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Sample records for single turnover sto

  1. Single Turnover at Molecular Polymerization Catalysts Reveals Spatiotemporally Resolved Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Quinn T; Blum, Suzanne A

    2017-10-23

    Multiple active individual molecular ruthenium catalysts have been pinpointed within growing polynorbornene, thereby revealing information on the reaction dynamics and location that is unavailable through traditional ensemble experiments. This is the first single-turnover imaging of a molecular catalyst by fluorescence microscopy and allows detection of individual monomer reactions at an industrially important molecular ruthenium ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyst under synthetically relevant conditions (e.g. unmodified industrial catalyst, ambient pressure, condensed phase, ca. 0.03 m monomer). These results further establish the key fundamentals of this imaging technique for characterizing the reactivity and location of active molecular catalysts even when they are the minor components. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. StoRMon: an event log analyzer for Grid Storage Element based on StoRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Dibenedetto, Michele; Ronchieri, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Managing a collaborative production Grid infrastructure requires to identify and handle every issue, which might arise, in a timely manner. Currently, the most complex problem of the data Grid infrastructure relates to the data management because of its distributed nature. To ensure that problems are quickly addressed and solved, each site should contribute to the solution providing any useful information about services that run in its administrative domain. Often Grid sites' administrators to be effective must collect, organize and examine the scattered logs events that are produced from every service and component of the Storage Element. This paper focuses on the problem of gathering the events logs on a Grid Storage Element and describes the design of a new service, called StoRMon. StoRMon will be able to collect, archive, analyze and report on events logs produced by each service of Storage Element during the execution of its tasks. The data and the processed information will be available to the site administrators by using a single contact-point to easily identify security incidents, fraudulent activity, and the operational issues mainly. The new service is applied to a Grid Storage Element characterized by StoRM, GridFTP and YAMSS, and collects the usage data of StoRM, transferring and hierarchical storage services.

  3. Quantifying the Electrocatalytic Turnover of Vitamin B12-Mediated Dehalogenation on Single Soft Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Compton, Richard G

    2016-02-12

    We report the electrocatalytic dehalogenation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by single soft nanoparticles in the form of Vitamin B12 -containing droplets. We quantify the turnover number of the catalytic reaction at the single soft nanoparticle level. The kinetic data shows that the binding of TCE with the electro-reduced vitamin in the Co(I) oxidation state is chemically reversible. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  5. The StoRM Certification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Dibenedetto, Michele; Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Traldi, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    StoRM is an implementation of the SRM interface version 2.2 used by all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments and non-LHC experiments as SRM endpoint at different Tiers of Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The complexity of its services and the demand of experiments and users are increasing day by day. The growing needs in terms of service level by the StoRM users communities make it necessary to design and implement a more effective testing procedure to quickly and reliably validate new StoRM candidate releases both in code side (for example via test units, and schema valuator) and in final product software (for example via functionality tests, and stress tests). Testing software service is a very critical quality activity performed in a very ad-hoc informal manner by developers, testers and users of StoRM up to now. In this paper, we describe the certification mechanism used by StoRM team to increase the robustness and reliability of the StoRM services. Various typologies of tests, such as quality, installation, configuration, functionality, stress and performance, defined on the base of a set of use cases gathered as consequence of the collaboration among the StoRM team, experiments and users, are illustrated. Each typology of test is either increased or decreased easily from time to time. The proposed mechanism is based on a new configurable testsuite. This is executed by the certification team, who is responsible for validating the release candidate package as well as bug fix (or patch) package, given a certain testbed that considers all possible use cases. In correspondence of each failure, the package is given back to developers waiting for validating a new package.

  6. Need. for Sto.ndo.rdizo.tion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1969-05-13

    Need. for Sto.ndo.rdizo.tion. Speech delivered at a dinner given by the Ethiopian Association of Engineers and. Architects on May 13, 1969. By Lars Wallden, UN adviser on standardization, Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Tourism and. Gebre Kiros Habtu, mechanical engineer, Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Tourism.

  7. Processing and Distribution of STO2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul

    We propose in this ADAP to reduce the data obtained in the December 2016 flight of the STO2 Antarctic Balloon observatory. In just over 20 days of taking data, STO2 observed over 2.5 square degrees of the inner Milky Way in the 1900 GHz (158 m) fine structure line of ionized carbon ([CII]). This includes over 320,000 spectra with velocity resolution of 0.16 km/s and angular resolution 1 . In common with the higher bands of the Herschel HIFI instrument that also employed hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers, there are significant baseline issues with the data that make reduction a significant challenge. Due to the year’s postponement of STO2 launch due to weather in 2015/16 season, funds for data analysis were largely redirected to support the team who enabled the successful launch and flight. A supplementary focused effort is thus needed to make STO2 data readily usable by the astronomical community, which is what we propose here. This ADAP will be a two-year program, including the following steps:: (1) Refine and optimize algorithms for excision of bad channels, correction for receiver gain changes, removal of variable bad baselines, final baseline adjustment, and verification of calibration. (2) Develop and integrated pipeline incorporating the optimized algorithms; process entire STO2 data set using the pipeline, and make an initial release of the data (DR1) to the public. (3) Refine data calibration including ancillary data sets coincident with the STO2 fields, make the data VO-compliant. (4) Write documentation for the pipeline and publish in appropriate journal; release final second data release (DR2) to the public, and hand off to permanent data repositories the NASA/IPAC IRSA database and the Harvard University Dataverse, and Cyverse, led by the University of Arizona. Members of the STO2 data reduction team have extensive experience with HIFI data, and particularly with the HEB fine structure spectra. We are thus confident that we can build on this

  8. Spatially resolved observation of crystal-face-dependent catalysis by single turnover counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Sels, Bert F.; Uji-I, Hiroshi; de Schryver, Frans C.; Jacobs, Pierre A.; de Vos, Dirk E.; Hofkens, Johan

    2006-02-01

    Catalytic processes on surfaces have long been studied by probing model reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces under high vacuum conditions. Yet the vast majority of industrial heterogeneous catalysis occurs at ambient or elevated pressures using complex materials with crystal faces, edges and defects differing in their catalytic activity. Clearly, if new or improved catalysts are to be rationally designed, we require quantitative correlations between surface features and catalytic activity-ideally obtained under realistic reaction conditions. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy have allowed in situ characterization of catalyst surfaces with atomic resolution, but are limited by the need for low-pressure conditions and conductive surfaces, respectively. Sum frequency generation spectroscopy can identify vibrations of adsorbed reactants and products in both gaseous and condensed phases, but so far lacks sensitivity down to the single molecule level. Here we adapt real-time monitoring of the chemical transformation of individual organic molecules by fluorescence microscopy to monitor reactions catalysed by crystals of a layered double hydroxide immersed in reagent solution. By using a wide field microscope, we are able to map the spatial distribution of catalytic activity over the entire crystal by counting single turnover events. We find that ester hydrolysis proceeds on the lateral {1010} crystal faces, while transesterification occurs on the entire outer crystal surface. Because the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure and in a condensed phase, it can be applied to the growing number of liquid-phase industrial organic transformations to localize catalytic activity on and in inorganic solids. An exciting opportunity is the use of probe molecules with different size and functionality, which should provide insight into shape-selective or structure-sensitive catalysis and thus help with the rational design of new or

  9. Robotic Technologies for the Future Force - The ART STO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaster, Jeffrey F

    2005-01-01

    .... The US Army's ARV Robotic Technologies (ART) Science and Technology Objective (STO) will develop a surrogate platform that will be used as a technology demonstrator for such robotic technologies...

  10. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction pattern in chloroplasts upon repetitive single turnover excitations: Accumulation and function of QB-nonreducing centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Kasalicky, V.; Durchan, M.; Prasil, O.

    2006-01-01

    The increase of chlorophyll fluorescence yield in chloroplasts in a 12.5 Hz train of saturating single turnover flashes and the kinetics of fluorescence yield decay after the last flash have been analyzed. The approximate twofold increase in Fm relative to Fo, reached after 30-40 flashes, is

  11. Morphodynamic Modeling Using The SToRM Computational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.

    2016-12-01

    The framework of the work presented here is the open source SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) eco-hydraulics modeling system, which is one of the models released with the iRIC hydraulic modeling graphical software package (http://i-ric.org/). SToRM has been applied to the simulation of various complex environmental problems, including natural waterways, steep channels with regime transition, and rapidly varying flood flows with wetting and drying fronts. In its previous version, however, channel bed was treated as static and the ability of simulating sediment transport rates or bed deformation was not included. The work presented here reports SToRM's newly developed extensions to expand the system's capability to calculate morphological changes in alluvial river systems. The sediment transport module of SToRM has been developed based on the general recognition that meaningful advances depend on physically solid formulations and robust and accurate numerical solution methods. The basic concepts of mass and momentum conservation are used, where the feedback mechanisms between the flow of water, the sediment in transport, and the bed changes are directly incorporated in the governing equations used in the mathematical model. This is accomplished via a non-capacity transport formulation based on the work of Cao et al. [Z. Cao et al., "Non-capacity or capacity model for fluvial sediment transport," Water Management, 165(WM4):193-211, 2012], where the governing equations are augmented with source/sink terms due to water-sediment interaction. The same unsteady, shock-capturing numerical schemes originally used in SToRM were adapted to the new physics, using a control volume formulation over unstructured computational grids. The presentation will include a brief overview of these methodologies, and the result of applications of the model to a number of relevant physical test cases with movable bed, where computational results are compared to experimental data.

  12. Heterogeneous Single-Atom Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven High-Turnover CO2 Reduction: The Role of Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Chen, Shuangming; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jiawen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Zhang, Wenkai; Xiong, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    Visible-light-driven conversion of CO 2 into chemical fuels is an intriguing approach to address the energy and environmental challenges. In principle, light harvesting and catalytic reactions can be both optimized by combining the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts; however, the efficiency of charge transfer between light absorbers and catalytic sites is often too low to limit the overall photocatalytic performance. In this communication, it is reported that the single-atom Co sites coordinated on the partially oxidized graphene nanosheets can serve as a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 conversion, wherein the graphene bridges homogeneous light absorbers with single-atom catalytic sites for the efficient transfer of photoexcited electrons. As a result, the turnover number for CO production reaches a high value of 678 with an unprecedented turnover frequency of 3.77 min -1 , superior to those obtained with the state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalysts. This work provides fresh insights into the design of catalytic sites toward photocatalytic CO 2 conversion from the angle of single-atom catalysis and highlights the role of charge kinetics in bridging the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Turnover Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  14. Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posth, Cosimo; Renaud, Gabriel; Mittnik, Alissa; Drucker, Dorothée G; Rougier, Hélène; Cupillard, Christophe; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Furtwängler, Anja; Wißing, Christoph; Francken, Michael; Malina, Maria; Bolus, Michael; Lari, Martina; Gigli, Elena; Capecchi, Giulia; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Flas, Damien; Germonpré, Mietje; van der Plicht, Johannes; Cottiaux, Richard; Gély, Bernard; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigourescu, Dan; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Bocherens, Hervé; Harvati, Katerina; Conard, Nicholas J; Haak, Wolfgang; Powell, Adam; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [1, 2]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across

  15. StoThermSolar - possible applications and practical experience with transparent thermal insulation compound systems; StoThermSolar - Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten und praktische Erfahrungen mit transparenten Waermedaemmverbundsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwerger, M. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Sto AG has the motto `building conscientiously`. Consciousness of the environment acts as ethic for the firm. About 2000 employees develop, produce and market environmentally suitable product systems for facades, internal walls, ceilings and floors. They extend from paint and plaster, thermal insulation compound systems, concrete repair and acoustic systems to decorative profiles of old glass. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] `Bewusst Bauen` heisst das Leitwort der Sto AG. Umweltbewusstsein als Unternehmensethik. Rund 2000 Mitarbeiter entwickeln, produzieren und vermarkten umweltgerechte Produktsysteme fuer Fassade, Innenwand, Decke und Boden. Von Farben und Putzen, Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Betoninstandsetzungs- oder Akustiksystemen bis zu Deco-Profilen aus Altglas. (orig./HW)

  16. Turnover among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ben D

    2009-01-01

    Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.

  17. General Methods for Analysis of Sequential “n-step” Kinetic Mechanisms: Application to Single Turnover Kinetics of Helicase-Catalyzed DNA Unwinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Aaron L.; Maluf, Nasib K.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2003-01-01

    Helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding is often studied using “all or none” assays that detect only the final product of fully unwound DNA. Even using these assays, quantitative analysis of DNA unwinding time courses for DNA duplexes of different lengths, L, using “n-step” sequential mechanisms, can reveal information about the number of intermediates in the unwinding reaction and the “kinetic step size”, m, defined as the average number of basepairs unwound between two successive rate limiting steps in the unwinding cycle. Simultaneous nonlinear least-squares analysis using “n-step” sequential mechanisms has previously been limited by an inability to float the number of “unwinding steps”, n, and m, in the fitting algorithm. Here we discuss the behavior of single turnover DNA unwinding time courses and describe novel methods for nonlinear least-squares analysis that overcome these problems. Analytic expressions for the time courses, fss(t), when obtainable, can be written using gamma and incomplete gamma functions. When analytic expressions are not obtainable, the numerical solution of the inverse Laplace transform can be used to obtain fss(t). Both methods allow n and m to be continuous fitting parameters. These approaches are generally applicable to enzymes that translocate along a lattice or require repetition of a series of steps before product formation. PMID:14507688

  18. General methods for analysis of sequential "n-step" kinetic mechanisms: application to single turnover kinetics of helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Aaron L; Maluf, Nasib K; Fischer, Christopher J; Lohman, Timothy M

    2003-10-01

    Helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding is often studied using "all or none" assays that detect only the final product of fully unwound DNA. Even using these assays, quantitative analysis of DNA unwinding time courses for DNA duplexes of different lengths, L, using "n-step" sequential mechanisms, can reveal information about the number of intermediates in the unwinding reaction and the "kinetic step size", m, defined as the average number of basepairs unwound between two successive rate limiting steps in the unwinding cycle. Simultaneous nonlinear least-squares analysis using "n-step" sequential mechanisms has previously been limited by an inability to float the number of "unwinding steps", n, and m, in the fitting algorithm. Here we discuss the behavior of single turnover DNA unwinding time courses and describe novel methods for nonlinear least-squares analysis that overcome these problems. Analytic expressions for the time courses, f(ss)(t), when obtainable, can be written using gamma and incomplete gamma functions. When analytic expressions are not obtainable, the numerical solution of the inverse Laplace transform can be used to obtain f(ss)(t). Both methods allow n and m to be continuous fitting parameters. These approaches are generally applicable to enzymes that translocate along a lattice or require repetition of a series of steps before product formation.

  19. Utjecaj liberalizacije na tržište stočarskih proizvoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Lončarić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulaskom u Svjetsku trgovinsku organizaciju Republika Hrvatska je dokazala spremnost za izazove liberalizacije i globalizacije svjetskoga tržišta. Ovom je koraku prethodilo i potpisivanju drugih značajnih dokumenata za uključenje u europski integracijski proces, kao što je Pakt o stabilizaciji u istočnoj Europi, Sporazum o stabilizaciji i Pridruživanju EU i RH, službeno priključenje CEFTA-i, te službena prijava za članstvo u EU, koji na provođenje određenih reformi i prilagodbu u političkome, gospodarskom i pravnom smislu. Kako se hrvatska poljoprivreda, pogotovo grana stočarstva, od osamostaljenja i prihvaćanja tržišnog sustava gospodarenja, nalazi u velikoj krizi, u radu se analizira položaj stočarstva s obzirom na uvjete proizvodnje i brojno stanje stoke, tržište stočarskih proizvoda uz pomoć dinamičke raščlambe sustava proizvodnje stočarskih proizvoda, te se daju prognoze na koji će se način odvijati adaptacija stočarstva u uvjetima EU s obzirom na konkurentnost naših stočarskih proizvoda u europskom okruženju tes obzirom na liberalizacijske obveze. Rezultati analizirani u radu pokazuju kako je hrvatska proizvodnja i tržište stočarskih proizvoda u dubokoj krizi, te da bi bilo potrebno poduzeti niz tržišno-cjenovnih mjera agrarne politike koje bi uredilo navedeno tržište s obzirom na obveze i pravila o liberalizaciji trgovine unutar europskog tržišta.

  20. Cell turnover in the odontogenic organ of the rat incisor as visualized by graphic reconstructions following a single injection of 3H-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E

    1980-07-01

    Turnover of cells within the odontogenic organ was studied in three dimensions by preparing serial sections of incisors from young male rats killed at various times following a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi/g body weight of 3H-thymidine. Radioautographs showed that at 1 hour after injection labeled cells were present in all cell layers throughout the entire depth of the odontogenic organ. They were encountered frequently within the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium but appeared less abundant within the stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium. With time, the frequency of labeled cells in each layer declined progressively, and more rapidly at the anterior and labial side of the odontogenic organ than toward its posterior and lingual side. Hence labeled cells were observed over the longest time interval in regions where cell layers were in closest proximity to the opening of the apical foramen, that is, near the apical and cervical loops. By 32 days after injection, numerous labeled cells could still be identified within the outer dental epithelium and stellate reticulum near the apical loop (bulbous part of the odontogenic organ) and the outer dental epithelium near the cervical loops ("U"-shaped part of the odontogenic organ). These findings support the hypothesis that cells originate within the bulbous part of the odontogenic organ and migrate anteriorly through the "U"-shaped and root sheath parts of the odontogenic organ during renewal of the incisor. It appears that individual stem cell compartments may be maintained for surface (outer/inner dental epithelium) and intermediate layers (stellate reticulum/stratum intermedium) in the odontogenic epithelium.

  1. Single turnover studies of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by horseradish peroxidase reveal a mechanism involving two consecutive one electron steps: toward a functional halophenol bioremediation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Suganya; Sono, Masanori; Raner, Gregory M; Dawson, John H

    2012-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the oxidative para-dechlorination of the environmental pollutant/carcinogen 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). A possible mechanism for this reaction is a direct oxygen atom transfer from HRP compound I (HRP I) to trichlorophenol to generate 2,6-dichloro 1,4-benzoquinone, a two-electron transfer process. An alternative mechanism involves two consecutive one-electron transfer steps in which HRP I is reduced to compound II (HRP II) and then to the ferric enzyme as first proposed by Wiese et al. [F.W. Wiese, H.C. Chang, R.V. Lloyd, J.P. Freeman, V.M. Samokyszyn, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34 (1998) 217-222]. To probe the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation, the reactions between 2,4,6-TCP and HRP compounds I or II have been investigated under single turnover conditions (i.e., without excess H(2)O(2)) using rapid scan stopped-flow spectroscopy. Addition of 2,4,6-TCP to HRP I leads rapidly to HRP II and then more slowly to the ferric resting state, consistent with a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron oxidations of the substrate via a phenoxy radical intermediate. HRP II can also directly dechlorinate 2,4,6-TCP as judged by rapid scan stopped-flow and mass spectrometry. This observation is particularly significant since HRP II can only carry out one-electron oxidations. A more detailed understanding of the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation will facilitate the use of HRP as a halophenol bioremediation catalyst. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Synthetic Single-Site Fe Nitrogenase: High Turnover, Freeze-Quench (57)Fe Mössbauer Data, and a Hydride Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Trevor J; Thompson, Niklas B; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-04-27

    The mechanisms of the few known molecular nitrogen-fixing systems, including nitrogenase enzymes, are of much interest but are not fully understood. We recently reported that Fe-N2 complexes of tetradentate P3(E) ligands (E = B, C) generate catalytic yields of NH3 under an atmosphere of N2 with acid and reductant at low temperatures. Here we show that these Fe catalysts are unexpectedly robust and retain activity after multiple reloadings. Nearly an order of magnitude improvement in yield of NH3 for each Fe catalyst has been realized (up to 64 equiv of NH3 produced per Fe for P3(B) and up to 47 equiv for P3(C)) by increasing acid/reductant loading with highly purified acid. Cyclic voltammetry shows the apparent onset of catalysis at the P3(B)Fe-N2/P3(B)Fe-N2(-) couple and controlled-potential electrolysis of P3(B)Fe(+) at -45 °C demonstrates that electrolytic N2 reduction to NH3 is feasible. Kinetic studies reveal first-order rate dependence on Fe catalyst concentration (P3(B)), consistent with a single-site catalyst model. An isostructural system (P3(Si)) is shown to be appreciably more selective for hydrogen evolution. In situ freeze-quench Mössbauer spectroscopy during turnover reveals an iron-borohydrido-hydride complex as a likely resting state of the P3(B)Fe catalyst system. We postulate that hydrogen-evolving reaction activity may prevent iron hydride formation from poisoning the P3(B)Fe system. This idea may be important to consider in the design of synthetic nitrogenases and may also have broader significance given that intermediate metal hydrides and hydrogen evolution may play a key role in biological nitrogen fixation.

  3. Optical Modulation of BST/STO Thin Films in the Terahertz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shi, Songjie; Zhou, Ling; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-04-01

    The {Ba}_{0.7} {Sr}_{0.3} {TiO}3 (BST) thin film (30.3 nm) deposited on a {SrTiO}3 (STO) film/silicon substrate sample was modulated by 532 nm continuous-wave laser in the range of 0.2-1 THz at room temperature. The refractive index variation was observed to linearly increase at the highest 3.48 for 0.5 THz with the pump power increasing to 400 mW. It was also found that the BST/STO sample had a larger refractive index variation and was more sensitive to the external optical field than a BST monolayer due to the epitaxial strain induced by the STO film. The electric displacement-electric field loops results revealed that the increasing spontaneous polarization with the STO film that was induced was responsible for the larger refractive index variation of the BST/STO sample. In addition, the real and imaginary part of the permittivity were observed increasing along with the external field increasing, due to the soft mode hardening.

  4. Ugniakuras archajinio gyvenamojo būsto struktūroje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Buivydaitė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nagrinėjami nuo seniausių laikų egzistavę archajinio būsto ugniakurai, kurie buvo aptikti dabartinės Lietuvos teritorijoje. Nors ugniakuras žmogaus gyvenamojoje aplinkoje buvo ir tebėra vienas esmingiausių būties komponentų ir būsto struktūros elementas, iki šiol mūsų architektūrologijoje nebuvo specialiai tiriamas. Įvairių nesusistemintų duomenų apie gyvenamojo būsto ugniakurus Lietuvoje yra archeologų, istorikų, mitologų, etnologų moksliniuose darbuose. Negausių ir gana fragmentiškų žinių šia tema esti keliuose architektūros istorijai skirtuose tekstuose. Todėl bandant užpildyti minėtą spragą, parengtas šis straipsnis. Jame aptariamas ankstyviausias būsto ugniakuro istorinės raidos etapas, prasidedantis išvien su stacionaraus būsto statybos pradžia.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  5. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  6. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valerie F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that turnover is a major issue in IT environments (Armstrong & Riemenschneider, 2011; Carayon, Schoepke, Hoonakker, Haims, & Brunette, 2006; Moore, 2000a; Rigas, 2009). In fact, the research literature in IT and the popular press suggest that IT professionals are particularly vulnerable to burnout (Armstrong &…

  7. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  8. First observation of the decays $\\bar{B}^0_{(s)}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\bar{B}^0_s\\to D_{s1}(2536)^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The first observation of the decays $\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\bar{B}^0\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ are reported using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the LHCb experiment. The branching fractions, normalized with respect to $\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$, respectively, are measured to be $\\frac{B(\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)}{B(\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)} = (5.2\\pm0.5\\pm0.3)\\times10^{-2}$, $\\frac{B(\\bar{B}^0\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)}{B(\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)} = 0.54\\pm0.07\\pm0.07$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The $\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay is of particular interest as it can be used to measure the weak phase $\\gamma$. First observation of the $\\bar{B}^0_s\\to D_{s1}(2536)^+\\pi^-$, $D_{s1}^+\\to D_s^+\\pi^-\\pi^+$ decay is also presented, and its branching fraction relative to $\\bar{B}^0_{s}\\to D_s^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ is found to be $\\frac{...

  9. SLB-STO-D ANALYSIS REPORT: MODELING AND SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF FUEL, WATER, AND WASTE REDUCTIONS IN BASE CAMPS: 50, 300, AND 1000 PERSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The report covers work done for the Sustainability Logistics Basing – Science and Technology Objective – Demonstration (SLB-STO-D) 1...intentionally left blank 1 SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS-BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION SLB-STO-D ANALYSIS REPORT MODELING AND...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/023 SLB-STO-D ANALYSIS

  10. Analysis of Distinct Roles of CaMKK Isoforms Using STO-609-Resistant Mutants in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Hiraoka, Yuri; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2015-06-30

    To assess the isoform specificity of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)-mediated signaling pathway using a CaMKK inhibitor (STO-609) in living cells, we have established A549 cell lines expressing STO-609-resistant mutants of CaMKK isoforms. Following serial mutagenesis studies, we have succeeded in obtaining an STO-609-resistant CaMKKα mutant (Ala292Thr/Leu233Phe) and a CaMKKβ mutant (Ala328Thr/Val269Phe), which showed sensitivity to STO-609 that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower without an appreciable effect on kinase activity or CaM requirement. These results are consistent with the results obtained for CaMKK activities in the extracts of A549 cells stably expressing the mutants of CaMKK isoforms. Ionomycin-induced 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172 in A549 cells expressing either the wild-type or the STO-609-resistant mutant of CaMKKα was completely suppressed by STO-609 treatment but resistant to the inhibitor in the presence of the CaMKKβ mutant (Ala328Thr/Val269Phe). This result strongly suggested that CaMKKβ is responsible for ionomycin-induced AMPK activation, which supported previous reports. In contrast, ionomycin-induced CaMKIV phosphorylation at Thr196 was resistant to STO-609 treatment in A549 cells expressing STO-609-resistant mutants of both CaMKK isoforms, indicating that both CaMKK isoforms are capable of phosphorylating and activating CaMKIV in living cells. Considering these results together, STO-609-resistant CaMKK mutants developed in this study may be useful for distinguishing CaMKK isoform-mediated signaling pathways in combination with the use of an inhibitor compound.

  11. Sulfated tin oxide (STO – Structural properties and application in catalysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Varala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis is an important area of chemistry, with an extensive amount of work going on in this area of sciences, toward synthesis and evaluation of newer catalysts. There are many reports for different conversion reactions such as oxidation, reduction, coupling, alkylation, and acylation for which various catalysts have been used such as mixed metal oxides, metal nanoparticles, metal organic complexes and many others. Among the many catalysts reported, the one catalyst that caught our attention due to its exploitation for a plethora of organic conversions is the sulfated tin oxide (STO, which is due to the low cost, greater stability and high efficiency of the catalyst. In this review, we have attempted to compile data about the structural properties of STO, and its applications as catalysts in various organic synthesis are presented. The literature data up to 2014 were collected and considered for the review.

  12. An effective XML based name mapping mechanism within StoRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corso, E; Forti, A; Ghiselli, A; Magnoni, L; Zappi, R

    2008-01-01

    In a Grid environment the naming capability allows users to refer to specific data resources in a physical storage system using a high level logical identifier. This logical identifier is typically organized in a file system like structure, a hierarchical tree of names. Storage Resource Manager (SRM) services map the logical identifier to the physical location of data evaluating a set of parameters as the desired quality of services and the VOMS attributes specified in the requests. StoRM is a SRM service developed by INFN and ICTP-EGRID to manage file and space on standard POSIX and high performing parallel and cluster file systems. An upcoming requirement in the Grid data scenario is the orthogonality of the logical name and the physical location of data, in order to refer, with the same identifier, to different copies of data archived in various storage areas with different quality of service. The mapping mechanism proposed in StoRM is based on a XML document that represents the different storage components managed by the service, the storage areas defined by the site administrator, the quality of service they provide and the Virtual Organization that want to use the storage area. An appropriate directory tree is realized in each storage component reflecting the XML schema. In this scenario StoRM is able to identify the physical location of a requested data evaluating the logical identifier and the specified attributes following the XML schema, without querying any database service. This paper presents the namespace schema defined, the different entities represented and the technical details of the StoRM implementation

  13. Towards the integration of StoRM on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, S; Magnoni, L; Zappi, R [INFN-CNAF, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: sergio.andreozzi@cnaf.infn.it, E-mail: luca.magnoni@cnaf.infn.it, E-mail: riccardo.zappi@cnaf.infn.it

    2008-07-15

    In Grid systems, a core resource being shared among geographically-dispersed communities of users is the storage. For this resource, a standard interface specification (Storage Resource Management or SRM) was defined and is being evolved in the context of the Open Grid Forum. By implementing this interface, all storage resources part of a Grid could be managed in an homogenous fashion. In this work, we consider the extension of StoRM (STOrage Resource Manager, an implementation of SRM v2.2) in order to integrate a new type of storage resource: the Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Amazon S3 is a simple Web services interface offering access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of Web sites. By performing this integration, we offer to the Grid community the capability to manage and access an incredible amount of storage resources freeing them from considering the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they have enough storage available. The characteristics of StoRM are suitable for a smooth integration with Amazon S3. In particular, StoRM is designed to be easily adapted to the underlying storage resource via a plug-in mechanism, therefore a new plugin for integration with the Amazon S3 Web Service will be written. As regards the access policies, StoRM translates the Grid authorization rules into the Amazon S3 ones and applies them to the Amazon Web Services identity.

  14. Towards the integration of StoRM on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, S; Magnoni, L; Zappi, R

    2008-01-01

    In Grid systems, a core resource being shared among geographically-dispersed communities of users is the storage. For this resource, a standard interface specification (Storage Resource Management or SRM) was defined and is being evolved in the context of the Open Grid Forum. By implementing this interface, all storage resources part of a Grid could be managed in an homogenous fashion. In this work, we consider the extension of StoRM (STOrage Resource Manager, an implementation of SRM v2.2) in order to integrate a new type of storage resource: the Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Amazon S3 is a simple Web services interface offering access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of Web sites. By performing this integration, we offer to the Grid community the capability to manage and access an incredible amount of storage resources freeing them from considering the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they have enough storage available. The characteristics of StoRM are suitable for a smooth integration with Amazon S3. In particular, StoRM is designed to be easily adapted to the underlying storage resource via a plug-in mechanism, therefore a new plugin for integration with the Amazon S3 Web Service will be written. As regards the access policies, StoRM translates the Grid authorization rules into the Amazon S3 ones and applies them to the Amazon Web Services identity

  15. Design and commissioning of ReStoX for XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibelhut, Melanie [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The XENON1T experiment, currently under construction at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory LNGS, uses the concept of a xenon dual-phase (liquid/gas) time projection chamber to search for Dark Matter particles. This requires cooling to about 175 K and liquefaction of the noble gas. The ReStoX (Recovery and Storage of Xenon) is a novel device to store and recover up to 7 tons of xenon - either in liquid phase at cryogenic temperatures and 1-2 bar of pressure, or in gaseous form at room temperature at about 70 bar of pressure. The ReStoX system consists of a double insulated stainless steel sphere with liquid nitrogen cooling loops distributed across the inner sphere. A condenser on the inside, also operated with liquid nitrogen, provides a cooling power of 3 kW. ReStoX is designed to provide an effective means for various operating modes: to fill the TPC fast, to recover xenon from the TPC under normal and emergency conditions, to store xenon safely in liquid or gaseous form, or to remain in cold standby nearly empty as a safety device. Here we present the design and first commissioning results.

  16. Managing teacher turnover

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    - ... vacant teaching posts are not filled (Pretorius & Heard, 1999; Anon., ... it reaches critical proportions. This article therefore investigates teacher turnover as a phenome- non to be managed and suggests ways of doing so. The study is based.

  17. ANTESEDEN EMPLOYEE TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Fardilah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is concerning the effect of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and  job performance on employee turnover, and the background is to get the convenience of employees condition, the satisfaction of job results, maximum performance, and keep and reduce in and out employees. The purpose of this research is to see how far the influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover. Planning of this research uses primary data that is got by handing over questioners to 200 employees in Telecommunication company in East Jakarta. The analysis method which is used is double regresi.  Results of  this  research give conclusion that there's a positive and significant influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover.

  18. Aratos et le stoïcisme Aratus and Stoicism Arato e lo stoicismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Cusset

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous envisageons d'abord les points de rencontre possibles entre Aratos et le stoïcisme du point de vue de la biographie du poète avant de reprendre la lecture de l'ouverture des Phénomènes à la lumière de l'Hymne à Zeus de Cléanthe. Les rapports d’Aratos avec le stoïcisme se révèlent finalement être assez minces en ce qui concerne l’écriture du poète. Aratos est surtout stoïcien par l’intérêt que les Stoïciens ont porté à son œuvre qui se trouve avoir été composée dans un milieu assez fortement marqué par la philosophie du Portique.In this paper I consider first the possible points of tangent between Aratus and Stoicism as far as the biographical point of view is concerned, and secondly read the opening of the Phaenomena in the light of the Hymn to Zeus of Cleanthes again. Aratus’ links with Stoicism ultimately prove to be quite thin in the writing of the poet. Stoic Aratus is especially the creation of the interest that Stoics did manifest to his work, a work which was composed in an environment quite widely influenced by the philosophy of the Stoa.In questo articolo sono considerati in primo luogo i possibili punti di contatto tra Arato e lo stoicismo dal punto di vista della biografia del poeta prima di riprendere la lettura dell’inizio dei Fenomeni alla luce dell’Inno a Zeus di Cleante. I rapporti tra Arato e lo stoicismo si rivelano alquanto esili in ciò che concerne la scrittura del poeta. Arato è stoico principalmente per l’interesse che gli stoici hanno mostrato nei confronti della sua opera, che è stata composta in un milieu profondamente segnato dalla filosofia della Stoa.

  19. LSMO-STO(110) multilayered structure grown by metalorganic aerosol deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, Oleg; Belenchuk, Alexander; Canter, Valeriu; Zasavitsky, Efim; Moshnyaga, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 -SrTiO 3 multilayered structure was grown on SrTiO 3 (110) substrates by metalorganic aerosol deposition technique. The crystal structure was examined by X-ray analysis including simulation of diffraction and reflection patterns. The magneto transport properties of superlattice are presented. The critical thickness of (110)-oriented LSMO layers is lower than 7 perovskite unite cells. The oxygen stoichiometry provided due to high gas pressure conditions is responsible for reducing of critical thickness of LSMO layers at LSMO-STO(110) interfaces. (authors)

  20. Costs of employee turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  1. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Hofmann, Jan P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355351110; De Cremer, Gert; Kubarev, Alexey V.; Rohnke, Marcus; Meirer, Florian; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Bronsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by

  2. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  3. Measurement of the branching fractions of the $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta$, $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta^{\\prime}$ and $B^0\\to J\\psi\\omega$ decays in the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Savrina, Daria

    First evidence of the $B^0\\to J/\\psi\\omega$ decay is found and the $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta$ and $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta^{\\prime}$ decays are studied using a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. Branching fractions of these decays are measured relative to that of the $B^0\\to J/\\psi\\rho^0$ decay. All the channels under study contain photons in the final state. Precise determination of photons energies is essential for accurate measurement of the decays branching fractions. So, an auxiliary task was a regular calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter with neutral pions. Values obtained for the $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta$ and $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi\\eta^{\\prime}$ decays branching fractions, as well as a ratio of these values, are found to be in a good agreement with both theoretical predictions and results of previous measurements. The $B^0\\to J/\\psi\\omega$ decay is seen for...

  4. Khater method for nonlinear Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation of fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sadaf; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed

    In this work, we have implemented a direct method, known as Khater method to establish exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. Number of solutions provided by this method is greater than other traditional methods. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional order Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation are expressed in terms of kink, travelling wave, periodic and solitary wave solutions. Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and Fractional complex transform have been used for compatibility with fractional order sense. Solutions have been graphically simulated for understanding the physical aspects and importance of the method. A comparative discussion between our established results and the results obtained by existing ones is also presented. Our results clearly reveal that the proposed method is an effective, powerful and straightforward technique to work out new solutions of various types of differential equations of non-integer order in the fields of applied sciences and engineering.

  5. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices: coexistence of Auger recombination and single-carrier trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report emerging photoluminescence (PL of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO systems. A strong blue PL emerges in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO/LAO/STO which doesn’t show in LAO/STO. PL band in bilayer-2DEGs includes both nearly temperature independent Auger recombination and temperature dependent free electron trapping while it crossovers from Auger recombination to single carrier trapping in LAO/STO. The PL signal of free electron trapping appears at high temperatures and it is much stronger than Auger recombination in the conducting channel in bilayer 2DEGs. This observation shows that high mobility carriers dominate the carrier dynamics in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO superlattices.

  6. Overexpression of AtSTO1 leads to improved salt tolerance in Populus tremula × P. alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    One of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting healthy growth of trees is salinity stress. The use of gene manipulation for increased tolerance to abiotic stress has been successful in many plant species. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANT1 (STO1) gene leads to increased concentrations of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase3, a vital...

  7. From StoCharts to MoDeST: a comparative reliability analysis of train radio communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, H.; Jansen, D.N.; Usenko, Y.S.

    StoCharts have been proposed as a UML statechart extension for performance and dependability evaluation, and have been applied in the context of train radio reliability assessment to show the principal tractability of realistic cases with this approach. In this paper, we extend on this bare

  8. The effect of short-term low-energy ultraviolet B irradiation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: A randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The importance of vitamin D on bone health and osteoporosis was studied by many researchers. The main role of the Vitamin D is to absorb calcium and phosphate and increase bone mineralization. Older people are at an increased risk of the inadequate vitamin D production in the skin because of lower sun exposure and reduced ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D. Objective. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of short-term (2 weeks low energy UVB irradiation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis using bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Methods. A three-month, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at the University hospital in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Fifty-two postmenopausal Korean women (older than 65 years with osteoporosis were randomly allocated to have either low energy UVB or placebo for 30 minutes a day for two weeks of treatment during winter. Laboratory analysis and physical examination before and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment were carried out and BMD was measured before and 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The effects of time and treatment interaction between these two groups were evaluated by repeated-measure two-factor analysis, and subgroup analysis was performed to examine UVB effect on the vitamin D insufficient group [serum 25(OHD3 concentration <30 ng/mL]. Results. In vitamin D insufficient group, the effect of UVB irradiation on vitamin D and bone ALP as well as additional benefit on bone formation was confirmed. The vitamin D insufficient group showed statistically significant increment in serum 25(OHD3 compared with the normal group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in the other bone turnover markers, such as serum calcium, PTH-C, serum osteocalcin, serum CTX and BMD. Conclusion. Low-energy-short-term UVB radiation for postmenopausal women may be of use in vitamin D

  9. What is the best practice for benchmark regulation of electricity distribution? Comparison of DEA, SFA and StoNED methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuosmanen, Timo; Saastamoinen, Antti; Sipiläinen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Electricity distribution is a natural local monopoly. In many countries, the regulators of this sector apply frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) or stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to estimate the efficient cost of operation. In Finland, a new StoNED method was adopted in 2012. This paper compares DEA, SFA and StoNED in the context of regulating electricity distribution. Using data from Finland, we compare the impacts of methodological choices on cost efficiency estimates and acceptable cost. While the efficiency estimates are highly correlated, the cost targets reveal major differences. In addition, we examine performance of the methods by Monte Carlo simulations. We calibrate the data generation process (DGP) to closely match the empirical data and the model specification of the regulator. We find that the StoNED estimator yields a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 4% with the sample size 100. Precision improves as the sample size increases. The DEA estimator yields an RMSE of approximately 10%, but performance deteriorates as the sample size increases. The SFA estimator has an RMSE of 144%. The poor performance of SFA is due to the wrong functional form and multicollinearity. - Highlights: • We compare DEA, SFA and StoNED methods in the context of regulation of electricity distribution. • Both empirical comparisons and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. • Choice of benchmarking method has a significant economic impact on the regulatory outcomes. • StoNED yields the most precise results in the Monte Carlo simulations. • Five lessons concerning heterogeneity, noise, frontier, simulations, and implementation

  10. Measurements of protein turnover in man with nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, P.J.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Past and present methods of measuring total body protein turnover with 15 N-labelled compounds are reviewed, and a short assessment made of results achieved. Protein turnover in man was first measured by Sprinson and Rittenberg (1949) using 15 N glycine as tracer. The rate of turnover was calculated from the fraction of the dose excreted in urine in the days following a single oral dose of the isotope. In the following years a number of similar methods were devised but interest waned, perhaps because consistent changes in turnover rate under different conditions were not detected. A revival of interest came with the measurement of changes in protein turnover in malnourished and recovering children by Picou and Taylor-Roberts (1969). Nitrogen-15-glycine was infused and measurements were made of the abundance of 15 N in urinary urea, which reached a plateau in about 24 hours. Turnover rates were calculated from the proportion of the infused dose excreted in urea after the plateau had been reached. This method has also been used successfully on adults when the isotope has been given as three-hourly oral doses. In adults, however, plateau labelling in urea is not usually reached for two days. In our laboratory the use of urinary ammonia, which reaches a plateau more quickly than urea, has been examined. In addition, comparisons have been made between constant infusion and single dose of isotope. Halliday and McKeran (1975) infused 15 N-lysine and measured the 15 N abundance in the free lysine of plasma, which reached a plateau in about 12 hours. Turnover in the whole body and turnover of muscle proteins and of plasma albumin were estimated separately. These methods of measuring protein turnover with 15 N are described and results reviewed of the effects of food intake, nutritional status and age. (author)

  11. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  12. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  13. Occupational stress and employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Day, Andrea J; Morton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data captured in January-March 2007 were examined in relation to turnover in males and females during the next five years. In general, most of the workplace stressors (such as role conflict or peer support) were not antecedents of turnover in any group. Junior personnel with psychological strain in 2007 had an increased risk of turnover in the next five years. Low commitment to the service in 2007 increased the odds of turnover in male and female juniors and in female officers. Female juniors with less effective skills for coping with stress and who exercised less frequently on a weekly basis were more likely to leave. An incidental finding was that the odds of turnover were three times greater in female officers with children than in female officers with no children. Stress management interventions focusing on effective coping and sports and exercise participation which are targeted appropriately may improve retention.

  14. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  15. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  16. The CMS experiment workflows on StoRM based storage at Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacorsi, D; Bartolome, I Cabrillo; Matorras, F; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Sartirana, A

    2010-01-01

    Approaching LHC data taking, the CMS experiment is deploying, commissioning and operating the building tools of its grid-based computing infrastructure. The commissioning program includes testing, deployment and operation of various storage solutions to support the computing workflows of the experiment. Recently, some of the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers supporting the collaboration have started to deploy StoRM based storage systems. These are POSIX-based disk storage systems on top of which StoRM implements the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) version 2 interface allowing for a standard-based access from the Grid. In this notes we briefly describe the experience so far achieved at the CNAF Tier-1 center and at the IFCA Tier-2 center.

  17. Anwendung der extrakorporalen Stoßwellentherapie bei kalzifizierender Periathropathia humeroscapularis, Fersensporn und Epicondylitis humeri - Erfahrungsbericht aus dem Wilhelminenspital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyertag J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Stoßwellentherapie wird bei verschiedenen Indikationen, die unter konservativen Therapien schwer zu schwer zu behandeln sind, eingesetzt. Dazu zählen die kalzifizierenden Schultererkrankungen (Tendinitis calcarea, Epicondylitis humeri (EHR und die plantare Fasciitis mit/ohne plantarem Fersensporn (FSP. Berichtet werden die Ergebnisse von 147 Patienten (102 Frauen/45 Männer, mittleres Alter betrug 57,8 Jahre, die mittels einer einmaligen extrakorporalen Stoßwellentherapie (ESWT (Tend. calc. 82 %, FSP 11 % oder EHR 7 % mittels eines HMT-ReflecTron therapiert wurden. Verabreicht wurden im Mittel 1.800 Stoßwellen. Untersucht wurde die subjektive Verbesserung der Schmerzen anhand einer visuellen Analogskala vor und 6 Wochen nach der Therapie bei allen Patienten. Bei Patienten mit Tendinitis calcarea wurde auch eine Verbesserung der Funktion sowie Veränderungen der Kalzifizierungen untersucht. Bei allen Patienten konnte eine statistisch signifikante Verbesserung der Schmerzen sowie des Bewegungsumfanges beobachtet werden (p 0,0001. Röntgenaufnahmen ergaben eine partielle Verkleinerung der Kalkdepots bei ca. 80 % der Patienten. Aufgrund der geringen Zahl der Patienten fand sich für die EHR keine signifikante Verbesserung der Schmerzsymptomatik. Eine einmalige ESWT kann zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung der Schmerzsymptomatik und zu einer Verbesserung des Bewegungsumfanges führen. Bei 80 % der Patienten mit einer Tendinitis calcarea findet sich weiter eine partielle Verkleinerung der Kalkdepots 6 Wochen nach Therapie.

  18. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects...... moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee...

  19. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fragmentierungsarten von Nierensteinen unter extrakorporaler Stoßwellenlithotripsie: eine multivariate Analyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeberli D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Das primäre Ziel dieser retrospektiven Studie war die Evaluation von routinemäßig anwendbaren Kriterien, welche die Fragmentierung von Nierensteinen unter extrakorporaler Stoßwellenlithotripsie (ESWL voraussagen können. Die Serie umfaßte 202 konsekutive Patienten (121 Männer, 81 Frauen mit einem medianen Alter von 48 Jahren (19-81 Jahre, die an der Urologischen Universitätsklinik Bern mit dem originalen Dornier HM-3 behandelt wurden. Einschlußkriterien waren Einzelsteine von 10-30 mm Größe mit Lage im Nierenbeckenkelchsystem. Die Steine wurden im Abdomen-Leerbild nach ihrer Lage, Größe, Form, Dichte (im Vergleich zur 12. Rippe, Struktur und Oberfläche beurteilt. Weiter wurden Alter, Geschlecht und Body-Mass-Index des Patienten berücksichtigt. Die Desintegration wurde am 1. Tag nach ESWL mittels Abdomen-Leerbild dokumentiert. Zielwert der Analyse war die binäre Variable steinfrei versus Restfragmente, gegen die alle präoperativen Parameter mittels multivariater logistischer Regression getestet wurden. Die Erfolgsrate betrug 95,5 %; 42 Patienten (20,8 % waren steinfrei und 151 Patienten (74,7 % hatten sog. klinisch insignifikante Restfragmente (5 mm oder kleiner. Von den Männern waren 14,9 %, von den Frauen 29,6 % steinfrei (p = 0,01. Alle anderen Parameter erreichten keine statistische Signifikanz, möglicherweise aufgrund zu kleiner Subgruppen (fehlende statistische Macht. Die Desintegrationsrate des HM-3 für Nierensteine ist insgesamt ausgezeichnet, bei Frauen noch besser als bei Männern. Gerade wegen dieser hohen Erfolgsrate wären größere Patientenzahlen notwendig, um eventuelle Unterschiede zwischen den präinterventionellen Parametern definieren zu können.

  1. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  2. [Turnover Experience of Male Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jeongseop

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify turnover experiences of men in nursing and to derive a substantive theory on the turnover experience of men who are nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 men who had worked as a nurse for 1 year or more, and had a turnover experience during that period. Collected data were analyzed on the basis of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. The core category in the turnover experiences of the respondents was 'seeking a stable place for me'. In the analysis of the core category, types of 'contentment', 'seeking', 'survival' and 'confusion' were identified. The sequential stages of these nurses' turnover experience were 'confrontation', 'incertitude', 'retrying' and 'realization'. However, when a problem arose in the process, they returned to the stage of confusion. Thus, these stages could occur in a circular fashion. These findings provide a deep understanding of the turnover experience of men in nursing and offers new information about how they adapt to nursing practice. The findings should be useful as foundational data for men who hope to become nurses and also for managers responsible for nurses who are men. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  3. Turnover intention of graduate nurses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Lim, Yeonjung; Jung, Hee Young; Shin, Youn-Wha

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the turnover intention of graduate nurses in South Korea and to explore the correlates of turnover intention. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The participants comprised 225 female nurses who were working at 13 general hospitals and who had accumulated turnover intention was 7.51. Turnover intention was found to be related to the number of beds in the hospital, workplace, and duration of job orientation (theory and practice), instruction by a preceptor, job stress, clinical competence, self-efficacy, and the practice environment. In the multivariate approach, the practice environment, job stress, and the workplace were found to be significantly related to turnover intention and accounted for 36% of the said intention in the studied graduate nurses. The results support that the characteristics of magnet hospitals that improve the practice environment could play a critical role in retaining nurses in hospitals. Managerial interventions that enhance the practice environment, reduce job stress, and place graduate nurses in nursing units with a single specialty could benefit the hospitals employing such nurses. Further research to explore the effects of managerial strategies on graduate nurses' turnover intention is warranted. © 2011 The Authors; Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Business Ethics & Employee Turnover: CAFE Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Business ethics is in discussion for its importance universally, so is the employee turnover in business. Unethical practices are unwanted, so is the high employee turnover. Unethical practices and high employee turnover in business is ubiquitous. No consensus exists on defining ethics. Employee turnover is well defined, but there is no consensus on when employee turnover is disadvantageous for the company. The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity, a maxim states that either ...

  5. A Study on the Employee Turnover Antecedents in ITES/BPO Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Rekha, K. R.; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at testing a conceptual model connecting variables of the internal and external work environment to ITES/BPO employee turnover. Based on the gaps identified from the literature that no single model explains in a comprehensive way as to why, people choose to leave and the lack of turnover studies on call centers located in India.…

  6. Alanine turnover in the postabsorptive state and during parenteral hyperalimentation before and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerwein, H. P.; Michels, R. P.; Cejka, V.

    1981-01-01

    Influence of total parenteral nutrition and operation on alanine turnover and venous alanine concentration was determined in 5 patients with stomach carcinoma using single technique of U-14C alanine. Every patient served at his own control. In the postabsorptive state alanine turnover was 1.63 +/-

  7. Histone turnover within nonproliferating cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerford, S.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The turnover of DNA and histones in the livers and brains of mice has been determined. These mice had been exposed to constant levels of tritiated water from conception until they were 8 months old. At this point, exposure to tritium was discontinued, and the tritium remaining in DNA and histones was measured at various intervals afterward. The half-lives calculated for these components (with 95% confidence limits given in parentheses) were 117 (85 to 188) days for liver histone, 318 (241 to 466) days for liver DNA, 159 (129 to 208) days for brain histone and 593 (376 to 1406) days for brain DNA. The difference between histone and DNA turnover is statistically significant for both tissues and indicates that histone turnover within tissues cannot be solely accounted for by cell turnover within the tissue but also must include histone turnover within living cells. The half-life of histone within cells is estimated to be 117 (88 to 178) days in liver and 223 (187 to 277) days in brain

  8. Postoperative Quality of Life after Total Gastrectomy Compared with Partial Gastrectomy: Longitudinal Evaluation by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-OG25 and STO22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Tae Han; Huh, Yeon-Ju; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-12-01

    The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-OG25 was developed to evaluate the quality of life in patients with stomach and esophageal cancer. The following are included in the OG25 but not in the STO22: odynophagia, choked when swallowing, weight loss, trouble eating with others, trouble swallowing saliva, trouble talking, and trouble with coughing. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life of gastrectomized patients using both, the OG25 and the STO22. A total of 138 patients with partial gastrectomy (PG) (distal gastrectomy=91; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy= 47) and 44 patients with total gastrectomy (TG) were prospectively evaluated. Body weight and scores from the OG25 and STO22 were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Patients with TG had significant weight loss compared to patients with PG. At 3 months, TG was associated with worse scores for dysphagia, eating, odynophagia, trouble eating with others, trouble with taste, and weight loss on the OG25. TG was also associated with dysphagia, eating restrictions, and anxiety on the STO22. The OG25 helped differentiate between the groups with respect to weight loss, odynophagia, choked when swallowing, and trouble eating with others. The OG25 scores changed over time and were significantly different. The OG25 is a more sensitive and useful scale than the STO22 for evaluating the quality of life of gastrectomized patients, especially those with total gastrectomy.

  9. Job turnover and labor turnover : a taxonomy of employment dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Wolter H.J.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an organized set of stylized facts on the relations among flows of workers,changes in employment and changes in the numer of jobs at the firm level. Job turnover isusually measured by comparing stocks of employment in each firm at two points in time andadding up the absolute employment

  10. Nitrogen mineralization in forestry-drained peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park (Central Sudetes Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the intensity of nitrogen mineralization in forestry drained ombrotrophic peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park, SW Poland. Additionally discussion about the shallow organic soils classification according to Polish Soil Classification (2011 is presented. For the study three research transects were established on forestry drained ombrotrophic peatlands in the Stołowe Mountains. Each of the transect consisted of four (site A and B or five (site C sampling plots. Sampling was conducted in the year 2012. The soil samples for the basic soil properties analysis were sampled in April, whereas undisturbed soil samples were collected in stainless steel rings (100 cm3 every 10 cm in April (spring, July (summer and October (autumn to show the seasonal dynamics of nitrogen mineralization. Statistical analysis showed that the content of N-NH4 was mainly determined by actual soil moisture and precipitation rate, whereas the content of N-NO3 was positively correlated with air temperature. Among investigated peatlands the highest concentrations of mineral nitrogen forms was observed in the Długie Mokradło bog, situated on the Skalniak Plateau-summit. Additionally, the results obtained showed that implementation of new subtype: shallow fibric peat soils (in Polish: gleby torfowe fibrowe płytkie within the type of peat soils (in polish: gleby torfowe should be considered during developing of the next update of Polish Soil Classification.

  11. Considerações sobre a idéia de tempo em Sto. Agostinho, Hume e Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carbone Carneiro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se sobre o tempo buscando entendê-lo a partir dos referenciais que o tomam como elaboração subjetiva, ou seja, como não possuindo qualquer realidade fora do sujeito. Entende-se que, na história da Filosofia, esta reflexão inicia-se com a filosofia de Sto. Agostinho e tem seu ápice no pensamento moderno, sobretudo em Hume e Kant. O tempo seria uma construção ou elaboração do espírito, sem existência fora dele (Sto. Agostinho ou uma apreensão empírica regular de relações causais de antes e depois (Hume ou uma intuição pura do espírito (Kant. Pretende-se, com esta análise, evidenciar uma forma clássica de conceber o tempo como elaboração realizada pelo sujeito (subjetiva.

  12. DNA turnover and strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Grivell, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of DNA turnover has been measured in a dnaB mutant of Escherichia coli, temperature sensitive for semiconservative DNA replication. At the nonpermissive temperature about 0.02 percent of the deoxynucleotides in DNA are exchanged per generation period. This turnover rate is markedly depressed in the presence of rifampicin. During thymine starvation strand breaks accumulate in the DNA of E. coli strains that are susceptible to thymineless death. Rifampicin suppresses the appearance of these breaks, consistent with our hypothesis that transcription may be accompanied by repairable single-strand breaks in DNA. DNA turnover is enhanced severalfold in strands containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine in place of thymidine, possibly because the analog (or the deoxyuridine, following debromination) is sometimes recognized and excised

  13. Employee turnover: measuring the malady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    One measure of an organization's value to its employees is turnover. But how do you know if your employees are wondering if the grass is greener elsewhere? Scott Badler in his book What's So Funny about Looking for a Job? suggests a quick quiz to find out.

  14. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  15. Peptide Level Turnover Measurements Enable the Study of Proteoform Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Jana; Meng, Chen; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Samaras, Patroklos; Wilhelm, Mathias; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The coordination of protein synthesis and degradation regulating protein abundance is a fundamental process in cellular homeostasis. Today, mass spectrometry-based technologies allow determination of endogenous protein turnover on a proteome-wide scale. However, standard dynamic SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling in Cell Culture) approaches can suffer from missing data across pulse time-points limiting the accuracy of such analysis. This issue is of particular relevance when studying protein stability at the level of proteoforms because often only single peptides distinguish between different protein products of the same gene. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the merits of combining dynamic SILAC and tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling of ten pulse time-points in a single experiment. Although the comparison to the standard dynamic SILAC method showed a high concordance of protein turnover rates, the pulsed SILAC-TMT approach yielded more comprehensive data (6000 proteins on average) without missing values. Replicate analysis further established that the same reproducibility of turnover rate determination can be obtained for peptides and proteins facilitating proteoform resolved investigation of protein stability. We provide several examples of differentially turned over splice variants and show that post-translational modifications can affect cellular protein half-lives. For example, N-terminally processed peptides exhibited both faster and slower turnover behavior compared with other peptides of the same protein. In addition, the suspected proteolytic processing of the fusion protein FAU was substantiated by measuring vastly different stabilities of the cleavage products. Furthermore, differential peptide turnover suggested a previously unknown mechanism of activity regulation by post-translational destabilization of cathepsin D as well as the DNA helicase BLM. Finally, our comprehensive data set facilitated a detailed evaluation of the impact of protein

  16. Antigen-driven T-cell turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, Christophe; Ferguson, Neil M.; de Wolf, Frank; Ghani, Azra C.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to characterize the distribution of cell turnover rates within a population of T lymphocytes. Previous models of T-cell dynamics have assumed a constant uniform turnover rate; here we consider turnover in a cell pool subject to clonal proliferation in response to

  17. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  18. Using Turnover as a Recruitment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Teacher turnover is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. Turnover is costly. Not only do high levels of turnover negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…

  19. New STO(II-3Gmag family basis sets for the calculations of the molecules magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kapusta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for construction of physically justified STO(II-3Gmag family basis sets for calculation of molecules magnetic properties has been proposed. The procedure of construction based upon the taken into account the second order of perturbation theory in the magnetic field case. Analytical form of correction functions has been obtained using the closed representation of the Green functions by the solution of nonhomogeneous Schrödinger equation for the model problem of "one-electron atom in the external uniform magnetic field". Their performance has been evaluated for the DFT level calculations carried out with a number of functionals. The test calculations of magnetic susceptibility and 1H nuclear magnetic shielding tensors demonstrated a good agreement of the calculated values with the experimental data.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation (StO2 Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mesquida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current critical care management guidelines, the overall hemodynamic optimization process seeks to restore macrocirculatory oxygenation, pressure, and flow variables. However, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that, despite normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations might occur, and persistence of these alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. Such observations have led to great interest in testing new technologies capable of evaluating the microcirculation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measures tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and has been proposed as a noninvasive system for monitoring regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on NIRS and its potential clinical utility in different scenarios of critically ill patients.

  1. Analysis and control of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Turnover is a relatively simple and easily described concept. However, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect, and thus, not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role.

  2. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  3. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  4. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  5. KECENDERUNGAN KEPUASAN KERJA SEBAGAI TRIGGER TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Adi Saputra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 To determine the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention; (2 To determine the effect of work stress on turnover intention; (3 To determine the effect of compensation on turnover intention; (4 To determine the effect of organizational climate on turnover intention; and (5 To determine the stress of work, compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction effect on turnover intention. The population in this study are employees of the Cooperative KOKAPURA AVIA totaling 180 people, while employees who have worked more than three years as many as 128 people. Samples were taken 97 people. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis and path analysis using PLS 3.0 Smart program. Based on the results of the study concluded that: (1 Job satisfaction significantly influence employee turnover intention; (2 Work stress significantly influence employee turnover intention; (3 Compensation incentives significantly influence employee turnover intention; (4 organizational climate significantly influence employee turnover intention; and (5 Work stress, incentive compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction simultaneously significantly influence employee turnover intention.

  6. Tritium turnover in succulent plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Gogate, S.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of turnover rates for tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and tissue bound tritium (TBT) were carried out in three succulent plants, Opuntia sp., E. Trigona and E. Mili using tritiated water as tracer. The estimated half-times were 52, 57.5 and 80 days for TFWT and 212, 318 and 132 days for TBT in the stems of the above plants respectively. Opuntia sp. showed significant incorporation of TBT, 10% of TFWT on weight basis, while the other two plants showed lesser incorporation, 2-3% of TFWT. However, the leaves of E. Mili indicated the same level of fixation of TBT as the stem of Opuntia sp. (author)

  7. Water turnover in reindeer. Some environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Luick, J.R.; White, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional and climatic effects on water turnover (determined using tritiated water) in reindeer are described. At low ambient temperatures (ca. -20 0 C) water turnover is related to protein and mineral intake, which is reflected in the relations of faecal and urinary water to nitrogen and ash excretion via these avenues. As ambient temperature increases, respiratory water, faecal water and urine flow increase, resulting in an increase in water turnover

  8. The costs of turnover in nursing homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The IV estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs. PMID:19648834

  9. The costs of turnover in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. DATA AND SAMPLE: Nine hundred two nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set, Medicare enrollment files, Census, and Area Resource File. We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The instrumental variable estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (P = 0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10% point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs.

  10. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  11. Employee Turnover among Full-time Public Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of employee turnover in 31 public libraries in the American Midwest established baseline turnover rates and examined the relationship of gender to turnover behavior. Findings showed that: turnover rates are low compared to other occupations; and turnover rates of males and females are similar. (28 references) (Author/MES)

  12. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting [ 14 C]cholesterol 186 days and [ 3 H]cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates

  13. Measuring the microwave response of superconducting Nb:STO and Ti at mK temperatures using superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, Markus; Beutel, Manfred; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos; Boschker, Hans; Mannhart, Jochen [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Niobium doped SrTiO{sub 3} is a superconductor, with the lowest charge carrier density among all superconductors. It shows a dome in the transition temperature as a function of doping concentration with a maximum T{sub c} ∼ 0.3 K. The superconducting dome may originate from the different bands being occupied depending on the doping level. The low energy scales of the system, as indicated by the low T{sub c} are within the GHz-regime. Therefore microwave measurements are a powerful technique to reveal the electronic properties of these superconductors. We preformed microwave measurements on Nb:STO of different doping levels in a dilution refrigerator, using superconducting stripline resonators. Measurements were done in a temperature and frequency range from 40-400 mK and 1-20 GHz, covering the normal and superconducting states. For comparison we also measured the temperature dependence of the surface impedance of superconducting titanium (T{sub c} ∼ 0.5 K), which can be well described by the Mattis-Bardeen equations with a ratio (2Δ)/(k{sub B}T{sub c}) = 3.56. Therefore titanium is an ideal reference sample representing a conventional BCS-superconductor.

  14. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  15. Predicting Employee Turnover from Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; Barnett, George A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates three social network models of employee turnover: a structural equivalence model, a social influence model, and an erosion model. Administers a communication network questionnaire to all 170 employees of an organization. Finds support for all three models of turnover, with the erosion model explaining more of the variance than do the…

  16. Employee Turnover: An Empirical and Methodological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchinsky, Paul M.; Tuttle, Mark L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research on the prediction of employee turnover. Groups predictor variables into five general categories: attitudinal (job satisfaction), biodata, work-related, personal, and test-score predictors. Consistent relationships between common predictor variables and turnover were found for four categories. Eight methodological problems/issues…

  17. University Lecturers' Professional Empowerment and Turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many universities in Uganda are grappling with the challenge of academic staff turnover. While research conducted so far has established different factors explaining the problems of turnover, many of which have been addressed, this challenge has not been resolved. Hitherto, attention has not been paid to whether ...

  18. Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the association between job satisfaction and turnover intentions among lecturers in three public universities in Tanzania. It had three objectives: (1) to determine the level of perceived job satisfaction among lecturers; (2) to determine the association between job satisfaction and turnover intention; and (3) ...

  19. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  20. Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacey Guin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.

  1. Transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding protein SpoVD in peptidoglycan synthesis conditionally depends on the disulfide reductase StoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Faniband, Ewa; Hederstedt, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Endospore cortex peptidoglycan synthesis is not required for bacterial growth but essential for endospore heat resistance. It therefore constitutes an amenable system for research on peptidoglycan biogenesis. The Bacillus subtilis sporulation-specific class B penicillin-binding protein (PBP) SpoVD and many homologous PBPs contain two conserved cysteine residues of unknown function in the transpeptidase domain - one as residue x in the SxN catalytic site motif and the other in a flexible loop near the catalytic site. A disulfide bond between these residues blocks the function of SpoVD in cortex synthesis. With a combination of experiments with purified proteins and B. subtilis mutant cells, it was shown that in active SpoVD the two cysteine residues most probably interact by hydrogen bonding and that this is important for peptidoglycan synthesis in vivo. It was furthermore demonstrated that the sporulation-specific thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase StoA reduces SpoVD and that requirement of StoA for cortex synthesis can be suppressed by two completely different types of structural alterations in SpoVD. It is concluded that StoA plays a critical role mainly during maturation of SpoVD in the forespore outer membrane. The findings advance our understanding of essential PBPs and redox control of extra-cytoplasmic protein disulfides in bacterial cells. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relaxation of functions of STO-3G and 6-31G* basis sets in the series of isoelectronic to LiF molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, A.I.; Belousov, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Relaxation effect of functions of the basis sets (BS) STO-3G and 6-31G* on their equilibration in the series of isoelectron molecules: LiF, BeO, BN and C 2 is considered. Values of parameters (exponential factor of basis functions, orbital exponents of Gauss primitives and coefficients of their grouping) of basis functions in molecules are discovered using the criterion of minimum of energy by the unlimited Hartree-Fock method calculations (UHF) with the help of direct optimization of parameters: the simplex-method and Rosenbrock method. Certain schemes of optimization differing by the amount of varying parameters have been done. Interaction of basis functions parameters of concerned sets through medium values of the Gauss exponents is established. Effects of relaxation on the change of full energy and relative errors of the calculations of interatomic distances, normal oscillations frequencies, dissociation energy and other properties of molecules are considered. Change of full energy during the relaxation of basis functions (RBF) STO-3G and 6-31G* amounts 1100 and 80 kJ/mol correspondingly, and it is in need of the account during estimation of energetic characteristics, especially for systems with high-polar chemical bonds. The relaxation BS STO-3G practically in all considered cases improves description of molecular properties, whereas the relaxation BS 6-31G* lightly effects on its equilibration [ru

  3. [Thomas Ditt: „Stoßtruppfakultät Breslau“. Rechtswissenschaft im „Grenzland Schlesien“ 1933-1945. (Beiträge zur Rechtsgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts ; 67). Mohr Siebeck. Tübingen 2011] / Marju Luts-Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Thomas Ditt. „Stoßtruppfakultät Breslau“. Rechtswissenschaft im „Grenzland Schlesien“ 1933-1945. (Beiträge zur Rechtsgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Bd. 67.) Mohr Siebeck. Tübingen 2011

  4. Nurse turnover: a literature review - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Laureen J; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Duffield, Christine; Shamian, Judith; Buchan, James; Hughes, Frances; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; North, Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Concerns related to the complex issue of nursing turnover continue to challenge healthcare leaders in every sector of health care. Voluntary nurse turnover is shown to be influenced by a myriad of inter-related factors, and there is increasing evidence of its negative effects on nurses, patients and health care organizations. The objectives were to conduct a comprehensive review of the related literature to examine recent findings related to the issue of nursing turnover and its causes and consequences, and to identify on methodological challenges and the implications of new evidence for future studies. A comprehensive search of the recent literature related to nursing turnover was undertaken to summarize findings published in the past six years. Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed, reference lists of journal publications. Keyword searches were conducted for publications published 2006 or later that examined turnover or turnover intention in employee populations of registered or practical/enrolled or assistant nurses working in the hospital, long-term or community care areas. Literature findings are presented using an integrative approach and a table format to report individual studies. From about 330 citations or abstracts that were initially scanned for content relevance, 68 studies were included in this summary review. The predominance of studies continues to focus on determinants of nurse turnover in acute care settings. Recent studies offer insight into generational factors that should be considered in strategies to promote stable staffing in healthcare organizations. Nursing turnover continues to present serious challenges at all levels of health care. Longitudinal research is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships between nurse turnover and related costs, and the impact on patients and the health care team. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  6. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention. Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6. Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study. Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted. Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models. Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  7. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B; Hubble, Michael W; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). To quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a six-month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data-collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for three categories of agency staff mix: all-paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed) staff, and all-volunteer staff. The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix (all-paid = 10.2%, mixed = 12.3%, all-volunteer = 12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n = 25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $86,452.05, mixed = $9,766.65, and all-volunteer = $0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $7,161.38, mixed = $1,409.64, and all-volunteer = $0). Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study's mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key

  8. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  9. Switchable diode effect in oxygen vacancy-modulated SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xinqiang; Shuai, Yao; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Sun, Xiangyu; Zeng, Huizhong; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Gong, Chaoguan; Jian, Ke; Zhang, Wanli [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Lu; Guo, Hongliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, The Center for Robotics, Chengdu (China); Tian, Benlang [26th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) single crystal wafer was annealed in vacuum, and co-planar metal-insulator-metal structure of Pt/Ti/STO/Ti/Pt were formed by sputtering Pt/Ti electrodes onto the surface of STO after annealing. The forming-free resistive switching behavior with self-compliance property was observed in the sample. The sample showed switchable diode effect, which is explained by a simple model that redistribution of oxygen vacancies (OVs) under the external electric field results in the formation of n-n{sup +} junction or n{sup +}-n junction (n donated n-type semiconductor; n{sup +} donated heavily doped n-type semiconductor). The self-compliance property is also interpreted by the formation of n-n{sup +}/n{sup +}-n junction caused by the migration of the OVs under the electric field. (orig.)

  10. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  11. Rethinking Teacher Turnover: Longitudinal Measures of Instability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Jabbar, Huriya; Germain, Emily; Dinning, John

    2018-01-01

    While there is a robust literature examining the patterns and causes of teacher turnover, few articles to date have critically examined the measures of turnover used in these studies. Yet, an assessment of the way turnover is measured is important, as the measures become the means by which the "problem" of turnover becomes defined and…

  12. Addressing employee turnover and retention: keeping your valued performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee turnover and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control turnover is to enhance retention. Turnover is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in turnover is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.

  13. Tracheocutaneous Fistula Closure with Turnover Flap and Polydioxanone Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Bryant, DO, MBA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. An alternative surgical treatment is proposed for closure of tracheocutaneous fistulas. The authors present a new technique for reconstruction of persistent tracheocutaneous fistula resultant from temporary tracheostomy. The single-stage closure under local anesthesia involves a fistulous tract turnover flap with a perforated 0.15 mm polydioxanone plate between the flap and the subcutaneous closure. This article presents 3 cases of persistent tracheocutaneous fistula treated by this method. At follow-up examination after follow-up, no recurrent fistula formation had occurred, and no respiratory deformity was present.

  14. KORELASI ANTARA EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT, TURNOVER SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi Wicaksono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Praktek yang berkembang menyatakan bahwa employee involvement memiliki efek positif terhadap kinerja organisasi. Perubahan pada kultur organisasi dapat menimbulkan dampak berkurangnya absen, turnover, pengambilan keputusan yang lebih baik dan sebagainya. Sehingga menarik untuk diteliti apakah ada korelasi antara aplikasi perubahan organisasi yaitu employee involvement, turnover serta produktivitas Berdasarkan studi literatur didapatkan hubungan antara employee involvement dengan level turnover, serta hubungan turnover dengan produktivitas. Sehingga employee involvement dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu aspek menghitung produktivitas Keyword : employee involvement, turnover, produktivitas

  15. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians' responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction.

  16. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change over Time Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Garner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians ( N = 96 being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction.

  17. Relationship between turnover rate and oxidation rate of alanine in the post-absorptive state and during parenteral nutrition before and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerwein, H. P.; Michels, R. P.; Cejka, V.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total parenteral nutrition and stomach resection on alanine turnover rate and alanine oxidation rate was measured in ten patients after single injection of U-14 C-alanine. Sequential studies were done in three patients. During parenteral nutrition alanine turnover was significantly

  18. Glutathione turnover in 14 rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.W.; Tran, T.

    1990-01-01

    GSH is a tripeptide found in all tissues and is important in maintaining cellular redox status. First-order rate constants for GSH turnover were determined for various tissues of Fischer male rats. Animals were administered [ 35 S]Cys by tail vein injection and GSH turnover was estimated by the decrease in GSH specific activity following incorporation of Cys, 1-102 hr after administration. Tissue nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) were detected by Ellman's assay and compared with GSH and Cys concentrations determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. [ 35 S]GSH was analyzed by HPLC equipped with a flow-through radioactivity detector. Although total GSH and Cys were usually slightly lower than NPSH concentrations for the tissues examined, both assay systems gave comparable results. An exception was the glandular stomach which had approximately 2-fold higher NPSH. Liver and kidney had rapid turnover rates with GSH half-lives between 2-5 hr, while heart and skeletal muscle tissue had half-lives of 80-90 hr. Turnover in the blood was slowest, with a half-life of 170 hr. Gastrointestinal tract tissues were shown to have intermediate turnover rates of the following order: glandular stomach > duodenum = small intestine = caecum = large intestine = colon > forestomach. GSH half-life in lung and skin was approximately 45 hr. These studies indicate that tissues utilize GSH at markedly different rates

  19. Nurse turnover: the mediating role of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Maslach, Christina

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the mediation model of burnout could predict nurses' turnover intentions. A better understanding of what factors support a commitment to a nursing career could inform both policies and workplace practices. The mediation model of burnout provides a way of linking the quality of a nurse's worklife to various outcomes, such as turnover. Data on areas of worklife, burnout, and turnover intentions were collected by surveying 667 Canadian nurses in the Atlantic Provinces. The findings supported the mediation model of burnout, in which areas of worklife predicted burnout, which in turn predicted turnover intentions. Cynicism was the key burnout dimension for turnover, and the most critical areas of worklife were value conflicts and inadequate rewards. The results of this study provide some new insights into how the intention of nurses to leave their job is related to particular aspects of their worklife and to burnout. These results suggest what may be the most appropriate areas to target for interventions to reduce the risk of nurses exiting early from their chosen career.

  20. Neonatal body water turnover: a putative index of perinatal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLennan, A.H.; Millington, G.; Grieve, A.; McIntosh, J.E.; Seamark, R.F.; Cox, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The water metabolism of 46 newborn babies was determined during a 10 day period by means of an isotope dilution technique, and correlations were sought with the clinical assessment of the babies by multiple obstetric and pediatric clinical criteria. The babies, 48 to 72 hours of age, were given a single oral dose (2 ml/kg) of deuterated water (D 2 O), a nonradioactive tracer, and the urinary excretion rate was followed by means of infrared spectrophotometry. After a period of equilibration of the D 2 O with body water (20 hours), the rate of D2O clearance was found to be a single exponential decay process, thus allowing the fraction of total body water lost each hour (the rate constant) to be calculated for each baby. The median values of the rate constants X 10(4)(h-1) for 14 growth-retarded babies ws 104 (98% confidence limits, 97.8 to 122) compared with 76.3 (67.0 to 80.2) for 16 normal mature babies and 82.1 (73.4 to 90.6) for 16 normal premature babies. These data indicate that, compared with normal mature or normal premature babies, growth-retarded infants have a significantly (P less than 0.05) faster turnover of water during the first 10 days of postnatal life. Since there was little overlap in results between the normally grown and the retarded infants, the measurement of water turnover may provide a useful index of perinatal morbidity

  1. Stochastic semi-nonparametric frontier estimation of electricity distribution networks: Application of the StoNED method in the Finnish regulatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuosmanen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Electricity distribution network is a prime example of a natural local monopoly. In many countries, electricity distribution is regulated by the government. Many regulators apply frontier estimation techniques such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) or stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) as an integral part of their regulatory framework. While more advanced methods that combine nonparametric frontier with stochastic error term are known in the literature, in practice, regulators continue to apply simplistic methods. This paper reports the main results of the project commissioned by the Finnish regulator for further development of the cost frontier estimation in their regulatory framework. The key objectives of the project were to integrate a stochastic SFA-style noise term to the nonparametric, axiomatic DEA-style cost frontier, and to take the heterogeneity of firms and their operating environments better into account. To achieve these objectives, a new method called stochastic nonparametric envelopment of data (StoNED) was examined. Based on the insights and experiences gained in the empirical analysis using the real data of the regulated networks, the Finnish regulator adopted the StoNED method in use from 2012 onwards.

  2. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...... in judicial performance over two years of time...

  3. The rate and cost of nurse turnover in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael A; Duffield, Christine M; Homer, Caroline; Buchan, James; Dimitrelis, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Nurse turnover is a critical issue facing workforce planners across the globe, particularly in light of protracted and continuing workforce shortages. An ageing population coupled with the rise in complex and chronic diseases, have contributed to increased demands placed on the health system and importantly, nurses who themselves are ageing. Costs associated with nurse turnover are attracting more attention; however, existing measurements of turnover show inconsistent findings, which can be attributed to differences in study design, metrics used to calculate turnover and variations in definitions for turnover. This paper will report the rates and costs of nurse turnover across three States in Australia.

  4. The quantum Kramers' turnover. IT-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debashis; Shankar Ray, Deb [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata (India)

    2004-12-01

    The key result of Kramers' dynamical theory of reaction rate is that the rate varies linearly in the weak dissipative regime and inversely in the high dissipative regime with friction of the reaction medium. That is in between the energy diffusion and spatial diffusion limited regime the rate constant as a function of friction exhibits a bell-shaped curve known as Kramers' turnover.

  5. The quantum Kramers' turnover. IT-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debashis; Shankar Ray, Deb

    2004-01-01

    The key result of Kramers' dynamical theory of reaction rate is that the rate varies linearly in the weak dissipative regime and inversely in the high dissipative regime with friction of the reaction medium. That is in between the energy diffusion and spatial diffusion limited regime the rate constant as a function of friction exhibits a bell-shaped curve known as Kramers' turnover

  6. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  7. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  8. Health care workplace discrimination and physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value workplace discrimination, p value Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.

  9. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    available for the study of tissue turnover in each of the three compartments of the articular joint, that is the bone, the cartilage, and the synovium. Finally, we provide some perspective to future developments in biomarker discovery and discuss the potential impact such technologies could have on the drug...

  10. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  11. Teacher Turnover in Charter Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David; Smith, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the organizational conditions of charter schools by examining teacher turnover. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS), researchers from the National Center on School…

  12. Director Turnover: An Australian Academic Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni

    2012-01-01

    Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director turnover rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…

  13. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  14. Loss of job-related right to healthcare associated with employment turnover: challenges for the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Germán; Gutiérrez-Calderón, Emilio; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Martínez-Valle, Adolfo; González-Block, Miguel Ángel

    2018-06-15

    The Mexican health system segments access and right to healthcare according to worker position in the labour market. In this contribution we analyse how access and continuity of healthcare gets interrupted by employment turnover in the labour market, including its formal and informal sectors, as experienced by affiliates to the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) at national level, and of workers with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Mexico City. Using data from the National Employment and Occupation Survey, 2014, and from IMSS electronic medical records for workers in Mexico City, we estimated annual employment turnover rates to measure the loss of healthcare access due to labour market dynamics. We fitted a binary logistic regression model to analyse the association between sociodemographic variables and employment turnover. Lastly we analysed job-related access to health care in relation to employment turnover events. At national level, 38.3% of IMSS affiliates experienced employment turnover at least once, thus losing the right to access to healthcare. The turnover rate for T2DM patients was 22.5%. Employment turnover was more frequent at ages 20-39 (38.6% national level; 28% T2DM) and among the elderly (62.4% national level; 26% T2DM). At the national level, higher educational levels (upper-middle, OR = 0.761; upper, OR = 0.835) and income (5 minimum wages or more, OR = 0.726) were associated with lower turnover. Being single and younger were associated with higher turnover (OR = 1.413). T2DM patients aged 40-59 (OR = 0.655) and with 5 minimum wages or more (OR = 0.401) experienced less turnover. Being a T2DM male patient increased the risk of experiencing turnover (OR = 1.166). Up to 89% of workers losing IMSS affiliation and moving on to other jobs failed to gain job-related access to health services. Only 9% gained access to the federal workers social security institute (ISSSTE). Turnover across labour market sectors is

  15. Leaf and fine root carbon stocks and turnover are coupled across Arctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Victoria L; Fletcher, Benjamin J; Press, Malcolm C; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2013-12-01

    Estimates of vegetation carbon pools and their turnover rates are central to understanding and modelling ecosystem responses to climate change and their feedbacks to climate. In the Arctic, a region containing globally important stores of soil carbon, and where the most rapid climate change is expected over the coming century, plant communities have on average sixfold more biomass below ground than above ground, but knowledge of the root carbon pool sizes and turnover rates is limited. Here, we show that across eight plant communities, there is a significant positive relationship between leaf and fine root turnover rates (r(2) = 0.68, P turnover rates of both leaf (r(2) = 0.63, P community scale. These ecological relationships not only demonstrate close links between above and below-ground plant carbon dynamics but also allow plant carbon pool sizes and their turnover rates to be predicted from the single readily quantifiable (and remotely sensed) parameter of LAI, including the possibility of estimating root data from satellites. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Turnover among Community Mental Health Workers in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Ashley M; Ejaz, Farida K; Dawson, Nicole; Gitter, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined turnover of community mental health workers in 42 randomly selected mental health agencies in Ohio. The turnover rate in 2011 was 26 %. A regression analysis indicated that agencies with lower turnover offered higher maximum pay and were smaller in size, while those offering career advancement opportunities, such as career ladder programs, had higher turnover. The findings suggest that improving wages for workers is likely to reduce turnover. It is also possible that smaller agencies have lower turnover due to stronger relationships with workers and/or more successful hiring practices. Furthermore, turnover that occurs as a result of career advancement could have positive effects and should be examined separate from other types of turnover in the future.

  17. Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ... Employee turnover has signifi cant costs and negative consequences for ... However, no interaction effect was observed between overall work-life balance and job ...

  18. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  19. Earnings Management Surrounding CEO Turnover: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-SEO CHOI; YOUNG-MIN KWAK; CHONGWOO CHOE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the empirical relation between CEO turnover and earnings management in Korea using a sample of 317 CEO turnovers and 634 non-turnover control firms during the period of 2001-2008. We classify CEO turnovers into four types depending on whether the departure of outgoing CEO is peaceful or forced and the incoming CEO is promoted from within or recruited from outside the firm. We measure earnings management by both discretionary accruals and real activities management. We al...

  20. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  1. The employee retention triad in health care: Exploring relationships amongst organisational justice, affective commitment and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Tyrone A; Berta, Whitney; Herbert, Monique

    2018-04-01

    To increase understanding of the relationships between organisational justice, affective commitment and turnover intention in health care. Turnover in health care is a serious concern, as it contributes to the global nursing shortage and is associated with declines in quality of care, patient safety and patient outcomes. Turnover also impacts care teams and is associated with decreased staff cohesion and morale. A survey was developed and administered to frontline nurses working in the Province of Ontario, Canada. The data were used to test a hypothetical model developed from a review of the literature. The relationships amongst the three constructs were evaluated using structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The hypothesised model was generally supported, although we were limited to considerations of interpersonal justice, affective commitment to one's organisation and turnover intention. Interpersonal justice is associated with affective commitment to one's organisation, which is negatively associated with turnover intention. Interpersonal justice was also found to be directly and negatively associated with turnover intention. Affective commitment to one's organisation was also found to mediate the relationship between interpersonal justice and turnover intention. The examination of relationships within the "employee retention triad" in a single, comprehensive model is novel and provides new information regarding relational complexity and insights into what healthcare leaders can do to retain employees. Reducing turnover may help to decrease some of the stressors related to turnover for clinical staff remaining at the organisation such as constant onboarding and orientation of new hires, working with less experienced staff and increased workload due to decreased staffing. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Ministudy of employee turnover in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard C; Matthews, Eric P; Collins, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A ministudy was conducted to collect self-reported employee turnover rates in US hospitals. The results indicate many hospitals are struggling with high employee turnover rates. Widespread variances in ratings were observed across hospitals, which may be due to lack of consistency in how they each calculate their employee turnover. This makes benchmarking for the purposes of performance improvement challenging.

  3. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  4. Salary and Ranking and Teacher Turnover: A Statewide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Cynthia Martinez; Slate, John R.; Delgado, Carmen Tejeda

    2009-01-01

    This study examined three years of data obtained from the Academic Excellence Indicator System of the State of Texas regarding teacher turnover rate and teacher salary. Across all public school districts, teacher salary was consistently negatively related to teacher turnover; that is, where salary was lower, turnover rate was higher When data were…

  5. Investing in Leadership: The District's Role in Managing Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascall, Blair; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact of principal turnover on schools, and the ability of schools to mitigate the negative effects of frequent turnover by distributing leadership in the schools. The findings from this qualitative and quantitative analysis show that rapid principal turnover does indeed have a negative…

  6. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  7. High School Band Students' Perspectives of Teacher Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher turnover remains an important issue in education. The least researched perspectives, though, are those of the students who experience teacher turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine how high school band students experience teacher turnover. A total of twelve students were interviewed, representing three schools that experienced…

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value of...

  9. Turnover of regulated nurses in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Charlene H; Wodchis, Walter P; McGilton, Katherine S

    2014-07-01

    To describe the relationship between nursing staff turnover in long-term care (LTC) homes and organisational factors consisting of leadership practices and behaviours, supervisory support, burnout, job satisfaction and work environment satisfaction. The turnover of regulated nursing staff [Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs)] in LTC facilities is a pervasive problem, but there is a scarcity of research examining this issue in Canada. The study was conceptualized using a Stress Process model. Distinct surveys were distributed to administrators to measure organisational factors and to regulated nurses to measure personal and job-related sources of stress and workplace support. In total, 324 surveys were used in the linear regression analysis to examine factors associated with high turnover rates. Higher leadership practice scores were associated with lower nursing turnover; a one score increase in leadership correlated with a 49% decrease in nursing turnover. A significant inverse relationship between leadership turnover and nurse turnover was found: the higher the administrator turnover the lower the nurse turnover rate. Leadership practices and administrator turnover are significant in influencing regulated nurse turnover in LTC. Long-term care facilities may want to focus on building good leadership and communication as an upstream method to minimize nurse turnover. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Decreases Lipid Droplet Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Herker, Eva; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Steatosis is a frequent complication of hepatitis C virus infection. In mice, this condition is recapitulated by the expression of a single viral protein, the nucleocapsid core. Core localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in infected liver cells through a process dependent on host diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that synthesizes triglycerides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether DGAT1 also plays a role in core-induced steatosis is uncertain. Here, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from DGAT1−/− mice are protected from core-induced steatosis, as are livers of DGAT1−/− mice expressing core, demonstrating that the steatosis is DGAT1-dependent. Surprisingly, core expression did not increase DGAT1 activity or triglyceride synthesis, thus excluding the possibility that core activates DGAT1 to cause steatosis. Instead, we find that DGAT1-dependent localization of core to LDs is a prerequisite for the steatogenic properties of the core. Using biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques, we show that the turnover of lipids in core-coated droplets is decreased, providing a physiological mechanism for core-induced steatosis. Our results support a bipartite model in which core first requires DGAT1 to gain access to LDs, and then LD-localized core interferes with triglyceride turnover, thus stabilizing lipid droplets and leading to steatosis. PMID:21984835

  12. Literature review of labour turnover and absenteeism costs in the coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper includes labor turnover formulae, turnover costs, and turnover rates for the mining industry. Few meaningful studies or reports on absenteeism costs and labour turnover in mining were retrieved.

  13. Systemic hydrocortisone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study; a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onland Wes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. So far no randomized controlled trial has investigated its efficacy when administered after the first week of life to ventilated preterm infants. Methods/Design The SToP-BPD trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study including 400 very low birth weight infants (gestational age Discussion This trial will determine the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration at a moderately early postnatal onset compared to placebo for the reduction of the combined outcome mortality and BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in ventilator dependent preterm infants. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2768

  14. Measurement of the CP-violating phase $\\phi_s$ in $\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\to D_{s}^{+}D_{s}^{-}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2014-11-20

    We present a measurement of the $CP$-violating weak mixing phase $\\phi_s$ using the decay $\\bar{B}^{0}_{s}\\to D_{s}^{+}D_{s}^{-}$ in a data sample corresponding to $3.0$ fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. An analysis of the time evolution of the system, which does not constrain $|\\lambda|=1$ to allow for the presence of $CP$ violation in decay, yields $\\phi_s = 0.02 \\pm 0.17$ (stat) $\\pm 0.02$ (syst) rad, $|\\lambda| = 0.91^{+0.18}_{-0.15}$ (stat) $\\pm0.02$ (syst). This result is consistent with the Standard Model expectation.

  15. Mites (Acari, Mesostigmata from rock cracks and crevices in rock labirynths in the Stołowe Mountains National Park (SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMCZYC JACEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize the species composition of soil mites of the order Mesostigmata in the soil/litter collected from rock cracks and crevices in Szczeliniec Wielki and Błędne Skały rock labirynths in the area of the Stołowe Mountains National Park (part of the Sudetes in SW Poland. Overall, 27 species were identified from 41 samples collected between September 2001 and August 2002. The most numerous species in this study were Veigaia nemorensis, Leptogamasus cristulifer, and Gamasellus montanus. Our study has also confirmed the occurrence or rare mite species, such as Veigaia mollis and Paragamasus insertus. Additionally, 5 mite species were recorded as new to the fauna of this Park: Vulgarogamasus remberti, Macrocheles tardus, Pachylaelaps vexillifer, Iphidosoma physogastris, and Dendrolaelaps (Punctodendrolaelaps eichhorni.

  16. Každodenní život městských protestantských komunit pozdního 18. století. Brno a nové Město na Moravě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolom-Kotari, Sixtus

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2014), s. 269-298 ISSN 0231-7443 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : 1781 * Brno * Nové Město na Moravě * Edict of Tolerance * Enlightenment * Protestantism Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. PERAN STRES KERJA DAN KEPUASAN KERJA UNTUK MENGURANGI TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Nazenin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji pengaruh variabel stres kerja dan kepuasan kerja pada turnover intention karyawan tetap bagian produksi. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 86 responden, menggunakan metode Slovin dengan teknik probability sampling dengan jenis proportionate random sampling. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, menunjukkan bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif signifikan pada turnover intention. Kemudian, kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif signifikan. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan, bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif dan signifikan pada turnover intention karyawan dan kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap turnover intention karyawan. Implikasi manajerial yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan pengurangan tingkat stres karyawan dan membuat program untuk tujuan menekan turnover intention, seperti kesempatan promosi dan meningkatkan reward karyawan. The purpose of this study conducted to examine the effect of work stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention of employee in production department. The sample was 86 respondent, using Slovin method with proportionate random sampling technique. The result showed that job stress has a positive effect on turnover intention while job satisfaction has a negative effect on turnover intention. This study conclude that job stress has positive and significant impact on employee turnover intention and job satisfaction significantly and negatively related to turnover intention of employees. Therefore, it is recommended to managerial level people to reduce stress levels in employees and to create a program for pressing turnover intention, such as promotional opportunities and improve employee rewards.

  18. How Wage Compression Affects Job Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    I use Swedish establishment-level panel data to test Bertola and Rogerson’s (1997) hypothesis of a positive relation between the degree of wage compression and job reallocation. Results indicate that the effect of wage compression on job turnover is positive and significant in the manufacturing sector. The wage compression effect is stronger on job destruction than on job creation, consistent with downward wage rigidity. Further results include a strong positive relationship between the fract...

  19. Measuring temporal turnover in ecological communities

    OpenAIRE

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (project BioTIME 250189) and the Royal Society. MD acknowledges funding from the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland (MASTS). MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. 1.Range migrations in response to climate change, invasive species and the emergence of novel ecosystems highlight the importance of temporal turnover in community composition as a...

  20. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  1. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  2. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found in lum.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  3. Glucose turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and estimation of net glucose cycling in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, K.; Edstroem, S.; Karlberg, I.; Ekman, L.; Schersten, T.

    1982-01-01

    A double isotope method was used in patients with progressive malignancy and in control patients to measure: glucose turnover, conversion rate of carbon skeleton of glycerol into glucose, and the interorgan cycling of glucose carbons (Cori-cycle plus alanine-glucose cycle). [U- 14 C]glycerol and [6- 3 H]glucose were given intravenously as a single dose injection. The time course of the specific radioactivities of [6- 3 H] and [U- 14 C]glucose was followed in blood. The pool size and the turnover rate of glucose were increased in the cancer group as compared with the control patients. The net recycling of glucose carbons was not increased in the cancer group, despite the increased turnover of glucose. The alterations in the metabolism of glucose did not correlate with the plasma levels of insulin or thyroid hormones (T4, T3, rT3) neither in the entire cancer group nor in those cancer patients who were repeatedly investigated at different intervals of time. The turnover rate of glucose in the cancer patients correlated inversely to their body weight index. The gluconeogenesis rate, given as the fractional conversion rate of the injected radioactive dose of [ 14 C]glycerol, or as mol glucose . kg body weight-1 . day-1, was increased in the cancer group, but still contributed only 3% of the glucose turnover rate in both cancer and control patients. We conclude that an increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol is not significant in terms of energy expenditure in patients with progressive malignancy, as has previously been concluded for the gluconeogenesis from alanine. It seems that increased turnover of glucose may contribute to inappropriately high energy expenditure in cancer patients

  4. Treatment staff turnover in organizations implementing evidence-based practices: Turnover rates and their association with client outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.; Modisette, Kathryn C.; Ihnes, Pamela C.; Godley, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    High staff turnover has been described as a problem for the substance use disorder treatment field. This assertion is based primarily on the assumption that staff turnover adversely impacts treatment delivery and effectiveness. This assumption, however, has not been empirically tested. In this study, we computed annualized rates of turnover for treatment staff (n=249) participating in an evidence-based practice implementation initiative and examined the association between organizational-level rates of staff turnover and client-level outcomes. Annualized rates of staff turnover were 31% for clinicians and 19% for clinical supervisors. Additionally, multilevel analyses did not reveal the expected relationship between staff turnover and poorer client-level outcomes. Rather, organizational-level rates of staff turnover were found to have a significant positive association with two measures of treatment effectiveness: less involvement in illegal activity and lower social risk. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:22154040

  5. Turnover in health care: the mediating effects of employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Stevie A; Guidroz, Ashley M; Perez, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the interaction between interpersonal respect, diversity climate, mission fulfilment and engagement to better predict turnover in health care. Registered nurse turnover has averaged 14% and current nursing shortages are expected to spread. Few studies have studied employee engagement as a mediator between organisational context and turnover. Study participants were employees working within 185 departments across ten hospitals within a large healthcare organisation in the USA. Although a total of 5443 employees work in these departments, employee opinion survey responses were aggregated by department before being linked to turnover rates gathered from company records. Engagement fully mediated the relationship between respect and turnover and the relationship between mission fulfilment and turnover. Diversity climate was not related to turnover. Turnover in health care poses a significant threat to the mission of creating a healing environment for patients and these results demonstrate that workplace respect and connection to the mission affect turnover by decreasing engagement. The findings demonstrated that to increase engagement, and improve turnover rates in health care, it would be beneficial for organisations, and nurse management to focus on improving mission fulfilment and interpersonal relationships. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Workforce turnover at local health departments: nature, characteristics, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah J; Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Employee turnover, defined as total separations from employment, is expensive, can result in lost capacity, and can limit local health departments' (LHDs') ability to respond to public health needs. Despite the importance of workforce capacity in public health, little is known about workforce turnover in LHDs. To examine the extent to which LHDs experience turnover and identify LHD characteristics that are associated with turnover. A cross-sectional data set of employee turnover and LHD characteristics from the 2013 National Profile of LHDs was analyzed. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted in 2014 on turnover rates. The effect of the following LHD characteristics on turnover rates were examined: population size, governance type, degree of urbanization, top executive experience level, expenditures per capita, and LHD budget cuts. In 2013, LHDs experienced a mean turnover rate of 9.88%; approximately one third of turnover was due to retirements. LHDs with shared state and local governance experienced a higher turnover rate than LHDs with exclusive state or local governance. LHDs that are units of state agencies had a significantly higher retirement rate than those governed by local authorities. Top executive experience level, per capita expenditures, and LHD budget cuts were also related to turnover rates. LHDs experienced a lower overall turnover rate than state health departments in 2011 and lower than all local and state government agencies in 2012. Strengthening leadership skills of new top executives and ensuring adequate funding may reduce turnover in LHDs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical team turnover and operative time: An evaluation of operating room efficiency during pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KERJA DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASI TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mardi Widyadmono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on Turnover Intention. Futhermore, the study identify the mediation role of organizational commitment in the relationship between job satifaction and Turnover Intention. The participants of the study are 98 employees working in private companies operated in Yogyakarta, (36 men and 62 women. Respondents complete questionnaire containing questions on job satisfaction variable, questions on organizational commitment and questions on Turnover Intention. The statistics tools applied are regression analysis to assess the relation between variables and Sobel test to measure the mediation role of organizational commitment. The results of the investigation revealed that job satisfication and organizational commitment influence negatively and significantly Turnover Intention. The higher the job satisfication and the organizational commitment of employees lead to the lower Turnover Intention. The organizational commitment does not play mediation role in the relationship between job satisfication and Turnover Intention

  9. Mentor program boosts new nurses' satisfaction and lowers turnover rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathy C

    2010-07-01

    In 2004, the turnover rate among first-year registered nurses (RNs) at St. Francis Hospital and Health Centers had mushroomed to 31%. Based on research, in 2006, the hospital embarked on a journey to implement an RN mentor program to improve satisfaction and reduce turnover. A pilot program was initiated, including 12 RN mentors and 12 RN protégés from select nursing units. The results showed a 0% turnover rate during the 1-year pilot program. Based on these findings, the mentor program was expanded to include RNs working in inpatient nursing units and surgery and emergency departments. Each year, the RN turnover rate has decreased. In 2009, the turnover rate was 10.3%. Because of the success of the program, it has been expanded in scope to include other professionals experiencing high turnover in targeted departments, including radiological technicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and physical therapists.

  10. Turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorie, M J; Maloney, M A; Patt, H M

    1979-10-01

    Short-term parabiosis of male and female CBA/CaJ mice was used to investigate the turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The change and subsequent disappearance of donor stem cells were monitored by spleen colony assay and chromosome analysis of individual colonies. The results revealed an exponential disappearance of pluripotent stem cells from blood with a characteristic half time of 1.7 h. Blood-borne stem cells were shown to be equilibrated with a subpopulation of marrow stem cells exhibiting a disappearance half time of 9.5 h. Splenectomy did not change the apparent rate of stem cell removal from the blood.

  11. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    , there is strong evidence that CNglcs serve a no less significant purpose as a transport and storage form of reduced nitrogen which may be remobilized and recycled to balance the needs of primary metabolism during certain developmental events. Reduced nitrogen from CNglcs may be recovered either via HCN refixation...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  12. The phase model of burnout and employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Eric A; Boss, R Wayne

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the phase model of burnout and investigates its relationship to actual turnover in a hospital. The results indicate that employees who turnover have significantly higher burnout phase scores that those who stay in the organization. A further comparison of voluntary and involuntary turnover demonstrates that there is no significant differences on burnout phase scores. The findings lend support to the usefulness of the phase model of burnout.

  13. Job and industry turnover for registered and licensed vocational nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Rickles, Jordan; Chapman, Susan; Ong, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    Most studies of nurse turnover focus on job turnover, which could reflect nurse advancement and thus not be detrimental to the workforce. The authors discuss findings from a study that involved 2 cohorts of graduates from registered nursing and licensed vocational nursing community college programs in California. The duration of employment in the healthcare industry, as well as with specific employers, is tracked, lending a more thorough analysis of nursing job and industry turnover than found in other studies.

  14. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employee Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the human resource management practices that are effective for employee turnover reducing. For this purpose the methods of document analysis and expert survey were used. On the basis of analysis of the scientific literature retrieved from academic databases the human resource management practices, which were mentioned in connection with employee turnover, were detected and described its effect on employee turnover. By conducting two separate expert sur...

  15. Does public service performance affect top management turnover?

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, George A.; James, Oliver; John, Peter; Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    Political and organizational theories suggest that the turnover of chief executives and other members of senior management teams are likely to be influenced by public service performance. We use a panel data set of 148 English local governments over 4 years to test this proposition. The empirical results show that performance has a negative effect on turnover, but that this effect is weaker for chief executives than for members of their senior management teams. In addition, top team turnover ...

  16. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  17. Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: occupational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2008-01-01

    Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. Scale dependence in species turnover reflects variance in species occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Daniel J; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-02-01

    Patterns of species turnover may reflect the processes driving community dynamics across scales. While the majority of studies on species turnover have examined pairwise comparison metrics (e.g., the average Jaccard dissimilarity), it has been proposed that the species-area relationship (SAR) also offers insight into patterns of species turnover because these two patterns may be analytically linked. However, these previous links only apply in a special case where turnover is scale invariant, and we demonstrate across three different plant communities that over 90% of the pairwise turnover values are larger than expected based on scale-invariant predictions from the SAR. Furthermore, the degree of scale dependence in turnover was negatively related to the degree of variance in the occupancy frequency distribution (OFD). These findings suggest that species turnover diverges from scale invariance, and as such pairwise turnover and the slope of the SAR are not redundant. Furthermore, models developed to explain the OFD should be linked with those developed to explain species turnover to achieve a more unified understanding of community structure.

  19. Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

    2007-07-16

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

  20. On the chlorophill a fluorescence yield in chloroplasts upon excitation with twin turnover flashes (TTF) and high frequency flash trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Prasil, O.; Durchan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is routinely taken as a quantifiable measure of the redox state of the primary quinone acceptor QA of PSII. The variable fluorescence in thylakoids increases in a single turnover flash (STF) from its low dark level F o towards a maximum F mSTF when QA becomes reduced. We

  1. El Niño drought increased canopy turnover in Amazon forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Morton, Douglas C; Longo, Marcos; Dos-Santos, Maiza Nara; Keller, Michael; Scaranello, Marcos

    2018-03-25

    Amazon droughts, including the 2015-2016 El Niño, may reduce forest net primary productivity and increase canopy tree mortality, thereby altering both the short- and the long-term net forest carbon balance. Given the broad extent of drought impacts, inventory plots or eddy flux towers may not capture regional variability in forest response to drought. We used multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and field measurements of coarse woody debris to estimate patterns of canopy turnover and associated carbon losses in intact and fragmented forests in the central Brazilian Amazon between 2013-2014 and 2014-2016. Average annualized canopy turnover rates increased by 65% during the drought period in both intact and fragmented forests. The average size and height of turnover events was similar for both time intervals, in contrast to expectations that the 2015-2016 El Niño drought would disproportionally affect large trees. Lidar-biomass relationships between canopy turnover and field measurements of coarse woody debris were modest (R 2  ≈ 0.3), given similar coarse woody debris production and Lidar-derived changes in canopy volume from single tree and multiple branch fall events. Our findings suggest that El Niño conditions accelerated canopy turnover in central Amazon forests, increasing coarse woody debris production by 62% to 1.22 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 in drought years . No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Modification of SrTiO3 single-crystalline surface after plasma flow treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Alexandr A.; Weissbach, Torsten; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kulagin, Nikolay A. [Kharkiv National University for Radioelectronics, av. Shakespeare 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Langer, Enrico [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Surface of pure and transition metal-doped SrTiO3(STO) single crystals before and after hydrogen plasma-flow treatment (energy of 5..20 J/cm2) is investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD), fluorescence X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Plasma treatment results in the formation of a textured polycrystalline layer at the surface of the single-crystalline samples with different orientation. The formation of the quasi-ordered structures consisting of nanoscale-sized pyramids is observed by SEM. XANES evidences the change of the valency of the part of Ti4+ to Ti3+ due to the plasma treatment. The data obtained together with results of X-ray spectroscopy measurements gives evidences of the change of stoichiometry of the STO samples resulting in a change of their physical properties after plasma treatment.

  3. Pathways of geomorphic evolution of sandstone escarpments in the Góry Stołowe tableland (SW Poland) - Insights from LiDAR-based high-resolution DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek

    2016-05-01

    The tableland of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland), with its prominent mesas and sandstone-capped escarpments, belongs to the most spectacular geomorphic landscapes of Central Europe. While the gross morphological features of the area have long been recognized, the evolutionary pathways of densely forested and poorly accessible escarpment slopes remained poorly understood. In this paper we use LiDAR data to shed a new light on landform inventories within the escarpments, their spatial patterns and, using process-from-form reasoning, on the longer-term evolution of the escarpments. Four sites, two on each major escarpment, have been subject to detailed analysis which involved examination of shaded relief, slope, plan and profile curvature and topographic wetness index. In each case, the 1 × 1 m model was used, while for the most complex site at Mt. Szczeliniec Wielki the results were compared with the 5 × 5 m model to check the impact of model resolution on geomorphic interpretation. Despite some loss of information involved in model re-interpolation to the coarser scale, the main features of escarpment morphology could still be recognized. On the other hand, automatic landform classification based on the calculation of Topographic Position Index from the 10 × 10 m model and performed for the entire tableland failed to reveal differences between various sections of the escarpments, detectable on finer models. The analysis of spatial patterns of minor landforms within the escarpments, identified on LiDAR-derived models shows that no single pathway of escarpment evolution exists. Both the upper slopes (in sandstone caprock) and the mid-slopes (in weaker rocks) show signs of instability and these are not necessarily coupled. Large-scale caprock failures do occur but seem rare and localized. Sandstone free faces are rather subject to continuous slow retreat by detachment of individual joint-bound blocks. Another zone of instability occurs well below the caprock and

  4. Preparation of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films on STO and LAO substrates by excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition using the KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Daoudi, K.; Manabe, T.; Yamaguchi, I.; Kumagai, T.

    2007-01-01

    La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 films were prepared on SrTiO 3 (STO) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) substrates using excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition (ELAMOD). For the LAO substrate, no epitaxial La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 film was obtained by laser irradiation in the fluence range from 60 to 110 mJ/cm 2 with heating at 500 deg. C. On the other hand, an epitaxial La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 film on the STO substrate was formed by laser irradiation in the fluence range from 60 to 100 mJ/cm 2 with heating at 500 deg. C. To optimize the electrical properties for an IR sensor, the effects of the laser fluence, the irradiation time and the film thickness on the temperature dependence of the resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR: defined as 1/R.(dR/dT)) of the LSMO films were investigated. An LSMO film on the STO substrate that showed the maximum TCR of 3.9% at 265 K was obtained by the ELAMOD process using the KrF laser

  5. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  6. How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee Turnover: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee turnover (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing turnover by 24%. (SK)

  7. Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.

  8. Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Boon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange

  9. Telaah Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Turnover Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Amran; Acep Rohendi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK Karyawan merupakan elemen yang sangat penting bagi perusahaan. Karyawan sebagai sumber daya manusia adalah penggerak utama berjalannya roda perusahaan sehingga perusahaan harus menjaga kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasional agar karyawan tidak berkeinginan untuk berpindah ke perusahaan lain (turnover intention). Hal ini perlu dikaji pengaruh kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasional terhadap turnover intention sehingga dapat bermanfaat untuk mengetahui nilai penting dari kepu...

  10. A Review of the Literature on Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing public schools are high levels of principal turnover. Given the important role that principals play and are expected to play in the improvement process, concerns about principal turnover have resulted in a growing body of research on its causes and consequences. The purpose of this review is to take stock of what…

  11. Health workforce acquisition, retention and turnover in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skill mix of health professionals, staff acquisition and turnover rate are among the major challenges for the delivery of quality health care. This study assessed the health workforce acquisition, retention, turnover rate and their intention to leave. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with quantitative and qualitative ...

  12. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  13. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  14. Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores. loS. Wilkinson and J.D. Skinner*. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 8 December 1986; accepted 11 August 1987. 22Na turnover rates gave overestimates of mean 23Na intake in both ...

  15. ON THE TURNOVER OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RHEE, MH; PELETIER, RF; VANALBADA, TS

    1995-01-01

    The observed turnover at the high linewidth end of the infrared Tully-Fisher relation can be explained by the stellar population differences among galaxies. When the IRAS 60 mu m fluxes are added to the Tully-Fisher relation as a second parameter, the turnover disappears and the scatter becomes

  16. Below the Surface of Special Education Administrator Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The field of special education administration has experienced a shortage of high quality special education leadership candidates for several decades. If school districts are to effectively address the turnover of educational leaders, they must know what is happening that affects turnover of their leadership team. The intent of this study was to…

  17. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  18. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding/fasting and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regards to protein turnover......, there is now consistent data from tracer studies in rodents and humans showing that global protein synthesis is blunted in working skeletal muscle. Whether there is altered skeletal muscle protein breakdown during exercise remains unclear. The blunting of protein synthesis is believed to be mediated...... downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work...

  19. One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W; Lee, Thomas W; Shaw, Jason D; Hausknecht, John P

    2017-03-01

    We review seminal publications on employee turnover during the 100-year existence of the Journal of Applied Psychology . Along with classic articles from this journal, we expand our review to include other publications that yielded key theoretical and methodological contributions to the turnover literature. We first describe how the earliest papers examined practical methods for turnover reduction or control and then explain how theory development and testing began in the mid-20th century and dominated the academic literature until the turn of the century. We then track 21st century interest in the psychology of staying (rather than leaving) and attitudinal trajectories in predicting turnover. Finally, we discuss the rising scholarship on collective turnover given the centrality of human capital flight to practitioners and to the field of human resource management strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KERJA TERHADAP KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agi Syarif Hidayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The high level of employee turnover in the marketing department at PT. Toyamilindo indicates low organizational commitment and high turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and turnover intention. Quantitative methods are used in this study. Population is the  employees of marketing department at PT. Toyamilindo with 50 people. Sampling technique used is sampling saturated with the number of samples of 50 people. Data collection technique uses questionnaires and regression analysis. Finding on the research results shows that there are positive and significant influence of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and negative and significant influence of job satisfaction on turnover intention, and also the influence of organizational commitment on work satisfaction to turnover intention. The managerial implications of corporate leaders must improve employee work satisfaction, especially in terms of salary.

  1. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  2. Perceptions of hospital CEOs about the effects of CEO turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Amir A; Thompson, David M; Walston, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence is scarce on chief executive officer (CEO) turnover in U.S. hospitals, with potentially serious implications for many of these organizations. This study, based on a nationwide survey of CEOs at non-federal general surgical and medical community hospitals conducted in the spring of 2004, reports the perceptions of hospital CEOs regarding the circumstances and impact of CEO turnover on U.S. hospitals. In the opinion of the respondents, the impact includes competitors taking advantage of turnover by luring employees and physicians away from the target hospital, significantly increasing the likelihood of other senior executives leaving the hospital, and many of the important strategic activities being delayed or cancelled altogether. Interestingly, the perceptions of CEOs regarding the effects of turnover do not seem to differ regardless of voluntary or involuntary circumstances of turnover. However, there is a notable bias in emphasizing the perceived negative implications of respondents' own departures and allegedly positive effects of their predecessors' departures.

  3. Formation and Maintenance of Robust Long-Term Information Storage in the Presence of Synaptic Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fauth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing problem is how memories can be stored for very long times despite the volatility of the underlying neural substrate, most notably the high turnover of dendritic spines and synapses. To address this problem, here we are using a generic and simple probabilistic model for the creation and removal of synapses. We show that information can be stored for several months when utilizing the intrinsic dynamics of multi-synapse connections. In such systems, single synapses can still show high turnover, which enables fast learning of new information, but this will not perturb prior stored information (slow forgetting, which is represented by the compound state of the connections. The model matches the time course of recent experimental spine data during learning and memory in mice supporting the assumption of multi-synapse connections as the basis for long-term storage.

  4. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097

  5. How serious of a problem is staff turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P

    2010-10-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resistive switching behavior in single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} annealed by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xinqiang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Shuai, Yao, E-mail: yshuai@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wu, Chuangui, E-mail: cgwu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Wenbo [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Sun, Xiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Ou, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Material for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Wanli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Laser annealing was used to introduce oxygen vacancies into the single crystal SrTiO{sub 3}. • The effect of laser annealing with different fluence on the single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} was systematically studied. • The concentration of oxygen vacancies can be tuned by changing the fluence of laser. • Resistive switching behavior was observed in the sample with relatively high laser fluence after an electro-forming process. - Abstract: Single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) wafers were annealed by XeCl laser (λ = 308 nm) with different fluences of 0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} and 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Ti/Pt electrodes were sputtered on the surface of STO wafer to form co-planar capacitor-like structures of Pt/Ti/STO/Ti/Pt. Current-Voltage measurements show that the leakage current is enhanced by increasing laser fluence. Resistive switching behavior is only observed in the sample annealed by laser with relatively high fluence after an electro-forming process. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the amount of oxygen vacancies increases with the increase of laser fluence. This work indicates resistive switching appears when enough oxygen vacancies are generated by the laser, which form conductive filaments under an external electric field.

  7. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover ...

  8. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A

    2007-03-01

    In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with turnover intentions and turnover). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and turnover) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. An Analysis of the Effects of Deployment on Turnover in the United States Army Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCloskey, Michele

    1999-01-01

    .... Survey questions were developed using motivation and turnover theories, and a Integrated Turnover Model relating a Reservist's deployment experience to the presence or absence of six major factors...

  10. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M

    2010-09-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.

  11. Understanding the factors that determine registered nurses' turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Joseph; Uzoka, Faith-Michael; Aladi, Flora; El-Hussein, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Turnover among registered nurses (RNs) produces a negative impact on the health outcomes of any health care organization. It is also recognized universally as a problem in the nursing profession. Little is known about the turnover intentions and career orientations of RNs working in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of and to advance the discussion on the turnover of nursing professionals. The study population consisted of RNs employed in the five major hospitals in Calgary. There were 193 surveys returned, representing a response rate of 77.2%. The results show that age and education have a negative effect on turnover intention. Education was found to have a significant negative effect on career satisfaction but not on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Length of service has a significant negative effect on turnover intention. Role ambiguity has significant highly negative effect on career satisfaction. Growth opportunity and supervisor support have a very significant positive effect on job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment. External career opportunities and organizational commitment do not seem to have a significant effect on turnover intention. Career satisfaction, on the other hand, had negative significant effects on turnover intention.

  12. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  13. Employee turnover and productivity among small business entities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the problems of employee turnover on productivity among small business entities in Nigeria, and recommend remedial actions. Employee turnover is the separation of employees from employers and replacement with other employees. Productive manpower is a critical element for the economic survival of any small business entity. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 320 respondents. Data generated were analyzed by using descriptive, and Z-test statistical techniques. It was found that employee turnover adversely affects productivity in small business entities.

  14. Turnover and employment in the German wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuper, A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the fast growing wind energy market in 1994 are the turnover reaching more than 800 million DM, and the number of employees to about 3,700. In 1995 the manufacturers expect to need less than 4 employees to build and to install 1 MW rated power and to decrease the ratio of manufacturer's turnover per installed power unit to about 1900 DM/kW. In spite of this development it is expected that the turnover and the number of employees will increase due to the still fast growing market. (orig.)

  15. The curvilinear effect of work engagement on employees' turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesens, Gaëtane; Stinglhamber, Florence; Marmier, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown the positive consequences of work engagement for both organisations and employees experiencing it. For instance, research has demonstrated that work-engaged employees have lower levels of turnover intentions than non-engaged employees. However, in this research, we examined whether there is a dark side of work engagement. More precisely, we investigated whether the relationship between work engagement and employees' turnover intentions might be non-linear. Based on two different samples, our results indicated that the relationship between work engagement and employees' turnover intentions is curvilinear. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors--a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-04-19

    During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.

  17. Reversible tuning of a series of intergrowth phases of the Ruddlesden-Popper type SrO(SrTiO3)n in an (001) SrTiO3 single-crystalline plate by an external electric field and its potential use for adaptive X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.C.; Levin, A.A.; Leisegang, T.; Gutmann, E.; Paufler, P.; Reibold, M.; Pompe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Reversible structural changes of near-electrode regions of an (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) single-crystal plate with perovskite-type of structure in an external electric field are described as the tunable and reversible formation of a significant volume of domains containing Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of composition SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n with variable n. Compositional changes are discussed to be caused by electromigration of ion complexes in the static electric field, i.e., by solid state electrolysis of the perovskite STO. Electromigration is initiated by the electric field which then stabilizes the RP domains formed. The RP domains can be described as coherently intergrown with the surrounding perovskite matrix. The X-ray scattering behaviour of these intergrowths, compared with the perovskite STO, suggests the technical use of the phenomenon for adaptive X-ray optics. (orig.)

  18. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  19. A Comprehensive Model of the Employee's Turnover Decision Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donnelly, David

    2002-01-01

    .... In any environment in which retention is a primary goal, an essential first step in controlling attrition is the development of an in-depth understanding of the employee turnover decision process...

  20. Wind energy industry in Germany. Turnover and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuper, A.; Schmidt, A.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of the growing wind energy market in Germany the importance of the industry in this business are has grown. In 1994 the turnover will go beyond 500 million DM, and the number of employees will reach 2,900. The turnover and the number of employees are increasing in spite of the higher efficiency. In 1994 only 5 employees are needed by a manufacturer to install 1 MW rated power instead of 15 in 1989, and the ratio of installed power to manufacturer's turnover has risen from 0,25 W/DM in 1988 to 0,455 W/DM in 1994. On the other hand the turnover of the manufacturers per employee has increased from 80,000 DM in 1988 to 440,000 DM in 1994. Economic development has considerably been advanced by subsidies for the application of wind energy technology. (orig.)

  1. SOME FEATURES OF CONTROL STAFF TURNOVER IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kaznacheeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to the decision of the actual problem of staff turnover in the transformation of the Russian economy. In light of the problem of the effectiveness of human resources management the author indicates the most frequent problems faced by the company and focus on the problem of staff turnover. The author presents a different interpretation, defining "Marketing personnel" as a kind of administrative activity aimed at ensuring the long-term organization of human resources (identifying staffing needs, and these needs, that is, covering the organization's needs for personnel. It highlights the main features and distinctive features of marketing staff. We consider the objective (external and subjective reasons (internal reasons for staff turnover. The author proposes a number of measures to help identify the causes of turnover.

  2. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  3. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    With [ 3 H]cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways

  4. survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria. Data were .... to be making more money than them were more dissatisfied with ... postulates that an employee is a rational decision maker, hence, he makes efforts that lead to a ...

  5. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  6. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and

  7. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K.; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Huebner, Christian A.; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication(1). Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements

  8. Rationale for the evaluation of trabecular bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, D.B.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the morphometric evaluation of trabecular bone is identified. Its scrupulous use allows total identification of bone formation and resorption rates, items necessary for the direct histologic analysis of bone turnover

  9. In vivo human apolipoprotein E isoform fractional turnover rates in the CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R Wildsmith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and has been implicated in the risk for other neurological disorders. The three common ApoE isoforms (ApoE2, E3, and E4 each differ by a single amino acid, with ApoE4 increasing and ApoE2 decreasing the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Both the isoform and amount of ApoE in the brain modulate AD pathology by altering the extent of amyloid beta (Aβ peptide deposition. Therefore, quantifying ApoE isoform production and clearance rates may advance our understanding of the role of ApoE in health and disease. To measure the kinetics of ApoE in the central nervous system (CNS, we applied in vivo stable isotope labeling to quantify the fractional turnover rates of ApoE isoforms in 18 cognitively-normal adults and in ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted-replacement mice. No isoform-specific differences in CNS ApoE3 and ApoE4 turnover rates were observed when measured in human CSF or mouse brain. However, CNS and peripheral ApoE isoform turnover rates differed substantially, which is consistent with previous reports and suggests that the pathways responsible for ApoE metabolism are different in the CNS and the periphery. We also demonstrate a slower turnover rate for CSF ApoE than that for amyloid beta, another molecule critically important in AD pathogenesis.

  10. Employee motivation development opportunities seeking to reduce employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Pilukienė, Laura; Kšivickaitė, Gertūda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyse one of the main nowadays human resources problem – growing employee turnover. Employee motivation process is analysed as a key competitive advantage in employee retention that leads to the growth of the business company’s productivity and competitive stability. The main goal of the article is to analyse the employee motivation and employee turnover relationship and its development possibilities in Lithuania’s business sector.

  11. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Musashi; Ariella Coler-Reilly; Teruaki Nagasawa; Yoshiki Kubota; Satomi Kato; Yoko Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid ...

  12. Turnover rate of hypoxic cells in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.E.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.J.W.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and both the amount and duration of tumor hypoxia has been shown to influence the effect of radiation treatment negatively. It is important to understand the dynamic processes within the hypoxic cell population in non-treated tumors, and the effect of different treatment modalities on the kinetics of hypoxic cells to be able to design optimal combined modality treatments. The turnover rate of hypoxic cells was analyzed in three different solid tumor models with a double bio-reductive hypoxic marker assay with sequential injection of the two hypoxic markers. Previously it was shown that this assay could be used to detect both a decrease and an increase of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature with high spatial resolution. In this study the first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times relative to tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. The hypoxic cell turnover rate was calculated as the loss of pimonidazole positive cells relative to CCI-103F. The murine C38 line had the fastest hypoxic turnover rate of 60% /24h and the human xenograft line SCCNij3 had the slowest hypoxic turnover rate of 30% /24 h. The hypoxic turnover rate was most heterogeneous in the SCCNij3 line that even contained viable groups of cells that had been hypoxic for at least 5 days. The human xenograft line MEC82 fell in between with a hypoxic turnover rate of 50% /24 h. The hypoxic cell turnover was related to the potential tumor volume doubling time (Tpot) with a Tpot of 26h in C38 and 103h in SCCNij3. The dynamics of hypoxic cells, quantified with a double hypoxic marker method, showed large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rate and were related to Tpot

  13. Physician and staff turnover in community primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Mary; Gotler, Robin S; Goodwin, Meredith A; Stange, Kurt C

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a rapidly changing healthcare system on personnel turnover in community family practices has not been analyzed. We describe physician and staff turnover and examine its association with practice characteristics and patient outcomes. A cross-sectional evaluation of length of employment of 150 physicians and 762 staff in 77 community family practices in northeast Ohio was conducted. Research nurses collected data using practice genograms, key informant interviews, staff lists, practice environment checklists, medical record reviews, and patient questionnaires. The association of physician and staff turnover with practice characteristics, patient satisfaction, and preventive service data was tested. During a 2-year period, practices averaged a 53% turnover rate of staff. The mean length of duration of work at the current practice location was 9.1 years for physicians and 4.1 years for staff. Longevity varied by position, with a mean of 3.4 years for business employees, 4.0 years for clinical employees, and 7.8 years for office managers. Network-affiliated practices experienced higher turnover than did independent practices. Physician longevity was associated with a practice focus on managing chronic illness, keeping on schedule, and responding to insurers' requests. No association was found between turnover and patient satisfaction or preventive service delivery rates. Personnel turnover is pervasive in community primary care practices and is associated with employee role, practice network affiliation, and practice focus. The potentially disruptive effect of personnel turnover on practice functioning, finances, and longitudinal relationships with patients deserves further study despite the reassuring lack of association with patient satisfaction and preventive service delivery rates.

  14. Corporate governance mechanisms in family firms: Evidence from CEO turnovers

    OpenAIRE

    González, Maximiliano; Guzmán, Alexander; Pombo, Carlos; Trujillo, María Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue: How sensitive is CEO turnover to firm performance in the context of family firms? Research Findings/Insights: Using a detailed database of mostly non-listed Colombian firms, we found that family ownership (direct and indirect through pyramidal structures) reduces the probability of CEO turnover when financial performance has been poor; however, we found that the opposite effect is true when families participate actively on the board of directors. These results hold tr...

  15. The Modern Technologies to Reduce Turnover of Company Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiko Tetiana O.; Poplavska Oksana M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing and substantiating the use in practice of modern technologies to reduce turnover of staff, which do not bear significant financial costs for the company. The authors have proved that non-material measures to reduce staff turnover in companies are becoming predominant nowadays. Among them as the most important are indicated: introduction of flexible schedule (mode) of work, transition to the remote form of employment, and distribution of internal shares, in pa...

  16. Prediction of Employee Turnover in Organizations using Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Punnoose; Pankaj Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Employee turnover has been identified as a key issue for organizations because of its adverse impact on work place productivity and long term growth strategies. To solve this problem, organizations use machine learning techniques to predict employee turnover. Accurate predictions enable organizations to take action for retention or succession planning of employees. However, the data for this modeling problem comes from HR Information Systems (HRIS); these are typically under-funded compared t...

  17. Kramers Turnover Theory for a Triple Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.; Talkner, P.

    2001-01-01

    Kramers turnover theory is solved for a particle in a symmetric triple well potential for temperatures above the crossover temperature between tunneling and activated barrier crossing. Comparison with the turnover theory for a double well potential shows that the presence of the intermediate well always leads to a decrease of the reaction rate. At most though, the rate is a factor of two smaller than in the case of a double well potential. (author)

  18. Telaah Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amran

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT       Employees are the most important resources of company. They are human resources to do and move all of the activities of company. Therefore, company needs to keep and maintain their job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to reduce the intention to leave the company (turnover intention. It is necessary to study the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. This will give benefit to determine the important values of employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment and its influences on turnover intention. The research methods are descriptive survey and verificative survey that is used to assess the performance of independent variables: those are job satisfaction and organizational commitment,  and dependent variable: that is turnover intention with doing observation to employees of PT. Alexindo Bekasi. The result of this research is there is influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention. This research is the improvement of existing researches which can be applied in the other companies specially for the human resource or employee behavior field.   Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention

  19. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  20. Turnover intention among intensive care unit nurses in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallam, Rasha; Hamidi, Samer; Elrefaay, Manal

    2015-06-01

    Given the difficulty in recruiting new nurses, it is imperative to retain those already in the profession. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship of demographic and work-related factors, burnout, conflict management and relationship between nurses and physicians on turnover intentions among ICU nurses in eight major hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. Data on burnout, conflict management, nurse-physician communication, and turnover intention were collected by surveying 100 nurses in eight hospitals in Alexandria governorate. All nurses at the ICU of selected hospitals were approached (n=100) and a 47-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of ICU nurses in Alexandria. ICU nurses exhibited a mean score for turnover intention of 3.23 (mean score percentage 65.0%). There was a moderately positive statistically significant correlation between turnover intention and emotional exhaustion (r=0.29, Pturnover intention were emotional exhaustion and age. Nurses turnover intention at the ICU of the selected hospitals is high and is significantly associated with nurses' emotional exhaustion, poor nurse-physician communication, and nurses age.

  1. Stable isotopic constraints on global soil organic carbon turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Dongwei; Hou, Jianfeng; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Carbon dioxide release during soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is a pivotal component of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. However, reliably measuring SOC turnover rates on large spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Here we use a natural carbon isotope approach, defined as beta (β), which was quantified from the δ13C of vegetation and soil reported in the literature (176 separate soil profiles), to examine large-scale controls of climate, soil physical properties and nutrients over patterns of SOC turnover across terrestrial biomes worldwide. We report a significant relationship between β and calculated soil C turnover rates (k), which were estimated by dividing soil heterotrophic respiration rates by SOC pools. ln( - β) exhibits a significant linear relationship with mean annual temperature, but a more complex polynomial relationship with mean annual precipitation, implying strong-feedbacks of SOC turnover to climate changes. Soil nitrogen (N) and clay content correlate strongly and positively with ln( - β), revealing the additional influence of nutrients and physical soil properties on SOC decomposition rates. Furthermore, a strong (R2 = 0.76; p turnover and thereby improving predictions of multiple global change influences over terrestrial C-climate feedback.

  2. Factors influencing turnover intention among registered nurses in Samar Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; Gloe, Donna; McEnroe, Denise M; Konstantinos, Kostas; Colet, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Despite the massive nurse migration and turnover of nurses in the Philippines, there remains a lack of studies describing factors influencing the migration of Filipino nurses. This study explored the effects of nurses' characteristics, work satisfaction, and work stress with the intent to leave an organization among registered nurses in the Philippines. This study utilized a descriptive, cross-sectional approach. One hundred sixty six (166) nurses participated in the study during the months of September 2015 to December 2015. Three standardized instruments were used in the study: Job Satisfaction Index (JSI), Job Stress Scale (JSS), and Turnover Intention Inventory Scale (TIIS). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Nurses' ages were found to significantly influence their turnover intentions. Job satisfaction (β=-0.47, p=0.001) and job stress (β=0.23, p=0.001) strongly predicted turnover intentions in the nurses. The mean values for the job satisfaction scale, job stress scale, and turnover intention inventory scale were 3.13 (SD=0.60), 2.74 (SD=0.71), and 2.43 (SD=0.67) respectively. Several predictors of turnover intentions were determined in this study through nurses' age, job satisfaction, and job stress as being the most influential factors. Efforts to increase nurses' job satisfaction and reduce job stress should be implemented to halt further loss of these skilled groups of healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions: evidence from Nigerian paramilitary organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotun Olaleye Faloye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical link between different dimensions of organizational commitment and turnover intentions on Nigeria paramilitary organisation. A literature review of organizational commitment and employee turnover provides the basis for the research hypotheses. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 95% and 99% confidence level. The study adopted a survey research design. A self-administered questionnaire was used, involving 144 respondents from selected paramilitary organisation in Akure, Nigeria to collect data and testing the existing theory. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. In contrary to theory, the study revealed a weak positive relationship between organizational commitment dimensions (affective, continuance and normative and turnover intentions. The relationships are statistically significant expect the one between turnover intention and normative commitment which is statistically insignificant. The study concluded that the commitment of an employee to organisational goals, missions, and values is not enough to predict his/her stay in the organisation. There are other variables apart from organisational commitment that are predictor of employees’ intentions to quit. Thus, organisations should look beyond forces in their internal environment, when considering reduction in employee’s turnover intentions and the actual employee’s turnover.

  4. Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…

  5. Explaining the Gap in Charter and Traditional Public School Teacher Turnover Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data to examine why charter school teachers are more likely to turnover than their traditional public school counterparts. We test whether the turnover gap is explained by different distributions of factors that are empirically and theoretically linked to turnover risk. We find that the turnover rate of charter…

  6. Whole-body protein turnover of a carnivore, Felis silvestris catus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K; Lobley, G E; Millward, D J

    2003-01-01

    The cat (Felis silvestris catus) has a higher dietary protein requirement than omnivores and herbivores, thought to be due to metabolic inflexibility. An aspect of metabolic flexibility was examined with studies of whole-body protein turnover at two levels of dietary protein energy, moderate protein (MP; 20 %) and high protein (HP; 70 %), in five adult cats in a crossover design. Following a 14 d pre-feed period, a single intravenous dose of [15N]glycine was administered and cumulative excretion of the isotope in urine and faeces determined over 48 h. N flux increased (Pwork is required to determine exactly why cats have such a high protein requirement.

  7. Turnover of registered nurses in Israel: characteristics and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toren, Orly; Zelker, Revital; Lipschuetz, Michal; Riba, Shoshana; Reicher, Sima; Nirel, Nurit

    2012-05-01

    In an era of global and local nursing shortages, nursing turnover has negative consequences in terms of diminished quality of care, increased costs and economic losses and decreased job satisfaction. To examine the turnover rate of registered nurses in Israel by assessing the varying degree of turnover between economic sectors, between hospital and community facilities, and/or between types of hospitals; and by examining potential predicting factors of turnover among registered nurses. A national phone survey was undertaken in Israel consisting of a random sampling of registered nurses of working age (up to age 60). The subjects comprised 10% of a national database of 32,000 registered nurses. The turnover rate among working nurses in Israel currently stands at 23%. In addition, 13% of employed nurses have taken a temporary leave of absence for a period greater than 6 months in the past 10 years, most up to 1 year. While job satisfaction rates were relatively high (72%), Professional satisfaction rates were 60% with no significant difference between hospital and community nurses. The turnover rate of registered nurses from a hospital setting to the community was significantly higher (pcommunity registered nurses to hospitals. Predicting factors of turnover were found to be: young age, part-time work, lack of advanced professional education, academic education and low satisfaction with the nursing profession. The shift of nursing workforce is mainly from hospitals to community health settings. There is a need to monitor and understand the characteristics of job and professional satisfaction among hospital nurses in order to implement crucial organizational interventions and retain hospital nursing staffs. Since young nurses, nurses working part time and nurses with no advanced professional and academic education, tend to move more than others, efforts should be targeted at these specific groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case study into labour turnover within an NHS Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, David; Hall, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    This paper investigates turnover in a British NHS Trust, to find out why staff left and whether factors identified in the literature with regards to improving turnover were pertinent to the organization. The research also investigated staff groups with high turnover--staff with less than 12 months service, and the unqualified nursing staff group--to ascertain whether there were any reasons for leaving or areas of dissatisfaction particular to these groups. The outcomes of the research complied with much of the published research with some interesting differences. The main reasons for leaving were identified as moving house, promotion or career development and taking up education and training opportunities elsewhere. There was no evidence of 'level of pay', commonly given as a significant influence behind turnover, as a reason for leaving. It was also found that the retention strategies identified in the published research were mainly applicable to the research, with evidence to support the improvement of line management skills, training and development, career development, appraisal, communications and induction in order to reduce turnover. There was less evidence for introducing work-life balance policies, improving communications, pay and working relationships as retention strategies. Recommendations for future management of labour turnover within the NHS Trust and elsewhere are made, with observations about the validity of some existing models. The core contribution of this research is in adding to the body of knowledge about labour turnover issues. This is of value to those working in the UK health-care and wider public sector. Specific recommendations for future research are made.

  9. A multilevel investigation on nursing turnover intention: the cross-level role of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Leiter, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    To analyse nursing turnover intention from the unit by using multilevel approach, examining at the individual level, the relationships between job characteristics, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and at the group level the role of leader-member exchange. Research on nursing turnover has given little attention to the effects of multilevel factors. Aggregated data of 935 nurses nested within 74 teams of four Italian hospitals were collected in 2009 via a self-administered questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling showed that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between job characteristics and intention to leave at the individual level. At the unit level, leader-member exchange was directly linked to intention to leave. Furthermore, cross-level interaction revealed that leader-member exchange moderated the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. This study supported previous research in single-level turnover studies concerning the key role of job satisfaction, providing evidence that job characteristics are important in creating motivating and satisfying jobs. At the unit-level, leader-member exchange offers an approach to understand the role of unit-specific conditions created by leaders on nurses' workplace wellbeing. This study showed that it is important for nursing managers to recognise the relevance of implementing management practices that foster healthy workplaces centred on high-quality nurse-supervisor relationships. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 'Culture and memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande/MG Quilombola community' program - case study: environmental licensing progress for the Rio de Janeiro-Belo Horizonte Gas Pipeline (GASBEL II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Environmental Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States); Bartolini, Marcia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program was included in the environmental licensing process of the Rio de Janeiro-Minas Gerais gas pipeline ('GASBEL II'), as requested by the Palmares Cultural Foundation (Fundacao Cultural Palmares), which stipulates the elaboration and implementation of this program as a condition for obtaining the installation license. To develop the program and submit it to this institution, we used methodological procedures in the form of an anthropological social research, such as: interviews with the community's older or most active residents, and a preliminary recognition of the territory and the local culture; all in order to learn more about the community's history and current needs and to identify the remaining 'quilombolas' still living in the community. Analyzing the information raised the need for guided actions designed to rescue the community's cultural memory as an ethnic group and to contribute to its process of affirmation as a Traditional Rural 'Quilombola' Community. This led to the creation of the proposed 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program, currently being developed for the Quilombola Community located in Ressaquinha, in the State of Minas Gerais. (author)

  11. Investigating the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model: how does nursing competence affect nurses' turnover intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Teraoka, Sachiko; Kousuke, Yabase

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model, which was developed to identify how nursing competence could affect nurses' turnover intention (nurses' intention to voluntarily leave an organisation). Recent studies have suggested that the level of nursing competence is negatively related to nurses' intention to leave their jobs, suggesting that a lack of competence threatens both the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce. However, the mechanism of how nursing competence affects nurses' turnover intention has not been explored previously. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Surveys were distributed to 1337 Japanese registered nurses/midwives in October, 2013. The adequacy of the model was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 766 questionnaires were returned, with a return rate of 57%. The model fitted well with the data. The results showed that the level of nursing competence was related positively to the quantity of organisational rewards they felt they had received, and negatively related to the level of exhaustion they experienced. Moreover, the perceived organisational rewards and exhaustion were correlated with nurses' turnover intention through affective commitment. The Competence-Turnover Intention Model is useful for explaining how nursing competence impacts on their turnover intention. Clinical implications derived from the findings are that: promoting nursing competence is key to improving not only the quality of care provided by nurses, but also to retaining the nursing workforce, and the model can be used to develop strategies that would mitigate their turnover intention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Cost of nursing turnover in a Teaching Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Paula Buck de Oliveira; Perroca, Marcia Galan; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    To map the sub processes related to turnover of nursing staff and to investigate and measure the nursing turnover cost. This is a descriptive-exploratory study, classified as case study, conducted in a teaching hospital in the southeastern, Brazil, in the period from May to November 2013. The population was composed by the nursing staff, using Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. The total cost of turnover was R$314.605,62, and ranged from R$2.221,42 to R$3.073,23 per employee. The costs of pre-hire totaled R$101.004,60 (32,1%), and the hiring process consumed R$92.743,60 (91.8%) The costs of post-hire totaled R$213.601,02 (67,9%), for the sub process decreased productivity, R$199.982,40 (93.6%). The study identified the importance of managing the cost of staff turnover and the financial impact of the cost of the employee termination, which represented three times the average salary of the nursing staff.

  14. Investigation on the turnover of plant proteins. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Winkler, E.; Jung, K.; Huebner, G.

    1981-01-01

    Based on kinetic analyses of amino acid and protein turnover by means of compartment models the synthesis and degradation of the soluble proteins in etiolated epicotyl segments of Pisum sativum L. as well as their dependence on the herbicide 2'-methyl-4'-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were determined quantitatively. The segments were incubated for 10 h in a medium containing 14 C-leucine and subsequently placed in an inactive medium. The radioactivity in the soluble proteins and in the amino acid fraction was followed up for a total of 24 h. A 3-pool model in which the total measurable amino acid pool was divided into a direct precursor pool for protein synthesis and into a degradation pool was best suited to interpret the data. The turnover rate for the soluble proteins of untreated epicotyl segments was determined to be 0.058 h -1 ; at an MCPA concentration of 10 -4 M this value was nearly doubled. An increased proteolytic activity in the epicotyl segments ran parallel to the change of the turnover rate in dependence on MCPA concentration. The heterogeneity of the soluble protein with respect to the turnover rate was investigated by means of 3 H/ 14 C double labelling for individual protein fractions separated by gel electrophoresis. The results obtained in this way were comparable with those of the total pool turnover. (author)

  15. Changes of Protein Turnover in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bauer, Sophie; Brewer, Heather M.; Smith, Richard D.; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2017-07-05

    Protein turnover rates severely decline in aging organisms, including C. elegans. However, limited information is available on turnover dynamics at the individual protein level during aging. We followed changes in protein turnover at one-day resolution using a multiple-pulse 15Nlabeling and accurate mass spectrometry approach. Forty percent of the proteome shows gradual slowdown in turnover with age, whereas only few proteins show increased turnover. Decrease in protein turnover was consistent for only a minority of functionally related protein subsets, including tubulins and vitellogenins, whereas randomly diverging turnover patterns with age were the norm. Our data suggests increased heterogeneity of protein turnover of the translation machinery, whereas protein turnover of ubiquitin-proteasome and antioxidant systems are well-preserved over time. Hence, we presume that maintenance of quality control mechanisms is a protective strategy in aging worms, although the ultimate proteome collapse is inescapable.

  16. Quality of working life: an antecedent to employee turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees' QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees' QWL and their intention to leave the organization. A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. This study empirically examined the relationships between employees' QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees' QWL and subsequently reduce employees' turnover.

  17. Estimation of Employee Turnover with Competing Risks Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzenda Wioletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Employee turnover accompanies every business organization, regardless of the industry and size. Nowadays, many companies struggle with problems related to the lack of sufficient information about the nature of employee turnover processes. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of these processes is necessary. This article aims to examine the turnover of employees from a big manufacturing company using competing risks models with covariates and without covariates. This technique allows to incorporate the information about the type of employment contract termination. Moreover, Cox proportional hazard model enables the researcher to analyse simultaneously multiple factors that affect employment duration. One of the major observations is that employee remuneration level differentiates most strongly the risk of job resignation.

  18. PENGARUH JOB SATISFACTION TERHADAP OCB DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febru Rida Ningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide the impact of job satisfaction to OCB and turnover intention. This study used a quantitative method with a statistical analysis. Simple analysis regression used to test each hypotheses. The object of this research is a branch of national bank. Population in this research are entire employees of a brach of national bank that is e non frontliner employees. Non-probability sampling is used of this reseach. The measurement of job satiafaction and turnover intention variables used likert scale that developed by Rinaldi (2008 and measurement of OCB variable adopted from  Organ (1988.  The result of this research has shown that hypotheses one is rejected and hypotheses two is accepted. Eventually, through this article, an understanding that job satisfaction does not significantly influence to OCB but job satisfaction has significant influence to turnover intention.

  19. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W

    2015-03-11

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases.

  20. Cogema in 1996: increasing turnover and stable net results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This short article gives some financial informations about the Cogema group for 1996. The net result for 1996 reached 977 millions of French Francs (FF) with respect to 973 for the previous year. The turnover reached 34.427 billions of FF in 1996 and 30.611 in 1995, which represents a 12.5% growth. In the mining sector, the turnover has decreased to 2.853 billions of FF with respect to 3.238 in 1995. In the engineering and industry services sector the turnover of the overall companies, with the exception of Cogema, has considerably progressed (2.199 billions of FF in 1996, 1.738 in 1995). (J.S.)

  1. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, J. L.; Jackman, S. R.; Scott, S.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) sm...

  2. Peningkatan Komitmen Organisasi untuk Menurunkan Angka Turnover Karyawan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Halimsetiono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Komitmen organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai suatu sikap yang harus dimiliki oleh setiap pegawai untuk menunjukkan loyalitas terhadap organisasi tempat mereka bekerja. Pada dasarnya, komitmen organisasi berkaitan erat dengan aspek-aspek psikologis dalam menerima dan memercayai nilai-nilai dan tujuan organisasi yang muncul sebagai keinginan untuk tetap mempertahankan keanggotaan dalam organisasi. Permasalahan yang sering dikaitkan dengan rendahnya komitmen organisasi adalah pindah kerja (turnover. Masalah ini memiliki dampak yang merugikan organisasi karena dapat menghambat efektivitas dan efisiensi kerja yang selanjutnya akan menurunkan tingkat produktivitas organisasi. Oleh karena itu, untuk mencegah tingginya turnover karyawan, organisasi perlu meningkatkan komitmen organisasi karyawannya. Caranya adalah dengan mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang memengaruhi komitmen organisasi dan bagaimana cara untuk meningkatkan komitmen organisasi tersebut. Artikel ini membahas faktor-faktor apa saja yang memengaruhi komitmen organisasi dan cara-cara yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan komitmen organisasi sebagai upaya untuk menurunkan angka turnover karyawan. Organizational commitment can be interpreted as an attitude that should be owned by every employee to demonstrate loyalty to the organization where they work. Basically, organizational commitment is closely related to the psychological aspects in the acceptance and confidence to the values and objectives of the organization that are presented through the existence of a desire to maintain membership in the organization. Problems which are associated with low organizational commitment is turnover. This problem has an adverse impact on the organization because it can inhibit the effectiveness and efficiency of the work that would lower the level of productivity of the organization. Therefore, to prevent the high employee turnover, the organization should increase the organizational commitment of

  3. 'Memory and molecular turnover,' 30 years after inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    In 1984 Sir Francis Crick hypothesized that memory is recorded in the brain as reversible modifications to DNA and protein, but acknowledged that most biomolecules turn over too rapidly to account for long-term memories. To accommodate this possible paradox he modeled an enzymatic mechanism to maintain modifications on hemi-modified multimeric symmetrical molecules. While studies on the turnover of chromatin modifications that may be involved in memory are in their infancy, an exploration of his model in the light of modern epigenetics produced somewhat surprising results. The molecular turnover rates for two classes of chromatin modifications believed to record and store durable memories were approximated from experiments using diverse approaches and were found to be remarkably short. The half-lives of DNA cytosine methylation and post-translationally modified nucleosomal histones are measured in hours and minutes, respectively, for a subset of sites on chromatin controlling gene expression. It appears likely that the turnover of DNA methylation in the brain and in neurons, in particular, is even more rapid than in other cell types and organs, perhaps accommodating neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. The machinery responsible for the rapid turnover of DNA methylation and nucleosomal histone modifications is highly complex, partially redundant, and appears to act in a sequence specific manner. Molecular symmetry plays an important part in maintaining site-specific turnover, but its particular role in memory maintenance is unknown. Elucidating Crick's paradox, the contradiction between rapid molecular turnover of modified biomolecules and long-term memory storage, appears fundamental to understanding cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Platelet monoamine oxidase: specific activity and turnover number in headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, K.M.; Brown, G.K.; Craig, I.W.; Peatfield, R.; Rose, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase turnover numbers (molecules of substrate converted to product per minute per active site) have been calculated for the human platelet enzyme using [ 3 H]pargyline. Headache patients with high and low monoamine oxidase specific activities relative to controls were found to have turnover numbers very close to those for controls. This finding suggests that their specific activities vary because of differences in the concentration of active monoamine oxidase molecules, rather than differences in the ability of those enzyme molecules to catalyse the deamination reaction. (Auth.)

  5. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  6. Substance Abuse-Specific Knowledge Transfer or Loss? Treatment Program Turnover versus Professional Turnover among Substance Abuse Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Curtis, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clinicians had to voluntarily leave their current treatment program. Eligible clinicians completed a quantitative survey while employed and a qualitative post-employment exit interview 1 year later. Compared to those that exited the SA profession (N = 99), clinicians who changed treatment programs (N = 120) had greater SA-specific formal knowledge and were more likely to be personally in recovery. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of SA-specific practical knowledge. PMID:25115318

  7. Exploring correlates of turnover among nursing assistants in the National Nursing Home Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, April; Dobbs, Debra; Andel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    High turnover of nursing assistants (NAs) has implications for the quality of nursing home care. Greater understanding of correlates of NA turnover is needed to provide insight into possible retention strategies. This study examined nursing home organizational characteristics and specific job characteristics of staff in relation to turnover of NAs. Cross-sectional data on 944 nationally representative nursing homes were derived from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. Using a 3-month turnover rate, 25% of the facilities with the lowest turnover rates were classified as low turnover, 25% of the facilities with the highest turnover were classified as high turnover, and the remaining 50% of the facilities were classified as moderate turnover. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine organizational and job characteristics associated with low and high turnover compared with moderate turnover. One organizational characteristic, staffing levels at or greater than 4.0 hours per patient day, was associated with greater odds of low NA turnover and reduced odds of high NA turnover. Job characteristics including higher wages and union membership were associated with greater odds of low NA turnover, whereas wages, fully paid health insurance, employee assistance benefits, and involvement in resident care planning were associated with reduced odds of high NA turnover. The results of this study suggest that job characteristics of NA staff may be particularly important for turnover. Specifically, the provision of competitive wages and benefits (particularly health insurance) and involvement of NAs in resident care planning could potentially reduce NA turnover, as could maintaining high levels of nurse staffing.

  8. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between employee turnover, HRM practices and innovation in Chinese firms in five high technology sectors. We estimate hurdle negative binomial models for count data on survey data allowing for analyses of the extensive as well as intensive margins of firms' in...

  9. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  10. Psychological contract as precursor for turnover and self-employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stormbroek-Burgers, van R.G.B.M.; Blomme, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of psychological contract (PC) fulfilment and violation on turnover intention and self-employment intentions. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 132 Dutch organizationally employed individuals was used to test the effect of PC

  11. Some Determinants of Employee Turnover in a Psychiatric Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used research from illness-prevention and job-enrichment approaches to enhancing quality of work environments to create instruments assessing number of job stressors and level of task interest on psychiatric hospital units. Instruments successfully predicted employee turnover during one year. Job stress and interaction between job stress and task…

  12. System wide cofactor turnovers can propagate metabolic stability between pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Y.; Guan, Y.H.; Villadsen, John

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, we elaborated the criteria to tell if a multi-enzyme over-all reaction path is of in vivo nature or not at the metabolic level. As new findings, we discovered that there are interactions between the enzyme feedback inhibition and the CI turnover, and such interactions may well lead to metabolic...

  13. Turnover of nursing employees in a Gauteng hospital group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japie Greyling

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate individual determinants of voluntary turnover to identify a risk-group profile. Motivation for the study: Nursing employers should have a clearer understanding of the dynamics around nurses’ turnover behaviour and embark on strategies to retain their talent. Research design, approach and method: A survey measuring voluntary turnover was conducted among 262 professional and assistant nurses in three selected hospitals in Gauteng province using the McCarthy, Tyrrell and Cronin (2002 instrument. Pearson’s chi square with Yates’s continuity correction tested the relationship among the variables presented in a contingency table, in other words the risk group and each of the individual determinants. Main findings: Discontent with salaries was the major determinant of the nurses’ resignation. Organisational causes were nursing practices, the work environment, physical-emotional costs and employment opportunities after resignation. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital management could indeed establish a good rapport with nursing staff while facilitating respectful and ethical conduct by doctors towards nursing staff. Putting into place effective labour practices and business strategies could improve job satisfaction in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: This study contributed to a greater understanding of the personal and organisational determinants of the turnover of nurses in South African hospitals.

  14. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  15. Relationships between Emotional Labor, Job Performance, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robyn E.; Groth, Markus; Frenkel, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the emotional labor strategies surface acting and deep acting and organizational outcomes, specifically, employees' overall job performance and turnover. Call center employees from two large financial service organizations completed an online survey about their use of surface and deep acting.…

  16. The Prediction of Teacher Turnover Employing Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    The purpose of this study was to combine knowledge of teacher demographic data with time-series forecasting methods to predict teacher turnover. Moving averages and exponential smoothing were used to forecast discrete time series. The study used data collected from the 22 largest school districts in Iowa, designated as FACT schools. Predictions…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  18. Systematic analysis of protein turnover in primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Toby; Franken, Holger; Kosinski, Jan; Kurzawa, Nils; Zinn, Nico; Sweetman, Gavain; Poeckel, Daniel; Ratnu, Vikram S; Schramm, Maike; Becher, Isabelle; Steidel, Michael; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bergamini, Giovanna; Beck, Martin; Bantscheff, Marcus; Savitski, Mikhail M

    2018-02-15

    A better understanding of proteostasis in health and disease requires robust methods to determine protein half-lives. Here we improve the precision and accuracy of peptide ion intensity-based quantification, enabling more accurate protein turnover determination in non-dividing cells by dynamic SILAC-based proteomics. This approach allows exact determination of protein half-lives ranging from 10 to >1000 h. We identified 4000-6000 proteins in several non-dividing cell types, corresponding to 9699 unique protein identifications over the entire data set. We observed similar protein half-lives in B-cells, natural killer cells and monocytes, whereas hepatocytes and mouse embryonic neurons show substantial differences. Our data set extends and statistically validates the previous observation that subunits of protein complexes tend to have coherent turnover. Moreover, analysis of different proteasome and nuclear pore complex assemblies suggests that their turnover rate is architecture dependent. These results illustrate that our approach allows investigating protein turnover and its implications in various cell types.

  19. Turn-over of Stratijm Corneum in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Okhandiar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratum corneum showed increased proliferative activity on the patches of leprosy as evidenced by a significantly fast stratum corneum turnover time (p 0.001 measured by fluorescent staining technic with dansyl chloride. These findings suggest imperfect keratinization on the patches of leprosy leading to formation of structurally weak stratum corneum.

  20. Principal Turnover: Upheaval and Uncertainty in Charter Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…

  1. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers | Knetter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that recently identified indicators of bone and cartilage turnover could be detected in the peripheral circulation, and that these markers might reflect accelerated ageing effects of the widely used steroidal implants, trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2).

  2. Influence of Religiosity on Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of employees' religiosity on their turnover intentions. The ex-post facto research design and the convenient sampling technique were employed in this study. A hundred and forty-nine (149) employees in Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria were sampled as the study participants.

  3. Adeprene influence on the turnover rate of brain noradrenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyulkova, N.I.; Gorancheva, J.I.; Ankov, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of Adeprene - Bulgarian antidepressant - on the content and the turnover rate of the rat brain noradrenaline was studied. The animals were injected intraperitoneally during 5 days with 20 mg/kg Adeprene. One hour after the last administration of Adeprene, Tyrosine, labelled with 14 C was injected. The animals were sacrified on the 1st, 2nd and 4th hours after the injection of 14 C-Tyrosine. The tyrosine and noradrenaline concentration were determined spectrofluorimetrically the concentration of the compounds labelled with 14 C by means of a liquid scintillator. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline was calculated on the basis of the obtained results and the respective formula. It was established that under the influence of Adeprene, the noradrenaline concentration in the brain rises from 0,5 g/g in the control animals to 0,6 in treated mice. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline, however, drops to 0,9 g/g/hour as compared to 0,15 g/g/hours in the controls. The determination of the turnover rate provides an idea about the intensity of utilization and synthesis of the mediator and is considered consequently as a more radiosensitive index for the neuronal activity then the total amine content. (A.B.)

  4. The Effects of Turnover: What We Know about Teacher Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Karen

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are likely to know better than anyone else about the financial costs to districts and schools associated with teacher attrition. Perhaps less well-known, though, is what else has been learned about this issue in recent years--information that may affect how one thinks about teacher turnover. Here is some of that research:…

  5. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  6. Turnover patterns in fish versus macroinvertebrates — implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns in taxonomic richness and turnover for fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates are compared to assess the relative usefulness of each taxonomic group in mapping biodiversity patterns. Fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate species data for sites down the longitudinal axes of nine rivers in four provinces along the ...

  7. Turnover and metabolism of phosphatidylglycerol acyl moieties in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.; Rock, C.O.

    1987-01-01

    Fatty acids synthesized in mutants (plsB) blocked in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis were preferentially transferred to phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGro). The ratio of phospholipid species labeled with 32 P and [ 3 H]acetate in the absence of glycerol-3-P acyltransferase activity indicated that [ 3 H]acetate incorporation into PtdGro was due to fatty acid turnover. The magnitude of the turnover process was difficult to estimate due to a significant contraction of the acetyl-CoA pool following the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. A possible connection between PtdGro turnover and protein acylation was investigated in an E. coli strain containing a lipoprotein expression vector. Cells were prelabeled with [ 3 H]acetate and lipoprotein expression was induced concomitant with the addition of exogenous [ 14 C]-palmitate. [ 14 C] Palmitate was assimilated into the l-position of phosphatidylethanolamine and transferred to the amino terminus of the lipoprotein. In contrast, the ester-linked lipoprotein fatty acids and PtdGro were not enriched in carbon-14 implying a metabolic relationship between these two pools. The data suggest that turnover of PtdGro acyl moieties is related to protein acylation, but a direct link between the two processes remains to be established

  8. Effects of ractopamine and gender on protein turnover in skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the β-agonist, ractopamine-HCl (ractopamine), on skeletal muscle protein turnover were evaluated in 16 steers (512 kg) and 16 heifers (473 kg). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and included gender (steer vs. heifer) and ractopamine (0 or 200 mg/d). Steers were implanted with 120 mg ...

  9. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  10. Oxidative Criteria And Somebone Turnover Markers In Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone disease in beta-thalassemic patients has multifactorial etiology; increased iron stores and per-oxidative stress are involved factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between some bone turnover markers and some oxidants, antioxidants parameters of betathalassemic patients. The study included 50 ...

  11. Calculation of turnover rates in stable-isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, R.; Ford, G.C.; Cheng, K.N.; Halliday, D.

    1985-01-01

    In a comparison of glucose turnover measured with 2 H-glucose and with 13 C-glucose Tserng and Kalhan used five apparently different equations and obtained conflicting answers. There is, however, no difference in principle between the use of a stable isotope as a tracer and the use of a radioactive isotope, and the rate of appearance of tracee in a steady-state system (the turnover) can therefore be shown to be proportional to the equilibrium dilution of the infused tracer. Because the sensitivity of measurement of this dilution made using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is lower than that made by radioactivity measurement, the contribution to the measured turnover rate due to the infusate cannot be neglected, as it usually is in radioisotope work. A convenient calibration curve to establish this dilution is the mole ratio of the pure infusate against the area ratio for the relevant ions. Tserng and Kalhan's apparently conflicting results for glucose-turnover using 13 C-glucose as the tracer can all be shown to amount to approximately 11.6 μmol min -1 kg -1 . This value is only slightly lower (0.05 2 H-glucose as the tracer and supports the use of 13 C-glucose as an alternative. (author)

  12. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  13. Factors Affecting Turnover Intention among Nurses in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayalew, Firew; Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Schuster, Anne; Emerson, Mark R; Roosmalen, J van; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Woldemariam, Damtew; Gibson, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing turnover is essential to address health worker shortages in the public sector and improve the quality of services. This study examines factors associated with Ethiopian nurses' intention to leave their jobs. METHODS: Survey respondents (a sample of 425 nurses at 122 facilities)

  14. Electronic alerts and clinician turnover: the influence of user acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Spitzmuller, Christiane; Espadas, Donna; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-11-01

    Use of certain components of electronic health records (EHRs), such as EHR-based alerting systems (EASs), might reduce provider satisfaction, a strong precursor to turnover. We examined the impact of factors likely to influence providers' acceptance of an alerting system, designed to facilitate electronic communication in outpatient settings, on provider satisfaction, intentions to quit, and turnover. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based survey of EAS-related practices from a nationwide sample of primary care providers (PCPs) practicing at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities. Of 5001 invited VA PCPs, 2590 completed the survey. We relied on Venkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to create survey measures of 4 factors likely to impact user acceptance of EAS: supportive norms, monitoring/ feedback, training, and providers' perceptions of the value (PPOV) of EASs to provider effectiveness. Facility-level PCP turnover was measured via the VA's Service Support Center Human Resources Cube. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. After accounting for intercorrelations among predictors, monitoring/feedback regarding EASs significantly predicted intention to quit (b = 0.30, P < .01), and PPOV of EASs predicted both overall provider satisfaction (b = 0.58, P < .01) and facility-level provider turnover levels (b = -0.19, P < .05), all without relying on any intervening mechanisms. Design, implementation, and use of EASs might impact provider satisfaction and retention. Institutions should consider strategies to help providers perceive greater value in these clinical tools.

  15. The Modern Technologies to Reduce Turnover of Company Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiko Tetiana O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing and substantiating the use in practice of modern technologies to reduce turnover of staff, which do not bear significant financial costs for the company. The authors have proved that non-material measures to reduce staff turnover in companies are becoming predominant nowadays. Among them as the most important are indicated: introduction of flexible schedule (mode of work, transition to the remote form of employment, and distribution of internal shares, in particular related to the strengthening of cohesion of staff, its team spirit. Also the reasons of transition from material to intangible factors of influence on conduct of workers have been disclosed. The advantages of non-material measures of the staff turnover reduction for both employees and employers were analyzed. For the first ones the most important are motivation and job satisfaction, while for the others it is reduction of staff turnover, formation of the responsible worker, improvement of quality and productivity of work.

  16. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to det...

  17. Approximation algorithms for replenishment problems with fixed turnover times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bosman (Thomas); M. van Ee (Martijn); Y. Jiao (Yang); A. Marchetti Spaccamela (Alberto); R. Ravi; L. Stougie (Leen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and study a class of optimization problems we coin replenishment problems with fixed turnover times: a very natural model that has received little attention in the literature. Nodes with capacity for storing a certain commodity are located at various places; at each node the

  18. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C

    2016-04-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments.

  19. Turnover of carbon in the 13C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of 13 C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the 13 C in the 13 C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio 13 C/ 12 C in expired CO 2 from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to 13 C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  20. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  1. A social network perspective on turnover intentions: The role of distributive justice and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, S.; Agneessens, F.; Sasovova, Z.; Labianca, G.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  2. A Social Network Perspective on Turnover Intentions : The Role of Distributive Justice and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, Scott M.; Agneessens, Filip; Sasovova, Zuzana; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe)

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  3. Career Anchors of United States Air Force Information Systems Workers: A Turnover Predictor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Lee

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the work of Schein (1987) to measure the career anchors, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of AF IS workers to determine if those whose job type and career anchor match report higher satisfaction and lower turnover...

  4. The effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military: time-dependent modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-11-01

    Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A Theoretical Framework for Turnover Intention of Air Force Enlisted Information Systems Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    removal of poor performers, advancement opportunities for talented replacements, and decreases in pre-turnover withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism ...in Employee Turnover Intentions and Its Determinants Among Telecommuters and Non- Telecommuters ,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 16: 147

  6. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  7. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  8. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Begg, Adrian C.; Raleigh, James A.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h

  9. Exit interviews to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Flint, Anndrea

    2014-08-19

    Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We searched the Cochrane EPOC Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 11, 2012; MEDLINE, Ovid (1950- ); EMBASE, Ovid (1947- ); CINAHL, EbscoHost (1980- ), and PsycINFO, OVID (1806-) between October 31 and November 6, 2012. We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews; and searched trial registries for planned and on-going studies. We did not restrict searches by language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The original search identified 1560 citations, of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment; they were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no studies that matched our inclusion criteria. For this first update, we screened 2220 citations and identified no new studies. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.

  10. The perceived stress and turnover intention of direct-care staff of community residential facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lightle, Kevin Eugene

    1990-01-01

    This study examines turnover among direct-care staff of community residential facilities. Turnover is of concern as the projected rate indicated by direct-care staff is 34%. A review of personnel records project an annual turnover rate of 40%. Stress is examined for its relationship to turnover. The Maslach Burnout Inventory is used to measure the perceived stress level of staff. Results indicate direct-care staff are not stressed to the point of burnout in two of ...

  11. Sénèque, le stoïcisme et la monarchie absolue dans le De clementia Seneca, Stoicism and Absolute Monarchy in De clementia Seneca, stoicismo e monarchia assoluta nello De clementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Salamon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Le De clementia se présente comme un traité à fonction parénétique destiné à guider Néron sur la voie du bon gouvernement en le convaincant de pratiquer la clémence, élevée au rang de vertu cardinale. Mais à un moment où à Rome le stoïcisme apparaît comme lié par la figure de Caton aux valeurs républicaines, l’œuvre participe aussi d’un débat interne au Portique. Sénèque se réclame quant à lui du stoïcisme orthodoxe à la fois pour justifier son acceptation de la monarchie absolue et la place éminente qu’il accorde à la clémence, essentielle dans ce type de régime. Sur le plan des institutions, le dossier de Sénèque paraît solide ; en ce qui concerne la clémence on peut considérer qu’il cherche à faire évoluer la doctrine, même s’il raisonne toujours dans les cadres stoïciens. L’Histoire suffit à prouver que Sénèque n’a pas convaincu, mais il n’en reste pas moins que le De clementia est l’œuvre d’un stoïcien authentique.De clementia is a treaty of exhortation for guiding Nero on the road to good government by convincing him to practice clemency, in so far as it is considered as a cardinal virtue. But at a time when Stoicism in Rome seems bound by the figure of Cato to Republican values, this work also involves an internal debate in Stoicism. Seneca claims an orthodox Stoicism both to justify its acceptance of absolute monarchy and the prominent place that he grants to clemency, which is essential in this kind of political system. On the institutional level, Seneca seems to have solid argumentation ; as far as clemency is concerned, he can be regarded as seeking to change the doctrine, even if he continues to invoke frames of Stoicism. Historical events are enough to prove that Seneca did not convince, but it remains the case that De clementia is the work of a true Stoic.Il De clementia si presenta come un trattato dalla funzione parenetica destinato a guidare Nerone sulla via del

  12. To leave or not to leave : When receiving interpersonal citizenship behavior influences an employee's turnover intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regts, Gerdien; Molleman, Eric

    Given that few studies have examined relational bases for voluntary employee turnover, the purpose of the article is to examine whether work relationships explain employee turnover intention. Adopting a social relational perspective on employee turnover, we investigated the effect of receiving

  13. When the Going Gets Tough: Direct, Buffering and Indirect Effects of Social Support on Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaki, Georgia; DeLongis, Anita; Frey, Daniela; Short, Kathy; Woehrle, Trish

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of social support in turnover intention among new teachers. First, we tested and found evidence for a direct negative relationship between social support and turnover intention. Second, we tested the social support buffer hypothesis, and found that teachers with higher social support had lower turnover intention in the face of…

  14. Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi dan Gaya Kepemimpinan Transformasional terhadap Intensi Turnover Karyawan

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Artiwinata

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of organization culture and transformational leadership style toward to employee turnover intention. Data were collected by using employee turnover intention scale, organization culture scale and transformational leadership style scale. This research involved 206 employees. The results showed that organization culture and transformational leadership style not significant influenced to employee turnover intention. The organizational culture negatively...

  15. Is high employee turnover really harmful?: An empirical test using company records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, A.C.; Bax, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that employee turnover and firm performance have an inverted U-shaped relationship: overly high or low turnover is harmful. Our analysis was based on economic performance data from 110 offices of a temporary employment agency. These offices had high variation in turnover but

  16. Blind Spots: Small Rural Communities and High Turnover in the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrath, Barry; Brunner, C. Cryss

    2014-01-01

    This article examines high superintendency turnover through rural community members' perceptions of such attrition in their districts. Findings indicate that community members perceived high turnover as negative and believed that turnover was created by financial pressures, rural community resistance to educational trends, and bias against…

  17. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 17176

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, but recent evidence calls into question this assumption. Using a unique identification strategy that employs grade-level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 600,000 New York City 4th…

  18. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  19. Predictors of actual turnover in a national sample of newly licensed registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Greene, William; Tukov-Shuser, Magdalene; Djukic, Maja

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of factors that affect turnover of newly licensed registered nurses in United States hospitals. There is a large body of research related to nursing retention; however, there is little information specific to newly licensed registered nurse turnover. Incidence rates of turnover among new nurses are unknown because most turnover data are not from nationally representative samples of nurses. This study used a longitudinal panel design to obtain data from 1653 registered nurses who were recently licensed by examination for the first time. We mailed surveys to a nationally representative sample of hospital registered nurses 1 year apart. The analytic sample consisted of 1653 nurses who responded to both survey mailings in January of 2006 and 2007. Full-time employment and more sprains and strains (including back injuries) result in more turnover. Higher intent to stay and hours of voluntary overtime and more than one job for pay reduces turnover. When we omitted intent to stay from the probit model, less job satisfaction and organizational commitment led to more turnover, confirming their importance to turnover. Magnet Recognition Award(®) hospitals and several other work attributes had no effect on turnover.   Turnover problems are complex, which means that there is no one solution to decreasing turnover. Multiple points of intervention exist. One specific approach that may improve turnover rates is hospital policies that reduce strains and sprains. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Diagnosing Causes of Teacher Retention, Mobility and Turnover: Guidelines for TIF Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To effectively address teacher turnover, Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grantees need to follow an approach that entails aligning the tracking, diagnosing, and intervening processes. Unfortunately, too often retention strategies are implemented without regard to the various types of teacher turnover and specific data about the causes of turnover.…

  1. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    The Eocene–Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene–Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event. PMID:25501388

  2. Lack of seasonal variation in bone mass and biochemical estimates of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, K.; Nilas, L.; Johansen, J.S.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    Three previous studies have indicated a seasonal variation in bone mineral content, with values during the summer being 1.7% to 7.5% higher than during the winter. We have examined the seasonal influence on both bone mass, biochemical estimates of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites in 86 healthy women, aged 29-53 years. All participants were followed up for 2 years with examinations every 6 weeks or 3 months. Bone mineral content in the proximal and distal part of the forearm (single photon absorptiometry) did not reveal any significant seasonal variation, whereas bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (dual photon absorptiometry) indicated that the highest values occurred in winter. None of the biochemical parameters showed any statistically significant cyclical changes. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed a highly significant seasonal variation, whereas the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was virtually unchanged. We conclude that seasonal variation in bone mineral content and bone turnover should not be taken into account when interpreting data from longitudinal studies of healthy pre- and postmenopausal women on a sufficient vitamin D nutriture

  3. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  4. Stayers, Leavers, and Switchers Among Certified Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes: A Longitudinal Investigation of Turnover Intent, Staff Retention, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of certified nursing assistant (CNA) turnover in nursing homes are typically cross-sectional and include full-time and part-time workers. We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the job factors and work attitudes associated with just full-time staying or leaving. For those who did not stay, we assessed reasons for leaving and satisfaction following job transition. Design and Methods: A random sample of CNAs identified through the Pennsylvania Department of Health's CNA registry, working≥30 hr weekly in a nursing facility was surveyed by telephone at baseline and 1 year later. Results: Of the 620 responding to both surveys, 532 (85.8%) remained (stayers), 52 (8.4%) switched to another facility (switchers), and 36 (5.8%) left the industry (leavers). At baseline, switchers reported higher turnover intentions and fewer benefits compared with stayers and left for new opportunities. Leavers had lower job satisfaction and emotional well-being and left for health reasons. Turnover intentions were predicted by low job satisfaction and low emotional well-being. Actual turnover was predicted only by turnover intentions and by the absence of health insurance. Pay was not a predictor of turnover intent or turnover. Implications: There are two distinct groups of CNAs contributing to turnover. Attitudinal factors, such as job satisfaction and emotional well-being, are mediated via turnover intentions to effect actual turnover. Even accounting for methodological differences, this turnover rate is lower than previous studies, which use alternative methods and include part-time workers. This study should help nursing home administrators better understand the work-related factors associated with staff turnover. PMID:21498629

  5. Social Capital and Turnover. Towards a Theoretically Informed Model for Social Capital in Turnover Research: Applications to the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Porter L. & Steers R. (1973). Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism ...in Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24, pp. 1-24. Price, J. (1977). A Theory of Turnover. In Labour turnover and retention (Chapter 3...for measurement. Research Paper, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics: June 2005. Sabatini, F. Social capital, labour

  6. Bone Turnover Status: Classification Model and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alexander; Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Smith, Paul N

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To develop a practical model for classification bone turnover status and evaluate its clinical usefulness. Methods: Our classification of bone turnover status is based on internationally recommended biomarkers of both bone formation (N-terminal propeptide of type1 procollagen, P1NP) and bone resorption (beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, bCTX), using the cutoffs proposed as therapeutic targets. The relationships between turnover subtypes and clinical characteristic were assessed in1223 hospitalised orthogeriatric patients (846 women, 377 men; mean age 78.1±9.50 years): 451(36.9%) subjects with hip fracture (HF), 396(32.4%) with other non-vertebral (non-HF) fractures (HF) and 376 (30.7%) patients without fractures. Resalts: Six subtypes of bone turnover status were identified: 1 - normal turnover (P1NP>32 μg/L, bCTX≤0.250 μg/L and P1NP/bCTX>100.0[(median value]); 2- low bone formation (P1NP ≤32 μg/L), normal bone resorption (bCTX≤0.250 μg/L) and P1NP/bCTX>100.0 (subtype2A) or P1NP/bCTX0.250 μg/L) and P1NP/bCTXturnover (both markers elevated ) and P1NP/bCTX>100.0 (subtype 4A) or P1NP/bCTX75 years and hyperparathyroidism. Hypoalbuminaemia and not using osteoporotic therapy were two independent indicators common for subtypes 3, 4A and 4B; these three subtypes were associated with in-hospital mortality. Subtype 3 was associated with fractures (OR 1.7, for HF OR 2.4), age>75 years, chronic heart failure (CHF), anaemia, and history of malignancy, and predicted post-operative myocardial injury, high inflammatory response and length of hospital stay (LOS) above10 days. Subtype 4A was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), anaemia, history of malignancy and walking aids use and predicted LOS>20 days, but was not discriminative for fractures. Subtype 4B was associated with fractures (OR 2.1, for HF OR 2.5), age>75 years, CKD and indicated risks of myocardial injury, high inflammatory response and LOS>10 days. Conclusions: We

  7. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas; Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; McMahon, Emma; Liberato, Selma; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Determine how very-remote Indigenous community (RIC) food and beverage (F&B) turnover quantities and associated dietary intake estimates derived from only stores, compare with values derived from all community F&B providers. F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake estimates (energy, micro/macronutrients and major contributing food types) were derived from 12-months transaction data of all F&B providers in three RICs (NT, Australia). F&B turnover quantities and dietary intake estimates from only stores (plus only the primary store in multiple-store communities) were expressed as a proportion of complete F&B provider turnover values. Food types and macronutrient distribution (%E) estimates were quantitatively compared. Combined stores F&B turnover accounted for the majority of F&B quantity (98.1%) and absolute dietary intake estimates (energy [97.8%], macronutrients [≥96.7%] and micronutrients [≥83.8%]). Macronutrient distribution estimates from combined stores and only the primary store closely aligned complete provider estimates (≤0.9% absolute). Food types were similar using combined stores, primary store or complete provider turnover. Evaluating combined stores F&B turnover represents an efficient method to estimate total F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake in RICs. In multiple-store communities, evaluating only primary store F&B turnover provides an efficient estimate of macronutrient distribution and major food types. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Staff Turnover in Assertive Community Treatment (Act) Teams: The Role of Team Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Wholey, Douglas R; Cain, Cindy; Natafgi, Nabil

    2017-03-01

    Staff turnover in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams can result in interrupted services and diminished support for clients. This paper examines the effect of team climate, defined as team members' shared perceptions of their work environment, on turnover and individual outcomes that mediate the climate-turnover relationship. We focus on two climate dimensions: safety and quality climate and constructive conflict climate. Using survey data collected from 26 ACT teams, our analyses highlight the importance of safety and quality climate in reducing turnover, and job satisfaction as the main mediator linking team climate to turnover. The findings offer practical implications for team management.

  9. PENGARUH WORK OVERLOAD DAN WORK FAMILY CONFLICT TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTION YANG DIMEDIASI OLEH WORK EXHAUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayatin Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine factors that determine turnover intention in medical representative at PT. APL. To be known before that medical representatives have high percentage in turnover. The research using work exhaustion as mediation to determine the relationship between works overload and work family conflict of turnover intention. Research method is quantitative approach in causal research. The analysis tools are AMOS and T-Sobel. Findings of this research are both work overload and work family conflict berpengaruh with work exhaustion and turnover intention, work exhaustion mediated work overload and work family conflict over turnover intention.

  10. Buckwheat seedling flavonoids do not undergo rapid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margna, U.; Vainjaerv, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse-labelling with exogenous [1- 14 C]-L-phenylalanine showed that of all flavonoids of buckwheat seedling cotyledons only anthocyanins underwent a slow turnover (not more than 6-8 per cent a day) whilst the major flavonoids, rutin and four C-glycosylflavones, remained metabolically stable within at least 7 days. From excised hypocotyls pulse-labelled flavonoids (anthocyanins and rutin) began to disappear gradually beginning with the second day of incubation. As hypocotyls, however, during prolonged incubation soon began to autolyse a considerable part of that loss was obviously due to abnormal shifts in cell metabolic activities with a possibility that some microbial process was also involved. In hypocotyls of intact seedlings pulse-labelled rutin, similar to rutin in cotyledons, showed no signs of turnover. (author)

  11. Workplace threats to health and job turnover among women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucer, Patricia W; Oliver, Marc; McDiarmid, Melissa

    2003-07-01

    Is job turnover related to concern about workplace health risks? Using data from a national sample of working women, we examined the relationships among workplace risk communications, worker concerns about workplace threats from hazardous substances, indoor air quality, and job change. Eight percent reported changing a job as a result of concern over workplace threats to health. Previous workplace injury predicted concern about hazardous materials and indoor air quality as well as job change, but employer communication about workplace health risks was associated with less job change and less concern about indoor air quality. Women worry about workplace threats to their health enough to change their jobs, but employers may have the power to cut turnover costs and reduce disruption to workers' lives through the use of risk communication programs.

  12. Indicators Used in the Dynamic Analysis of Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana Ecobici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic evolution of an indicator is an important aspect to be taken into consideration when analyzing the evolution in a company. Dynamic evolution uses a number of indicators that reveal aspects that the management of a company must introduce in the development strategy or in the rehabilitation process of a company. The purpose of this article is to analyse the dynamic evolution of the turnover at a company that operates in the field of industry. The finality of this article will result in a number of conclusions concerning the evolution of turnover analysed in the light of absolute modification, indices, growth rates and annual average rate of growth. The importance of the analysis of its evolution, stemming from the fact that it is in a relationship of perpetuous interdependence with the main economic factors that participate in the activity of production and marketing.

  13. Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Rogers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.

  14. Species turnover and geographic distance in an urban river network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouquette, James R.; Dallimer, Martin; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    AimUnderstanding the relationships between species turnover, environmental features and the geographic distance between sites can provide important insights into the processes driving species diversity. This is particularly relevant where the effective distance between sites may be a function...... patterns of species turnover and to determine whether these patterns differ between different taxonomic groups. LocationSheffield area, UK. MethodsAquatic (macroinvertebrates, diatoms) and terrestrial (birds, plants, butterflies) organisms were surveyed at 41 sites across an urban river network. We...... of the geographic distance measures, although network distance remained significant for birds and some plant groups after removing the effect of environmental distance. Water-dispersed and neophyte plant groups were significantly related to network and flow distance. Main conclusionsThe results suggest that aquatic...

  15. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asegid, Agezegn; Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations.

  16. Mycorrhizal Glomus spp. vary in their effects on the dynamics and turnover of fine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, A.; Waly, N.; Chunhui, M.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The Objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the Results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season. (author)

  17. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agezegn Asegid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6% of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27 years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51], single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13], and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30] were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations.

  18. Does positive selection drive transcription factor binding site turnover? A test with Drosophila cis-regulatory modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Z He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site(s (TFBS gain and loss (i.e., turnover is a well-documented feature of cis-regulatory module (CRM evolution, yet little attention has been paid to the evolutionary force(s driving this turnover process. The predominant view, motivated by its widespread occurrence, emphasizes the importance of compensatory mutation and genetic drift. Positive selection, in contrast, although it has been invoked in specific instances of adaptive gene expression evolution, has not been considered as a general alternative to neutral compensatory evolution. In this study we evaluate the two hypotheses by analyzing patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism in the TFBS of well-characterized CRM in two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. An important feature of the analysis is classification of TFBS mutations according to the direction of their predicted effect on binding affinity, which allows gains and losses to be evaluated independently along the two phylogenetic lineages. The observed patterns of polymorphism and divergence are not compatible with neutral evolution for either class of mutations. Instead, multiple lines of evidence are consistent with contributions of positive selection to TFBS gain and loss as well as purifying selection in its maintenance. In discussion, we propose a model to reconcile the finding of selection driving TFBS turnover with constrained CRM function over long evolutionary time.

  19. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397

  20. Determinants of CEO Turnover in Publicand Private Firms in Denmark - CEO and Firm Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina

    In this study we are the first to draw on longitudinal matched employer-employee data to study CEO turnover. Using this data we contribute tothe existing literature by examining the e¤ect of previously unstudied in-dividual characteristics on CEO turnover. Additionally, we are able toexamine CEO...... turnover. Finally, the inverse relationshipbetween firm performance and CEO turnover only exists in LLL firms(larger limited liability firms, both publicly and privately held), whereagency costs are assumed and found to be highest.In this study we are the first to draw on longitudinal matched employer-employee...... turnover across a variety of firm types that di¤er with re-spect to the corporate governance issues they face. Our simple methodol-ogy to define CEO turnover results in turnover rates similar to those foundpreviously. Our results indicate that CEO characteristics are an important factor in explaining CEO...

  1. Examining the temporal relationship between psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this paper examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:22658290

  2. Causes and consequences of collective turnover: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Angela L; Holwerda, Jacob A; Hausknecht, John P

    2013-05-01

    Given growing interest in collective turnover (i.e., employee turnover at unit and organizational levels), the authors propose an organizing framework for its antecedents and consequences and test it using meta-analysis. Based on analysis of 694 effect sizes drawn from 82 studies, results generally support expected relationships across the 6 categories of collective turnover antecedents, with somewhat stronger and more consistent results for 2 categories: human resource management inducements/investments and job embeddedness signals. Turnover was negatively related to numerous performance outcomes, more strongly so for proximal rather than distal outcomes. Several theoretically grounded moderators help to explain average effect-size heterogeneity for both antecedents and consequences of turnover. Relationships generally did not vary according to turnover type (e.g., total or voluntary), although the relative absence of collective-level involuntary turnover studies is noted and remains an important avenue for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between clinician turnover and adolescent treatment outcomes: An examination from the client perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Funk, Rodney R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2012-01-01

    The turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff has been assumed to adversely impact treatment effectiveness, yet only limited research has empirically examined this assumption. Representing an extension of prior organizational-level analyses of the impact of staff turnover on client outcomes, this study examined the impact of SUD clinician turnover on adolescent treatment outcomes using a client perspective. Multilevel regression analysis did reveal that relative to those adolescents who did not experience clinician turnover, adolescents who experienced both direct and indirect clinician turnover reported a significantly higher percentage of days using alcohol or drugs at 6-month follow-up. However, clinician turnover was not found to have significant associations (negative or positive) with the other five treatment outcomes examined (e.g., substance-related problems, involvement in illegal activity). Thus, consistent with our prior findings, the current study provides additional evidence that turnover of SUD clinicians is not necessarily associated with adverse treatment outcomes. PMID:23083980

  4. An Integrative Literature Review of Patient Turnover in Inpatient Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Hye; Weaver, Lindsay; Mejia-Johnson, Lydia; Vukas, Rachel; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-05-01

    High patient turnover can result in fragmentation of nursing care. It can also increase nursing workload and thus impede the ability of nurses to provide safe and high-quality care. We reviewed 20 studies that examined patient turnover in relation to nursing workload, staffing, and patient outcomes as well as interventions in inpatient hospital settings. The studies consistently addressed the importance of accounting for patient turnover when estimating nurse staffing needs. They also showed that patient turnover varied by time, day, and unit type. Researchers found that higher patient turnover was associated with adverse events; however, further research on this topic is needed because evidence on the effect of patient turnover on patient outcomes is not yet strong and conclusive. We suggest that researchers and administrators need to pay more attention to patterns and levels of patient turnover and implement managerial strategies to reduce nursing workload and improve patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The effect of culture on the curvilinear relationship between performance and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Michael C; Shao, Lian; Katz, Jan H

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have theorized that there exists a curvilinear relationship between job performance and voluntary turnover, their research has been tested in the United States or culturally similar Switzerland. Through a study of the performance-turnover relationship from a multinational service-oriented organization in 24 countries, we demonstrate that the general relationship between performance and turnover is similar across countries but the details of that relationship change across countries. Using 4 cultural dimensions--in-group collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and performance orientation--we find that cultural factors alter the overall probability of voluntary turnover and influence the degree of curvilinearity in the performance-turnover relationship. Our findings have implications for research on the performance-turnover relationship, turnover research, and practice.

  6. Nitrogen Turnover on Organic and Conventional Mixed Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Erik Steen; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    1995-01-01

    Separate focus on crop fertilization or feeding practices inadequately describes nitrogen (N) loss from mixed dairy farms because of (1) interaction between animal and crop production and between the production system and the manager, and (2) uncertainties of herd N production and crop N utilization. Therefore a systems approach was used to study N turnover and N efficiency on 16 conventional and 14 organic private Danish farms with mixed animal (dairy) and crop production. There were signifi...

  7. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea

  8. The Relationship Between Army CRNA Job Satisfaction and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    performance . These factors would be predicted to influence job satisfaction . The third component in Stage II, interpersonal relations which includes group...produce more although this is not consistently substantiated ( Vroom , 1964). Vroom (1964) found that job satisfaction was directly related to the...from the job, and what is supplied by the job in terms of needs. Vroom identified an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. 16

  9. Bone turnover markers: Emerging tool in the management of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD. These microarchitectural alterations affecting the bone quality can be assessed by BTMs and thus may serve as a complementary tool to BMD in the assessment of fracture risk. A systematic search of literature regarding BTMs was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Various reliable, rapid, and cost-effective automated assays of BTMs with good sensitivity are available for the management of osteoporosis. However, BTMs are subjected to various preanalytical and analytical variations necessitating strict sample collection and assays methods along with utilizing ethnicity-based reference standards for different populations. Estimation of fracture risk and monitoring the adherence and response to therapy, which is a challenge in a chronic, asymptomatic disease such as osteoporosis, are the most important applications of measuring BTMs. This review describes the physiology of bone remodeling, various conventional and novel BTMs, and BTM assays and their role in the assessment of fracture risk and monitoring response to treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic agents.

  10. Employee turnover reducing tools in the transport companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lydekienė, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Employee turnover is an employee’s choice to leave a company. To keep employees and protect them from being attracted by competitors, companies must seek to know the personnel, to understand their needs and problems, guarantee satisfaction to an existing staff. The aspect of job change has been examined for decades in worldwide practice, because loyalty of employees, especially of skilled specialists, is one of the main factors to run a successful business (Pilkauskaitė – Valickienė, Valickas...

  11. Piribedil affects dopamine turnover in cochleas stimulated by white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Loyzaga, P; Vicente-Torres, M A; Fernández-Mateos, P; Arce, A; Esquifino, A

    1994-09-01

    The presence of dopamine (DA) within the cochlea has been previously reported, indicating that its turnover increases under noise stimulation. In the present report, piribedil, a dopaminergic D2 agonist, was used in order to provide evidence of the activity of D2 receptors in the turnover of DA under noise stimulation. Long-Evans rats were intraperitoneally injected with distilled water or with a solution of piribedil one hour previously to either noise or silence exposure. Noise stimulation was performed in an anechoic chamber at 70, 90 or 110 dB SPL for one hour. The animals were then sacrificed and the cochlear contents of DA and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The administration of piribedil to animals kept in silence did not modify the cochlear DA, DOPAC and HVA content. Noise stimulation resulted in a decrease of the cochlear DA content and an increase of the cochlear DOPAC and HVA contents in vehicle treated animals. The administration of piribedil resulted in a blockade of this noise induced cochlear DA turnover. These results suggest that piribedil stimulates cochlear D2 receptors controlling the cochlear DA release. Piribedil action on D2 receptors could explain the improvement observed in some cochleo-vestibular diseases signs after piribedil treatment.

  12. Species Turnover through Time: Colonization and Extinction Dynamics across Metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Island biogeography and metacommunity theory often use equilibrium assumptions to predict local diversity, yet nonequilibrium dynamics are common in nature. In nonequilibrium communities, local diversity fluctuates through time as the relative importance of colonization and extinction change. Here, we test the prevalence and causes of nonequilibrium dynamics in metacommunities of mites associated with rubber trees distributed over large spatial (>1,000 km) and temporal (>30-60 generations) scales in Brazil. We measured colonization and extinction rates to test species turnover and nonequilibrium dynamics over a growing season. Mite metacommunities exhibited nonequilibrium dynamics for most months of the year, and these dynamics tracked climatic conditions. Monthly shifts in temperature of more than 1°C resulted in nonequilibrium dynamics, as did mean temperatures outside of two critical ranges. Nonequilibrium dynamics were caused by a change in colonization with temperature change and changes in both colonization and extinction with absolute temperature. Species turnover showed different trends; high relative humidity increased both colonization and extinction rates, increasing turnover but not nonequilibrium dynamics. Our study illustrates that testing nonequilibrium dynamics can provide new insights into the drivers of colonization, extinction, and diversity fluctuations in metacommunities.

  13. The Link between HR Attributions and Employees’ Turnover Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Caesaria Tandung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources Management (HRM is part of the organizational functions that contribute to the effectiveness of a firm’s performance, and brings an organization a competitive advantage through the implementation of its Human Resources (HR practices. HR practices adopted by management are perceived or attributed subjectively by individual employees, and can in turn affect the employees’ attitudes and behavior (e.g. Job satisfaction and turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the process-based approach by investigating the effect of HR attributions on turnover intentions, with job satisfaction playing a mediating role. The analysis is on the individual level, with 454 respondents from various organizations within the Netherlands. The results show that HR attributions can affect the turnover intention, through the presence of job satisfaction. Thus, it can be said that it is important to always consider the employees’ attitudes and behavior when examining their perception of HR practices, and in predicting their intention to leave.

  14. Control of the Protein Turnover Rates in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, A.

    1972-01-01

    The control of protein turnover in Lemna minor has been examined using a method described in the previous paper for determining the rate constants of synthesis and degradation of protein. If Lemna is placed on water, there is a reduction in the rate constants of synthesis of protein and an increase (3- to 6-fold) in the rate constant of degradation. The net effect is a loss of protein from the tissue. Omission of nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, magnesium, or calcium results in increases in the rate constant of degradation of protein. An unusual dual effect of benzyladenine on the turnover constants has been observed. Treatment of Lemna grown on sucrose-mineral salts with benzyladenine results in alterations only in the rate constant of synthesis. Treatment of Lemna grown on water with benzyladenine alters only the rate constant of degradation. Abscisic acid on the other hand alters both rate constants of synthesis and degradation of protein together. Inclusion of growth-inhibiting amino acids in the medium results in a reduction in the rate constants of synthesis and increases in the rate constant of degradation of protein. It is concluded that the rate of turnover of protein in Lemna is very dependent on the composition of the growth medium. Conditions which reduce growth rates also reduce the rates of synthesis of protein and increase those of degradation. PMID:16657895

  15. Cholesterol turnover and metabolism in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, D.S.; Deckelbaum, R.J.; Palmer, R.H.; Dell, R.B.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Delpre, G.; Beigel, Y.; Cooper, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total body turnover of cholesterol was studied in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia, a 32-year-old man and a 31-year-old woman. The patients received [14C]cholesterol intravenously, and the resulting specific activity-time curves (for 40 and 30 weeks, respectively) were fitted with a three-pool model. Parameters were compared with those from studies of cholesterol turnover in 82 normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. A three-pool model gave the best fit for the abetalipoproteinemic patients, as well as for the 82 previously studied subjects, suggesting general applicability of this model. Cholesterol production rates in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects (0.82 and 0.89 g/day) were close to values predicted for persons of their body weight. Thus, total body turnover rate of cholesterol was quite normal in abetalipoproteinemia, confirming previous reports. Very low values (9.2 and 8.4 g) were found for M1, the size of the rapidly exchanging compartment pool 1, in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects. These values were well below the values predicted (from the comparison study population) for normal persons of this size with low plasma cholesterol levels. For one patient, total body exchangeable cholesterol was very low, although not significantly below the predicted values for a person of his size. In the second patient, the observed estimate for total body exchangeable cholesterol was well within the range of values predicted for persons of her size with low to extremely low cholesterol levels

  16. Turnover in intracranial aneurysm phantoms: its relation to neck size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, Young Jun; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the physiologic background of aneurysms poorly visualized during 3D-TOF MRA, contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) and DSA due to hemodynamic isolation. Using handmade elastic silicon phantoms to represent terminal basilar tip aneurysms, 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA were used to determine blood turnover. Aneurysmal neck size was 2 mm and 10 mm, and the use of a pulsatile pump also helped recreate human physiologic parameters. We compared the results with those of computational fluid dynamics. DSA images of the narrow-necked aneurysm showed that a small volume of contrast medium washed into it during the systolic phase. As the width of its neck increased, the turnover volume of fragments of contrast bolus also increased. At CEMRA, the broad-necked aneurysm was visualized as the main bolus of Gd-DTPA passed through it, and at delayed CEMRA, the narrow-necked aneurysm was visualized faintly after the passage of bolus Gd-DTPA. The results correlated closely with those of 3D-TOF MRA and computational fluid dynamics. The visualization of intracranial aneurysms at 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA was greatly dependent upon blood turnover, which varied according to aneurysmal neck size. A narrow-necked aneurysm might be missed at 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA due to hemodynamic isolation

  17. Computational model of collagen turnover in carotid arteries during hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, P; Peña, E; Tarbell, J M; Martínez, M A

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that biological tissues adapt their properties because of different mechanical and chemical stimuli. The goal of this work is to study the collagen turnover in the arterial tissue of hypertensive patients through a coupled computational mechano-chemical model. Although it has been widely studied experimentally, computational models dealing with the mechano-chemical approach are not. The present approach can be extended easily to study other aspects of bone remodeling or collagen degradation in heart diseases. The model can be divided into three different stages. First, we study the smooth muscle cell synthesis of different biological substances due to over-stretching during hypertension. Next, we study the mass-transport of these substances along the arterial wall. The last step is to compute the turnover of collagen based on the amount of these substances in the arterial wall which interact with each other to modify the turnover rate of collagen. We simulate this process in a finite element model of a real human carotid artery. The final results show the well-known stiffening of the arterial wall due to the increase in the collagen content. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. KEAHLIAN AUDITOR DAN TURNOVER INTENTION SEBAGAI MEDIASI DETERMINAN KINERJA AUDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceacilia Srimindarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of locus of control and organizational commitment on auditors’ performance as well as to examine whether auditors’ expertise and turnover intention mediate the effect of locus of control and organizational commitment on auditors’ performance. Samples of this study were auditors who worked at audit firms in Semarang. Samples were selected using the purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using SEM with AMOS program. This study found that locus of control had a negative effect on auditors’ performance, organizational commitment had a positive effect on auditors’ performance, and auditors’ expertise and turnover intention had no effect on auditors’ performance. Furthermore, locus of control had a negative effect on auditors’ expertise, and organizational commitment had a negative effect on turnover intention. Based on this result, managers of public accounting firm (partners should provide some trainings to the auditors who had the external locus of control so that they can achieve the standardized performances. They should also confirm the company’s values to the auditor to increase emotional attachment to the company as well as try to comply to the demands of the company thus its performance will be in accordance with company’s expectations.

  19. Glucose tracer, kinetics and turnover in monkeys and chickens infused with ethanol, 1,3-butanediol, or fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Mixtures of (2- 3 H) and (U- 14 C) glucose were injected as single doses into fasted cynomolgus monkeys to assess glucose tracer kinetics and obtain rates of turnover. Data were treated by stochastic and compartmental analyses and results from both analyses closely agreed. However, (2- 3 H) data analyzed by the compartmental analysis required three pools to fit the glucose disappearance curve while (6- 3 H) data fit a two or three pool model equally well. Turnover rates averaged 4.9-4.0, and 3.0 mg/min x kg -1 body weight with (2- 3 H), 6- 3 H) and (U- 14 C) glucose tracers, respectively. The data heuristically suggest that the slow turnover pool that was necessary to fit (2- 3 H) glucose data is related to isotope discrimination. The effects of four treatment solutions on (6- 3 H) glucose metabolism in monkeys were examined. The solutions and their rates of infusion (umoles/min x kg -1 ) were: (1) ethanol, 110; (2) 1,3-butanediol, 110; (3) fructose, 30; and (4) ethanol pus fructose, 110 and 30, respectively. The glucose clearance rate was lowest during the ethanol plus fructose infusions. Ethanol infusions (222 or 444 umoles/min x kg -1 body weight) in chickens (1500 g) fasted 64 hours did not cause hypoglycemia although the high dose slightly decreased the rate of glucose turnover 15% (14.0 versus 12.0 mg/min x kg -1 ). It was further found that neither the hepatic cytosolic nor the mitochondrial redox state significantly changed in chickens infused with the high dose of ethanol. The unchanged hepatic metabolite ratios in chickens are consistent with their unusual resistance to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia

  20. Ocena częstości występowania bólu głowy oraz objawów mu towarzyszących = Assessment of the frequency of the occurrence of headaches and associated with them symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kożuch

    2016-05-01

    skarży się blisko jedna czwarta ankietowanych (24,8%, podobnie często występują zawroty głowy (23,8%.   Słowa kluczowe: ból głowy, migrena, napięciowy ból głowy, klasterowy ból głowy, pierwotny ból głowy, wtórny ból głowy.   Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of headaches and associated with them symptoms. The study also evaluated the severity, the circumstances of the emergence, the duration and the nature of pain. The study involved 103 people. Women accounted for 56.9% of the respondents, men- 43.1%. The age of the respondents was between 18 and 75 years of age. The study was conducted from January to March 2016 and implemented the standardized interview method. The tool used for data collection was an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire contained 43 single-choice questions and three multiple-choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. All values for which p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. All respondents complained of headaches.  Most of the respondents (36.5% claimed to have headaches several times a month. 39.4% suffered from headaches at different times during the day. To the question regarding the duration of headache, respondents most often (36.4% indicated that it usually lasted about 1 hour. Statistically significant respondents(p <0.05 were more likeky to precisely identify the location of headache. Respondents with similar frequency indicated pain in the temporal (27.7% and occipital (24.8% region. Statistically significant men (p <0.05 were more likely to experience stronger headaches compared to women. The most common symptoms associated with headaches were mood swings (66.3%, p <0.05. According to the respondents headache is usually accompanied by: neck stiffness (28.7%, nausea and vomiting (24.8%, and frequent dizziness (23.8%.   Key words: headache, migraine, tension type headache, cluster type headache, primary headache, secondary headache.

  1. Promoting retention of nurses: A meta-analytic examination of causes of nurse turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Darin; Snyder, Lori Anderson; Litwiller, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Because the health care field is expected to be the fastest growing job field until 2020, an urgent need to focus on nurse retention exists. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between predictors of turnover (i.e., personal characteristics, role states, job characteristics, group/leader relations, organizational/environmental perceptions, attitudinal reactions) and turnover cognitions and intentions, as well as actual turnover among nurses, in an effort to determine the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover. Meta-analysis was used to determine best estimates of the effect of predictors on turnover based on 106 primary studies of employed nurses. Meta-analyzed correlations were subjected to path analysis to establish the structural relationships among the study variables. Supportive and communicative leadership, network centrality, and organizational commitment are the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover based on meta-analytic correlations. Additional variables that relate to nurse turnover intentions include job strain, role tension, work-family conflict, job control, job complexity, rewards/recognition, and team cohesion. The findings suggest that some factors, such as salary, are relatively less important in prediction of turnover. Administrators concerned about nurse turnover may more effectively direct resources toward altering certain job characteristics and work conditions in the effort to reduce voluntary turnover among nurses.

  2. Nonvolatile ferroelectric memory based on PbTiO3 gated single-layer MoS2 field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-01-01

    We fabricated ferroelectric non-volatile random access memory (FeRAM) based on a field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a monolayer MoS2 channel and a ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PTO) thin film of gate insulator. An epitaxial PTO thin film was deposited on a Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrate via pulsed laser deposition. A monolayer MoS2 sheet was exfoliated from a bulk crystal and transferred to the surface of the PTO/Nb:STO. Structural and surface properties of the PTO thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to identify the single-layer MoS2 sheet on the PTO/Nb:STO. We obtained mobility value (327 cm2/V·s) of the MoS2 channel at room temperature. The MoS2-PTO FeRAM FET showed a wide memory window with 17 kΩ of resistance variation which was attributed to high remnant polarization of the epitaxially grown PTO thin film. According to the fatigue resistance test for the FeRAM FET, however, the resistance states gradually varied during the switching cycles of 109. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Growth rate correlates negatively with protein turnover in Arabidopsis accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Moraes, Thiago Alexandre; Pyl, Eva-Theresa; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obata, Toshihiro; Scheffel, André; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies with Arabidopsis accessions revealed that biomass correlates negatively to dusk starch content and total protein, and positively to the maximum activities of enzymes in photosynthesis. We hypothesized that large accessions have lower ribosome abundance and lower rates of protein synthesis, and that this is compensated by lower rates of protein degradation. This would increase growth efficiency and allow more investment in photosynthetic machinery. We analysed ribosome abundance and polysome loading in 19 accessions, modelled the rates of protein synthesis and compared them with the observed rate of growth. Large accessions contained less ribosomes than small accessions, due mainly to cytosolic ribosome abundance falling at night in large accessions. The modelled rates of protein synthesis resembled those required for growth in large accessions, but were up to 30% in excess in small accessions. We then employed 13 CO 2 pulse-chase labelling to measure the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in 13 accessions. Small accessions had a slightly higher rate of protein synthesis and much higher rates of protein degradation than large accessions. Protein turnover was negligible in large accessions but equivalent to up to 30% of synthesised protein day -1 in small accessions. We discuss to what extent the decrease in growth in small accessions can be quantitatively explained by known costs of protein turnover and what factors may lead to the altered diurnal dynamics and increase of ribosome abundance in small accessions, and propose that there is a trade-off between protein turnover and maximisation of growth rate. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biochemical bone turnover markers in diabetes mellitus - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Vestergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fractures, which is not explained by bone mineral density. Other markers as bone turnover markers (BTMs) may be useful. To assess the relationship between BTMs, diabetes, and fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted in August 2014. The databases searched were Medline at Pubmed and Embase. Medline at Pubmed was searched by "Diabetes Mellitus" (MESH) and "bone turnover markers" and Embase was searched using the Emtree by "Diabetes Mellitus" and "bone turnover", resulting in 611 studies. The eligibility criteria for the studies were to assess BTM in either type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Of the 611 eligible studies, removal of duplicates and screening by title and abstract lead to 114 potential studies for full-text review. All these studies were full-text screened for eligibility and 45 studies were included. Two additional studies were added from other sources. Among the 47 studies included there were 1 meta-analysis, 29 cross-sectional studies, 13 randomized controlled trials, and 4 longitudinal studies. Both T1D and T2D were studied. Most studies reported fasting BTM and excluded renal disease. Markers of bone resorption and formation seem to be lower in diabetes patients. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase is normal or increased, which suggests that the matrix becomes hypermineralized in diabetes patients. The BTMs: C-terminal cross-link of collagen, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sclerostin may potentially predict fractures, but longitudinal trials are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  6. Index Fund Selections with GAs and Classifications Based on Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Yukiko; Motoyama, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Genji

    It is well known that index fund selections are important for the risk hedge of investment in a stock market. The`selection’means that for`stock index futures’, n companies of all ones in the market are selected. For index fund selections, Orito et al.(6) proposed a method consisting of the following two steps : Step 1 is to select N companies in the market with a heuristic rule based on the coefficient of determination between the return rate of each company in the market and the increasing rate of the stock price index. Step 2 is to construct a group of n companies by applying genetic algorithms to the set of N companies. We note that the rule of Step 1 is not unique. The accuracy of the results using their method depends on the length of time data (price data) in the experiments. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a more`effective rule’for Step 1. The rule is based on turnover. The method consisting of Step 1 based on turnover and Step 2 is examined with numerical experiments for the 1st Section of Tokyo Stock Exchange. The results show that with our method, it is possible to construct the more effective index fund than the results of Orito et al.(6). The accuracy of the results using our method depends little on the length of time data (turnover data). The method especially works well when the increasing rate of the stock price index over a period can be viewed as a linear time series data.

  7. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hammes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m−2, or about 7–10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182–541 years, much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  8. Organic Matter Quality and its Influence on Carbon Turnover and Stabilization in Northern Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Wieder, R. K.

    2002-12-01

    insoluble material (AIM) and AIM/N were significant predictors of decomposition. However, when limited to individual peatland features or bryophyte species, soluble proximate fractions were better predictors of organic matter decay. This suggests that decomposition within single litter or peat types is controlled by the size of relatively small, labile carbon pools. As peatlands store the majority of soil carbon in the boreal forest, the influences of peat quality on carbon storage and turnover should be considered in understanding the fate of carbon in northern ecosystems.

  9. Executive turnover: the influence of dispersion and other pay system characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G; Guthrie, James P; Ji, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Yeon

    2011-05-01

    Using tournament theory as a guiding theoretical framework, in this study, we assess the organizational implications of pay dispersion and other pay system characteristics on the likelihood of turnover among individual executives in organizational teams. Specifically, we estimate the effect of these pay system characteristics on executive turnover decisions. We use a multi-industry, multilevel data set composed of executives in publicly held firms to assess the effects of pay dispersion at the individual level. Consistent with previous findings, we find that pay dispersion is associated with an increased likelihood of executive turnover. In addition, we find that other pay characteristics also affect turnover, both directly and through a moderating effect on pay dispersion. Turnover is more likely when executives receive lower portions of overall top management team compensation and when they have more pay at risk. These conditions also moderate the relationship between pay dispersion and individual turnover decisions, as does receiving lower compensation relative to the market.

  10. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  11. Hospital Mergers in Norway: Employee Health and Turnover to Three Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Holm Ingelsrud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the probability of turnover to three destinations following hospital merg- ers: within the hospital sector, out of the hospital sector, and out of work. It is hypothesized that mergers increase turnover to nonemployment among employees with poor health and increase turnover to employment outside of the hospital sector among healthy employees. Discrete-time survival analyses show that mergers increase turnover within the hospital sector for all employ- ees, regardless of health. Turnover to other sectors and out of work does not increase. Possible explanations for the limited turnover out of the sector associated with mergers are aspects of the Norwegian labor market such as the institution of employee participation, low unemployment, and labor shortages within hospitals.

  12. Turnover, staffing, skill mix, and resident outcomes in a national sample of US nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkoff, Alison M; Han, Kihye; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Johantgen, Meg; Gartrell, Kyungsook

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship of staff turnover to selected nursing home quality outcomes, in the context of staffing and skill mix. Staff turnover is a serious concern in nursing homes as it has been found to adversely affect care. When employee turnover is minimized, better care quality is more likely in nursing homes. Data from the National Nursing Home Survey, a nationally representative sample of US nursing homes, were linked to Nursing Home Compare quality outcomes and analyzed using logistic regression. Nursing homes with high certified nursing assistant turnover had significantly higher odds of pressure ulcers, pain, and urinary tract infections even after controlling for staffing, skill mix, bed size, and ownership. Nurse turnover was associated with twice the odds of pressure ulcers, although this was attenuated when staffing was controlled. This study suggests turnover may be more important in explaining nursing home (NH) outcomes than staffing and skill mix and should therefore be given greater emphasis.

  13. Job satisfaction mediates subjective social status and turnover intention among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Yang, Yang; Xia, Jinghua; Su, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Nurse turnover is one of the reasons for the global nurse shortage. Although previous studies have examined the determinants of turnover intention in detail, there is limited knowledge on the effect of subjective social status on nurse turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we examined this relationship, including job satisfaction as a mediator, among Chinese nurses. This cross-sectional study employed questionnaires to assess subjective social status, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in 581 nurses who were randomly recruited from 10 hospitals in Jinan, China. The results partially supported our model. Although subjective social status exerted no significant direct effect on turnover intention, it exerted a significant indirect effect through job satisfaction. These results provide a new insight into why nurses leave their jobs, and possible new solutions to the nurse turnover problem. Efforts should be made to improve nurses' subjective social status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Characteristics of the Nursing Practice Environment Associated With Lower Unit-Level RN Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Park, Shin Hye; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine characteristics of the nursing practice environment associated with lower RN turnover. Identifying characteristics of the practice environment that contribute to lower RN turnover is important for meeting the national quality strategy priority of reducing healthcare costs. Data from 1002 adult care units in 162 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators participating hospitals were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index was used to measure practice environment characteristics. RN turnover was measured at the unit level. Nursing units with higher overall ratings of the nursing practice environment had lower rates of RN turnover. Units with higher RN perceived staffing and resource adequacy experienced significantly lower RN turnover. Unit managers and hospital administrators should consider RN perception of staffing and resource adequacy and the overall practice environment when developing targeted strategies for decreasing RN turnover.

  15. The Lifespan and Turnover of Microglia in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Réu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hematopoietic system seeds the CNS with microglial progenitor cells during the fetal period, but the subsequent cell generation dynamics and maintenance of this population have been poorly understood. We report that microglia, unlike most other hematopoietic lineages, renew slowly at a median rate of 28% per year, and some microglia last for more than two decades. Furthermore, we find no evidence for the existence of a substantial population of quiescent long-lived cells, meaning that the microglia population in the human brain is sustained by continuous slow turnover throughout adult life.

  16. Role of Voluntary Employee Turnover in Textile Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz, Yasir; Rahman, Tanzil ur; Siraji, Md. Naeemullah

    2009-01-01

    The role of voluntary employee turnover (VET) in textile industry has significance in this era over the globe. Textile industry is labour intensive with similar to agriculture industry in Pakistan and it has excessive VET as compared to other industries. Pakistan’s textile products are high quality and much exploit in the world. It contributes in economic growth with 8.5% share in GDP. This industry mainly based on domestic labour and major portion of cost includes in the textile garment prod...

  17. A model for reducing health care employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Paul; Holmes, Gary; Murrow, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the rationale as to why employees leave their jobs has led to many different strategies to retain employees. The model presented here seeks to explain why employees choose to stay or to leave their place of employment. The information from the analysis will provide managers with well-tested tools to reduce turnover and to ascertain what employees value from their work environment in order to help the organization to retain those employees. The model identifies key factors that management can utilize to provide barriers to exit and retain professional employees in their health care units. Recommendations are provided that reward loyalty and build barriers to exit.

  18. Adipocyte triglyceride turnover and lipolysis in lean and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Mikael; Andersson, Daniel P; Bernard, Samuel; Spalding, Kirsty; Arner, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is associated with decreased triglyceride turnover and impaired lipolysis in adipocytes. We determined whether such defects also occur in subjects with only moderate increase in fat mass. Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated in healthy, nonobese subjects [body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) and BMI lean subjects (P = 0.017) with triglyceride T1/2 of 14 and 9 months, respectively (P = 0.04). Triglyceride age correlated positively with BMI (P = 0.002) but not with adipocyte volume (P = 0.2). Noradrenaline-, isoprenaline- or dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced lipolysis was inversely correlated with triglyceride age (P maintenance of excess body fat.

  19. Clinical usefulness of bone turnover marker concentrations in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, H A; Eastell, R; Jorgensen, N R

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence continues to support the potential for bone turnover markers (BTM) to provide clinically useful information particularly for monitoring the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment. Many of the limitations identified earlier remain, principally in regard to the relationship between BTM...... of combining such data for meta-analyses. Harmonization of units for reporting serum/plasma CTX (ng/L) and PINP (μg/L) is recommended. The development of international collaborations continues with an important initiative to combine BTM results from clinical trials in osteoporosis in a meta...

  20. Unsteady Flows Control Hydrologic Turnover Rates in Antarctic Hyporheic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Saelens, E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic turnover of the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the process of HZ flowpaths receiving water and solutes from the stream channel while simultaneously contributing water and solutes from the HZ back to the stream channel. The influence of hydrologic turnover on HZ solute storage depends on the relative magnitude of hyporheic exchange rates (i.e. physical transport) and biogeochemical reaction rates. Because both exchange rates and reaction rates are unsteady in natural systems, the availability of solutes in the HZ is controlled by the legacy of hydraulic and biological conditions. In this study, we quantify the influence of unsteady flows on hydrologic turnover of the HZ. We study a glacial melt stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDVs). The MDVs provide an ideal setting for investigating hydrologic and chemical storage characteristics of HZs, because nearly all streamflow is generated from glacier melt and the HZ is vertically bounded by continuous permafrost. A dense network of shallow groundwater wells and piezometers was installed along a 60-meter reach of Von Guerard Stream. 12 days of continuous water level data in each well was used to compute the magnitude and direction of 2D hydraulic gradients between the stream channel and lateral hyporheic aquifer. Piezometers were sampled daily for stable isotope abundances. The direction and magnitude of the cross-valley (CV), perpendicular to the thalweg, component of hydraulic gradients is sensitive to daily flood events and exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity. CV gradients are consistently oriented from the hyporheic aquifer towards the stream channel on 2 sections of the study reach, whereas CV gradients are consistently oriented from the stream channel towards the hyporheic aquifer on 1 section. Three sections show diel changes in orientation of CV gradients, coincident with the passage of daily flood events. During a 4-day period of low flows, the HZ is isotopically distinct from the stream

  1. Evolutionary Turnover of Kinetochore Proteins: A Ship of Theseus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnenberg, Ines A; Henikoff, Steven; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-07-01

    The kinetochore is a multiprotein complex that mediates the attachment of a eukaryotic chromosome to the mitotic spindle. The protein composition of kinetochores is similar across species as divergent as yeast and human. However, recent findings have revealed an unexpected degree of compositional diversity in kinetochores. For example, kinetochore proteins that are essential in some species have been lost in others, whereas new kinetochore proteins have emerged in other lineages. Even in lineages with similar kinetochore composition, individual kinetochore proteins have functionally diverged to acquire either essential or redundant roles. Thus, despite functional conservation, the repertoire of kinetochore proteins has undergone recurrent evolutionary turnover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pengaruh Iklim Organisasi dan Kepuasan Kerja Terhadap Intensi Turnover Guru Yayasan Hajjah Rachmah Nasution

    OpenAIRE

    Yunisa, Karlina

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining employees with qualified performance is one of the organization’s strategy for improvement. Employees are one of important asset for organization. The higher of employee’s turnover may create instability on work condition that caused organization’s ineffective and inefficient. When turnover intention become high, organizational climate and job satisfaction become important element to reduce turnover intention. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of organizational...

  3. Mentoring and turnover intentions in public accounting firms: a research note

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Hall; David Smith

    2009-01-01

    Turnover in public accounting firms is a critically important issue as firms seek to retain quality accounting personnel in the face of skilled labour shortages. Mentoring is one initiative that has been suggested as a means of reducing the high costs associated with employee turnover. However, prior accounting research examining the association between mentoring and turnover intentions has produced mixed results, which may be due, at least in part, to difficulties in operationalizing the men...

  4. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A.; Pereira-Lancha, L.O.; Lancha, A. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers ( 13 C-lysine, 15 N-glycine, 2 H 5 -phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg −1 ·day −1 compared to 0.8 g·kg −1 ·day −1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h

  5. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A. [Laboratory for Biometry and Sport Nutrition, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Free University of Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Pereira-Lancha, L.O. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto Vita, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lancha, A. Jr. [Laboratório de Nutrição Aplicada à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers ({sup 13}C-lysine, {sup 15}N-glycine, {sup 2}H{sub 5}-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1} compared to 0.8 g·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1} in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h.

  6. Cartilage biomarkers in the osteoarthropathy of alkaptonuria reveal low turnover and accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M; Hsueh, Ming-Feng; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; Dillon, Jane P; Huebner, Janet L; Catterall, Jon B; Kraus, Virginia B

    2017-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disease resulting from a single enzyme deficiency in tyrosine metabolism. As a result, homogentisic acid cannot be metabolized, causing systemic increases. Over time, homogentisic acid polymerizes and deposits in collagenous tissues, leading to ochronosis. Typically, this occurs in joint cartilages, leading to an early onset, rapidly progressing osteoarthropathy. The aim of this study was to examine tissue turnover in cartilage affected by ochronosis and its role in disease initiation and progression. With informed patient consent, hip and knee cartilages were obtained at surgery for arthropathy due to AKU (n = 6; 2 knees/4 hips) and OA (n = 12; 5 knees/7 hips); healthy non-arthritic (non-OA n = 6; 1 knee/5 hips) cartilages were obtained as waste from trauma surgery. We measured cartilage concentrations (normalized to dry weight) of racemized aspartate, GAG, COMP and deamidated COMP (D-COMP). Unpaired AKU, OA and non-OA samples were compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Despite more extractable total protein being obtained from AKU cartilage than from OA or non-OA cartilage, there was significantly less extractable GAG, COMP and D-COMP in AKU samples compared with OA and non-OA comparators. Racemized Asx (aspartate and asparagine) was significantly enriched in AKU cartilage compared with in OA cartilage. These novel data represent the first examination of cartilage matrix components in a sample of patients with AKU, representing almost 10% of the known UK alkaptonuric population. Compared with OA and non-OA, AKU cartilage demonstrates a very low turnover state and has low levels of extractable matrix proteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Poortmans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers (13C-lysine, 15N-glycine, ²H5-phenylalanine and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils. Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg-1·day-1 compared to 0.8 g·kg-1·day-1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h.

  8. Airborne geophysical survey of the catastrophic landslide at Stože, Log pod Mangrtom, as a test of an innovative approach for landslide mapping in steep alpine terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baroň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne geophysics is a promising method for investigating landslides. Here we present a case study of multisensor airborne geophysical survey at the catastrophic landslide Stože near Log pod Mangrtom in Slovenia, which was conducted in the framework of the European FP7th Project "SafeLand". Based on the survey itself and achieved results, we discuss applicability, limits, and benefits and costs of the method for investigating landslides in steep alpine terrains. Despite of several operational constraints, the airborne electromagnetic survey of the area well presented the lithological pattern and water saturation. The high resistivity regions mostly indicated drained slope scree and landslide mass, drained and loosened material of the moraine deposit in the tension zone of the landslide with present cracks and cavities. The minima of the resistivity pattern were attributed to the outcrop of marls rich in clay, to water-saturated moraine deposit above impermeable marls in the tension zone, and to water-saturated porous alluvial gravel and landslide scree along the Koritnica River. The magnetic survey proved to be inapplicable for such a small and rough area. The Potassium and Thorium maps, on the other hand, both well identified the regions of tension inside the landslide zone, outcrops of marls and dolomite, clay-rich colluvium, weathered zones along a regional tectonic fault, and alluvial deposits and deposits of debris flows, and the minima of the 137Cs clearly revealed the zones of material removal due to recent mass movements.

  9. Workplace experiences and turnover intention among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Ness, Kirsten K; Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate workplace experiences and turnover intention (consideration of leaving or changing a job) and to examine factors associated with turnover intention among survivors. Adult survivors of childhood cancer with a history of employment (n = 289) completed measures of workplace experiences (n = 50, 18-29 years; n = 183, 30-44 years; n = 56; > 45 years of age at follow-up). Turnover intention was assessed using three items from the Job Satisfaction Scale. Responses were dichotomized as reflecting high vs. low turnover intention. Path analysis was used to estimate the influence of demographic characteristics, treatment exposures (cranial radiation therapy [CRT]), and workplace experiences on turnover intention. Thirty percent of survivors reported high turnover intention (95% CL, 25 to 36%). Exposure to CRT (P = 0.003), older attained age (P workplace discrimination (P = 0.008), and having lower continuance (P discrimination, mediated through job satisfaction, also influenced survivors' reported intent to leave their jobs. One third of adult survivors of childhood cancer report turnover intention, which is related to their cancer treatment, but more temporally proximal, workplace discrimination. Additional research is needed to understand the consequences of turnover intention among survivors. Survivors and their health care providers should be aware of legislative policies related to workplace discrimination (e.g., American with Disabilities Act) and related implications for job turnover.

  10. Thiamine content and turnover rates of some rat nervous regions, using labeled thiamine as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindi, G.; Patrini, C.; Comincioli, V.; Reggiani, C.

    1980-01-01

    The content of total thiamine radioactivity in some nervous structures and liver of the rat was determined in a steady state condition, using [thiazole-2- 14 C]thiamine as a tracer. The contents were analyzed by a mamillary type compartmental model which enabled the authors to calculate the influx and efflux fractional rate constants, turnover times, turnover rates and relative accuracy. The results show in general a good agreement between turnover rate values and brain regional sensitivity to thiamine deficiency, the most vunerable areas to thiamine depletion being those with the highest turnover rates. (Auth.)

  11. Missed nursing care: the impact on intention to leave and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between missed nursing care, nurse turnover, and intention to leave. A cross-sectional study using the MISSCARE Survey was conducted. The sample comprised 110 patient-care units in 10 acute-care hospitals. Staffing data, turnover rates, and unit-level Case Mix Index were collected from the participating hospitals. Higher percentages of females on the unit were associated with lower turnover rates (beta = -.235, p = .010). Units with higher rates of missed care (beta = .302, p reduce intention to leave (and subsequent turnover).

  12. Nurse Knowledge, Work Environment, and Turnover in Highly Specialized Pediatric End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Cozad, Melanie J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationship between nurse knowledge, work environment, and registered nurse (RN) turnover in perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations. Using nurse intellectual capital theory, a multivariate analysis was conducted with 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data. Perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations experienced a 5% turnover rate. The professional experience of advanced practice nurses (APNs) was significantly related to turnover among RNs (β = -.032, P < .05). Compared to organizations with no APNs professional experience, clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners significantly reduced RN turnover by 3 percentage points. No other nurse knowledge or work environment variables were associated with RN turnover. Several of the control variables were also associated with RN turnover in the study; Organizations serving micropolitan (β = -.041, P < .05) and rural areas (β = -.037, P < .05) had lower RN turnover compared to urban areas. Organizations with a technology climate where nurses used electronic medical records had a higher turnover rate than those without (β = .036, P < .05). The findings revealed that advanced professional experience in the form of APNs was associated with reductions in RN turnover. This suggests that having a clinical nurse specialist or nurse practitioner on staff may provide knowledge and experience to other RNs, creating stability within the organization.

  13. A retrospective analysis of employee turnover in the health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, B; McMullen, N

    1998-02-01

    Significant factors implicated in staff turnover include: variables in organizational structure; employee characteristics; needs and values, and the nature of tasks performed. This article will present the causative factors related to turnover and the conceptual models of the motivational theorists Maslow, Herzberg, Adams, and Mobley. No quantitative or qualitative research could be found on the potential causes of turnover in freestanding dialysis clinics. The staff turnover of a for-profit dialysis company for a 12 month period will be reported by job title, tenure, and level of job satisfaction.

  14. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  15. VALSARTAN REGULATES MYOCARDIAL AUTOPHAGY AND MITOCHONDRIAL TURNOVER IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Zi-Lun; Crane, John A.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Pawar, Aditya S.; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension alters cardiac structure and function. Autophagy is activated during left ventricular hypertrophy and linked to adverse cardiac function. The Angiotensin II receptor blocker Valsartan lowers blood pressure and is cardioprotective, but whether it modulates autophagy in the myocardium is unclear. We hypothesized that Valsartan would alleviate autophagy and improve left ventricular myocardial mitochondrial turnover in swine renovascular hypertension. Domestic pigs were randomized to control, unilateral renovascular hypertension, and renovascular hypertension treated with Valsartan (320 mg/day) or conventional triple therapy (Reserpine+hydralazine+hydrochlorothiazide) for 4 weeks post 6-weeks of renovascular hypertension (n=7 each group). Left ventricular remodeling, function and myocardial oxygenation and microcirculation were assessed by multi-detector computer tomography, blood-oxygen-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputer tomography. Myocardial autophagy, markers for mitochondrial degradation and biogenesis, and mitochondrial respiratory-chain proteins were examined ex vivo. Renovascular hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial hypoxia, enhanced cellular autophagy and mitochondrial degradation, and suppressed mitochondrial biogenesis. Valsartan and triple therapy similarly decreased blood pressure, but Valsartan solely alleviated left ventricular hypertrophy, ameliorated myocardial autophagy and mitophagy, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, triple therapy only slightly attenuated autophagy and preserved mitochondrial proteins, but elicited no improvement in mitophagy. These data suggest a novel potential role of Valsartan in modulating myocardial autophagy and mitochondrial turnover in renovascular hypertension-induced hypertensive heart disease, which may possibly bolster cardiac repair via a blood pressure-independent manner. PMID:24752430

  16. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with double adipofascial turnover flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Aiming

    2010-01-01

    Despite a variety of flap reconstruction options, the ischium remains the most difficult pressure sore site to treat. This article describes the authors' successful surgical procedure for coverage of ischial ulcers using double adipofascial turnover flaps.After debridement, the adipofascial flaps are harvested both cephalad and caudal to the defect. The flaps are then turned over to cover the exposed bone in a manner so as to overlap the 2 flaps. The skin is then closed with sutures in 2 layers. A total of 15 patients with ischial sores were treated using this surgical procedure.The follow-up period ranged from 11 to 159 months, with a mean of 93.6 months. Overall, 86.7% of the flaps (13 of 15) healed primarily. One patient had a recurrent grade II ischial pressure sore again 11 months after the operation. The other 14 patients did not have a recurrence.Treatment of ischial pressure sores with adipofascial turnover flaps provides an easy, minimally invasive procedure, with preservation of future flap options, and a soft-tissue supply sufficient for covering the bony prominence and filling dead space. This technique is a reliable and safe reconstructive modality for the management of minor ischial pressure sores.

  17. How to reduce turnover by creating a positive work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, R E

    1979-08-01

    Despite company attempts to reduce employee turnover by offering attractive salaries and benefits, Kushell notes that attrition continues at an alarming rate. He states that more than one of every three employees will change jobs over the next five years, a transition that will take its toll on company morale and productivity. The underlying factor, according to the author, is the quality of the working environment. A 1969 University of Michigan survey of 1,533 workers, at every occupation level, reported that all respondents ranked interesting work and authority to get the job done far ahead of good pay and job security. Sources of employee frustration include a stifling bureaucracy, excessive job expectations, and unsuitable jobs. The author suggests that top managers ask themselves whether they are missing out on or losing talented employees. If this is the case, there are several guidelines management should follow: improve communication between employees and top management; define expectations of the employee; and promote candor in the job interview. Kushell concludes that top executives can have an impact on turnover by paying attention to what employees really want rather than what management thinks they want.

  18. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  19. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  20. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  1. Kinetics of lactate turnover and oxidation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Shames, D.; Cavalieri, R.R.; DeGrazia, J.; Zarcone, V.; Porte, D. Jr.; Bagdade, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The turnover and oxidation of lactic acid have been studied in man by means of 14 C-lactic acid, 14 C-glucose, and 14 C-alanine. The use of these labels in separate studies has enabled us to describe a complete scheme for the kinetics of lactic acid in man. We have determined that lactate arises from a minimum of two sources in overnight fasted man. 66% of lactate at this time arises from the metabolism of glucose while approximately 15% is derived from alanine. These sources and others unidentified supply lactate to the body pool at a rate of approximately 95 mg per kg per h. The disposal of this quantity of lactate is achieved through a minimum of three routes. Approximately 57% of the lactate turnover is oxidized to carbon dioxide, 15% is reduced to glucose, and approximately 25% is converted to alanine. The quantitative changes in the kinetics of this system that are brought on by fasting add an interesting dimension to the system. In agreement with the concepts of fuel economy in fasting the contribution of glucose carbon to lactic acid falls and, in turn, the contribution of lactate carbon to body glucose rises. The study of additional permutations of this system suggest that lactate, with pyruvate, is in the main stream of the intermediary metabolism of the body. The authors suggest that the study of this system offers promise of a fuller understanding of the derangements of metabolic disease. (author)

  2. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E; Mitchell, Michael S; Waits, Lisette P

    2017-09-01

    Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758). We used noninvasive genetic sampling at wolf rendezvous sites to construct pedigrees and estimate recruitment in groups of wolves before and after harvest in Idaho, USA. Turnover of breeding females increased polygamy and potential recruits per group by providing breeding opportunities for subordinates although resultant group size was unaffected 1 year after the turnover. Breeder turnover had no effect on the number of nonbreeding helpers per group. After breeding male turnover, fewer female pups were recruited in the new males' litters. Harvest had no effect on the frequency of breeder turnover. We found that breeder turnover led to shifts in the reproductive hierarchies within groups and the resulting changes to group composition were quite variable and depended on the sex of the breeder lost. We hypothesize that nonbreeding females direct help away from non-kin female pups to preserve future breeding opportunities for themselves. Breeder turnover had marked effects on the breeding opportunities of subordinates and the number and sex ratios of subsequent litters of pups. Seemingly subtle changes to groups, such as the loss of one individual, can greatly affect group composition, genetic content, and short-term population growth when the individual lost is a breeder. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  4. Effects of a preceptorship programme on turnover rate, cost, quality and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Lin, Chia-Huei; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a preceptorship programme and to evaluate its effects on turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of care and professional development. A high turnover rate of nurses is a common global problem. How to improve nurses' willingness to stay in their jobs and reduce the high turnover rate has become a focus. Well-designed preceptorship programmes could possibly decrease turnover rates and improve professional development. A quasi-experimental research design was used. First, a preceptorship programme was designed to establish the role and responsibilities of preceptors in instructing new nurses. Second, a quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the preceptorship programme. Data on new nurses' turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of nursing care, satisfaction of preceptor's teaching and preceptor's perception were measured. After conducting the preceptorship programme, the turnover rate was 46.5% less than the previous year. The turnover cost was decreased by US$186,102. Additionally, medication error rates made by new nurses dropped from 50-0% and incident rates of adverse events and falls decreased. All new nurses were satisfied with preceptor guidance. The preceptorship programme effectively lowered the turnover rate of new nurses, reduced turnover costs and enhanced the quality of nursing care, especially by reducing medication error incidents. Positive feedback about the programme was received from new nurses. Study findings may offer healthcare administrators another option for retaining new nurses, controlling costs, improving quality and fostering professional development. In addition, incentives and effective support from the organisation must be considered when preceptors perform preceptorship responsibilities.

  5. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? - A 45 year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-12-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  6. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? – A 45 year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  7. Officer Career Development: A Review of the Civilian and Military Research Literature on Turnover and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    balance of costs associated with turnover and the costs associated with retaining employees. Under this approach, the optimal level of aggregate turnover...behavior psychiatric technicians psychological attachment push/pull models quality of life quality of service quality of worklife questionnaires race

  8. Why Agriculture Teachers Leave: A National Examination of Turnover Intentions and Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of secondary school agriculture teachers in the United States, this study explored the work-family conflict and turnover intentions of agriculture teachers. Additionally, this study sought to determine the relationship between work-family conflict and turnover intentions among agriculture teachers. Work-family…

  9. Why turnover matters in self-managing work teams : Learning, social integration, and task flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, G.S.; Bunderson, S.; Kuipers, B.

    This study considers how turnover in self-managing work teams influences the team interaction processes that promote effective task accomplishment. Drawing from research on self-managing work teams and group process, the authors propose that team turnover affects performance in self-managing teams

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Role of Human Resource Management in Models of Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina-Ozola, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study results of the human resource management role in the voluntary employee turnover models. The mixed methods design was applied. On the basis of the results of the search and evaluation of publications, the 16 models of employee turnover were selected. Applying the method of content analysis, the…

  11. An Analysis on the Turnover of College Teachers in China from the Perspective of Institutional Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojun

    2009-01-01

    Talents are the most important factor of all in the efforts to establish an innovative country. In universities and colleges, the bases for talent cultivation, the turnover of teachers in an explicit or recessive way calls for our urgent attention. This article aims at analyzing the complex causes of college teachers' turnover from the perspective…

  12. An Exploration of Turnover Experience of IT Professionals in the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeh, George

    2016-01-01

    Turnover among information technology professionals costs organization in revenues. According to Computer Economics (2008), the cost of replacing one information technology employee is $50,000. Reports from the United States Department of Commerce and Office of Technology Policy showed that turnover rate in Information Technology has exceeded 20%…

  13. Analisa Pengaruh Employee Engagement Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Dan Turnover Intention Di Hotel D'season Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia, Jessica; Rosiana, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    Employee engagement di Perusahaan sangat penting karena memberikan banyak manfaat sehingga setiap karyawan harus memiliki rasa engaged. Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh signifikan employee engagement terhadap kinerja karyawan dan turnover intention serta pengaruh signifikan dari turnover intention terhadap kinerja karyawan. Jenis penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan software Smart PL...

  14. Toward a Theoretical Model of Employee Turnover: A Human Resource Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    This article sets forth the Organizational Model of Employee Persistence, influenced by traditional turnover models and a student attrition model. The model was developed to clarify the impact of organizational practices on employee turnover from a human resource development (HRD) perspective and provide a theoretical foundation for research on…

  15. Happily ever after?: Explaining turnover and retirement intentions of older workers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fleischmann (Maria); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); F. Koster (Ferry)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractPurpose: This paper aims to provide an empirical test of theories proposed in the literature stating that turnover and retirement (two kinds of work withdrawal) involve different employee decisions. It also aims to provide a more general theoretical framework understanding turnover

  16. The Effects of Autonomy and Empowerment on Employee Turnover: Test of a Multilevel Model in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data…

  17. Examining the Job Search-Turnover Relationship: The Role of Embeddedness, Job Satisfaction, and Available Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Brian W.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors that may help explain under what conditions employee job search effort may most strongly (or weakly) predict subsequent turnover. As predicted, the job search-turnover relationship was stronger when employees had lower levels of job embeddedness and job satisfaction and higher levels of available alternatives. These…

  18. Happily ever after? Explaining turnover and retirement intentions of older workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munderlein, M.; Ybema, J.F.; Koster, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide an empirical test of theories proposed in the literature stating that turnover and retirement (two kinds of work withdrawal) involve different employee decisions. It also aims to provide a more general theoretical framework understanding turnover and retirement

  19. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  20. Amplified plant turnover in response to climate change forecast by Late Quaternary records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Veloz, S.; Holt, Benjamin George

    2016-01-01

    calibrated against taxa-climate relationships for the past 21,000 years. We find that incorporating long-term data into niche-based models increases the magnitude of projected future changes for plant abundances and community turnover. The larger projected changes in abundances and community turnover...

  1. Teacher Turnover Impact on 1st-8th Grade Student Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Johnnie M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of schools and students not meeting academic achievement standards affects the community and the nation's future workforce. This paper examines many of the factors influencing achievement with special attention given to the facts of teacher turnover in the schools. Teacher turnover and the sad state of the academic achievement of…

  2. Beyond the tradition: test of an integrative conceptual model on nurse turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, A; Portoghese, I; Galletta, M; Pohl, S

    2013-03-01

    This paper aimed to extend research on nurse turnover by developing and testing a theoretical model of turnover intention that includes two emergent key off-the-job constructs, work-family conflict (WFC) and community embeddedness (CE). Nurse turnover is considered one of the most significant issues in health care. There is a considerable body of knowledge that has focused on the study of the on-the-job factors of nurse turnover, showing the important role of job attitudes. Recently, WFC and job embeddedness (JE) have been identified as variables that could help explain levels of nurse turnover. Using structural equation modelling from a cross-sectional survey, the relationships between the variables were explored in a sample of 440 nurses from an Italian public hospital. The questionnaire measures demographic data and psychosocial factors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, WFC, CE and turnover intentions. The findings supported the importance of non-work dimensions in turnover models. The results suggest that when studying turnover phenomena in health organizations, the extra-work domains (WFC and JE) can contribute to a decrease in the intention to leave, in addition to the more typically emphasized attitude dimension. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  4. Nurse turnover in New Zealand: costs and relationships with staffing practises and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola; Leung, William; Ashton, Toni; Rasmussen, Erling; Hughes, Frances; Finlayson, Mary

    2013-04-01

    To determine the rates and costs of nurse turnover, the relationships with staffing practises, and the impacts on outcomes for nurses and patients. In the context of nursing shortages, information on the rates and costs of nursing turnover can improve nursing staff management and quality of care. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected prospectively for 12 months. A re-analysis of these data used descriptive statistics and correlational analysis techniques. The cost per registered nurse turnover represents half an average salary. The highest costs were related to temporary cover, followed by productivity loss. Both are associated with adverse patient events. Flexible management of nursing resources (staffing below budgeted levels and reliance on temporary cover), and a reliance on new graduates and international recruitment to replace nurses who left, contributed to turnover and costs. Nurse turnover is embedded in staffing levels and practises, with costs attributable to both. A culture of turnover was found that is inconsistent with nursing as a knowledge workforce. Nurse managers did not challenge flexible staffing practices and high turnover rates. Information on turnover and costs is needed to develop strategies that retain nurses as knowledge-based workers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The Teacher Labour Market, Teacher Turnover and Disadvantaged Schools: New Evidence for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca; Burgess, Simon; Mayo, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    We study the market for teachers in England, in particular teacher turnover. We show that there is a positive raw association between the level of school disadvantage and the turnover rate of its teachers. This association diminishes as we control for school, pupil and local teacher labour market characteristics, but is not eliminated. The…

  6. Mobility-Related Teacher Turnover and the Unequal Distribution of Experienced Teachers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the issue of mobility-related teacher turnover in Turkey through both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative findings derived from descriptive and correlational analyses of countrywide teacher-assignment and transfer data indicate that a high rate of mobility-related turnover is observed in the…

  7. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  8. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  9. Employee Characteristics as Predictors of Turnover among Female Clerical Employees in Two Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowday, Richard T.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Female clerical employees (N=314) in two regional offices of a large insurance company were administered Jackson's Personality Research Form. Turnover data were collected up to eight months following administration of the questionnaire. Relationships were found between employee characteristics and turnover in both samples. (Author)

  10. A study on the magnitude and causes of turnover among academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering high turnover as a sign of failure in an educational organization, the study was conducted to assess the causes of turnover among the academic staffs of Ambo University. The study focused on six plausible factors: economic, managerial, environmental, social and technological, teaching related factors and ...

  11. Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnot, Melinda; Dee, Thomas; Katz, Veronica; Wyckoff, James

    2016-01-01

    In practice, teacher turnover appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that turnover can instead have large, positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study…

  12. Dynamic Effects of Teacher Turnover on the Quality of Instruction. Working Paper 170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that teacher turnover adversely affects the quality of instruction in urban schools serving predominantly disadvantaged children, and a growing body of research investigates various components of turnover effects. The evidence at first seems contradictory, as the quality of instruction appears to decline following turnover…

  13. Organizational turnover as endogenous precursor of industry dynamics and organizational dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattani, Gino; Pennings, Johannes M.; Wezel, Filippo Carlo

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organizational turnover on firm survival within the Dutch accounting service industry during the period 1880-1986. We address three issues: (1) estimating the effect of organizational turnover on organizational dissolution; (2) showing the significance of propinquity

  14. The Effect of Flextime on Absenteeism and Turnover for Male and Female Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David A.; Flanagan, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    Conducted a longitudinal investigation of differences in absenteeism and turnover for workers on flextime and not on flextime. Significant decreases in absenteeism but not turnover for females and males on flextime were found suggesting that flextime had positive benefits for employees with interrole conflict problems and for the organization.…

  15. Representation of a common 3-pool compartment model for N turnover of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of an existing 3-pool compartment model for the N turnover of lactating ruminants a method was elaborated for N turnover determination in non-lactating ruminants by measuring the 15 N frequency in NPN pool and without experimental measurements of the 15 N frequency in the amino acid pool

  16. Complexity Science and the Dynamics of Climate and Communication: Reducing Nursing Home Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; McDaniel, Reuben R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Turnover in nursing homes is a widespread problem adversely affecting care quality. Using complexity theory, we tested the effect of administrative climate, communication patterns, and the interaction between the two on turnover, controlling for facility context. Design and Methods Perceptions of administrative climate and communication were collected from 3,449 employees in 164 randomly sampled nursing homes, and they were linked to secondary data on facility characteristics, resource allocation, and turnover. We used hierarchical regression to test the hypotheses. Results Climate and communication both affected turnover, but lower turnover was dependent on the interaction between climate and communication. In nursing homes with reward-based administrative climates, higher levels of communication openness and accuracy explained lower turnover of licensed vocational nurses and certified nurse assistants, relative to nursing homes with an ambiguous climate. Adequate staffing and longer tenure of the nursing director were also important predictors of turnover. Implications Although context is important, managers can also influence turnover by addressing climate and communication patterns and by encouraging stable nursing leadership. PMID:15197292

  17. An empirical not on job turnover and internal mobility of workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of job turnover in which the internal mobility of workers is involved is higher in large firms than in small firms. Large firms are able to reduce turnover costs by using their ability to attain a higher internal mobility rate.

  18. An empirical note on job turnover and internal mobility of workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassink, W.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    I find that large firms have a higher rate of job turnover in which internal mobility of workers is involved. These firms are able to reduce turnover costs, by making use of their ability to attain a higher internal mobility rate.

  19. Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Intention: A Case Study of Private Hospital in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govand Anwar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today it became a huge challenge for Human Resource Managers to retain the employees for longer time of period and decrease the rate of employee turnover. The main research objective is to find out the correlation between job satisfaction and employee turnover intention in private hospital in Erbil. A quantitative method was used to analyze the current study. 144 participants were involved in this study from private hospital in Erbil. The correlation between job satisfaction factor as independent factor and turnover as dependent factor, the value of R for the Job satisfaction is =.386** which indicates that turnover is a positive and weak correlation with turnover intention. The coefficients analysis for this study, the value Beta for turnover is = .386> 0.01, which supported the research hypothesis. This study showed that the there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Finally, on the turnover intentions of private hospital personnel in Erbil, most of them would quit in case if they have a better opportunities.

  20. Nurse turnover in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatah, Rawaih; Salem, Olfat A

    2018-04-06

    To appraise and synthesise existing literature on nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context. Saudi Arabia is notably one of the nations with a health care system that is bombarded by high rates of turnover and turnover intention. Moreover, rapid population growth and the expansion of the health care system increase the demand on registered nurses in the kingdom. Eleven primary sources were reviewed using Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005; 52, 546-553) integrative review method. There is variation in the reported turnover rates across the studies. The identified determinants of nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context included nurses' demographics, satisfaction, leadership and management, and job-related factors. There is a need for more studies that focus on the cost and outcome of nurse turnover and turnover intention in the Saudi Arabian context. The review highlights the alarming rates of nurse turnover and its determinants in Saudi Arabia. Nurse managers in Saudi Arabia should consider this information, as they make daily assignments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Labour turnover and its effects on performance : an empirical test using firm data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, A.C.; Bax, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we test the hypothesis that the relationship between labour turnover and the economic performance of the firm is bell-shaped: a turnover level too low has a negative effect and likewise does a level too high. Our analysis is based on economic performance data of 110 offices of a temp

  2. Numbers of simultaneous turnovers calculated from anesthesia or operating room information management system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Marcon, Eric; Aker, John; Epstein, Richard H

    2009-09-01

    More personnel are needed to turn over operating rooms (ORs) promptly when there are more simultaneous turnovers. Anesthesia and/or OR information management system data can be analyzed statistically to quantify simultaneous turnovers to evaluate whether to add an additional turnover team. Data collected for each case at a six OR facility were room, date of surgery, time of patient entry into the OR, and time of patient exit from the OR. The number of simultaneous turnovers was calculated for each 1 min of 122 4-wk periods. Our end point was the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the number of teams caused by the addition of a team. Increasing from two turnover teams to three teams reduced the mean daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams by 19 min. The ratio of 19 min to 8 h valued the time of extra personnel as 4.0% of the time of OR staff, surgeons, and anesthesia providers. Validity was suggested by other methods of analyses also suggesting staffing for three simultaneous turnovers. Discrete-event simulation showed that the reduction in daily minutes of turnover times from the addition of a team would likely match or exceed the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams. Confidence intervals for daily minutes of turnover times achieved by increasing from two to three teams were calculated using successive 4-wk periods. The distribution was sufficiently close to normal that accurate confidence intervals could be calculated using Student's t distribution (Lilliefors' test P = 0.58). Analysis generally should use 13 4-wk periods as increasing the number of periods from 6 to 13 significantly reduced the coefficient of variation of the averages but not increasing the number of periods from 6 to 9 or from 9 to 13. The number of simultaneous turnovers can be calculated for each 1 min over 1 yr. The reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers

  3. Are nursing home survey deficiencies higher in facilities with greater staff turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Nancy B; Johantgen, Meg; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Han, Kihye

    2014-02-01

    To examine CNA and licensed nurse (RN+LPN/LVN) turnover in relation to numbers of deficiencies in nursing homes. A secondary data analysis of information from the National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) and contemporaneous data from the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. Data were linked by facility as the unit of analysis to determine the relationship of CNA and licensed nurse turnover on nursing home deficiencies. The 2004 NNHS used a multistage sampling strategy to generate a final sample of 1174 nursing homes, which represent 16,100 NHs in the United States. This study focused on the 1151 NNHS facilities with complete deficiency data. Turnover was defined as the total CNAs/licensed nurse full-time equivalents (FTEs) who left during the preceding 3 months (full- and part-time) divided by the total FTE. NHs with high turnover were defined as those with rates above the 75th percentile (25.3% for CNA turnover and 17.9% for licensed nurse turnover) versus all other facilities. This study used selected OSCAR deficiencies from the Quality of Care, Quality of Life, and Resident Behavior categories, which are considered to be more closely related to nursing care. We defined NHs with high deficiencies as those with numbers of deficiencies above the 75th percentile versus all others. Using SUDAAN PROC RLOGIST, we included NNHS sampling design effects and examined associations of CNA/licensed nurse turnover with NH deficiencies, adjusting for staffing, skill mix, bed size, and ownership in binomial logistic regression models. High CNA turnover was associated with high numbers of Quality of Care (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10-2.13), Resident Behavior (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) and total selected deficiencies (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.12). Licensed nurse turnover was significantly related to Quality of Care deficiencies (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.50-2.82) and total selected deficiencies (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25-2.33). When both CNA turnover and licensed nurse turnover were

  4. Carbon turnover and sequestration potential of fodder radish cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2013-01-01

    We studied fodder radish carbon turnover as affected by soil tillage in Foulum, Denmark. Actively growing fodder radish monoliths from direct-drilled (DD) and conventionally tilled (CT) plots were extracted and labelled regularly with 14C isotope across their entire growth period. At the end......- to 45-cm-depth increments for determination of 14C distribution and retention. Carbon-14 declined significantly with increasing soil depth at each sampling for the two tillage practices (P 14C at 0–10 cm for DD than for CT at 4 and 8 months after biomass...... incorporation. For the 10–25 cm depth, 14C was significantly higher for CT than for DD, 4 and 8 months after incorporation. However, despite these depth-specific differences, cumulative (0–45 cm soil depth) 14C retention was similar for DD and CT treatments for all the sampling periods. On the basis of a CN...

  5. Impact of customer churn [or turnover] on profitability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamblin, D.; Ratchford, B.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report responds to a concern of a newly deregulated industry about the impact of customer churn, or turnover, on both the bottom line and staying power of incumbent utility distribution companies and new-entrant energy services providers. This research effort identifies those issues that will be of greatest importance to an energy service provider within a historical context that looks at churn impacts in other industries in the US as well as privatized electricity markets abroad. Churn and price maintenance or market power impacts on profitability are examined by looking at privatization and deregulation experiences within the context of economics. The report also looks at the marketing literature describing and modeling customer satisfaction, customer churn or retention, and price maintenance or market power

  6. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (posteoporosis.

  7. Bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giuffrida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone complications occur frequently in Gaucher disease (GD and reduce the quality of life of these patients. Skeletal involvement is an important indication for treatment to ameliorate symptoms and reduce the risk of irreversible and debilitating disease. Bone biomarkers have been used to assess disease status and the response to therapy in a number of bone disorders. Here, we examine the literature for evidence of abnormalities in bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 GD to assess whether they might be useful for the assessment of bone involvement in GD. We have found that bone biomarkers in GD show highly variable results which do not currently support their routine use for clinical assessment of bone status, as an indication for therapy initiation, or for monitoring the response to therapy. A greater understanding of bone markers and their relation to the bone manifestations of GD is required.

  8. RANKL/Osteoprotegerin System and Bone Turnover in Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca Degertekin, Ceyla; Turhan Iyidir, Ozlem; Aktas Yılmaz, Banu; Elbeg, Sehri; Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Cakır, Nuri; Arslan, Metin

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with changes in bone metabolism. The impact of hypothyroidism and the associated autoimmunity on the mediators of bone turnover in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is not known. In this study, we assessed the levels of OPG, RANKL, and IL-6 along with markers of bone formation as osteocalcin (OC) and markers of bone resorption as type 1 collagen C telopeptide (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAcP 5b) in 30 hypothyroid and 30 euthyroid premenopausal HT patients and 20 healthy premenopausal controls. We found that TRAcP 5b (p = 0.006), CTX (p = 0.01), OC (p = 0.017), and IL-6 (p Thyroid autoimmunity might have a unique impact on OPG/RANKL levels apart from the resultant hypothyroidism.

  9. Systemic and local collagen turnover in hernia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A

    2016-01-01

    composition appears altered in fascial tissue but also in skin biopsies, suggesting that the collagen alterations are systemic. More pronounced collagen alterations are found in patients with hernia recurrences. Hypothetically, primary inguinal hernias are formed due to a systemic predisposition to altered...... connective tissue, whereas impaired healing influences on the development of incisional hernias and hernia recurrences. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the collagen turnover systemically and locally in patients with primary inguinal hernia, multiple hernias and incisional hernia...... repair after adjustment for gender, age and surgical approach. In a multivariable subgroup analysis, direct and recurrent inguinal hernia repair were associated with primary ventral hernia surgery, whereas only recurrent inguinal hernia repair was associated with secondary ventral hernia surgery...

  10. The right friends in the right places: Understanding network structure as a predictor of voluntary turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Gary A; Cross, Rob; Holtom, Brooks C

    2016-04-01

    Research examining the relationship between social networks and employee retention has focused almost exclusively on the number of direct links and generally found that having more ties decreases the likelihood of turnover. The present research moves beyond simple measures of network centrality to investigate the relationship between 2 additional, and theoretically distinct, facets of social capital and voluntary turnover. In 2 organizations, we found consistent evidence of a negative relationship between reputation, as measured by relationships with highly sought-out others (incoming eigenvector centrality) and voluntary turnover. Further, we found that the negative relationship between brokerage (structural holes) and turnover is significant, but only for higher-level employees. The theoretical and practical implications of expanding the suite of social capital measures to understand voluntary turnover are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Application of two neural network paradigms to the study of voluntary employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, M J

    1999-04-01

    Two neural network paradigms--multilayer perceptron and learning vector quantization--were used to study voluntary employee turnover with a sample of 577 hospital employees. The objectives of the study were twofold. The 1st was to assess whether neural computing techniques offered greater predictive accuracy than did conventional turnover methodologies. The 2nd was to explore whether computer models of turnover based on neural network technologies offered new insights into turnover processes. When compared with logistic regression analysis, both neural network paradigms provided considerably more accurate predictions of turnover behavior, particularly with respect to the correct classification of leavers. In addition, these neural network paradigms captured nonlinear relationships that are relevant for theory development. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research.

  12. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts.

  13. Antecedents and consequence of employee turnover intention: Empirical evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gyensare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the theory of reasoned action, this study found support for the hypothesized inverse relationship between work-related factors and employee turnover intention on the one hand, and turnover intention and perceptions of accountable absence legitimacy on the other hand. Specifically, the higher employees’ turnover intent, the lower their perceptions about the accountability of their absence behavior and vice versa. The findings highlight the need to consider turnover intention as a salient construct that plays a dual role, first as a consequence variable to job satisfaction, affective and normative commitments, and next as an antecedent to accountable absence legitimacy in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion on the significance of lessening employee turnover intent as a means of mitigating the perceptions of absence legitimacy in the workplace.

  14. The relationship between family-to-work conflict of employee and co-workers' turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakol Sharafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work conflict (FWC experienced by the employee also affects the turnover intention of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWC has an effect on the co-worker's turnover intention through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of 154 co-worker dyads, we found that the employee FWC was positively related to co-worker turnover intention through the crossover of (reduced work engagement. Results show that family matters at work, affecting employee. In addition, employee's job engagement was positively related to his (her co-worker job engagement and it was negatively related co-worker turnover intention and employee's FWC was not positively related to co-worker turnover intention trough the crossover of (reduced feelings of engagement.

  15. Methyl group turnover on methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins during chemotaxis by Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelke, M.S.; Casper, J.M.; Ordal, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of attractant to Bacillus subtilis briefly exposed to radioactive methionine causes an increase of labeling of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. The addition of attractant to cells radiolabeled for longer times shows no change in the extent of methylation. Therefore, the increase in labeling for the briefly labeled cells is due to an increased turnover of methyl groups caused by attractant. All amino acids gave enhanced turnover. This turnover lasted for a prolonged time, probably spanning the period of smooth swimming caused by the attractant addition. Repellent did not affect the turnover when added alone or simultaneously with attractant. Thus, for amino acid attractants, the turnover is probably the excitatory signal, which is seen to extend long into or throughout the adaptation period, not just at the start of it

  16. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the leader–member exchange and turnover intention relationship as well as the general environment of exchange and turnover intention relationship. Moreover, as was expected, the general exchange quality had a greater impact on organisational identification compared to the leader–member exchange quality. However, the findings did not confirm the expected trend in the case of two exchange variables predicting turnover intention.

  17. Modeling Carbon Turnover in Five Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Boreal Zone Using Multiple Criteria of Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, Louise; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover in ecosystems are key elements in the understanding of climate change and in predicting the accumulation of trace elements in the biosphere. In this paper we present estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover times for five terrestrial ecosystems using a modeling approach. Multiple criteria of acceptance were used to parameterize the model, thus incorporating large amounts of multi-faceted empirical data in the simulations in a standardized manner. Mean turnover times of carbon were found to be rather similar between systems with a few exceptions, even though the size of both the pools and the fluxes varied substantially. Depending on the route of the carbon through the ecosystem, turnover times varied from less than one year to more than one hundred, which may be of importance when considering trace element transport and retention. The parameterization method was useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, and to identify variability in carbon turnover in the selected ecosystems

  18. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts. PMID:27242616

  19. Turning Over Patient Turnover: An Ethnographic Study of Admissions, Discharges, and Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowinski Jennings, Bonnie; Sandelowski, Margarete; Boshamer, Cary C.; Higgins, Melinda K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact on nursing work of patient turnover (admissions, discharges, and transfers) became evident in an ethnographic study of turbulence. The patient turnover data were generated from extensive observations, 21 formal interviews, and a year of admission and discharge records on one medical and one surgical unit. Timing of turnover events on the two units differed, but on both units admissions typically interrupted workflow more than did discharges, clustered admissions were more disruptive than staggered admissions, and patient turnover during change of shift was more disruptive than during medication administration. Understanding the complexity of patient turnover will elucidate the work involved and improve the evidence base for nurse staffing, a key determinant of quality and safety of care. PMID:24242196

  20. PENGARUH KEAMANAN KERJA PADA TURNOVER INTENTION DENGAN KEPUASAN KERJA SEBAGAI VARIABEL PEMEDIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utama I Wayan Mudiartha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available He aim of this study is to examine the effect of job security on exit intention, the effect of job security on job satisfaction, the influence of job satisfaction on turnover intention and the role of job satisfaction in mediating the relationship between job security and turnover intention. Data were collected from 56 contract administration employees at the three study programs of Faculty of Economic and Business, Udayana University and analyzed by linear regression analysis technique. The results show that job security is negatively impacts turnover intention, job security affects job satisfaction positively, job satisfaction affects turnover intention  negatively,and job satisfaction mediates the effect of job security on turnover intention.

  1. Lactate turnover in fast-moving vertebrates: The control of plasma metabolite fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this thesis were: (1) to investigate the major factors involved in the regulation of plasma metabolite turnover at the whole-organism level-using lactate as a model, and (2) to determine whether endurance-adapted animals can support higher lactate turnover rates than sedentary animals. Lactate turnover was measured by bolus injection of (U{sup {minus}14}C)lacetate in skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, and in thoroughbred race horses, Equus caballus. In tuna, turnover rates ranged from 112 to 431 umol min{sup {minus}1} kg{sup {minus}1}, and they were positively correlated with (lactate). These rates were higher than expected for a mammal of equivalent size. Plots of resting lactate and glucose turnover rates vs body mass on a log-log scale were linear for a wide range mammalian body sizes, and they showed the same slope as the classic body mass vs metabolic rate relationship.

  2. Sclerostin as a novel marker of bone turnover in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zagrodna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sclerostin is a protein secreted by osteocytes that acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. It has been shown that physical activity affects sclerostin concentration and thus bone remodelling. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of sclerostin, selected bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP, 25(OH D3 and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in physically active versus sedentary men. A total of 59 healthy men aged 17-37 were enrolled in the study (43 athletes and 16 non-athletes. The mean sclerostin concentration in the group of athletes (A was significantly higher than in non-athletes (NA (35.3±8.9 vs 28.0±5.6 pmol• l-1, p= 0.004. A compared with NA had higher concentrations of P1NP (145.6±77.5 vs 61.2±22.3 ng• ml-1, p= <0.0001 and 25(OHD3 (16.9±8.4 vs 10.3±4.3 ng • ml-1, p= 0.004 and lower concentrations of PTH (25.8±8.3 vs 38.2±11.5 pg• ml-1, p= <0.0001. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 77% of A and 100% of NA. A and NA had similar daily energy intake. They did not differ as to the intake of calcium and vitamin D. We observed a negative correlation between the serum concentrations of sclerostin and calcium in the studied subjects. Our results suggest that regular, long-lasting physical training may be associated with higher concentration of sclerostin. It seems that increased sclerostin is not related to other bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP.

  3. Feasibility of protein turnover studies in prototroph Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Villén, Judit

    2015-04-07

    Quantitative proteomics studies of yeast that use metabolic labeling with amino acids rely on auxotrophic mutations of one or more genes on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways. These mutations affect yeast metabolism and preclude the study of some biological processes. Overcoming this limitation, it has recently been described that proteins in a yeast prototrophic strain can also be metabolically labeled with heavy amino acids. However, the temporal profiles of label incorporation under the different phases of the prototroph's growth have not been examined. Labeling trajectories are important in the study of protein turnover and dynamics, in which label incorporation into proteins is monitored across many time points. Here we monitored protein labeling trajectories for 48 h after a pulse with heavy lysine in a yeast prototrophic strain and compared them with those of a lysine auxotrophic yeast. Labeling was successful in prototroph yeast during exponential growth phase but not in stationary phase. Furthermore, we were able to determine the half-lives of more than 1700 proteins during exponential phase of growth with high accuracy and reproducibility. We found a median half-life of 2 h in both strains, which corresponds with the cellular doubling time. Nucleolar and ribosomal proteins showed short half-lives, whereas mitochondrial proteins and other energy production enzymes presented longer half-lives. Except for some proteins involved in lysine biosynthesis, we observed a high correlation in protein half-lives between prototroph and auxotroph strains. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of using prototrophs for proteomic turnover studies and provide a reliable data set of protein half-lives in exponentially growing yeast.

  4. Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Ross

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly in teleost fishes, where different systems can be found in closely related species. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination gene on an autosome, and fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. To better understand these evolutionary transitions, a detailed comparison of sex chromosomes between closely related species is essential. Here, we used genetic mapping and molecular cytogenetics to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of multiple stickleback species (Gasterosteidae. Previously, we demonstrated that male threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus have a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to linkage group (LG 19. In this study, we found that the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius has a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to LG12. In black-spotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi males, one copy of LG12 has fused to the LG19-derived Y chromosome, giving rise to an X(1X(2Y sex-determination system. In contrast, neither LG12 nor LG19 is linked to sex in two other species: the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans and the fourspine stickleback (Apeltes quadracus. However, we confirmed the existence of a previously reported heteromorphic ZW sex-chromosome pair in the fourspine stickleback. The sex-chromosome diversity that we have uncovered in sticklebacks provides a rich comparative resource for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the rapid turnover of sex-chromosome systems.

  5. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-01-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added [ 3 H]adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole

  6. Nursing staff turnover at a Swedish university hospital: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Stina F; Kajermo, Kerstin N; Ekvall, Göran; Tomson, Göran

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to explore opinions on individual needs and other factors that may influence nursing staff turnover. High staff turnover is a great problem for many hospitals. It is shown to have a negative effect on the quality of nursing care and to increase hospital costs. In 2004 in a large university hospital in Sweden five focus group discussions (FGDs) including department heads (1), nursing managers (2) and members of nursing staff (2) were carried out. The questions to be addressed were 'Why do nurses leave?' and 'Why do nurses stay?' In addition, register data of staff turnover for 2002-2003 were analysed in relation to different facts about the units, such as number of employees, type of care and medical specialty. Categories of opinions identified in the FGDs were compared with results of the statistical analyses on the relationship between staff turnover and unit parameters to identify overall factors that may influence on nurse staff turnover. Four major factors were identified as having a possible influence on staff turnover: 'intrinsic values of motivation', 'work load', 'unit size 'and 'leadership'. Smaller units had lower staff turnover as well as outpatient units and day care. It was not possible to compare statements from participants from smaller units with those from participants from larger units. Two factors had diverging data, 'salary' and 'spirit of the time'. A surprising finding was the little mention of patient care in relation to staff turnover. It is important for managers to ensure that intrinsic values of nurses are met to minimise the risk for high turnover rates. Inpatient care must receive adequate staffing and nursing care could be organised into smaller units or work teams to avoid dissatisfaction and high turnover.

  7. [A study of work values, professional commitment, turnover intention and related factors among clinical nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuei-Ying; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Huang, Jui-Lan

    2010-02-01

    The high rate of turnover in nursing positions is a global problem. There have been few studies done addressing the relationship between work values and nurse turnover intention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between work values, professional commitment and turnover intention among clinical nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 1st to March 10th, 2008 on a convenience sample of nurses, all of whom had at least a half year of work experience at one of four teaching hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 289 valid responses were received, with a response rate of 96.3%. Major findings included: (1) Nurses who were older, had more years of school, had worked more years, held specific job duties, earned a higher salary, held Buddhist beliefs, or were married with two or more children presented higher work values and professional commitment and lower turnover intention; (2) As a group, total work values and professional commitment scores corresponded negatively with turnover intention scores; (3) Significant factors affecting turnover intent in clinical nurses included professional commitment, institution characteristics, Buddhist beliefs and salary. These four variables accounted for 52.2% of the variation in turnover intention. This study indicated that nurses with higher work values and professional commitment tend to exhibit less turnover intention. It is highly recommended to develop strategies to bolster the teaching of altruistic values and professional commitment in nursing education in order to reduce turnover intent. Also, further studies on the influence of religious beliefs and organizational attributes on nurse turnover intentions are also suggested.

  8. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  9. Photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon turnover in sinking marine snow from surface waters of Southern California Bight: implications for the carbon cycle in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Helle; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Azam, F.

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration were measured in 1 to 6 mm large aggregates (marine snow) collected in the Southern Californian Eight, USA. The aggregates were freely sinking in a vertical flow system with an upward flow velocity which opposed the sinking velocity of individual aggregates during...... techniques. Both the respiration rate per aggregate volume and the bacterial densities decreased with increasing aggregate size. The respiration rates normalized to the number of bacteria in single aggregates were 7.4 to 70 fmol C cell(-1) d(-1). The aggregate community respired 433 to 984 ng C d(-1) per...... aggregate in darkness, which yielded a turnover time of 8 to 9 d for the total organic carbon in aggregates. Thus, marine snow is not only a vehicle for vertical flux of organic matter; the aggregates are also hotspots of microbial respiration which cause a fast and efficient respiratory turnover...

  10. Further Clarifying Proximal Withdrawal States and the Turnover Criterion Space: Comment on Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In "Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion," Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012) brought together many of the most important content and process factors in the employee turnover literature. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the true contributions of this framework for the turnover area…

  11. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  12. Large deviation theory for the kinetics and energetics of turnover of enzyme catalysis in a chemiostatic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of large deviation theory, we have characterized nonequilibrium turnover statistics of enzyme catalysis in a chemiostatic flow with externally controllable parameters, like substrate injection rate and mechanical force. In the kinetics of the process, we have shown the fluctuation theorems in terms of the symmetry of the scaled cumulant generating function (SCGF) in the transient and steady state regime and a similar symmetry rule is reflected in a large deviation rate function (LDRF) as a property of the dissipation rate through boundaries. Large deviation theory also gives the thermodynamic force of a nonequilibrium steady state, as is usually recorded experimentally by a single molecule technique, which plays a key role responsible for the dynamical symmetry of the SCGF and LDRF. Using some special properties of the Legendre transformation, here, we have provided a relation between the fluctuations of fluxes and dissipation rates, and among them, the fluctuation of the turnover rate is routinely estimated but the fluctuation in the dissipation rate is yet to be characterized for small systems. Such an enzymatic reaction flow system can be a very good testing ground to systematically understand the rare events from the large deviation theory which is beyond fluctuation theorem and central limit theorem.

  13. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  14. Effects of role stress on nurses' turnover intentions: The mediating effects of organizational commitment and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Sook; Han, Jeong-Won; An, Young-Suk; Lim, So-Hee

    2015-10-01

    This paper was designed to extend the extant research regarding factors related to nurses' turnover intentions. This survey-based study was based on a path analysis designed to verify a hypothesized causal model involving nurses' role stress, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and burnout. This study distributed 500 questionnaires to nurses in general hospitals with more than 500 beds located in Seoul, Korea, during 16-30 April 2012. Role conflict, an underlying factor in role stress, had no significant effect on role stress, but the results showed that role ambiguity reduced organizational commitment. On the other hand, role conflict and role ambiguity increased the level of burnout. Organizational commitment reduced turnover intentions, and burnout increased turnover intentions. Role conflict and role ambiguity had no direct effect on turnover intentions, but they had indirect effects on organizational commitment and burnout. To reduce nurses' turnover rate, this study recommends developing plans to improve their organizational commitment because it mediates role stress and turnover intention. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hill, Rachelle

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the turnover effects of an organizational innovation (ROWE-Results Only Work Environment) aimed at moving away from standard time practices to focus on results rather than time spent at work. To model rates of turnover, we draw on survey data from a sample of employees at a corporate headquarters (N = 775) and institutional records of turnover over eight months following the ROWE implementation. We find the odds of turnover are indeed lower for employees participating in the ROWE initiative, which offers employees greater work-time control and flexibility, and that this is the case regardless of employees' gender, age, or family life stage. ROWE also moderates the turnover effects of organizational tenure and negative home-to-work spillover, physical symptoms, and job insecurity, with those in ROWE who report these situations generally less likely to leave the organization. Additionally, ROWE reduces turnover intentions among those remaining with the corporation. This research moves the "opting-out" argument from one of private troubles to an issue of greater employee work-time control and flexibility by showing that an organizational policy initiative can reduce turnover.

  16. The mediating effect of emotional intelligence between emotional labour, job stress, burnout and nurses' turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Young Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to construct and test the structural equation modelling on nurses' turnover intention including emotional labour, job stress, emotional intelligence and burnout in order to identify the mediating effect of emotional intelligence between those variables. Emotional labour, job stress and burnout increase turnover intention of nurses. However, emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with emotional labour and reduces job stress, burnout and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the goodness of fit of the hypothetical model of nurses' turnover intention. Research data were collected via questionnaires from 4 to 22 August 2014 and analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 20.0. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for recommended. Emotional intelligence has decreasing effect on turnover intention through burnout, although its direct effect on turnover intention is not significant. Emotional intelligence has mediation effect between emotional labour and burnout. This study's results suggest that increasing emotional intelligence might critically decrease nurses' turnover intention by reducing the effect of emotional labour on burnout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. On the controlling mechanism of the upper turnover states in the NTC regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi

    2015-12-18

    Using n-butane, n-heptane and iso-octane as representative fuels exhibiting NTC (negative temperature coefficient) behavior, comprehensive computational studies with detailed mechanisms and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the upper stationary point, denoted as turnover states, on the NTC curve near the higher temperature regime, where the ignition delay τ exhibits a local maximum. It is found that the global behavior of the turnover states exhibits distinctive thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics under different pressures, in that the ignition delay at the turnover states shows an Arrhenius dependence on the temperature T and an approximate inverse quadratic power law dependence on the pressure P. These global behaviors imply that the temperature and pressure of the turnover states are not independent and can be correlated by Arrhenius dependence, as ln P ∝ 1/T. Further theoretical analyses demonstrate that such turnover states result from the competition between the low-temperature chain branching reactions and the decomposition of the intermediate species, and therefore correspond to a critical value, α, of the ratio of OH production from low-temperature chemistry. In addition, the ignition delay at the turnover state can be well correlated by the analytical expression derived by Peters et al., with the further demonstration that the pressure dependence of the turnover ignition delay mainly result from the H2O2 decomposition reaction. Comparison of the present results with the literature experimental data of n-heptane ignition delay time shows very good agreement.

  18. Turnover of 14C-glucose in soils and its relationship with soil characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Jinzhi; Xu Jianmin; Xie Zhengmiao; Ye Qingfu

    2001-01-01

    The turnover of 14 C-glucose added in 13 soils was studied. The turnover rate of 14 C-glucose can be divided into three phases: 0 - 3d, 3 - 28d and 28 - 294d. The range of the turnover rate and half -life of 14 C-glucose were 1.3 x 10 -1 - 2.5 x 10 -1 d -1 and 3 - 5d, 0.7x 10 -2 - 1.2 x 10 -2 d -1 and 58 - 97d, 0.5 x 10 -3 - 1.4 x 10 -3 d -1 and 491 - 1504d, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that from 0 to 3 days the turnover rate of 14 C-glucose had significant positive correlation with soil qCO 2 , from 3 to 28 days, the turnover rate of 14 C-glucose had no significant correlation with soil physico-chemical and biological properties. The turnover rate of 14 C-glucose had significant or highly significant negative correlation with soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, CEC and significant positive correlation with soil sand content during the period from 28 to 294 days. Turnover of 14 C-glucose during the third period has close correlation with soil properties

  19. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan E.; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter–mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40–70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9–47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay

  1. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect

  2. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter-mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40-70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9-47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay-sized material by 2 % hydrogen peroxide had

  3. In vivo dynamic turnover of cerebral 13C isotopomers from [U- 13C]glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Shen, Jun

    2006-10-01

    An INEPT-based 13C MRS method and a cost-effective and widely available 11.7 Tesla 89-mm bore vertical magnet were used to detect dynamic 13C isotopomer turnover from intravenously infused [U- 13C]glucose in a 211 μL voxel located in the adult rat brain. The INEPT-based 1H → 13C polarization transfer method is mostly adiabatic and therefore minimizes signal loss due to B 1 inhomogeneity of the surface coils used. High quality and reproducible data were acquired as a result of combined use of outer volume suppression, ISIS, and the single-shot three-dimensional localization scheme built in the INEPT pulse sequence. Isotopomer patterns of both glutamate C4 at 34.00 ppm and glutamine C4 at 31.38 ppm are dominated first by a doublet originated from labeling at C4 and C5 but not at C3 (with 1JC4C5 = 51 Hz) and then by a quartet originated from labeling at C3, C4, and C5 (with 1JC3C4 = 35 Hz). A lag in the transition of glutamine C4 pattern from doublet-dominance to quartet dominance as compared to glutamate C4 was observed, which provides an independent verification of the precursor-product relationship between neuronal glutamate and glial glutamine and a significant intercompartmental cerebral glutamate-glutamine cycle between neurons and glial cells.

  4. Using N-15 Technique for Assessing Organic.N Turnover in Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.; El-Akel, E.A.; Ismail, M.M.; El-Sherbiny, E.; Awad, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Turnover of organic-N was traced under greenhouse condition. 15 N-labelled wheat and/or soybean residues were used as organic additives which applied individually or in combinations. These residues were applied at rates of 100, 75 and 25μg N g - 1 soil. Also, labelled ammonium sulfate with 2% 15 N atom excess, was applied either alone or in combination with the plant residues, at rates of 100, 75 and 25μg N g - 1 soil as single dose after 10 days from planting. Relative positive effect of the nitrogen plant residues on N-uptake and yield components can be arranged as follows: Soybean > wheat + > soybean > wheat residues. Tracer technique indicated that the mixture of labeled residues and ammonium sulfate at rates of (*50 + 50) and (*25 + 75), was effective on dry matter and N uptake. Effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on portions N derived from residue (Ndfr) and N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) to wheat could be arranged as following: ammonium sulfate > soybean > mixture > wheat. Higher 15 N recovery percentage was noticed in grains as affected by addition of soybean residues combined with ordinary ammonium sulfate at rates of (*25 + 75) and (*50 + 50), respectively

  5. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Zito

    Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  6. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507

  7. Patient-centered medical home implementation and primary care provider turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylling, Philip W; Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hernandez, Susan E; Batten, Adam J; Helfrich, Christian D; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D; Hebert, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began implementing a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care delivery in April 2010 through its Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT) initiative. PACT represents a substantial system reengineering of VHA primary care and its potential effect on primary care provider (PCP) turnover is an important but unexplored relationship. This study examined the association between a system-wide PCMH implementation and PCP turnover. This was a retrospective, longitudinal study of VHA-employed PCPs spanning 29 calendar quarters before PACT and eight quarters of PACT implementation. PCP employment periods were identified from administrative data and turnover was defined by an indicator on the last quarter of each uncensored period. An interrupted time series model was used to estimate the association between PACT and turnover, adjusting for secular trend and seasonality, provider and job characteristics, and local unemployment. We calculated average marginal effects (AME), which reflected the change in turnover probability associated with PACT implementation. The quarterly rate of PCP turnover was 3.06% before PACT and 3.38% after initiation of PACT. In adjusted analysis, PACT was associated with a modest increase in turnover (AME=4.0 additional PCPs per 1000 PCPs per quarter, P=0.004). Models with interaction terms suggested that the PACT-related change in turnover was increasing in provider age and experience. PACT was associated with a modest increase in PCP turnover, concentrated among older and more experienced providers, during initial implementation. Our findings suggest that policymakers should evaluate potential workforce effects when implementing PCMH.

  8. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  9. Reducing Operating Room Turnover Time for Robotic Surgery Using a Motor Racing Pit Stop Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Colby P; Catchpole, Ken R; Wood, Lauren N; Solnik, Jonathon M; Avenido, Raymund M; Strauss, Paul L; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T

    2017-08-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time, time taken between one patient leaving the OR and the next entering, is an important determinant of OR utilization, a key value metric for hospital administrators. Surgical robots have increased the complexity and number of tasks required during an OR turnover, resulting in highly variable OR turnover times. We sought to streamline the turnover process and decrease robotic OR turnover times and increase efficiency. Direct observation of 45 pre-intervention robotic OR turnovers was performed. Following a previously successful model for handoffs, we employed concepts from motor racing pit stops, including briefings, leadership, role definition, task allocation and task sequencing. Turnover task cards for staff were developed, and card assignments were distributed for each turnover. Forty-one cases were observed post-intervention. Average total OR turnover time was 99.2 min (95% CI 88.0-110.3) pre-intervention and 53.2 min (95% CI 48.0-58.5) at 3 months post-intervention. Average room ready time from when the patient exited the OR until the surgical technician was ready to receive the next patient was 42.2 min (95% CI 36.7-47.7) before the intervention, which reduced to 27.2 min at 3 months (95% CI 24.7-29.7) post-intervention (p system changes are needed to capitalize on that result. Pit stop and other high-risk industry models may inform approaches to the management of tasks and teams.

  10. Revisiting the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on nurse turnover intention: an individual differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Sara; Hofmans, Joeri; Pepermans, Roland

    2011-12-01

    Nurse turnover is an important contributing factor to the worldwide nursing shortage. Many studies have examined the antecedents of nurse turnover to gain a better understanding of the problem and help hospitals reduce their turnover rates. However, an important shortcoming of this research stream is its exclusive focus on explaining turnover behavior of the "average nurse", thereby disregarding individual differences between nurses and groups of nurses. To examine individual differences in the relationships between two crucial turnover antecedents - job satisfaction and organizational commitment - and nurse turnover intention. A sample of 287 nurses working for a variety of Belgian hospitals participated in the study. A survey method was used to collect quantitative data, which were analyzed through standard multiple linear regression, mixture regression models and t-tests. In the total sample of hospital nurses, both job satisfaction and organizational commitment significantly predicted nurse turnover intention. However, subsequent individual differences analyses revealed the existence of two subgroups of nurses. In the satisfaction focused group, only job satisfaction was found to predict nurse turnover intention, whereas in the satisfaction and commitment focused group both job satisfaction and organizational commitment were related to turnover intention. Furthermore, nurses in the latter group displayed stronger turnover intention, were significantly younger and had less job tenure and organizational tenure than nurses in the satisfaction focused group. The debate on the antecedents of nurse turnover still continues, as the existing models fail to fully grasp nurse turnover. The present study identifies individual differences in nurse turnover antecedents among groups of nurses as a possible reason for the absence of one comprehensive turnover model that holds for the general nursing population. Further studies are needed in order to capture the total impact

  11. THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON IT EMPLOYEES TURNOVER INTENTION IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladelsky Limor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Employee voluntary turnover is very costly for companies, particularly for the Hi-Tech sector, where the costs of their IT labor force is expensive. Employees\\' voluntary turnover has substantial negative impacts on the companies especially costs, potential loss of valuable knowledge, skills and organizational knowledge.That is why it becomes a critical issue to take address. Studies have been carried out on the reasons which lead to this tendency, however the ability to explain and predict it remains restricted.The objective of this paper is to present the reasons for voluntary turnover of employees in the IT sector in Israel from the IT employees` perspective. A broad analysis of the field literature led to the following groups of causes affecting voluntary turnover: organizational causes: Human Resource Management (HRM related, organizational culture, job related, leadership and internal marketing related; extra organizational causes: individual and, respectively, labor market related causes. This could be approached as n light of this review this article will focus on one of the extra organizational causes of voluntary turnover, i.e. the effect of job satisfaction on voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. This correlation was researched in an extensive empirical study among two population groups: IT employees and IT managers and by using mixed method research (combination of quantitative and qualitative research.The findings that supported the literature show job satisfaction has a negative effect on voluntary turnover intention among IT employees in Hi-Tech companies in Israel. Additionally, it was found that job satisfaction indirectly affects voluntary turnover intentions and that emotional variables such as commitment, motivation and loyalty mediate voluntary turnover intention.This finding is supported partially in the literature which only pointed out commitment as a mediating factor in the

  12. Global turnover of histone post-translational modifications and variants in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zee Barry M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modifications (PTMs on the N-terminal tails of histones and histone variants regulate distinct transcriptional states and nuclear events. Whereas the functional effects of specific PTMs are the current subject of intense investigation, most studies characterize histone PTMs/variants in a non-temporal fashion and very few studies have reported kinetic information about these histone forms. Previous studies have used radiolabeling, fluorescence microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine rates of histone turnover, and have found interesting correlations between increased turnover and increased gene expression. Therefore, histone turnover is an understudied yet potentially important parameter that may contribute to epigenetic regulation. Understanding turnover in the context of histone modifications and sequence variants could provide valuable additional insight into the function of histone replacement. Results In this study, we measured the metabolic rate of labeled isotope incorporation into the histone proteins of HeLa cells by combining stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC pulse experiments with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In general, we found that most core histones have similar turnover rates, with the exception of the H2A variants, which exhibit a wider range of rates, potentially consistent with their epigenetic function. In addition, acetylated histones have a significantly faster turnover compared with general histone protein and methylated histones, although these rates vary considerably, depending on the site and overall degree of methylation. Histones containing transcriptionally active marks have been consistently found to have faster turnover rates than histones containing silent marks. Interestingly, the presence of both active and silent marks on the same peptide resulted in a slower turnover rate than either mark alone on that same

  13. Cdc42 controls progenitor cell differentiation and beta-catenin turnover in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Lefever, Tine

    2006-01-01

    for differentiation of skin progenitor cells into HF lineage and that it regulates the turnover of beta-catenin. In the absence of Cdc42, degradation of beta-catenin was increased corresponding to a decreased phosphorylation of GSK3beta at Ser 9 and an increased phosphorylation of axin, which is known to be required...... for binding of beta-catenin to the degradation machinery. Cdc42-mediated regulation of beta-catenin turnover was completely dependent on PKCzeta, which associated with Cdc42, Par6, and Par3. These data suggest that Cdc42 regulation of beta-catenin turnover is important for terminal differentiation of HF...

  14. The Relationship between Managerial Satisfaction and Job Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüveyda Öztürk Basol

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of service sector in Turkey occurs faster than the other sectors and the number of shopping malls increases correspondingly. The rapid growth of the number of shopping malls has necessitated the measurement of the attitudes of the employees in this sector. This study demonstrated that the gender, marital status and age were not the significant variables on job satisfaction, managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention; however, education status and income status were found to be significant variables on job satisfaction and job turnover intention. In addition, job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention.

  15. Increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover in inflammation-induced anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkasing, J T; Witkamp, R F; Boekschoten, M V; Ter Laak, M C; Heins, M S; van Norren, K

    2016-05-20

    Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin levels. The present study was undertaken to further explore the connections between peripheral inflammation, anorexia and hypothalamic serotonin metabolism and signaling pathways. First, we investigated the response of two hypothalamic neuronal cell lines to TNFα, IL-6 and LPS. Next, we studied transcriptomic changes and serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus of mice after intraperitoneal injection with TNFα, IL-6 or a combination of TNFα and IL-6. In vitro, we showed that hypothalamic neurons responded to inflammatory mediators by releasing cytokines. This inflammatory response was associated with an increased serotonin release. Mice injected with TNFα and IL-6 showed decreased food intake, associated with altered expression of inflammation-related genes in the hypothalamus. In addition, hypothalamic serotonin turnover showed to be elevated in treated mice. Overall, our results underline that peripheral inflammation reaches the hypothalamus where it affects hypothalamic serotoninergic metabolism. These hypothalamic changes in serotonin pathways are associated with decreased food intake, providing evidence for a role of serotonin in inflammation-induced anorexia.

  16. Inositol lipid turnover and compartmentation in canine trachealis smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, C.B.; Pring, M.; Coburn, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    We established conditions for the study of metabolism and compartmentation of inositol phospholipids in canine trachealis muscle. Unstimulated muscle was incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 30 min at 37 degrees C which resulted in labeling of the tissue free myo-inositol pool, whereas only a small amount of radioactivity was incorporated into inositol phospholipids or inositol phosphates. After addition of 5.5 microM carbachol, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), specific radioactivities increased exponentially, reaching apparent constant values in 180-240 min. Initial rates of increases in PI, PIP, and PIP2 specific radioactivities were 39, 32, and 66 times that measured in unstimulated muscle. Metabolic flux rates (nmol.100 nmol total lipid Pi-1.min-1) during development of force averaged 0.42 +/- 0.09 and during force maintenance averaged 0.14 +/- 0.01. Fractions of total PI, PIP, and PIP2 pools that were linked to muscarinic cholinergic activation were estimated to be 0.97, 0.85, and 0.65, respectively. Initial rates of increase in specific radioactivities and specific radioactivities during carbachol activation were similar in PI, PIP, and PIP2 fast active compartments, suggesting metabolic flux from PI to PIP to PIP2 was in near chemical equilibrium. Turnover times for PI, PIP, and PIP2 fast active compartments were estimated to be 21, 1.6, and 4.0 min, respectively

  17. Employee Turnover and Knowledge Management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy regards employee knowledge as a most important asset. It is a priority task to ensure systematic knowledge continuity of those employees who are the holders of critical knowledge. The aim of the article is to analyse the causes of mobility of knowledge workers and categorise types of employees and mobility according to the future development of an employee’s career. The research areas, i.e. ensuring knowledge continuity and employee turnover were analysed based on the premise of significant relation between those two areas. The data were collected in organizations in the Czech Republic. Surveys were drawn across sectors to ensure representativeness of the outcomes. The outputs revealed two basic approaches to maintaining knowledge inside organizations. Employees can be divided into knowledge workers and remainder, who seek only security. A knowledge worker who decides to transfer is not motivated by the amount of salary (they do not mind a lower level of remuneration; on the contrary they suffer due to an unclear vision on the part of the organization, where they used to work; they cannot stay in conditions where there is no possibility to participate on personal growth. Future research in this area should focus on the return of investments in the knowledge and employee learning, training and retention.

  18. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  19. Acetylcholine turnover in mouse brain: influence of cholinesterase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, B.; Holmstedt, B.; Lundgren, G.; Lundin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors determine whether the irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors soman, sarin or FX, which are thought to increase brain ACh concentration by a mechanism different to that of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine, also would decrease the turnover rate of brain ACh. Male albino mice were used in the study. N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N,N,N-tri-( 2 H 3 )methylammonium iodide and N-(2-acetoxyethyl)-N,N,N-tri-( 2 H 3 )methylammonium iodide were used as internal standards. N-(2-acetoxyethyl)-N,N,N,-tri-( 2 H 3 ), ( 1 H)methylammonium iodide was used for calibration purposes. The concentrations of Ch, ACh and their deuterated variants found in whole brain and striatum after pretreatment with saline, soman, sarin and FX are shown. In whole brain the endogeneous concentration of Ach was not affected by sarin and only to a slight but significant extent by Fs, while soman increased the level to about 30 nmol/g. All three substances increased the ch level in comparison to controls

  20. Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydration–dehydration cycles can frequently cause stress to seeds, but can also be used to improve germination. However, the molecular basis of the stress caused is poorly understood. Herein, we examine the effects of hydration–dehydration cycles on seed viability and profile the membrane glycerolipid molecular species. We find that seed viability was not affected during the first two cycles, but significantly decreased as further cycles were applied, until all viability was lost. The abundances of seven glycerolipid classes increased and decreased through hydration and dehydration, respectively, but the phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol abundances changed in the opposite sense, while total glycerolipid contents remained constant. This suggests that during hydration–dehydration cycles, turnover of glycerolipid metabolite pools take place, while no significant lipid synthesis or degradation is involved. As further hydration–dehydration cycles occurred, lipid unsaturation increased, plastidic lipids decreased, and phosphatidylserine acyl chains lengthened. The latter two could be lethal for seeds. Our findings reveal a novel model of membrane lipid changes, and provide new insights into the responses of seeds to hydration–dehydration cycles.