarchy of fermion masses and mixing angles, could have natural explanations in the framework of the extended SUSY GUTs. Furthermore, they argue that the frameworks used previously to construct SO(10) GUT models using adjoint Higgs fields can naturally arise from the SO(10) x SO(10) and SO(10) x SO(10) x SO(10) models by integrating out heavy fermions. This observation thus suggests that the traditional SUSY GUT SO(10) theories can be viewed as the low energy effective theories generated by breaking the extended GUT symmetry down to the SO(10) symmetry.

  11. A Unified Account of Perceptual Layering and Surface Appearance in Terms of Gamut Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world—or a graphical depiction of the world—we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance—based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity—that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications. PMID:25402466

  12. Unified pH values of liquid chromatography mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu, Agnes; Jalukse, Lauri; Liigand, Jaanus; Kruve, Anneli; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo; Rosés, Martí; Leito, Ivo

    2015-03-03

    This work introduces a conceptually new approach of measuring pH of mixed-solvent liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phases. Mobile phase pH is very important in LC, but its correct measurement is not straightforward, and all commonly used approaches have deficiencies. The new approach is based on the recently introduced unified pH (pH(abs)) scale, which enables direct comparison of acidities of solutions made in different solvents based on chemical potential of the proton in the solutions. This work represents the first experimental realization of the pH(abs) concept using differential potentiometric measurement for comparison of the chemical potentials of the proton in different solutions (connected by a salt bridge), together with earlier published reference points for obtaining the pH(abs) values (referenced to the gas phase) or pH(abs)(H₂O) values (referenced to the aqueous solution). The liquid junction potentials were estimated in the framework of Izutsu's three-component method. pH(abs) values for a number of common LC and LC-MS mobile phases have been determined. The pH(abs) scale enables for the first time direct comparison of acidities of any LC mobile phases, with different organic additives, different buffer components, etc. A possible experimental protocol of putting this new approach into chromatographic practice has been envisaged and its applicability tested. It has been demonstrated that the ionization behavior of bases (cationic acids) in the mobile phases can be better predicted by using the pH(abs)(H₂O) values and aqueous pKa values than by using the alternative means of expressing mobile phase acidity. Description of the ionization behavior of acids on the basis of pH(abs)(H₂O) values is possible if the change of their pKa values with solvent composition change is taken into account.

  13. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    regime. An energy management system was developed in order to manage performance limits (namely power required) to promote carefree maneuvering and alleviate pilot workload. This system features limits on pilot commands and has additional logic for preserving control margins and limiting maximum speed in a dive. Nonlinear dynamic inversion (NLDI) is the framework of the unified controller, which incorporates primary and redundant controls. The inner loop of the NLDI controller regulates bank angle, pitch attitude, and yaw rate, while the outer loop command structure is varied (three modes). One version uses an outer loop that commands velocities in the longitudinal and vertical axes (velocity mode), another commands longitudinal acceleration and vertical speed (acceleration mode), and the third commands longitudinal acceleration and transitions from velocity to acceleration command in the vertical axis (aerobatic mode). The flight envelope is discretized into low, cruise, and high speed flight regimes. The unified outer loop primary control effectors for the longitudinal and vertical axes (collective pitch, pitch attitude, and propeller pitch) vary depending on flight regime. A weighted pseudoinverse is used to phase either the collective or propeller pitch in/out of a redundant control role. The controllers were evaluated in Penn State's Rotorcraft Flight Simulator retaining the cyclic stick for vertical and lateral axis control along with pedal inceptors for yaw axis control. A throttle inceptor was used in place of the pilot's traditional left hand inceptor for longitudinal axis control. Ultimately, a simple rigid body model of the aircraft was sufficient enough to design a controller with favorable performance and stability characteristics. This unified flight control system promoted a low enough pilot workload so that an untrained pilot (the author) was able to pilot maneuvers of varying complexity with ease. The framework of this unified system is generalized

  14. Supply chain management: a framework of understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Toit, Deirdre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of supply chain management (SCM is complex to understand because it encompasses many different flows of activities, components, functions, and role-players. The literature is scattered across multiple functions, varies in scope, and is often confined to certain elements within SCM. This article aims to provide a literature overview of SCM. It is explained with the aid of a newly-developed framework of understanding that offers a graphical representation of the term. It unifies and condenses different components within SCM and shows the relationship between them. The framework was developed by identifying the main themes in the definitions for SCM, examining existing categorisations and frameworks in SCM, and analysing frameworks in other disciplines. The outcome of this article can be used as a guide to explain and orientate researchers and practitioners in the field.

  15. Evolutionary game theory meets social science: is there a unifying rule for human cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2010-05-21

    Evolutionary game theory has shown that human cooperation thrives in different types of social interactions with a PD structure. Models treat the cooperative strategies within the different frameworks as discrete entities and sometimes even as contenders. Whereas strong reciprocity was acclaimed as superior to classic reciprocity for its ability to defeat defectors in public goods games, recent experiments and simulations show that costly punishment fails to promote cooperation in the IR and DR games, where classic reciprocity succeeds. My aim is to show that cooperative strategies across frameworks are capable of a unified treatment, for they are governed by a common underlying rule or norm. An analysis of the reputation and action rules that govern some representative cooperative strategies both in models and in economic experiments confirms that the different frameworks share a conditional action rule and several reputation rules. The common conditional rule contains an option between costly punishment and withholding benefits that provides alternative enforcement methods against defectors. Depending on the framework, individuals can switch to the appropriate strategy and method of enforcement. The stability of human cooperation looks more promising if one mechanism controls successful strategies across frameworks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Measuring and predicting sooting tendencies of oxygenates, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics on a unified scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Dhrubajyoti D.; St. John, Peter C.; McEnally, Charles S.; Kim, Seonah; Pfefferle, Lisa D.

    2018-04-01

    Databases of sooting indices, based on measuring some aspect of sooting behavior in a standardized combustion environment, are useful in providing information on the comparative sooting tendencies of different fuels or pure compounds. However, newer biofuels have varied chemical structures including both aromatic and oxygenated functional groups, which expands the chemical space of relevant compounds. In this work, we propose a unified sooting tendency database for pure compounds, including both regular and oxygenated hydrocarbons, which is based on combining two disparate databases of yield-based sooting tendency measurements in the literature. Unification of the different databases was made possible by leveraging the greater dynamic range of the color ratio pyrometry soot diagnostic. This unified database contains a substantial number of pure compounds (greater than or equal to 400 total) from multiple categories of hydrocarbons important in modern fuels and establishes the sooting tendencies of aromatic and oxygenated hydrocarbons on the same numeric scale for the first time. Using this unified sooting tendency database, we have developed a predictive model for sooting behavior applicable to a broad range of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The model decomposes each compound into single-carbon fragments and assigns a sooting tendency contribution to each fragment based on regression against the unified database. The model's predictive accuracy (as demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation) is comparable to a previously developed, more detailed predictive model. The fitted model provides insight into the effects of chemical structure on soot formation, and cases where its predictions fail reveal the presence of more complicated kinetic sooting mechanisms. This work will therefore enable the rational design of low-sooting fuel blends from a wide range of feedstocks and chemical functionalities.

  17. Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS) will extend the prototype Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences...

  18. The Relationship Between Unified Communications and Big Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Big data, Unified Communications, Big Data. Analytics ... sensors through a phenomenon referred to as Internet of. Things (IoT). ... warehouse which utilized when dealing with large quantities of unstructured data.

  19. Constructing 5d orbifold grand unified theories from heterotic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Raby, Stuart; Zhang Renjie

    2004-01-01

    A three-generation Pati-Salam model is constructed by compactifying the heterotic string on a particular T 6 /Z 6 Abelian symmetric orbifold with two discrete Wilson lines. The compactified space is taken to be the Lie algebra lattice G 2 -bar SU(3)-bar SO(4). When one dimension of the SO(4) lattice is large compared to the string scale, this model reproduces many features of a 5d SO(10) grand unified theory compactified on an S 1 /Z 2 orbifold. (Of course, with two large extra dimensions we can obtain a 6d SO(10) grand unified theory.) We identify the orbifold parities and other ingredients of the orbifold grand unified theories in the string model. Our construction provides a UV completion of orbifold grand unified theories, and gives new insights into both field theoretical and string theoretical constructions

  20. On unified-entropy characterization of quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, A E

    2012-01-01

    We consider properties of quantum channels with the use of unified entropies. Extremal unravelings of quantum channel with respect to these entropies are examined. The concept of map entropy is extended in terms of the unified entropies. The map (q, s)-entropy is naturally defined as the unified (q, s)-entropy of a rescaled dynamical matrix of given quantum channel. Inequalities of Fannes type are obtained for introduced entropies in terms of both the trace and Frobenius norms of difference between corresponding dynamical matrices. Additivity properties of introduced map entropies are discussed. The known inequality of Lindblad with the entropy exchange is generalized to many of the unified entropies. For the tensor product of a pair of quantum channels, we derive a two-sided estimate on the output entropy of a maximally entangled input state. (paper)