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Sample records for single respiratory virus

  1. Identification and genetic characterization of a novel circular single-stranded DNA virus in a human upper respiratory tract sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lunbiao; Wu, Binyao; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Guo, Xiling; Ge, Yiyue; Zhao, Kangchen; Qi, Xian; Shi, Zhiyang; Zhu, Fengcai; Sun, Lixin; Zhou, Minghao

    2017-11-01

    Metagenomic analysis through high-throughput sequencing is a tool for detecting both known and novel viruses. Using this technique, a novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus genome was discovered in respiratory secretions from a febrile traveler. The virus, named human respiratory-associated PSCV-5-like virus (HRAPLV), has a genome comprising 3,018 bases, with two major putative ORFs inversely encoding capsid (Cap) and replicase (Rep) protein and separated by two intergenic regions. One stem-loop structure was predicted in the larger intergenic region (LIR). The predicted amino acid sequences of the Cap and Rep proteins of HRAPLV showed highest identity to those of porcine stool-associated circular virus 5 isolate CP3 (PoSCV 5) (53.0% and 48.9%, respectively). The host tropism of the virus is unknown, and further study is warranted to determine whether this novel virus is associated with human disease.

  2. A dynamic cell entry pathway of respiratory syncytial virus revealed by tracking the quantum dot-labeled single virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin Ling; Li, Chun Mei; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2017-06-14

    Studying the cell entry pathway at the single-particle level can provide detailed and quantitative information for the dynamic events involved in virus entry. Indeed, the viral entry dynamics cannot be monitored by static staining methods used in cell biology, and thus virus dynamic tracking could be useful in the development of effective antiviral strategies. Therefore, the aim of this work was to use a quantum dot-based single-particle tracking approach to monitor the cell entry behavior of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in living cells. The time-lapse fluorescence imaging and trajectory analysis of the quantum dot-labeled RSV showed that RSV entry into HEp-2 cells consisted of a typical endocytosis trafficking process. Three critical events during RSV entry were observed according to entry dynamic and fluorescence colocalization analysis. Firstly, RSV was attached to lipid rafts of the cell membrane, and then it was efficiently delivered into the perinuclear region within 2 h post-infection, mostly moving and residing into the lysosome compartment. Moreover, the relatively slow velocity of RSV transport across the cytoplasm and the formation of the actin tail indicated actin-based RSV motility, which was also confirmed by the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors. Taken together, these findings provided new insights into the RSV entry mechanism and virus-cell interactions in RSV infection that could be beneficial in the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  4. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  5. Confirmation of an Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the VDR Gene With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Related Disease in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kresfelder, T. L.; Janssen, R.; Bont, L.; Venter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Disease severity has been linked to host immune responses and polymorphisms in genes associated with innate immunity. A large-scale genetics study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in children in

  6. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  7. Canine respiratory viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Buonavoglia , Canio; Martella , Vito

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple in...

  8. Biology of human respiratory syncytial virus: a review | Aliyu | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in young children worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus belongs to the ...

  9. Learn about Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus ( ... file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV Symptoms, Causes & ...

  10. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Mohsen; Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Seyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV), rhinovirus (RV), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs ( P > 0.05). Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  11. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  12. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  13. A single intranasal administration of virus-like particle vaccine induces an efficient protection for mice against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue-Ying; Fu, Yuan-Hui; Yan, Yi-Fei; Hua, Ying; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Song, Jing-Dong; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Huang, Jiaqiang; Hong, Tao; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully. The resulting VLPs showed similar immunoreactivity and function to RSV virion in vitro. Moreover, Th1 polarized response, and effective mucosal virus-neutralizing antibody and CD8 + T-cell responses were induced by a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of RSV VLPs rather than intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation, although the comparable RSV F-specific serum IgG and long-lasting RSV-specific neutralizing antibody were detected in the mice immunized by both routes. Upon RSV challenge, VLP-immunized mice showed increased viral clearance but decreased signs of enhanced lung pathology and fewer eosinophils compared to mice immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). In addition, a single i.n. RSV VLP vaccine has the capability to induce RSV-specific long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses observable up to 15 months. Our results demonstrate that the long-term and memory immune responses in mice against RSV were induced by a single i.n. administration of RSV VLP vaccine, suggesting a successful approach of RSV VLPs as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and an applicable and qualified platform of FGAd-infected Vero cells for VLP production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses associated with asthma attacks: A single-center observational study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods. Phylogenetic and pairwise distance analyses of 10 viruses were performed.A total of 106 asthma attack patients enrolled in this study in both inpatient (n = 49) and outpatient (n = 57) settings. The total 106 respiratory samples were obtained from nasopharyngeal swab (n = 68) or sputum (n = 38). Among these, patients with virus alone (n = 39), virus and bacterial (n = 5), and bacterial alone (n = 5) were identified. The ratio of virus-positive patients in inpatient or outpatient to the total cases were 31.1% (n = 33) and 10.4% (n = 11), respectively. The frequency of virus-positive patients was significantly higher in inpatients (75.3%, n = 33) than in outpatients (19.3%, n = 11). Major VRIs included human rhinovirus (HRV) (n = 24), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (n = 9), influenza virus (Inf-V) (n = 8), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 3) infections with seasonal variations. HRV-A and HRV-C were the most commonly detected viruses, with wide genetic divergence on phylogenetic analysis.Asthmatic exacerbations in adults are highly associated with VRIs such as HRV-A or HRV-C, hMPV, RSV, and Inf-V infections with seasonal variations and genetic divergence, but similar frequencies of VRIs occurred in asthma attack patients throughout the seasons.

  16. A single vaccination with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine primes the cellular immune response in calves with maternal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoschey Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of a single dose of an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV - Parainfluenaza type 3 (PI3 - Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh combination vaccine, in calves positive for maternal antibodies, was established in a BRSV infection study. Results As expected the single vaccination did not have any effect on the decline of BRSV-specific neutralising or ELISA antibody. The cellular immune system was however primed by the vaccination. In the vaccinated group virus excretion with nasal discharge was reduced, less virus could be re-isolated from lung tissues and the lungs were less affected. Conclusions These results indicate that a single vaccination with an inactivated BRSV vaccine was able to break through the maternal immunity and induce partial protection in very young calves. It can be speculated that the level and duration of protection will improve after the second dose of vaccine is administered. A two-dose basic vaccination schedule is recommended under field conditions.

  17. Comparison of single vaccination versus revaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (types 1a and 2a), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Krehbiel, Clinton R; Burciaga-Robles, Luis O; Holland, Ben P; Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W; Bechtol, David T; Brister, David L; Hutcheson, John P; Newcomb, Harold L

    2009-09-01

    Objective-To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle. Design-Randomized, controlled trial. Animals-612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories. Procedures-Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment. Results-During preconditioning, no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.

  18. MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus: Can radiology be of help? Initial single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hamimi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: MERS CoV virus may have a specific pattern in chest X-ray and CT developing a single or multiple opacities progressing into a widespread multifocal bilateral patches of ground glass opacities or confluent consolidation resembling organizing pneumonia.

  19. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influenza A H3N2. 0. Influenza 8. Influenza viruses were further typed as influenza A H,N,. (193), influenza A HaN2 (198), influenza B (120) and influenza. C (16). Influenza A H,N, and HaN2 , as well as influenza C, were detected in 7 of the 10 years studied and influenza B in. 8. Only 1 subtype of influenza (A H,N,) was ...

  20. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    information about its biology which may be useful to the present and future researchers. Key words: Respiratory virus, Human Respiratory syncytial virus, biology, genome, epidemiology, immunity. INTRODUCTION. Acute lower ..... of respiratory infections in bone marrow transplant. Pneumonia develops in about one-half of ...

  1. Impact of respiratory viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia in the intensive care unit: A single-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Paul; Voiriot, Guillaume; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira; Neuville, Mathilde; Bouadma, Lila; Lescure, Francois-Xavier; Descamps, Diane; Timsit, Jean-François; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Visseaux, Benoit

    2017-06-01

    Data on the frequency and role of respiratory viruses (RVs) in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) are still scarce. We assessed the proportion of RVs and their impact on the outcome of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Cases of HAP were retrospectively selected among patients who underwent screening for RVs by multiplex PCR (mPCR) in the ICU of a French tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. ICU length of stay and in-hospital mortality were compared between four groups defined according to the identified pathogens: virus only (V), virus/bacteria (V/B), bacteria only (B) and no pathogen (Neg). When available, previous mPCR was retrieved in order to assess possible chronic viral carriage. Overall, 95/999 (10%) ICU patients who underwent mPCR had HAP (V(17,18%), V/B(13,14%), B(60,63%), Neg(5,5%)). Median age was 61 years and 45 (47%) were immunocompromised. Influenza (27%) and rhinovirus (27%) were the most common RVs. V/B group had higher mortality rate than B and V groups (62% vs. 40% and 35%, p=0.3) and a significantly longer length of stay (31days (18-48)) than V group (5days (3-11), p=0.0002)) and B group (14.5days (5.5-25.5), p=0.007)). Among the 15 patients with available mPCR tests before viral HAP, seven were negative and eight were positive corresponding to long-term carriage of community-acquired viruses. RVs were detected in 32% of HAP patients who underwent mPCR. Two situations were encountered: (i) acute acquired viral infection; (ii) long-term viral carriage (mostly rhinovirus) especially in immunocompromised patients complicated by a virus/bacteria coinfection. The latter was associated with a longer length of stay and a trend toward a higher mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  3. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation.

  4. Nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, D M; Pons, M W; Mbuy, G N; Dorsch-Hasler, K

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of purified respiratory syncytial virus revealed that the virion RNA was composed of 50S, 28S, 18S, and 4S species. The 18S and 28S species were presumed to represent host rRNA since virus grown in actinomycin D-treated cells contained only 50S and 4S RNAs. Actinomycin D treatment stimulated production of infectious respiratory syncytial virus 5- to 10-fold. The 50S virion RNA was shown to hybridize with polyadenylated mRNA's isolated from infected cells, indicating that respiratory ...

  5. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  6. MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus: Can radiology be of help? Initial single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hamimi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Human infection with a novel coronavirus named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East in September, 2012. The aim of this study was to establish the most pathognomonic radiological sign(s) to diagnose MERS CoV. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study. All patients were subjected to serial X-ray. High resolution non-contrast CT chest was also obtained for 10 patients. The scans were reviewed fo...

  7. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  8. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  9. Increased detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses with real-time PCR in samples from patients with respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C.; van Loon, Anton M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Nijhuis, Monique; Breteler, Els Klein; Schuurman, Rob; Rossen, John W. A.

    Respiratory samples (n = 267) from hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms were tested by real-time PCR, viral culture, and direct immunofluorescence for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses. Compared with conventional diagnostic tests,

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia virus of mice, and influenza A virus differently affect respiratory allergy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, M.; de Rond, L. G. H.; Dormans, J.; van Oosten, M.; Boelen, A.; Neijens, H. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kimman, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections in early childhood may interact with the immune system and modify allergen sensitization and/or allergic manifestations. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic T helper (Th) 2 immune response,

  11. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  12. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  13. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Oxidants and neutrophils contribute to lung injury during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Surfactant protein (SP)-D plays a pivotal role in restricting IAV replication and inflammation in the first several days after infection. Despite its potent anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, preincubation...... of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... either show no effect or inhibit these responses. Furthermore, if neutrophils are preincubated with multimeric SP-D before IAV is added, oxidant responses to the virus are significantly reduced. The ability of SP-D to increase neutrophil uptake of IAV can be dissociated from enhancement of oxidant...

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and hypertransaminasemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Maria; Failla, Maria Concetta; Bruno, Lucrezia; Falcone, Veronica; Dones, Piera

    2018-03-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common disease of the lower respiratory tract occurring in children during their first year of life, becoming the most frequent cause of hospitalization. Although the disease can also be caused by other viruses, more than 70% of bronchiolitis cases are caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV bronchiolitis clinically presents rhinitis, coughing, increased breathing and eating difficulties; the symptoms are usually mild, but in some cases may be so severe as to require hospitalization. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and is based on a thorough medical history and a physical examination. Therapy is substantially of support, and has the aim of ensuring alimentation/hydration and optimal oxygenation. It has been recently noted that RSV infections may cause extra-pulmonary manifestations, including liver problems, as rarely described in the literature. The aim of this paper is to present three cases of RSV bronchiolitis in children with elevated transitory transaminase levels.

  15. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibody. This chapter describes early efforts to develop vaccines through the classic methods of serial cold-passage and chemical mutagenesis, and recent efforts using reverse genetics to derive attenuated derivatives of wild-type (WT) RSV and to develop parainfluenza vaccine vectors that express RSV surface glycoproteins. PMID:24362694

  16. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, John W; Thornburg, Natalie J; Blum, David L; Kuhn, Sam J; Crowe Jr, James E; Wright, David W

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. (paper)

  17. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical

  18. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

  19. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lehners, Nicola; Tabatabai, Julia; Prifert, Christiane; Wedde, Marianne; Puthenparambil, Joe; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Biere, Barbara; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Egerer, Gerlinde; Schnitzler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV o...

  20. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-09-26

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath.

  1. Simultaneous detection of respiratory syncytial virus types A and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tharwat Ezzat Deraz

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) types A and B and influenza A and B cause about 80–90% of viral lower respiratory tract infections. It is impossible to distinguish the cause of viral respiratory infections by their clinical presentation. Multiplex RT-PCR has a signif- icant advantage in ...

  2. Simultaneous detection of respiratory syncytial virus types A and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) types A and B and influenza A and B cause about 80–90% of viral lower respiratory tract infections. It is impossible to distinguish the cause of viral respiratory infections by their clinical presentation. Multiplex RT-PCR has a significant advantage in that it permits the ...

  3. Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sonboli, Najla; Hart, Charles A.; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Al-Ansi, Ahmed; Ashoor, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Factors increasing the severity of respiratory infections in developing countries are poorly described. We report factors associated with severe acute respiratory illness in Yemeni children (266 infected with respiratory syncytial virus and 66 with human metapneumovirus). Age, indoor air pollution, and incomplete vaccinations were risk factors and differed from those in industrialized countries. PMID:17073098

  4. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W R; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468).

  5. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Thea B; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV.

  6. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  7. Burden of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and other respiratory viruses and the completeness of respiratory viral identification among respiratory inpatients, Canada, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Dena L; Saboui, Myriam; Lee, Liza; Nwosu, Andrea; Bancej, Christina

    2018-01-01

    A regression-based study design has commonly been used to estimate the influenza burden; however, these estimates are not timely and many countries lack sufficient virological data. Alternative approaches that would permit a timelier assessment of the burden, including a sentinel surveillance approach recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), have been proposed. We aimed to estimate the hospitalization burden attributable to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and other respiratory viruses (ORV) and to assess both the completeness of viral identification among respiratory inpatients in Canada and the implications of adopting other approaches. Respiratory inpatient records were extracted from the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database from 2003 to 2014. A regression model was used to estimate excess respiratory hospitalizations attributable to influenza, RSV, and ORV by age group and diagnostic category and compare these estimates with the number with a respiratory viral identification. An estimated 33 (95% CI: 29, 38), 27 (95% CI: 22, 33), and 27 (95% CI: 18, 36) hospitalizations per 100 000 population per year were attributed to influenza, RSV, and ORV, respectively. An influenza virus was identified in an estimated 78% (95% CI: 75, 81) and 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) of respiratory hospitalizations attributed to influenza for children and adults, respectively, and 75% of influenza-attributed hospitalizations had an ARI diagnosis. Hospitalization rates with respiratory viral identification still underestimate the burden. Approaches based on acute respiratory case definitions will likely underestimate the burden as well, although each proposed method should be compared with regression-based estimates of influenza-attributed burden as a way of assessing their validity. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral replication...... and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...

  9. Prevalence of non-influenza respiratory viruses in acute respiratory infection cases in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fernandes-Matano

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a viral aetiological agent is estimated to be involved in up to 80% of cases, the majority of these agents have never been specifically identified. Since 2009, diagnostic and surveillance efforts for influenza virus have been applied worldwide. However, insufficient epidemiological information is available for the many other respiratory viruses that can cause Acute respiratory infections.This study evaluated the presence of 14 non-influenza respiratory viruses in 872 pharyngeal exudate samples using RT-qPCR. All samples met the operational definition of a probable case of an influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory infection and had a previous negative result for influenza by RT-qPCR.The presence of at least one non-influenza virus was observed in 312 samples (35.8%. The most frequent viruses were rhinovirus (RV; 33.0%, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV; 30.8% and human metapneumovirus (HMPV; 10.6%. A total of 56 cases of co-infection (17.9% caused by 2, 3, or 4 viruses were identified. Approximately 62.5% of all positive cases were in children under 9 years of age.In this study, we identified 13 non-influenza respiratory viruses that could occur in any season of the year. This study provides evidence for the prevalence and seasonality of a wide range of respiratory viruses that circulate in Mexico and constitute a risk for the population. Additionally, our data suggest that including these tests more widely in the diagnostic algorithm for influenza may reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotics, reduce the hospitalisation time, and enrich national epidemiological data with respect to the infections caused by these viruses.

  10. Prevalence of non-influenza respiratory viruses in acute respiratory infection cases in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Matano, Larissa; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloísa; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Sarquiz-Martinez, Brenda; Palomec-Nava, Iliana Donají; Pardavé-Alejandre, Hector Daniel; Santos Coy-Arechavaleta, Andrea; Santacruz-Tinoco, Clara Esperanza; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; González-Bonilla, Cesar Raúl; Muñoz-Medina, José Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a viral aetiological agent is estimated to be involved in up to 80% of cases, the majority of these agents have never been specifically identified. Since 2009, diagnostic and surveillance efforts for influenza virus have been applied worldwide. However, insufficient epidemiological information is available for the many other respiratory viruses that can cause Acute respiratory infections. This study evaluated the presence of 14 non-influenza respiratory viruses in 872 pharyngeal exudate samples using RT-qPCR. All samples met the operational definition of a probable case of an influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory infection and had a previous negative result for influenza by RT-qPCR. The presence of at least one non-influenza virus was observed in 312 samples (35.8%). The most frequent viruses were rhinovirus (RV; 33.0%), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV; 30.8%) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV; 10.6%). A total of 56 cases of co-infection (17.9%) caused by 2, 3, or 4 viruses were identified. Approximately 62.5% of all positive cases were in children under 9 years of age. In this study, we identified 13 non-influenza respiratory viruses that could occur in any season of the year. This study provides evidence for the prevalence and seasonality of a wide range of respiratory viruses that circulate in Mexico and constitute a risk for the population. Additionally, our data suggest that including these tests more widely in the diagnostic algorithm for influenza may reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotics, reduce the hospitalisation time, and enrich national epidemiological data with respect to the infections caused by these viruses.

  11. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  12. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  13. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  14. Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B.; Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Digard, Paul; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background A newly proposed genus of influenza virus (influenza D) is associated with respiratory disease in pigs and cattle. The novel virus is most closely related to human influenza C virus and can infect ferrets but infection has not been reported in humans. Objectives To ascertain if influenza D virus can be detected retrospectively in patient respiratory samples. Study design 3300 human respiratory samples from Edinburgh, Scotland, covering the period 2006–2008, were screened in pools of 10 by RT-PCR using primers capable of detecting both influenza C and D viruses. Results Influenza D was not detected in any sample. Influenza C was present in 6 samples (0.2%), compared with frequencies of 3.3% and 0.9% for influenza A and B viruses from RT-PCR testing of respiratory samples over the same period. Influenza C virus was detected in samples from individuals 45 years old, with cases occurring throughout the year. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly complete sequences of all seven segments revealed the presence of multiple, reassortant lineages. Conclusion We were unable to detect viruses related to influenza D virus in human respiratory samples. Influenza C virus was less prevalent than influenza A and B viruses, was associated with mild disease in the young (45 years) and comprised multiple, reassortant lineages. Inclusion of influenza C virus as part of a diagnostic testing panel for respiratory infections would be of limited additional value. PMID:26655269

  15. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of respiratory...

  16. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  17. Addressing the public health burden of respiratory viruses: the Battle against Respiratory Viruses (BRaVe) Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legand, Anais; Briand, Sylvie; Shindo, Nikki; Brooks, W. Abdullah; de Jong, Menno D.; Farrar, Jeremy; Aguilera, Ximena; Hayden, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the enormous estimated burden of respiratory virus infections worldwide, a substantial number of research priorities exist in order to better understand their epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and clinical management across different populations and resource settings. New therapeutics and

  18. Airflow limitation during respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection predicts recurrent wheezing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Versteegh, J.; Brus, F.; Draaisma, J. T.; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R. A.; Kimpen, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is frequently followed by recurrent wheezing. Thus far no clinical risk factors have been identified to predict which infants will have wheezing episodes subsequent to RSV LRTI. To determine clinical predictors for airway

  19. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  20. New respiratory virus (chicken pox, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) vaccines: efficacy, necessity and policy for the tropical world at present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-09-01

    Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present.

  1. Surveillance of respiratory viruses | McAnerney | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network of monitoring centres - mainly in the Witwatersrand and Vereeniging area with one centre in Middelburg - that ...

  2. Caesarean Section and Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Fisker, Niels; Haerskjold, Ann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:: Hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and asthma share common determinants, and meta-analyses indicate that children delivered by caesarean section (CS) are at increased risk of asthma. We aimed to investigate whether birth by CS is associated...... regression with adjustment for prematurity, asphyxia, birth weight, multiple births, single parenthood, maternal smoking during pregnancy, older siblings, and asthma diagnoses up to 2 weeks before hospitalization for RSV infection, to compare the effects of acute or elective CS versus vaginal delivery...... infection in children born by acute CS and by elective CS were 1.09 (1.01 - 1.17) and 1.27 (1.19 - 1.36), respectively. The effect of elective CS remained unchanged throughout the first two years of life (p = 0.53), whereas the effect of acute CS was only present in the second year of life (p = 0...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus during the 2009-2010 season in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaks, Reinis; Ribakova, Irina; Gardovska, Dace; Kazaks, Andris

    2013-05-01

    For the first time, we studied molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children in Latvia. During the study period, ten unique group A and three group B strains were identified and assigned to a single genotype within each group-GA2 for group A and BA-IV for group B.

  4. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  5. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  6. Identification of new respiratory viruses in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Gamieldien, Junaid; Fielding, Burtram C

    2015-03-06

    The rapid advancement of molecular tools in the past 15 years has allowed for the retrospective discovery of several new respiratory viruses as well as the characterization of novel emergent strains. The inability to characterize the etiological origins of respiratory conditions, particularly in children, led several researchers to pursue the discovery of the underlying etiology of disease. In 2001, this led to the discovery of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and soon following that the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) promoted an increased interest in coronavirology and the latter discovery of human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 and HCoV-HKU1. Human bocavirus, with its four separate lineages, discovered in 2005, has been linked to acute respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal complications. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) represents the most recent outbreak of a completely novel respiratory virus, which occurred in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and presents a significant threat to human health. This review will detail the most current clinical and epidemiological findings to all respiratory viruses discovered since 2001.

  7. Need for a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Young Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of severe respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children worldwide. Despite its importance as a respiratory pathogen, there is currently no licensed vaccine for HRSV. Following failure of the initial trial of formalin-inactivated virus particle vaccine, continuous efforts have been made for the development of safe and efficacious vaccines against HRSV. However, several obstacles persist that delay the development of HRSV vaccine, such as the immature immune system of newborn infants and the possible Th2-biased immune responses leading to subsequent vaccine-enhanced diseases. Many HRSV vaccine strategies are currently being developed and evaluated, including live-attenuated viruses, subunit-based, and vector-based candidates. In this review, the current HRSV vaccines are overviewed and the safety issues regarding asthma and vaccine-induced pathology are discussed.

  8. Importance of Respiratory Viruses in Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-01-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis o...

  9. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms...... and veal calf production units) in different years and from all confirmed outbreaks in Denmark within a short period. The results showed that identical viruses were isolated within a herd during outbreaks and that viruses from recurrent infections varied by up to 11% in sequence even in closed herds....... It is possible that a quasispecies variant swarm of BRSV persisted in some of the calves in each herd and that a new and different highly fit virus type (master and consensus sequence) became dominant and spread from a single animal in connection with each new outbreak. Based on the high level of diversity...

  10. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  11. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  12. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Poovorawan, Yong; Templeton, Kate E.; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse

  13. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, E.R.; Jansen, R.R.; Poovorawan, Y.; Templeton, K.E.; Toms, G.L.; Simmonds, P.

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Premature Infants and Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Ovsyannikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of features of lower respiratory tract infection associated with respiratory syncytial virus. 40 cases of RSV-bronchiolitis in preterm children under year with/without bronchopulmonary dysplasia were analyzed. It was established that disease in those groups of patients had severe course because of the respiratory failure, which dominates in clinical pictures as symptoms of bronchial obstruction and apnea. Treatment of severe RSV-infection often demand admission to intensive care unit, supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation.

  15. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  16. A randomized trial of montelukast in respiratory syncytial virus postbronchiolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Infants often develop reactive airway disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) are released during RSV infection and may contribute to the inflammation. We hypothesized that a cys-LT receptor antagonist would ameliorate reactive airway disease...

  17. Influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus-associated adult mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections cause seasonal excess mortality and hospitalisation in adults (particularly the elderly) in high-income countries. Little information exists on the impact of these infections on adults in Africa. Objectives. To estimate influenza- and RSV-related adult mortality ...

  18. The epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To review the incidence, outcomes and risk factors associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in South African children. Design. Review of published literature and laboratory records. Methods. Review of the published literature. Articles listed on MEDLINE with 'South African' or 'children' and ...

  19. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  20. A single, low dose of a cGMP recombinant BCG vaccine elicits protective T cell immunity against the human respiratory syncytial virus infection and prevents lung pathology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Pablo F; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rivera, Claudia A; Canedo-Marroquín, Gisela; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection. Here, we describe that a recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine expressing the nucleoprotein (N) of hRSV formulated under current good manufacture practices (cGMP rBCG-N-hRSV) confers protective immunity to the virus in mice. Our results show that a single dose of the GMP rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine retains its capacity to protect mice against a challenge with a disease-causing infection of 1×10 7 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of the hRSV A2 clinical strain 13018-8. Compared to unimmunized infected controls, vaccinated mice displayed reduced weight loss and less infiltration of neutrophils within the airways, as well as reduced viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavages, parameters that are characteristic of hRSV infection in mice. Also, ex vivo re-stimulation of splenic T cells at 28days post-immunization activated a repertoire of T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-17, which further suggest that the rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine induced a mixed, CD8 + and CD4 + T cell response capable of both restraining viral spread and preventing damage of the lungs. All these features support the notion that rBCG-N-hRSV is a promising candidate vaccine to be used in humans to prevent the disease caused by hRSV in the susceptible population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nosocomial infections by respiratory syncytial virus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Karina Machado Echeverría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lower respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most prevalent agent. Some viruses cause serious nosocomial infections. In Uruguay, there is no knowledge about the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections by RSV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of RSV nosocomial infections. Methodology: A descriptive study of acute lower respiratory infections caused by RSV in patients younger than two years, between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2008 at the Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, was made. Results: Were identified 59 patients who represented an annual rate lower than 2/1000 discharges. The monthly distribution of cases was similar to the respiratory infections. No outbreaks were reported. The age of the patients had an average of 8.9 months, 39 were younger than one year, 23 had one or more risk factors for severe disease. Six patients required admission to intensive care unit, all required invasive ventilation, 3 died, none had chronic respiratory failure following the RSV nosocomial infection. Conclusions: During the study period, the RSV nosocomial infections showed a low prevalence, despite it highly contagiousness. They mainly affected young children, carriers of risk factors for severe ALRI. Their evolution was similar to that reported for RSV respiratory infections community acquired. It is important to maintain standards for the control of nosocomial infections, to prevent nosocomial transmission of RSV and prevent the onset of severe disease in hospitalized patients.

  2. Respiratory viruses in young South African children with acute lower respiratory infections and interactions with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalay, Alicia A; Abbott, Salome; Sikazwe, Chisha; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Bizzintino, Joelene; Zhang, Guicheng; Laing, Ingrid; Chidlow, Glenys R; Smith, David W; Gern, James; Goldblatt, Jack; Lehmann, Deborah; Green, Robin J; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common respiratory virus and has been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The prevalence of RV species among HIV-infected children in South Africa is unknown. To describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including RV species, associated with HIV status and other clinical symptoms in children less than two years of age with and without ALRI in Pretoria, South Africa. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 105 hospitalized ALRI cases and 53 non-ALRI controls less than two years of age. HIV status was determined. Common respiratory viruses were identified by PCR, and RV species and genotypes were identified by semi-nested PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses. Respiratory viruses were more common among ALRI cases than controls (83.8% vs. 69.2%; p=0.041). RV was the most commonly identified virus in cases with pneumonia (45.6%) or bronchiolitis (52.1%), regardless of HIV status, as well as in controls (39.6%). RV-A was identified in 26.7% of cases and 15.1% of controls while RV-C was identified in 21.0% of cases and 18.9% of controls. HIV-infected children were more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia than bronchiolitis (pHIV-infected cases (n=15) compared with 30.6% of HIV-uninfected cases (n=85, p=0.013), and was identified more frequently in bronchiolitis than in pneumonia cases (43.8% vs. 12.3%; pHIV infection may be protective against RSV and bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  4. Monitoring epidemic viral respiratory infections using one-step real-time triplex RT-PCR targeting influenza A and B viruses and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillard-Marechal, Solesne; Enouf, Vincent; Schnuriger, Aurélie; Vabret, Astrid; Macheras, Edouard; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Page, Bernard; Freymuth, François; van der Werf, Sylvie; Garbarg-Chenon, Antoine; Chevallier, Bertrand; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Gault, Elyanne

    2011-04-01

    Rapid and specific diagnosis of influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) viruses is needed for optimal management of patients with acute respiratory infections. In this study, a one-step triplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for rapid diagnosis of influenza A/B and RSV infections to optimize diagnosis efficiency of acute respiratory infections. Cell-culture supernatants and clinical samples were used to evaluate specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The assay was used routinely during two winter epidemics for testing respiratory specimens from 2,417 patients. The limit of detection in cell-culture supernatant was 1-10 plaque forming units/input (influenza A/B) and 2 × 10(-2) 50% tissue culture infectious dose/input (RSV). In clinical samples, the assay was as sensitive as commercial molecular assays for the detection of each influenza A/B and RSV (Flu-A/B and RSV-A/B r-gene™) individually, and far more sensitive than antigen detection. During the winter 2008-2009, the assay identified 145 RSV, 42 influenza A, and one mixed RSV-influenza A infections among 298 patients. The next winter, the assay was used in two independent hospital laboratory settings. 776 patients were tested in one hospital and 1,343 in the other, resulting in 184 and 501 RSV, 133 and 150 influenza A, and 1 and 11 mixed RSV-influenza A infections, respectively, being detected. This new user-friendly assay allows rapid (within hours), effective molecular diagnosis of single or mixed infections involving influenza A (including seasonal A H1N1 and H3N2, and A(H1N1) 2009), influenza B, and RSV(A/B). The assay is very valuable for managing patients during winter epidemics when influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses co-circulate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic and respiratory virus infections, Beijing, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the role of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1 2009pdm in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and its impact on the epidemic of seasonal influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, nasal and throat swabs taken from 7,776 patients with suspected viral ARTIs from 2006 through 2010 in Beijing, China were screened by real-time PCR for influenza virus typing and subtyping and by multiplex or single PCR tests for other common respiratory viruses. We observed a distinctive dual peak pattern of influenza epidemic during the A/H1N1 2009pdm in Beijing, China, which was formed by the A/H1N1 2009pdm, and a subsequent influenza B epidemic in year 2009/2010. Our analysis also shows a small peak formed by a seasonal H3N2 epidemic prior to the A/H1N1 2009pdm peak. Parallel detection of multiple respiratory viruses shows that the epidemic of common respiratory viruses, except human rhinovirus, was delayed during the pandemic of the A/H1N1 2009pdm. The H1N1 2009pdm mainly caused upper respiratory tract infections in the sampled patients; patients infected with H1N1 2009pdm had a higher percentage of cough than those infected with seasonal influenza or other respiratory viruses. Our findings indicate that A/H1N1 2009pdm and other respiratory viruses except human rhinovirus could interfere with each other during their transmission between human beings. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of such interference is needed for effective control of future influenza epidemics.

  6. Human respiratory syncytial virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-01-05

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive, and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (P respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (P < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Respiratory Viruses in Infants with Bronchoobstructive Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Rudenko; O.V. Obertynska; Yu.O. Boyko; O.M. Okhotnikova; I.V. Dzyublik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify new respiratory viruses in infants with bronchoobstructive syndrome (obstructive bronchitis and exacerbation of bronchial asthma). We examined 28 children aged from 5 months to 6 years. The average age of the patients was 33.7 months (95% CI 24.5–43.0). Viruses have been identified in 75 % of patients. In 39.3 % we found bocavirus. Metapneumovirus was detected in 10.7 % of patients. Exacerbation of bronchial asthma 2.3 times more likely was associate...

  9. Respiratory viruses from hospitalized children with severe pneumonia in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Akira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia remains a leading cause of child death in developing countries. The viruses in severe pneumonia remain poorly defined. Methods The study was conducted at the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center in Tacloban City, Philippines from May 2008 to May 2009. Patients aged 8 days to 13 years old who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics with severe pneumonia were enrolled for the study. Upon admission, polymerase chain reaction was performed using nasopharyngeal swabs and blood cultures to detect respiratory viruses and bacteria, respectively. Result Among the 819 patients enrolled, at least one virus was detected in 501 cases (61.2%. In addition, 423 cases were positive for a single virus while bacteria were detected in the blood culture sample of 31 cases. The most commonly detected viruses were human rhinoviruses (n = 189, including types A (n = 103, B (n = 17, and C (n = 69, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (n = 165. Novel viruses such as human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63, human bocavirus, and human polyomaviruses WU and KI were also detected. There were 70 deaths, and one or more viruses were detected in 35 (50% of these cases. Positivity only for influenza A virus (OR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.3-14.6 was significantly associated with fatal outcome. From the blood culture, Burkholderia cepacia group (n = 9, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4, Haemophilus influenzae (n = 1, and Salmonella C1 (n = 1 were also isolated. Conclusion Viruses were commonly detected in children with severe pneumonia in the Philippines. Hence, viral etiologies should be considered while developing better effective strategies to reduce child pneumonia-related deaths in developing countries.

  10. Wheeze after Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Breindahl, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies found associations between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, wheezing, and asthma. The present study aimed to examine the risk of wheezing after RSV, by the history of wheezing. Methods We included 39 children hospitalized for RSV infection (cases) and 23...... children hospitalized for nonrespiratory tract infection reasons (controls) and followed the children prospectively with regular standardized telephone interviews until 18 months, and again 5 years after inclusion. The risk of wheeze was estimated by odds ratios (OR), comparing children hospitalized...

  11. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  12. Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

    2014-09-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid Detection and Identification of Respiratory Viruses by Direct Immunofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Donn; Williams, Stanley; Dick, Elliot C.

    1970-01-01

    The use of fluorescein-conjugated antiserum against respiratory syncytial (RS) and parainfluenza 1 and 3 viruses was compared with conventional techniques in the rapid detection of virus in tissue cultures inoculated with pharyngeal specimens known to contain these viruses. Twenty-three specimens were tested: 9 RS, 8 parainfluenza 1, and 6 parainfluenza 3. The fluorescent-antibody technique (FA) detected virus in 52% of the tissue cultures in 24 hr, and, by 72 hr, 22 of the 23 cultures were FA-positive whereas only 5 were positive by conventional techniques. Additionally, conjugated antisera were prepared against herpes simplex, influenza A2, and adenovirus type 5. All conjugates stained only the homologous virus and were 100- to 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional techniques in detecting descending dilutions of virus inocula by 24 hr. With the procedures described, several antisera could be conjugated and ready for use within 24 hr. Serum fractionation was by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and with the procedure outlined virtually complete recovery of the globulin fraction and elimination of all of the albumin were accomplished. Images PMID:4098101

  14. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  15. Human metapnuemovirus infections in hospitalized children and comparison with other respiratory viruses. 2005-2014 prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz García-García

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, rhinovirus (HRV, adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population.A prospective study performed on all children less than 14 years of age with a respiratory tract disease admitted to a secondary hospital between September 2005- June 2014. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken at admission for viral study with polymerase chain reaction for 16 respiratory viruses. A total of 3,906 children were included. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 75.2% of them. The most common identified virus was HRSV, followed by HRV. HMPV was detected in 214 cases (5.5%; 133 (62% were single infections and the remaining were detected in coinfection with other viruses. 90.7% cases were detected between February and May. Children's mean age was 13.83 ± 18 months. Fever was frequent (69%, and bronchiolitis (27%, and recurrent wheezing (63% were the main clinical diagnosis. Hypoxia was present in 65% of the patients and 47% of them had an infiltrate in X-ray. Only 6 (2.8% children were admitted to the intensive care unit. Only the duration of the hospitalization was different, being longer in the coinfections group (p <0.05. There were many differences in seasonality and clinical characteristics between HMPV and other respiratory viruses being more similar to HRSV.HMPV infections accounted for 5.5% of total viral infections in hospitalized children. The clinical characteristics were similar to HRSV infections, but seasonality and clinical data were different from other viral

  16. Protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a combinatory DNA vaccine against Influenza A Virus and the Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Stab

    Full Text Available The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV and Influenza A Virus (IAV are both two major causative agents of severe respiratory tract infections in humans leading to hospitalization and thousands of deaths each year. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a combinatory DNA vaccine in comparison to the single component vaccines against both diseases in a mouse model. Intramuscular electroporation with plasmids expressing the hemagglutinin (HA of IAV and the F protein of RSV induced strong humoral immune responses regardless if they were delivered in combination or alone. In consequence, high neutralizing antibody titers were detected, which conferred protection against a lethal challenge with IAV. Furthermore, the viral load in the lungs after a RSV infection could be dramatically reduced in vaccinated mice. Concurrently, substantial amounts of antigen-specific, polyfunctional CD8⁺ T-cells were measured after vaccination. Interestingly, the cellular response to the hemagglutinin was significantly reduced in the presence of the RSV-F encoding plasmid, but not vice versa. Although these results indicate a suppressive effect of the RSV-F protein, the protective efficacy of the combinatory vaccine was comparable to the efficacy of both single-component vaccines. In conclusion, the novel combinatory vaccine against RSV and IAV may have great potential to reduce the rate of severe respiratory tract infections in humans without increasing the number of necessary vaccinations.

  17. Variation of respiratory syncytial virus and the relation with meteorological factors in different winter seasons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Kimpen, J.L.; Schellevis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which

  18. New Respiratory Viruses in Infants with Bronchoobstructive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to identify new respiratory viruses in infants with bronchoobstructive syndrome (obstructive bronchitis and exacerbation of bronchial asthma. We examined 28 children aged from 5 months to 6 years. The average age of the patients was 33.7 months (95% CI 24.5–43.0. Viruses have been identified in 75 % of patients. In 39.3 % we found bocavirus. Metapneumovirus was detected in 10.7 % of patients. Exacerbation of bronchial asthma 2.3 times more likely was associated with bocavirus infection compared to patients with obstructive bronchitis (RR = 2.3 (95% CI 0.9–6.2. Duration of bronchoobstructive syndrome in children with bronchial asthma was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than in children with obstructive bronchitis — 5.3 days (95% CI 4.1–6.4 versus 2.7 days (95% CI 2.3–3.1. The findings confirm a significant role of viral infection and new respiratory viruses in causing bronchoobstructive syndrome in children.

  19. Study of montelukast for the treatment of respiratory symptoms of post-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H.; Flores-Nunez, A.; Goh, A.

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: A pilot study (Bisgaard H; Study Group on Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A randomized trial of montelukast in respiratory syncytial virus postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383) reported the efficacy of montelukast in post-respiratory syncytial virus...... (RSV) bronchiolitic respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of montelukast, 4 and 8 mg, in treating recurrent respiratory symptoms of post-RSV bronchiolitis in children in a large, multicenter study. METHODS: This was a double-blind study of 3- to 24-month-old children who...... had been hospitalized for a first or second episode of physician-diagnosed RSV bronchiolitis and who tested positive for RSV. Patients (n = 979) were randomized to placebo or to montelukast at 4 or 8 mg/day for 4 weeks (period I) and 20 weeks (period II). The primary end point was percentage symptom...

  20. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; García, L; Yunus, A S; Rockemann, D D; Samal, S K; Cristina, J

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in calves resulting in a substantial economic loss for the cattle industry worldwide. In order to determine the presence of BRSV in Uruguay, an immunoenzymatic test was set up, using a recombinant BRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen. The N protein was produced in Sf9 insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expressing the N protein. Serum samples collected from one hundred cattle from four different geographic regions of Uruguay were analyzed. Antibodies against the N protein of BRSV were detected in 95% of the serum samples analyzed. These results show for the first time the presence of BRSV antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay.

  1. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  2. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Disease s, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  3. Single-and multiple viral respiratory infections in children: Disease and management cannot be related to a specific pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Wishaupt (Jérôme); T. van der Ploeg (Tjeerd); de Groot, R. (Ronald); F.G. Versteegh (Florens); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in

  4. Single- and multiple viral respiratory infections in children: disease and management cannot be related to a specific pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wishaupt, J.O.; Ploeg, T. van der; Groot, R. de; Versteegh, F.G.; Hartwig, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in approximately a

  5. The biennial cycle of respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazenovic Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyses the epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV outbreaks in children in Croatia. Over a period of 11 consecutive winter seasons (1994–2005 3,435 inpatients from Zagreb County aged from infancy to 10 years who were hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections were tested for RSV-infection. RSV was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions of patients by virus isolation in cell culture and by detection of viral antigen with monoclonal antibodies. In the Zagreb area, RSV outbreaks were proven to vary in a two-year cycle, which was repeated every 23–25 months. This biennial cycle comprised one larger and one smaller season. Climate factors correlated significantly with the number of RSV cases identified only in the large seasons, which suggests that the biennial cycle is likely to continue regardless of meteorological conditions. Knowledge of this biennial pattern should be useful in predicting the onset of RSV outbreaks in Croatia, and would facilitate planning for the prevention and control of RSV infections in the region.

  6. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  7. Viruses causing lower respiratory symptoms in young children: findings from the ORChID birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Lambert, Stephen B; Sloots, Theo P; Whiley, David M; Alsaleh, Asma; Mhango, Lebogang; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith; Ware, Robert S

    2017-12-15

    Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause substantial child morbidity. Sensitive molecular-based assays aid virus detection, but the clinical significance of positive tests remains uncertain as some viruses may be found in both acutely ill and healthy children. We describe disease-pathogen associations of respiratory viruses and quantify virus-specific attributable risk of ARIs in healthy children during the first 2 years of life. One hundred fifty-eight term newborn babies in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited progressively into a longitudinal, community-based, birth cohort study conducted between September 2010 and October 2014. A daily tick-box diary captured predefined respiratory symptoms from birth until their second birthday. Weekly parent-collected nasal swabs were batch-tested for 17 respiratory viruses by PCR assays, allowing calculation of virus-specific attributable fractions in the exposed (AFE) to determine the proportion of virus-positive children whose ARI symptoms could be attributed to that particular virus. Of 8100 nasal swabs analysed, 2646 (32.7%) were virus-positive (275 virus codetections, 3.4%), with human rhinoviruses accounting for 2058/2646 (77.8%) positive swabs. Viruses were detected in 1154/1530 (75.4%) ARI episodes and in 984/4308 (22.8%) swabs from asymptomatic periods. Respiratory syncytial virus (AFE: 68% (95% CI 45% to 82%)) and human metapneumovirus (AFE: 69% (95% CI 43% to 83%)) were strongly associated with higher risk of lower respiratory symptoms. The strong association of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus with ARIs and lower respiratory symptoms in young children managed within the community indicates successful development of vaccines against these two viruses should provide substantial health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants: Detel1ninants of Clinical Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Brandenburg (Afke)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn 1955 a virus was isolated by Morris et al. from a chimpanzee with an upper respiratory tract infection. This apparently new virus was originally called chimpanzee coryza agent. Soon aftclwards, when it was isolated from children with respiratory disease, it became clear that this

  9. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  10. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  11. RAPID DETECTION OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES USING MIXTURES OF MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ON SHELL VIAL CULTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIRM, J; LUIJT, DS; PASTOOR, GW; MANDEMA, JM; SCHRODER, FP

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hundred and thirty-three clinical specimens submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections were tested by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), by shell vial culture, and by conventional cell culture. The shell vial cultures were

  12. Respiratory viruses in airline travellers with influenza symptoms: Results of an airport screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Priest, Patricia C; Psutka, Rebecca A; Duncan, Alasdair R; Anderson, Trevor; Mahagamasekera, Patalee; Strathdee, Andrew; Baker, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    There is very little known about the prevalence and distribution of respiratory viruses, other than influenza, in international air travellers and whether symptom screening would aid in the prediction of which travellers are more likely to be infected with specific respiratory viruses. In this study, we investigate whether, the use of a respiratory symptom screening tool at the border would aid in predicting which travellers are more likely to be infected with specific respiratory viruses. Data were collected from travellers arriving at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, during the winter 2008, via a symptom questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Respiratory viruses were detected in 342 (26.0%) of 1313 samples obtained from 2714 symptomatic travellers. The most frequently identified viruses were rhinoviruses (128), enteroviruses (77) and influenza B (48). The most frequently reported symptoms were stuffy or runny nose (60%), cough (47%), sore throat (27%) and sneezing (24%). Influenza B infections were associated with the highest number of symptoms (mean of 3.4) followed by rhinoviruses (mean of 2.2) and enteroviruses (mean of 1.9). The positive predictive value (PPV) of any symptom for any respiratory virus infection was low at 26%. The high prevalence of respiratory virus infections caused by viruses other than influenza in this study, many with overlapping symptotology to influenza, has important implications for any screening strategies for the prediction of influenza in airline travellers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between respiratory infections in early life and later asthma is independent of virus type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with later asthma, and this observation has led to a focus on the potential causal role of specific respiratory viruses, such as rhinoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus, in asthma development. However......, many respiratory viruses and bacteria trigger similar respiratory symptoms and it is possible that the important risk factors for asthma are the underlying susceptibility to infection and the exaggerated reaction to such triggers rather than the particular triggering agent. OBJECTIVE: We sought...... to study the association between specific infections in early life and development of asthma later in childhood. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen children were followed prospectively in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies of Asthma in Childhood2000 high-risk birth cohort. Nine respiratory virus types...

  14. Frequency of respiratory viruses among patients admitted to 26 Intensive Care Units in seven consecutive winter-spring seasons (2009-2016) in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralla, Antonio; Mariani, Bianca; Rovida, Francesca; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-07-01

    The role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still debated. The advent of molecular assays has improved the identification of viruses in patients with CAP and according to published studies, viruses account for 11-55% of adult CAP cases. In the present study, the frequency of respiratory viruses was evaluated in respiratory samples collected from 414 patients with CAP admitted to 26 ICUs in the Lombardy Region (10 million inhabitants) during seven winter-spring seasons (2009-2016). In 226 (54.6%) patients one or more respiratory viruses were identified, while 188 (45.4%) patients were negative. A single virus infection was observed in 214/226 (94.7%) patients; while, in 12/226 (5.3%) at least two respiratory viruses were detected. Influenza A was the most common virus in 140/226 patients (61.9%) followed by rhinoviruses (33/226, 14.6%), respiratory syncytial virus (13/226, 5.8%), influenza B virus (9/226, 4.0%), human coronaviruses (9/226, 4.0%), cytomegalovirus (9/226, 4.0%) and human metapneumovirus (1/226, 0.4%). Viral infections are present in a consistent proportion of patients admitted to the ICU for CAP. Influenza A and rhinovirus accounted for three-quarters of all CAP in ICU patients. The use of lower respiratory instead of upper respiratory samples might be useful in the diagnosis of viral CAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, V.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  16. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifert, Christiane; Wedde, Marianne; Puthenparambil, Joe; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Biere, Barbara; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Egerer, Gerlinde; Schnitzler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17%) were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111) underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic). LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75%) of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01) and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16) with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35–334 days). Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  17. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lehners

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17% were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111 underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic. LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2, influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75% of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01 and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16 with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35-334 days. Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  18. Comparison of direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of clinical specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, L L; Ray, C G

    1982-01-01

    Immunofluorescence staining methods for respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection were compared. Of 50 specimens originally positive for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence and culture, 49 were positive by repeat direct immunofluorescence and 32 were positive by indirect immunofluorescence. Additional results obtained on specimens originally negative for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence, culture, or both indicate that direct immunofluorescence ...

  19. Homologous challenge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The clinical consequences of single or multiple exposure of pregnant gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at various stages of gestation were determined. Thirty-three pregnant gilts were allotted to 6 experimental groups (5 to 7 gilts/group). Gilts of groups 1 to 5 were exposed to strain NADC-8 of PRRSV at the following times: group 1, gestation day (GD) 1; group 2, GDs 1 and 90; group 3, GD 30; group 4, GDs 30 and 90; group 5, GD 90. Virus exposure was by either intrauterine (GD 1) or oronasal (GDs 30 and 90) inoculation. Gilts of group 6 were kept as nonexposed controls. Gilts were either necropsied on or about GD 111 (groups 1 to 5) or were allowed to farrow (group 6). The detection of PRRSV in serum of fetuses and piglets (within 12 hof birth) was considered evidence of transplacental infection. Transplacental infection and virus-induced death were and were not confirmed for groups 3, 4, and 5 and for groups 1, 2, and 6, respectively. Collectively, the results indicated that intrauterine exposure to PRRSV at GD 1 was without clinical effect (groups 1 and 2) and provided protection against subsequent exposure to the same strain of virus at GD 90 (group 2). The highest incidence of transplacental infection and fetal death followed a single exposure to PRRSV at GD 90 (group 5).

  20. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the F Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the main viral cause of respiratory tract infection in infants as well as some elderly and high-risk adults with chronic pulmonary disease and the severely immunocompromised. So far, no specific anti-RSV therapeutics or effective anti-RSV vaccines have been reported. Only one humanized monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, has been approved for use in high-risk infants to prevent RSV infection. Ribavirin is the only drug licensed for therapy of RSV infection, but its clinical use is limited by its nonspecific anti-RSV activity, toxic effect, and relatively high cost. Therefore, development of novel effective anti-RSV therapeutics is urgently needed. The RSV envelope glycoprotein F plays an important role in RSV fusion with, and entry into, the host cell and, consequently, serves as an attractive target for developing RSV entry inhibitors. This article reviews advances made in studies of the structure and function of the F protein and the development of RSV entry inhibitors targeting it.

  2. Isolation of dengue virus from the upper respiratory tract of four patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Sy, Cheng Len; Chen, Bao-Chen; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is an important arboviral disease. The clinical manifestations vary from a mild non-specific febrile syndrome to severe life-threatening illness. The virus can usually be detected in the blood during the early stages of the disease. Dengue virus has also been found in isolated cases in the cerebrospinal fluid, urine, nasopharyngeal sections and saliva. In this report, we describe the isolation of dengue virus from the upper respiratory tract of four confirmed cases of dengue. We reviewed all laboratory reports of the isolation of dengue virus from respiratory specimens at the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital during 2007 to 2015. We then examined the medical records of the cases from whom the virus was isolated to determine their demographic characteristics, family contacts, clinical signs and symptoms, course of illness and laboratory findings. Dengue virus was identified in four patients from a nasopharyngeal or throat culture. Two were classified as group A dengue (dengue without warning signs), one as group B (dengue with warning signs) and one as group C (severe dengue). All had respiratory symptoms. Half had family members with similar respiratory symptoms during the period of their illnesses. All of the patients recovered uneventfully. The isolation of dengue virus from respiratory specimens of patients with cough, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion, although rare, raises the possibility that the virus is capable of transmission by the aerosol route among close contacts. This concept is supported by studies that show that the virus can replicate in cultures of respiratory epithelium and can be transmitted through mucocutaneous exposure to blood from infected patients. However, current evidence is insufficient to prove the hypothesis of transmission through the respiratory route. Further studies will be needed to determine the frequency of respiratory colonization, viable virus titers in respiratory

  3. Impact of molecular diagnostics for the detection of respiratory viruses and clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elden, Leontine Julie Rose van

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, treatment and prevention of respiratory viral disease has mainly focused on influenza virus infection. The epidemiology, impact and severity of influenza virus infection have been studied extensively and it has been shown that influenza virus infection is associated with significant

  4. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u...

  5. Distribution of respiratory viruses which cause lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Dereci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the appropriate treatment regimen and the clinical course of the lower respiratory tract infections( RTI s and to detect the common viral causes of lower RTI s. Methods: The present study included a total of 255 pediatric patients aged less than 7 years old and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Rize Training and Research Hospital between January 2014 and January 2015 with clinical pre-diagnosis of lower RTI . Nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from these patients were tested for viral pathogens by using multiplex RT- PCR kit the ResPlex II plus Panel PRE (Qiagen, Germany. Results: A total of 212 out of 255 (83.1% specimens revealed positive for one or more viral pathogens. The most common detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV A/B in 110 samples (43.1%, rhinovirus in 51 samples (20.0%, adenovirus in 36 samples (14.1%, influenzae virus A in 32 samples (12.5%, and coronavirus in 24 samples (9.4%. In 76 samples (29.8%, more than one viral pathogen were detected. RSV was seen in more than 50% patients in the first 2 years. RSV was the most common pathogen in each year of the first 5 years but rhinovirus, influenza A and adenovirus were seen more than RSV after the fifth year. A total of 95.8% of the viral detections were seen between November and April without a significant peak amongst these months. The distribution of the pathogens by months of the year showed no significance. Conclusions: These findings can contribute to epidemiological data of Turkey. Detection of the viral pathogens causing lower RTIs can be critical in management of the disease, decrease inappropriate antibiotic treatment, and lower the morbidity and mortality rates in such diseases.

  6. Distinguishing Characteristics between Pandemic 2009–2010 Influenza A (H1N1) and Other Viruses in Patients Hospitalized with Respiratory Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Philip A.; Mermel, Leonard A.; Andrea, Sarah B.; McCulloh, Russell; Mills, John P.; Echenique, Ignacio; Leveen, Emily; Rybak, Natasha; Cunha, Cheston; Machan, Jason T.; Healey, Terrance T.; Chapin, Kimberle C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differences in clinical presentation and outcomes among patients infected with pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) compared to other respiratory viruses have not been fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was performed of all hospitalized patients at the peak of the pH1N1 season in whom a single respiratory virus was detected by a molecular assay targeting 18 viruses/subtypes (RVP, Luminex xTAG). Fifty-two percent (615/1192) of patients from Oc...

  7. Nation-wide surveillance of human acute respiratory virus infections between 2013 and 2015 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Anna; Lee, Nam-Joo; Chu, Hyuk; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Jang-Hoon

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of eight respiratory viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Korea was investigated through analysis of data recorded by the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System (KINRESS) from 2013 to 2015. Nasal aspirate and throat swabs specimens were collected from 36,915 patients with ARIs, and viral nucleic acids were detected by real-time (reverse-transcription) polymerase chain reaction for eight respiratory viruses, including human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSVs), influenza viruses (IFVs), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), human coronaviruses (HCoVs), human rhinovirus (HRV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human bocavirus (HBoV), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The overall positive rate of patient specimens was 49.4% (18,236/36,915), 5% of which carried two or more viruses simultaneously. HRV (15.6%) was the most predominantly detected virus, followed by IFVs (14.6%), HAdV (7.5%), HPIVs (5.8%), HCoVs (4.2%), HRSVs (3.6%), HBoV (1.9%), and HMPV (1.6%). Most of the ARIs were significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of fever, cough, and runny nose. Although HRV and HAdV were frequently detected throughout the year in patients, other respiratory viruses showed apparent seasonality. HRSVs and IFVs were the major causative agents of acute respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Overall, this study demonstrates a meaningful relationship between viral infection and typical manifestations of known clinical features as well as seasonality, age distribution, and co-infection among respiratory viruses. Therefore, these data could provide useful information for public health management and to enhance patient care for primary clinicians. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  9. Increased concordance of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in identical twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Skytthe, Axel

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark between 1994 and 2003. Latent-factor models of genetic and environmental effects were fitted to the observed data by using maximal likelihood methods. RESULTS: Identical twins resembled each other significantly more than did fraternal twins for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization......OBJECTIVE: We estimated differences in the severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection attributable to genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: Record linkage data on hospitalizations attributable to respiratory syncytial virus infection were gathered on all twins (12,346 pairs) born...

  10. Point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in adults: The current landscape and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendish, Nathan J; Schiff, Hannah F; Clark, Tristan W

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in adults as well as children, and are associated with a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. Development of accurate point-of-care tests (POCT) for respiratory viruses has been listed as a priority by the World Health Organisation and replacing the current paradigm of empirical antimicrobial use with directed use is a listed goal of the movement for reduction in antimicrobial resistance. POCTs for respiratory viruses have previously been limited by the poor sensitivity of antigen detection based tests and by a limited range of detectable viruses. Highly accurate molecular platforms are now able to test for a comprehensive range of viruses, can be operated by non-laboratory staff and can generate a result in approximately 1 h, making them potentially deployable as POCTs. The potential clinical benefits of POC testing for respiratory viruses in adults include a reduction in unnecessary antibiotic use, improved antiviral prescribing for influenza and rationalisation of isolation facilities. We review here the burden of disease, the currently available molecular platforms with potential for POCT use and the existing evidence for clinical and economic benefits of testing for respiratory viruses in adults. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...

  12. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV.

  13. DNA distribution and respiratory activity of Spodoptera frugiperda populations infected with wild-type and recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, B; Howaldt, M W; Bailey, J E

    1990-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda cells were infected with a wild-type Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and with a recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. The recombinant virus was derived from the wild-type virus and produced beta-galactosidase instead of polyhedrin. The changes in cell size, cell growth, viability, DNA distribution, and respiratory activity were followed through the time course of the infection. The DNA content as measured by flow cytometry of infected cells increased to approximately 1.8 times the value of uninfected cells and the distributions of single-cell DNA content of the infected cells were strongly deformed. Early in the infection the respiratory activity passed through a maximum. The mitochondrial activity based on Rhodamine 123 labelling of cells infected with the recombinant virus, as determined by flow cytometry, also passed through a maximum at 24 h post infection while the mitochondrial activity of cells infected with the wild-type virus continued to increase. Evolution of single-cell mitochondrial activity was different in uninfected populations and in populations infected with wild-type and with recombinant virus. In all experiments performed, the recombinant virus influenced cell behavior and the measured parameters earlier than the wild-type virus. The influence of the multiplicity of infection was stronger for the wild-type virus than for the recombinant virus.

  14. Motavizumab for prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus in high-risk children: a noninferiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Simões, Eric A F; Dagan, Ron

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Palivizumab reduces respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in children at high risk by approximately 50% compared with placebo. We compared the efficacy and safety of motavizumab, an investigational monoclonal antibody with enhanced anti-RSV activity in preclinical studies, ...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children-s-health-issues/viral-infections-in-infants-and-children/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infection-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  16. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  17. Causal direction between respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and asthma studied in monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis has been associated with later development of asthma, wheezing, abnormal pulmonary function, and sensitization. Our aim was to determine the differential effect within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy on...

  18. Transmission of human respiratory syncytial virus in the immunocompromised ferret model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, L. (Leon); S.L. Smits (Saskia); E.J.B. Veldhuis Kroeze (Edwin); G. van Amerongen (Geert); Pohl, M.O. (Marie O.); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. (Albert D. M. E.); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHuman respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in vulnerable patients, such as the very young, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals of any age. Nosocomial transmission of HRSV remains a serious challenge in hospital settings, with

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  20. Eight Year Prospective Study of Adenoviruses Infections in Hospitalized Children. Comparison with Other Respiratory Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo

    Full Text Available Human adenovirus (HAdV cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. However, there are few large prospective studies focused on HAdVs acute infections requiring hospitalization. From 2005 to 2013 a prospective study was conducted on children admitted with acute respiratory infections. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virological study by PCR and clinical data was recorded. HAdV specimens were genotyped. Frequency and clinical course of HAdV infections were compared with RSV, rhinovirus (RV, human bocavirus (HBoV and influenza in the same population. HAdV was detected in 403 cases of 2371 confirmed viral infections (17.2% , of which 154 were single virus infections (38%. We genotyped 154 HAdVs. The most frequent genotypes were HAdV-3 (24%, HAdV-6 (21%, and HAdV-5 (20%. A total of 262 children had fever (64.9%; 194 suffered hypoxia (48%, and 147 presented infiltrate in chest x-rays (36.4%. The most frequent diagnoses were recurrent wheezing or asthma (51.7%, bronchiolitis (18.3 %, and pneumonia (11.9%, and 46 (11.4% episodes required prolonged hospitalization (>7 days due to the severity. Adenovirus single infections were compared with single infections of 598 RSV, 494 RV, 83 influenza and 78 HBoV. Significant clinical differences were found between HAdV, RSV and RV infections.

  1. A highly attenuated recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus lacking the G protein induces long-lasting protection in cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Remmerden Yvonne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a primary cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness for which there is still no safe and effective vaccine available. Using reverse genetics, recombinant (rRSV and an rRSV lacking the G gene (ΔG were constructed based on a clinical RSV isolate (strain 98-25147-X. Results Growth of both recombinant viruses was equivalent to that of wild type virus in Vero cells, but was reduced in human epithelial cells like Hep-2. Replication in cotton rat lungs could not be detected for ΔG, while rRSV was 100-fold attenuated compared to wild type virus. Upon single dose intranasal administration in cotton rats, both recombinant viruses developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies and conferred comparable long-lasting protection against RSV challenge; protection against replication in the lungs lasted at least 147 days and protection against pulmonary inflammation lasted at least 75 days. Conclusion Collectively, the data indicate that a single dose immunization with the highly attenuated ΔG as well as the attenuated rRSV conferred long term protection in the cotton rat against subsequent RSV challenge, without inducing vaccine enhanced pathology. Since ΔG is not likely to revert to a less attenuated phenotype, we plan to evaluate this deletion mutant further and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate against RSV infection.

  2. Respiratory Viruses in Neonates: A Prospective, Community-based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Alsaleh, Asma; Lambert, Stephen B; Ware, Robert S; Mhango, Lebogang P; Mackay, Ian M; Whiley, David M; Sloots, Theo P; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-12-01

    A community-based birth cohort study collected weekly nasal swabs and recorded daily symptoms from 157 full-term infants. An average of 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.34) respiratory virus infections per neonatal period were detected. Human rhinoviruses of diverse subtypes dominated; almost 50% were asymptomatic and continued rhinovirus detections may signify new genotypes. Respiratory viruses are common and often unrecognized in healthy neonates.

  3. Challenges and opportunities in developing respiratory syncytial virus therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; DeVincenzo, John P; Boeckh, Michael; Bont, Louis; Crowe, James E; Griffiths, Paul; Hayden, Frederick G; Hodinka, Richard L; Smyth, Rosalind L; Spencer, Keith; Thirstrup, Steffen; Walsh, Edward E; Whitley, Richard J

    2015-03-15

    Two meetings, one sponsored by the Wellcome Trust in 2012 and the other by the Global Virology Foundation in 2013, assembled academic, public health and pharmaceutical industry experts to assess the challenges and opportunities for developing antivirals for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. The practicalities of clinical trials and establishing reliable outcome measures in different target groups were discussed in the context of the regulatory pathways that could accelerate the translation of promising compounds into licensed agents. RSV drug development is hampered by the perceptions of a relatively small and fragmented market that may discourage major pharmaceutical company investment. Conversely, the public health need is far too large for RSV to be designated an orphan or neglected disease. Recent advances in understanding RSV epidemiology, improved point-of-care diagnostics, and identification of candidate antiviral drugs argue that the major obstacles to drug development can and will be overcome. Further progress will depend on studies of disease pathogenesis and knowledge provided from controlled clinical trials of these new therapeutic agents. The use of combinations of inhibitors that have different mechanisms of action may be necessary to increase antiviral potency and reduce the risk of resistance emergence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, K.; Sakazaki, Hiromi; Murakami, Seiko; Yonezawa, Sumiko; Fujimoto, Keiji; Seto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Katsuji; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu; Murata, Ryosuke

    1999-01-01

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. Neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis. (orig.)

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus tracking using internet search engine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Frere, Justin; Yom-Tov, Eran; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2018-04-03

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization in children less than 1 year of age in the United States. Internet search engine queries may provide high resolution temporal and spatial data to estimate and predict disease activity. After filtering an initial list of 613 symptoms using high-resolution Bing search logs, we used Google Trends data between 2004 and 2016 for a smaller list of 50 terms to build predictive models of RSV incidence for five states where long-term surveillance data was available. We then used domain adaptation to model RSV incidence for the 45 remaining US states. Surveillance data sources (hospitalization and laboratory reports) were highly correlated, as were laboratory reports with search engine data. The four terms which were most often statistically significantly correlated as time series with the surveillance data in the five state models were RSV, flu, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis. Using our models, we tracked the spread of RSV by observing the time of peak use of the search term in different states. In general, the RSV peak moved from south-east (Florida) to the north-west US. Our study represents the first time that RSV has been tracked using Internet data results and highlights successful use of search filters and domain adaptation techniques, using data at multiple resolutions. Our approach may assist in identifying spread of both local and more widespread RSV transmission and may be applicable to other seasonal conditions where comprehensive epidemiological data is difficult to collect or obtain.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye J Dabo

    Full Text Available Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9's role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR.

  7. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, M J; Ruuskanen, O; Ogra, P L

    1994-10-01

    Treatment of the infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has varied largely in different centres. Recently, however, management practices have become more clear based on a number of studies. An infant with RSV bronchiolitis should be hospitalized in case of insufficient oxygenation, as measured by pulse oximetry, and additional oxygen should be supplied. Mist treatment and physiotherapy are not beneficial. Bronchodilators seem to be the drug of choice in most infants with bronchiolitis. Use of corticosteroids has not been supported by data received from most studies although they are generally used. Ribavirin should be used only with high-risk patients such as immunosuppressed children. Despite the common prescription of antibiotics, they should only be given to patients with verified bacterial infection. In the future, immunotherapy including aerosolized IgG may be an alternative in treatment of RSV infections. Until an efficient vaccine is brought to clinical use, the best way to limit nosocomial spread of infections is to use cohort nursing and gowns.

  8. Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection With Viral Coinfection in HIV-Uninfected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Natalie I; Bont, Louis; Cohen, Adam L; Cohen, Cheryl; von Gottberg, Anne; Groome, Michelle J; Hellferscee, Orienka; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mekgoe, Omphile; Naby, Fathima; Moyes, Jocelyn; Tempia, Stefano; Treurnicht, Florette K; Venter, Marietje; Walaza, Sibongile; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-02-15

    Molecular diagnostics enable sensitive detection of respiratory viruses, but their clinical significance remains unclear in pediatric lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). We aimed to determine whether viral coinfections increased life-threatening disease in a large cohort. Molecular testing was performed for respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged HIV-uninfected children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated LRTI, 1330 (57.3%) had RSV monoinfection, 38 (1.6%) had life-threatening disease, 575 (24.8%) had rhinovirus, 347 (14.9%) had adenovirus (ADV), and 30 (1.3%) had influenza virus. RSV and any other viral coinfection was not associated with severe disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], OR, 0.74; 95% CI, .39-1.4), ADV coinfection had increased odds of life-threatening disease (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6-7.2; P = .001), and influenza coinfection had increased odds of life-threatening disease and prolonged length of stay (adjusted OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; P = .05) compared with RSV monoinfection. RSV coinfection with any respiratory virus is not associated with more severe disease when compared to RSV alone in this study. However, increased life-threatening disease in RSV-ADV and RSV-influenza coinfection warrants further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Additional molecular testing of saliva specimens improves the detection of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin Kw; Lu, Lu; Yip, Cyril Cy; Poon, Rosana Ws; Fung, Ami My; Cheng, Andrew; Lui, Daniel Hk; Ho, Deborah Ty; Hung, Ivan Fn; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-06-07

    Emerging infectious diseases in humans are often caused by respiratory viruses such as pandemic or avian influenza viruses and novel coronaviruses. Microbiological testing for respiratory viruses is important for patient management, infection control and epidemiological studies. Nasopharyngeal specimens are frequently tested, but their sensitivity is suboptimal. This study evaluated the incremental benefit of testing respiratory viruses in expectorated saliva using molecular assays. A total of 258 hospitalized adult patients with suspected respiratory infections were included. Their expectorated saliva was collected without the use of any special devices. In the first cohort of 159 patients whose nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) tested positive for respiratory viruses during routine testing, the viral load was measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Seventeen percent of the patients (27/159) had higher viral loads in the saliva than in the NPA. The second cohort consisted of 99 patients whose NPAs tested negative for respiratory viruses using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Their NPA and saliva specimens were additionally tested using multiplex PCR. In these patients, the concordance rate by multiplex PCR between NPA and saliva was 83.8%. Multiplex PCR detected viruses in saliva samples from 16 patients, of which nine (56.3%) had at least one virus that was not detected in the NPA. Decisions on antiviral or isolation precautions would be affected by salivary testing in six patients. Although NPAs have high viral loads and remain the specimen of choice for most patients with respiratory virus infections, supplementary molecular testing of saliva can improve the clinical management of these patients.

  10. Detection of three honeybee viruses simultaneously by a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of three honeybee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and black queen cell virus (BQCV). Unique PCR primers were designed from the complete genome ...

  11. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  12. Validation of a pediatric caregiver diary to measure symptoms of postacute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santanello, Nancy C; Norquist, Josephine M; Nelsen, Linda M

    2005-01-01

    Acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis is often associated with continuing respiratory symptoms following hospitalization. To date, there is no validated objective measure to evaluate symptoms of RSV-induced bronchiolitis. We report on the reliability, validity, and respons...

  13. Incidence of respiratory viruses in a pediatric population: molecular and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Taranto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory infections are not well defined and the etiology is often unknown. Material and method: four hundred fortynine subjectrs were enrolled in the study; in all patientes there was a suspect of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. At admission, a nasopharyngeal swab was made. A multiplex PCR was performed after extraction and reverse transcription of viral RNA. The amplified fragments were revealed by using an electrophoresis separation. Results: Two hundred and four patients (45.4% were hospitalized for infection of the upper respiratory tract, 141 (31.4% for lower respiratory infection and the remaining (23% for other symptoms. One hundred fiftyseven (35% patients were positive for human influenza A (H1N1 subtype and 184 for other respiratory viruses,of which 59 (32% gave a positive for respiratory syncytial virus, 42 (23% for rhinovirus, 31 (17% for parainfluenza virus, 12 (6.5% for coronavirus, 28 (15% for adenovirus and 6 (3% for influenza B (3% and 6 (3% for metapneumovirus. The M1 gene sequence of influenza A H1N1 strains from 12 patients had a high identity with that of the reference virus. Conclusion: Furthermore H1N1 and RSV were the main causative agents of acute respiratory infection. A molecular approach provides an accurate and rapid aetiological diagnosis of viral respiratory infections. The molecolar features in the M1 gene suggested that the H1N1 influenza strains circulating in Apulia region had a conserved genetic make up.

  14. Impact of wheezing after respiratory syncytial virus infection on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Louis; Steijn, Marijke; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is often followed by recurrent wheezing episodes during childhood. The effect of postbronchiolitis wheezing on the well-being of the child is not known. This study aimed to determine the impact of RSV LRTI

  15. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Randy E.; McGill, Jodi L.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  16. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infographic Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online RSV Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... year. Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  18. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influenza A virus transmission via respiratory aerosols or droplets as it relates to pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mathilde; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many respiratory viruses of humans originate from animals. For instance, there are now eight paramyxoviruses, four coronaviruses and four orthomxoviruses that cause recurrent epidemics in humans but were once confined to other hosts. In the last decade, several members of the same virus families have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans. Fortunately, these viruses have not become established in humans, because they lacked the ability of sustained transmission between humans. However, these outbreaks highlighted the lack of understanding of what makes a virus transmissible. In part triggered by the relatively high frequency of occurrence of influenza A virus zoonoses and pandemics, the influenza research community has started to investigate the viral genetic and biological traits that drive virus transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets between mammals. Here we summarize recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for airborne transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses of subtypes H5, H7 and H9 and pandemic viruses of subtypes H1, H2 and H3. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of respiratory virus transmission is not only key from a basic scientific perspective, but may also aid in assessing the risks posed by zoonotic viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26385895

  20. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  1. Clinical relevance of prevention of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection in preterm infants born between 33 and 35 weeks gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbonell-Estrany, X.; Bont, L.; Doering, G.; Gouyon, J-B; Lanari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Premature infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) resulting in hospitalisation and the potential for longer-term respiratory morbidity. Whilst the severity and consequence of RSV LRTI are generally accepted and recognised in infants

  2. Selective accumulation of differentiated CD8+ T cells specific for respiratory viruses in the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Godelieve J.; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Out, Theo A.; Jansen, Henk M.; Jonkers, René E.; van Lier, René A. W.

    2005-01-01

    The lungs are frequently challenged by viruses, and resident CD8(+) T cells likely contribute to the surveillance of these pathogens. To obtain insight into local T cell immunity to respiratory viruses in humans, we determined the specificity, phenotype, and function of lung-residing CD8(+) T cells

  3. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  4. Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Among 33-35 Weeks' Gestational Age Infants Born During Multiple Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Evan J

    2017-02-01

    Moderate-late preterm infants, 33-35 weeks\\' gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants.

  5. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Healthy Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Andrea V.; Samuel, Miny; Lohr, Kathleen N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have explored the risk for and impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization among healthy preterm infants born at 29–35 weeks of gestational age not given RSV immunoprophylaxis. We performed a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of these studies. Methods: Two experienced reviewers used prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria to screen titles/abstracts and full-text studies using MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and Cochrane Library (January 1, 1985, to November 6, 2014). We abstracted data on risk factors for RSV hospitalization, incidence and short- and long-term outcomes of RSV hospitalization. Using standard procedures, we assessed study risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). Results: We identified 4754 records and reviewed 27. Important risk factors for RSV hospitalization included young age during the RSV season, having school-age siblings and day-care attendance, with odds ratios >2.5 in at least one study (high SOE). Incidence rates for RSV hospitalizations ranged from 2.3% to 10% (low SOE). Length of hospital stays ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 days (low SOE). Recurrent wheezing rates ranged from 20.7% to 42.8% 1 to 2 years after RSV hospitalization (low SOE). Conclusions: Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors. PMID:27093166

  7. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Involved in Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in Northern Italy during the Pandemic and Postpandemic Period (2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pariani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009 pandemic, international health authorities recommended monitoring severe and complicated cases of respiratory disease, that is, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We evaluated the proportion of SARI/ARDS cases and deaths due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection and the impact of other respiratory viruses during pandemic and postpandemic period (2009–2011 in northern Italy; additionally we searched for unknown viruses in those cases for which diagnosis remained negative. 206 respiratory samples were collected from SARI/ARDS cases and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR/PCR to investigate influenza viruses and other common respiratory pathogens; also, a virus discovery technique (VIDISCA-454 was applied on those samples tested negative to all pathogens. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus was detected in 58.3% of specimens, with a case fatality rate of 11.3%. The impact of other respiratory viruses was 19.4%, and the most commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus/enterovirus and influenza A(H3N2. VIDISCA-454 enabled the identification of one previously undiagnosed measles infection. Nearly 22% of SARI/ARDS cases did not obtain a definite diagnosis. In clinical practice, great efforts should be dedicated to improving the diagnosis of severe respiratory disease; the introduction of innovative molecular technologies, as VIDISCA-454, will certainly help in reducing such “diagnostic gap.”

  8. Single particle labeling of RNA virus in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Ting; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Ren, Linzhu

    2017-06-02

    Real-time and visual tracking of viral infection is crucial for elucidating the infectious and pathogenesis mechanisms. To track the virus successfully, an efficient labeling method is necessary. In this review, we first discuss the practical labeling techniques for virus tracking in live cells. We then describe the current knowledge of interactions between RNA viruses (especially influenza viruses, immunodeficiency viruses, and Flaviviruses) and host cellular structures, obtained using single particle labeling techniques combined with real-time fluorescence microscopy. Single particle labeling provides an easy system for understanding the RNA virus life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PCR Detection of Viral Nucleic Acid in Fatal Asthma: Is the Lower Respiratory Tract a Reservoir for Common Viruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilija Macek

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence implicating viral respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of fatal asthma. However, it is unknown whether viruses are present within the lower respiratory tract in fatal asthma.

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus and innate immunity: a complex interplay of exploitation and subversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R

    2006-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus causes significant disease in infants, the elderly and select groups of immunocompromised patients. Healthy individuals are also naturally infected with respiratory syncytial virus repeatedly throughout life. Therefore, safe and effective vaccines and therapies are needed. However, a number of factors have prevented development of such antiviral interventions to date. These include a failed vaccine trial, the very young age of the primary target population (neonates), the inability of natural infection to induce long-term protective immunity, and an incomplete understanding of virus-host interactions. The identification of pattern recognition receptors has led to significant increases in our understanding of induction and regulation of innate immune responses. This review will address the impact of these findings on respiratory syncytial virus research.

  11. Prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and postbronchiolitic wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimpen Jan LL

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the primary cause of hospitalization for acute respiratory tract illness in general and specifically for bronchiolitis in young children. The link between RSV bronchiolitis and reactive airway disease is not completely understood, even though RSV bronchiolitis is frequently followed by recurrent episodes of wheezing. Therapy with ribavirin does not appear to significantly reduce long-term respiratory outcome of RSV lower respiratory tract infection, and corticosteroid or bronchodilator therapy may possibly improve outcomes only on a short-term basis. No vaccine against RSV is yet available. It is not known whether prophylaxis with RSV intravenous immune globulin or palivizumab can reduce postbronchiolitic wheezing.

  12. Prevalence and Seasonal Distribution of Respiratory Viruses During the 2014 - 2015 Season in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Safak; Sirin, Mumtaz Cem

    2016-09-01

    Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is one of the most common infections worldwide, causing significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses in our region, in children and adults with a pre-diagnosis of ARTI. A total of 845 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were analyzed with the RespiFinder Smart 22 kit (PathoFinder BV, Netherlands) and the Rotor-Gene 6000 real-time PCR system. At least one pathogen was detected in 612 (72.4%) of the specimens. Overall, 902 pathogens were detected; 821 (91%) were viruses and 81 (9%) were bacteria. The most commonly detected pathogens were influenza A virus (IFV-A) (n = 219), influenza B virus (IFV-B) (n=157), rhinovirus/enterovirus (n = 107), human bocavirus (HBoV) (n = 91), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A/B (n = 64), adenovirus (n = 56), human coronaviruses (n = 51), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 49), parainfluenza viruses (n = 40), human metapneumovirus (n = 36), Bordetella pertussis (n = 15), Legionella pneumophila (n = 11), and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (n = 6), respectively. Among the 215 (25.4%) co-infected cases, IFV-A/HBoV and IFV-A/IFV-B were the most common co-infections. IFV-A was the most prevalent agent in all age groups except for children under 5 years of age, in whom RSV A/B was the most common pathogen. Approximately two thirds of the respiratory viruses were detected in early spring and winter, with peaks in January, March, and April. With regard to the prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses, our epidemiological data for the 2014 - 2015 season in Istanbul showed a predominance of IFV-A infections with a peak activity in early spring. Enhanced surveillance and early detection of respiratory viral pathogens can be useful in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ARTIs, and for guiding the development of appropriate public health strategies.

  13. Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Toomas; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Rikula, Ulla; Huovilainen, Anita; Alasuutari, Sakari; Sihvonen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n = 10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species, were detected in tracheobronchial lavage samples. Concentrations of SAA and LBP increased at week 1 had the highest values at week 3 and decreased at week 4 of outbreak. Some calves had high Hp concentrations at week 3, but AGP concentrations did not rise during respiratory disease. Higher SAA, LBP and Hp concentrations at a later stage of BRD (week 3) were associated with the low BRSV-specific IgG(1) production, suggesting that these calves had enhanced inflammatory response to the secondary bacterial infection. In conclusion, APPs (especially SAA and LBP) are sensitive markers of respiratory infection, and they may be useful to explore host response to the respiratory infections in clinical research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. El Bocavirus humano: un nuevo virus respiratorio Human bocavirus: a new respiratory virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son una causa muy importante de morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en los niños y en los países en desarrollo. Con los métodos de laboratorio actuales, aproximadamente una tercera parte de estas infecciones se queda sin diagnóstico etiológico. Se acepta que los virus juegan un papel cardinal y que más de 200 virus, pertenecientes a seis familias virales están implicados en la génesis de este problema. La familia Parvoviridae se conoce desde mediados del siglo XX. El Parvovirus humano B19, identificado en 1980 y causante de enfermedades febriles y exantemáticas, fue considerado por muchos años como el único miembro de esta familia capaz de afectar a la especie humana. Sin embargo, un grupo de investigadores suecos comandado por Tobías Allander informó en agosto de 2005 el hallazgo de un nuevo Parvovirus, denominado provisionalmente Bocavirus humano, relacionado con infección respiratoria aguda en niños. En este artículo se resumen las características de este nuevo agente, se resalta la importancia de su hallazgo y de la técnica de investigación empleada. Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly in children and also in developing countries. The aethiology of approximately 30% of these infections remains obscure, using current laboratory methods. It has been accepted that viruses play an important role and more than 200 viruses, belonging to 6 viral families are implied in the pathogenesis of this problem. Parvoviridae family has been known since the middle of the XX century. Human Parvovirus B19 was identified in 1980; it causes rashes and febrile diseases and it was considered for many years as the only member of this family able to affect humans. However, Dr. Tobias Allander and colleagues, at Karolinska Institut, have discovered a previously unknown parvovirus, called Human Bocavirus, that has been found to affect children, causing lower

  15. Genetic variability of respiratory syncytial virus A in hospitalized children in the last five consecutive winter seasons in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Ana; Pozo, Francisco; Calvo, Cristina; García-García, Mluz; González-Esguevillas, Mónica; Molinero, Mar; Casas, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus group A (RSV-A) was detected in symptomatic hospital attended children in Central Spain for a continuous time period, September 2010 to April 2015. In order to accurately describe the epidemiology of this virus, the genetic diversity of the complete G gene and the clinical manifestations observed were jointly analyzed. Out of 3,011 respiratory specimens taken from 2,308 children, 640 were positive to RSV (21.3%) and 405 were RSV-A (63.2%). Complete G gene sequences of 166 randomly selected RSV-A virus identified NA1 and ON1 genotypes. In 2011-2012, ON1 emerged sporadically and become dominant in 2012-2013 with 38 cases (70%). In 2014-2015, all the 44 sequences contained the 72-nt duplication (100%). Clinical diagnosis of children with ON1 genotype were bronchiolitis in 55 (62.5%), recurrent wheezing or asthma exacerbations in 22 (25%), laryngotracheobronchitis in 3 (3.4%), and upper respiratory tract infections in eight. Results showed replacement and substitution of circulating NA1 genotype with the new ON1 genotype. Nevertheless, at this stage, none of the RSV-A genotypes identified have resulted in significant clinical differences. The amino acid composition of the complete G gene ON1 sequences demonstrated an accumulation of single changes not related with different clinical presentation. J. Med. Virol. 89:767-774, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Respiratory virus modulation of host nucleocytoplasmic transport; target for therapeutic intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon eCaly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory diseases caused by Rhinovirus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza virus represent a large social and financial burden on healthcare worldwide. Although all three viruses have distinctly unique properties in terms of infection and replication, they share the ability to exploit/manipulate the host-cell nucleocytoplasmic transport system in order to replicate effectively and efficiently. This review outlines the various ways in which infection by these viruses impacts on the host nucleocytoplasmic transport system, and examples where inhibition thereof in turn decreases viral replication. The highly conserved nature of the nucleocytoplasmic transport system and the viral proteins that interact with it make this virus-host interface a prime candidate for the development of specific antiviral therapeutics in the future.

  17. Phase-I study MEDI-534, of a live, attenuated intranasal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza-3 virus in seropositive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Margarita; Mufson, Maurice A; Dubovsky, Filip; Knightly, Conor; Zeng, Wen; Losonsky, Genevieve

    2009-07-01

    A live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine was evaluated in healthy respiratory syncytial virus/parainfluenza virus type 3 seropositive children aged 1 to 9 years. Three cohorts of 40 children were randomized 1:1 to receive 10, 10, or 10 median tissue culture infectious dose50 MEDI-534 vaccine or placebo. The vaccine's safety profile was similar to placebo, no viral shedding was detected, and the vaccine was minimally immunogenic.

  18. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  19. [The detection of virus antigen in the lower respiratory tract of the patients with lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, M; Wang, H; Chen, H

    1999-12-01

    To find out about the viral infection situation of lower respiratory tract of the patients with lung cancer. The excretion from the surface of bronchiogenic carcinoma was brushed under fibrobronchoscopy. The respiratory virus antigen was detected and analysed by reagent kit produced by the 262nd Hospital of Beijing Military Region. The respiratory virus antigen was positive in eight cases of lung cancer group, the positive rate was 17.4%(8/46), it was significantly higher than that in non-lung cancer group (P < 0.05). Among them, there were one case of influenza virus A, two cases of influenza virus B, two cases of para-influenza 1,3, two cases of adenovirus and one case of respiratory syncytial virus. The carcinoma accompanied with viral infection were 4,3,1, cases in order of squamous carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that a relationship existed between lung cancer and viral infection of respiratory tract statistically. The viral infection increased in patients with lung cancer, this is worthy to pay attention to.

  20. Timing of First Respiratory Virus Detections in Infants: A Community-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2018-01-17

    Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday. Parents recorded daily symptoms and collected nose swabs weekly, which were batch-tested using polymerase chain reaction assays for 17 respiratory viruses. One hundred fifty-eight infants participated in ORChID. The median age for fVDEs was 2.9 months for human rhinovirus (HRV) but was ≥13.9 months for other respiratory viruses. Overall, 52% of HRV fVDEs were symptomatic, compared with 57%-83% of other fVDEs. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus fVDEs were more severe than HRV fVDEs. Older age and the winter season were associated with symptomatic episodes. Infants do not always experience respiratory symptoms with their fVDE. Predominance of early HRV detections highlights the need for timing any intervention early in life. fVDEs from other respiratory viruses most commonly occur when maternal vaccines may no longer provide protection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary investigation to detect antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an emerging disease of pigs, in a commercial pig husbandry complex with history of respiratory and reproductive disorders was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-one sera randomly collected over ...

  2. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  3. [Viruses and clinical features associated with hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Lhasa, Tibet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Deng, Jie; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-qing; Wang, Fang; Shan, Min-na; Deji, Mei-duo

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the viral etiology and clinical features of hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Tibet. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from children with acute respiratory tract infection hospitalized at the department of Pediatrics, Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital from April to July, 2011. The specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were screened for antigens of 7 common respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza viruses type I-III, influenza virus A and B] and human metapneumovirus. Clinical data of the children were analyzed by statistical software SPSS16. A total of 167 children with acute respiratory tract infections hospitalized from April to July 2011 were enrolled in this investigation. Sixty-five out of 167 specimens were positive for viral antigens. The virus positive rate for specimens was 38.9% (65/167). Two of 65 positive specimens were positive for 2 virus antigens (RSV + influenza B) and (hMPV + parainfluenza virus type III), respectively. RSV was detected in 45 cases (67.2%, 45/67) which was the most predominant, followed by parainfluenza virus type III detected in 7 cases (10.4%, 7/67), ADV in 6 cases (9.0%, 6/67), parainfluenza virus type I in 4 cases (6.0%, 4/67), influenza virus type B in 3 cases (4.5%, 3/67), and hMPV in 2 cases (3.0%, 2/67). In addition to clinical manifestations of pneumonia, such as cough and shortness of breath, only 3 virus positive cases (6.67%) presented with wheezing, but the signs of severe cyanosis, fine rales in lung were common. Most of the children in this study recovered soon, only a few younger children with underlying diseases or complications had severe illness. Virus is an important pathogen for acute respiratory infections for hospitalized children in Tibet. RSV was the most predominant etiological agent, especially for those younger than 3 years old.

  4. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses in Three Central American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    enteroviruses ( coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from... coxsackie virus (n = 2). Among the 17 dual infections, the most common were adenovirus-RSV (n = 4), influenza virus A-RSV (n = 3), influenza A-HSV-1 (n...Enterovirus 70 ⁄ 71 2 (0Æ1) Coxsackie 2 (0Æ1) 1 0 0 1 0 Echovirus 3 (0Æ2) 0 0 0 1 2 Parainfluenza viruses (1, 2 and 3) 57 (3Æ2) 0 18 11 9 19

  5. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

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    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  6. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  7. [Preliminary analysis on respiratory syncytial virus identified in children with acute respiratory infections in Tibet Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Hong; Shan, Min-Na; Deji, Mei-Duo

    2012-03-01

    To understand the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Tibet Autonomous Region and the contribution of two major groups of RSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARI in Department of Pediatrics, Tibet People's Hospital in Lasa, Tibet from April to July in 2011 and tested for seven common respiratory viruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Total RNAs were extracted from RSV positive samples by DFA and reverse transcripted to cDNA. Nested-PCR was employed to determine the genogroups of RSV, which were confirmed by real time-PCR and sequence analysis for G protein encoding gene. The Characteristics and variations of G genes from RSV in this project were identified by sequence comparison with those G genes in GenBank. Out of 167 samples, 65 were positive for respiratory viruses with a total positive rate of 38.9%, including 45 (69.2%, 45/65)positive samples for RSV. Among 42 samples that were positive for RSV and genotyped, 40 were identified as group A and 2 as group B. Sequence analysis of full-length G genes for 7 RSV of group A indicated that all of these belonged to subgroup GA2. The nucleotide identities between RSVs from Tibet and prototype A2 strain were 90.7%-91.8%, with 86.5%-87.2% identities of amino acid. The mutations of amino acids were mainly located in both ends of a highly conserved region in the ectodomain of the G proteins. The data indicated that RSV was the most important viral etiologic agent of ARI in spring of 2011 in Tibet and group A of RSV was predominant during the study period. High divergence existed in the ectodomain of G proteins of RSVs from Tibet.

  8. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K.; Schijf, Marcel A.; Coenjaerts, Frank E.; van der Schoot, Ellen C.; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M.

    2013-01-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Strefezzi, R F; Pissinatti, A; Takakura, C F H; Kanamura, C; Duarte, M I S; Catão-Dias, J L

    2012-12-01

    An adult male Brachyteles arachanoides, kept in captivity since 1990, was found dead without apparent clinical evidence. Necropsy report, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural examination were conducted. Pulmonary syncytial cells were positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and ultrastructural examination revealed viral particles inside macrophages compatible with the Paramyxoviridae family. Muriquis are susceptible to RSV pneumonia followed by respiratory distress syndrome and death. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Sustained Protein Kinase D Activation Mediates Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Airway Barrier Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, Fariba; DeSando, Samantha A.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Chapman, Timothy J.; Knowlden, Sara A.; Beck, Lisa A.; Georas, Steve N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function is a new frontier in asthma and respiratory viral infections. Despite recent progress, little is known about how respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acts at mucosal sites, and very little is known about its ability to influence airway epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied the effect of RSV infection on the airway epithelial barrier using model epithelia. 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cells were grown on Transwell insert...

  11. [Concordance of nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs in the detection of respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Paulina; Abarca, Katia; Concha, Ida; Cerda, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The most used test for the diagnosis of viral respiratory infection is the detection of viral antigens by direct immunofluorescence (DFA), in samples taken by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) or aspirate (NPA). It would be desirable to have a less uncomfortable technique to obtain a sample from the patient, but of equal performance. To evaluate the diagnostic agreement between nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) in the detection of respiratory viruses by DFA and compare the degree of discomfort of both techniques in pediatric patients. Cross-sectional study in children who consulted to a pediatric emergency service with respiratory symptoms. Two samples (NPS and NS) per child were collected. The concordance between the two was determined by Kappa (K) coefficient and the degree of discomfort by a visual pain scale. We obtained 112 samples from 56 children, one by each technique. 82.1% were concordant, K = 0.61 (CI 95%, 0.39-0.83) for the detection of any virus, and K = 0.69 (CI 95%, 0.46-0.92) and K = 0.76 (CI 95%, 0.51-1) for syncytial respiratory virus and influenza A detection, respectively. The degree of discomfort was significantly lower for the NS. There is considerable agreement in the detection of respiratory viruses by DFA between samples obtained by NS and NPS, but not enough to recommend a change in the sampling method in this population.

  12. Genetic and antigenic analysis of the G attachment protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvander, M.; Vilcek, S.; Baule, C.

    1998-01-01

    Antigenic and genetic studies of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were made on isolates obtained from three continents over 27 years. Antigenic variation between eight isolates was initially determined using protein G-specific monoclonal antibodies. Four distinct reaction patterns were...... of a 731 nucleotide fragment in the G protein gene. Nine of the BRSV strains were analysed by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons whereas sequences of 18 BRSV and three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains were obtained from GenBank. The analysis revealed similarities of 88-100% among BRSV...

  13. Secretory Expression and Purification of Respiratory Syncytial Virus G and F Proteins in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Samadhan J; Anderson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of range of symptoms from mild upper to serious lower respiratory virus infections in infants, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. Despite many decades of research and development, a licensed RSV vaccine is not available for use in human. Since the RSV F and G proteins induce neutralizing antibodies and confer protection from infection, they are important for understanding disease and for developing vaccines and access to purified, expressed proteins is important to RSV research and diagnostics. We describe methods to produce recombinant RSV F and G proteins in human cells and purify these proteins using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography.

  14. Association of respiratory viruses with outcomes of severe childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kelly

    Full Text Available The highest incidence of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI is in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether detection of respiratory viruses predicts ALRI outcomes in these settings.We conducted prospective cohort and case-control studies of children 1-23 months of age in Botswana. Cases met clinical criteria for pneumonia and were recruited within six hours of presentation to a referral hospital. Controls were children without pneumonia matched to cases by primary care clinic and date of enrollment. Nasopharyngeal specimens were tested for respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction. We compared detection rates of specific viruses in matched case-control pairs. We examined the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and other respiratory viruses on pneumonia outcomes.Between April 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 310 cases, of which 133 had matched controls. Median ages of cases and controls were 6.1 and 6.4 months, respectively. One or more viruses were detected from 75% of cases and 34% of controls. RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent among cases than controls, but only enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected from asymptomatic controls. Compared with non-RSV viruses, RSV was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure at 48 hours [risk ratio (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20, 2.84], more days of respiratory support [mean difference (MD: 1.26 days; 95% CI: 0.30, 2.22 days], and longer duration of hospitalization [MD: 1.35 days; 95% CI: 0.20, 2.50 days], but lower in-hospital mortality [RR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.80] in children with pneumonia.Respiratory viruses were detected from most children hospitalized with ALRI in Botswana, but only RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent than among children without ALRI. Detection of RSV from children with ALRI predicted a protracted illness course but lower mortality compared with non-RSV viruses.

  15. Analysis of Antiviral Properties of Hexoral In Vitro against Some Viruses that Cause Acute Respiratory Infections and Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, P G; Galegov, G A; Andronova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral properties of Hexoral (0.1% solution and 0.2% aerosol for local application) and its constituent hexetidine against viruses causing human respiratory tract infections and herpes virus were studied in vitro. It was found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of hexetidine (alone and as a component of Hexoral) attenuated infectious properties of highly virulent influenza virus A/H5N1, pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1pdm, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1 after a short-term exposure (30 sec) by 100 or more times. It was found that hexidine mostly contributes to the virucidal effect of Hexoral.

  16. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN TO HIGH-RISK INFANTS AND YOUNG-CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROOTHUIS, [No Value; SIMOES, EAF; LEVIN, MJ; HALL, CB; LONG, CE; RODRIGUEZ, WJ; ARROBIO, J; MEISSNER, HC; FULTON, DR; WELLIVER, RC; TRISTRAM, DA; SIBER, GR; PRINCE, GA; VANRADEN, M; HEMMING, VG

    1993-01-01

    Background. Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common

  17. Respiratory viruses detected in Mexican children younger than 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia: a national multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Wong-Chew

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory syncytial virus (types A and B, human enterovirus/rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus were the respiratory viruses identified most frequently in children younger than 5 years old with CAP. Co-infection was present in an important proportion of the children.

  18. Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Liz Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs, 78% (58/74 of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74 of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74 of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2 and animal clustering by groups (#3. In shelter #2, 9% (3/35 of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV, and 6% (2/35 were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1. In shelter #3, 9% (7/77 of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, and 1% (1/77 were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV. The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.

  19. Surfactant protein B polymorphisms are associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, but not with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzmann Andrea

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins (SP are important for the innate host defence and essential for a physiological lung function. Several linkage and association studies have investigated the genes coding for different surfactant proteins in the context of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory distress syndrome of preterm infants. In this study we tested whether SP-B was in association with two further pulmonary diseases in children, i. e. severe infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus and bronchial asthma. Methods We chose to study five polymorphisms in SP-B: rs2077079 in the promoter region; rs1130866 leading to the amino acid exchange T131I; rs2040349 in intron 8; rs3024801 leading to L176F and rs3024809 resulting in R272H. Statistical analyses made use of the Armitage's trend test for single polymorphisms and FAMHAP and FASTEHPLUS for haplotype analyses. Results The polymorphisms rs3024801 and rs3024809 were not present in our study populations. The three other polymorphisms were common and in tight linkage disequilibrium with each other. They did not show association with bronchial asthma or severe RSV infection in the analyses of single polymorphisms. However, haplotypes analyses revealed association of SP-B with severe RSV infection (p = 0.034. Conclusion Thus our results indicate a possible involvement of SP-B in the genetic predisposition to severe RSV infections in the German population. In order to determine which of the three polymorphisms constituting the haplotypes is responsible for the association, further case control studies on large populations are necessary. Furthermore, functional analysis need to be conducted.

  20. Respiratory Commensal Bacteria Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Improves Resistance of Infant Mice to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Superinfection

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    Paulraj Kanmani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections. Therefore, in the present study we investigated how the exposure of infant mice to nasal priming with viable or non-viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum 090104 influences the respiratory innate immune response triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR-3 activation, the susceptibility to primary Respiratory Synsytial Virus (RSV infection, and the resistance to secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We demonstrated that the nasal priming with viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum 090104 differentially modulated TLR3-mediated innate antiviral immune response in the respiratory tract of infant mice, improving their resistance to primary RSV infection, and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia. In association with the protection against RSV-pneumococcal superinfection, we found that viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum improved lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD3+CD4+IL-10+ T cells as well as CD11c+SiglecF+IFN-β+ alveolar macrophages. Of interest, non-viable bacteria did not have the same protective effect, suggesting that C. pseudodiphtheriticum colonization is needed for achieving its protective effect. In conclusion, we present evidence that nasal application of viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum could be thought as an alternative to boost defenses against RSV and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials. Due to the absence of a long-lasting immunity, re-infection with RSV throughout life is common

  1. Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, Hortensia; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-08-15

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible

  2. Cholesterol is required for stability and infectivity of influenza A and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajimaya, Shringkhala; Frankl, Tünde; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Takimoto, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane are considered to play a major role in the enveloped virus lifecycle. However, the functional role of cholesterol in assembly, infectivity and stability of respiratory RNA viruses is not fully understood. We previously reported that depletion of cellular cholesterol by cholesterol-reducing agents decreased production of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) particles by inhibiting virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the role of cholesterol on influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) production. Unlike hPIV1, treatment of human airway cells with the agents did not decrease virus particle production. However, the released virions were less homogeneous in density and unstable. Addition of exogenous cholesterol to the released virions restored virus stability and infectivity. Collectively, these data indicate a critical role of cholesterol in maintaining IAV and RSV membrane structure that is essential for sustaining viral stability and infectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of statistical models for estimating hospitalization associated with influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of disease burden associated with respiratory viruses are keys to deployment of preventive strategies such as vaccination and resource allocation. Such estimates are particularly needed in tropical and subtropical regions where some methods commonly used in temperate regions are not applicable. While a number of alternative approaches to assess the influenza associated disease burden have been recently reported, none of these models have been validated with virologically confirmed data. Even fewer methods have been developed for other common respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We had recently conducted a prospective population-based study of virologically confirmed hospitalization for acute respiratory illnesses in persons <18 years residing in Hong Kong Island. Here we used this dataset to validate two commonly used models for estimation of influenza disease burden, namely the rate difference model and Poisson regression model, and also explored the applicability of these models to estimate the disease burden of other respiratory viruses. The Poisson regression models with different link functions all yielded estimates well correlated with the virologically confirmed influenza associated hospitalization, especially in children older than two years. The disease burden estimates for RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus were less reliable with wide confidence intervals. The rate difference model was not applicable to RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus and grossly underestimated the true burden of influenza associated hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The Poisson regression model generally produced satisfactory estimates in calculating the disease burden of respiratory viruses in a subtropical region such as Hong Kong.

  4. Role of Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Evermann, James F; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2013-02-22

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study, two groups of four BHS each were intra-tracheally administered with leukotoxin-positive (Group I) or leukotoxin-negative (Group II) B. trehalosi. All four animals in Group I developed severe pneumonia, and two of them died within 3 days. The other two animals showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. Animals in Group II neither died nor showed gross pneumonic lesions on necropsy, suggesting that leukotoxin-positive, but not leukotoxin-negative, B. trehalosi can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the second study, two other groups of four BHS (Groups III and IV) were intra-nasally administered with a mixture of RSV and PI-3. Four days later, RSV/PI-3-inoculated Group IV and another group of four BHS (Group V, positive control) were intra-nasally administered with Mannheimia haemolytica, the pathogen that consistently causes fatal pneumonia in BHS. All four animals in group III developed pneumonia, but did not die during the study period. However all four animals in Group IV, and three animals in Group V developed severe pneumonia and died within two days of M. haemolytica inoculation. The fourth animal in Group V showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. These findings suggest that RSV/PI-3 can cause non-fatal pneumonia, but are not necessary predisposing agents for M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia of BHS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Azithromycin does not improve disease course in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease : A randomized equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Uijtendaal, Esther; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.

    Background: Nearly halt of all hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) are treated with (parenteral) antibiotics. The present study was designed to test our hypothesis that the use of antibiotics would not lead to a reduced duration of

  6. Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015 : A systematic review and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Ting; McAllister, David A.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Simoes, Eric A. F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Polack, Fernando P.; Balsells, Evelyn; Acacio, Sozinho; Aguayo, Claudia; Alassani, Issifou; Ali, Asad; Antonio, Martin; Awasthi, Shally; Awori, Juliet O.; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Baggett, Henry C.; Baillie, Vicky L.; Balmaseda, Angel; Barahona, Alfredo; Basnet, Sudha; Bassat, Quique; Basualdo, Wilma; Bigogo, Godfrey; Bont, Louis; Breiman, Robert F.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Broor, Shobha; Bruce, Nigel; Bruden, Dana; Buchy, Philippe; Campbell, Stuart; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Chadha, Mandeep; Chipeta, James; Chou, Monidarin; Clara, Wilfrido; Cohen, Cheryl; de Cuellar, Elizabeth; Dang, Duc Anh; Dash-yandag, Budragchaagiin; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Dherani, Mukesh; Eap, Tekchheng; Ebruke, Bernard E.; Echavarria, Marcela; de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Carla Cecília; Fasce, Rodrigo A.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Feng, Luzhao; Gentile, Angela; Gordon, Aubree; Goswami, Doli; Goyet, Sophie; Groome, Michelle J; Halasa, Natasha; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Homaira, Nusrat; Howie, Stephen R.C.; Jara, Jorge; Jroundi, Imane; Kartasasmita, Cissy B.; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Kotloff, Karen L.; Krishnan, Anand; Libster, Romina; Lopez, Olga; Lucero, Marilla G.; Lucion, Florencia; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Marcone, Debora N.; McCracken, John P.; Mejia, Mario; Moisi, Jennifer C.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Moore, David P.; Moraleda, Cinta; Moyes, Jocelyn; Munywoki, Patrick; Mutyara, Kuswandewi; Nicol, Mark P.; Nokes, D. James; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; da Costa Oliveira, Maria Tereza; Oshitani, Histoshi; Pandey, Nitin; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Phillips, Lia N.; Picot, Valentina Sanchez; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Rath, Barbara A.; Robinson, Annick; Romero, Candice; Russomando, Graciela; Salimi, Vahid; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Scheltema, Nienke; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Seidenberg, Phil; Shen, Kunling; Singleton, Rosalyn; Sotomayor, Viviana; Strand, Tor A.; Sutanto, Agustinus; Sylla, Mariam; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Thomas, Elizabeth D.; Tokarz, Rafal; Turner, Claudia; Venter, Marietjie; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Wang, Jianwei; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Yu, Hongjie; Zar, Heather J.; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on

  7. Co-infections with respiratory viruses in dogs with bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, S J; Lappalainen, A; Rajamäki, M M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia (BP) is an inflammation of the lower airways and lung parenchyma secondary to bacterial infection. The pathogenesis of BP in dogs is complex and the role of canine respiratory viruses has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of viral co-infections in dogs with BP and to assess demographic or clinical variables as well as disease severity associated with viral co-infections. Twenty household dogs with BP caused by opportunistic bacteria and 13 dogs with chronic (>30 days) tracheobronchitis caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica (BBTB). Prospective cross-sectional observational study. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic imaging, and cytologic and microbiologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage or transtracheal wash fluid. Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus, canine herpes virus, canine influenzavirus, canine distemper virus, canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine pneumovirus, as well as B. bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma spp. were analyzed in respiratory samples using PCR assays. CPIV was detected in 7/20 and CRCoV in 1/20 dogs with BP. Respiratory viruses were not detected in dogs with BBTB. There were no significant differences in clinical variables between BP dogs with and without a viral co-infection. Respiratory viruses were found frequently in dogs with BP and may therefore play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of BP. Clinical variables and disease severity did not differ between BP dogs with and without viral co-infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Gaunt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and human metapneumovirus (HMPV are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F protein, and the extremely diverse attachment (G glycoprotein. Both viruses comprise two genetic groups, A and B. Circulation frequencies of the two genetic groups fluctuate for both viruses, giving rise to frequently observed switching of the predominantly circulating group. Nucleotide sequence data for the F and G gene regions of HRSV and HMPV variants from the UK, The Netherlands, Bangkok and data available from Genbank were used to identify clades of both viruses. Several contemporary circulating clades of HRSV and HMPV were identified by phylogenetic reconstructions. The molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of clades were modelled in parallel. Times of origin were determined and positively selected sites were identified. Sustained circulation of contemporary clades of both viruses for decades and their global dissemination demonstrated that switching of the predominant genetic group did not arise through the emergence of novel lineages each respiratory season, but through the fluctuating circulation frequencies of pre-existing lineages which undergo proliferative and eclipse phases. An abundance of sites were identified as positively selected within the G protein but not the F protein of both viruses. For HRSV, these were discordant with previously identified residues under selection, suggesting the virus can evade immune responses by generating diversity at multiple sites within linear epitopes. For both viruses, different sites were identified as positively selected between genetic groups.

  9. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  10. Self-Collected Nasal Swabs for Respiratory Virus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Nguyen, Matthew; Kirlin, Beth; Madziwa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether 135 patients reporting acute respiratory illness (ARI) could self-collect nasal swab specimens and ship them for laboratory testing. Most subjects (78.2%) collected and shipped their specimens without errors; 10.5% excluded ≥1 packing components; 12.9% made ≥1 packing errors. Self-swabbing at home is feasible for confirming ARI etiology. PMID:26613095

  11. the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEDLINE with 'South African' or 'children' and 'respiratory ... children!· and in severely ill patients.!' Immune prophylaxis with RSV-specific irnmunoglobuhn has been used successfully in normal infants and infants at high risk for ARI, as well as in .... 1990 to July 1996 - combined data from all seven academic virology.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoes, Eric A. F.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Boeckh, Michael; Bont, LJ; Crowe, James E.; Griffiths, Paul; Hayden, Frederick G.; Hodinka, Richard L.; Smyth, Rosalind L.; Spencer, Keith; Thirstrup, Steffen; Walsh, Edward E.; Whitley, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Two meetings, one sponsored by the Wellcome Trust in 2012 and the other by the Global Virology Foundation in 2013, assembled academic, public health and pharmaceutical industry experts to assess the challenges and opportunities for developing antivirals for the treatment of respiratory syncytial

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus infection enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth through dysregulation of nutritional immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Matthew R; Lashua, Lauren P; Fischer, Douglas K; Flitter, Becca A; Eichinger, Katherine M; Durbin, Joan E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B; Empey, Kerry M; Bomberger, Jennifer M

    2016-02-09

    Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients' acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P. aeruginosa infections are initiated in the host. Using a coculture model to study the formation of bacterial biofilm formation associated with the airway epithelium, we show that respiratory viral infections and the induction of antiviral interferons promote robust secondary P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. We report that the induction of antiviral IFN signaling in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces bacterial biofilm formation through a mechanism of dysregulated iron homeostasis of the airway epithelium. Moreover, increased apical release of the host iron-binding protein transferrin during RSV infection promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm development in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nutritional immunity pathways that are disrupted during respiratory viral infection create an environment that favors secondary bacterial infection and may provide previously unidentified targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation.

  14. Development of a new resequencing pathogen microarray based assay for detection of broad-spectrum respiratory tract viruses in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Shen

    Full Text Available A Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM is a single, highly multiplexed assay for detecting and differentiating similarly related pathogens by using closely overlapping probe sets to determine a target organism's nucleotide sequence. In this study, a new RPM (RPM-IVDC1 that consisted of 224-bp detector tiles corresponding to 9 influenza A subtypes, 11 rhinoviruses, 28 enteroviruses and 38 other respiratory viruses was developed and optimized to provide individual and simultaneous detection sensitivities ranging from 15 to 750 genomic copies for 16 common respiratory pathogens. A total of 110 consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP admitted to 5 district general hospitals in Beijing during a 1-year period were assessed using the new assay. Among the children (under age 5 and adult patients (above age 18, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and rhinovirus (RV were the most common etiological agents, respectively, which is consistent with reference assays. Atypical pathogens that may cause CAP-like illness, including rubella virus, measles virus, influenza type C virus, human herpesvirus (HHV were also detected. The results show the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for the accurate detection and identification of multiple virus types, which may be of significant use in epidemic surveillance and outbreak investigations of atypical pathogens.

  15. Risk factors for admission and the role of respiratory syncytial virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Risk factors for admission of children with acute bronchiolitis have remained controversial. Technological advances in the measurements of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte. (CTL) activity, enable respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)- specific CTL activity to be studied in infants with bronchiolitis for the first time. We evaluated ...

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus-specific CD8(+) memory T cell responses in elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, GJ; Heidema, J; van Leeuwen, EMM; van Bleek, GM; Jonkers, RE; Jansen, HM; van Lier, RAW; Out, TA

    2005-01-01

    Background. We investigated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific CD8(+) memory T cell responses in healthy control participants (n = 31) and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 9), with respect to frequency, memory phenotype, and proliferative requirements.

  17. Global respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality in young children (RSV GOLD) : a retrospective case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, Nienke M.; Gentile, Angela; Lucion, Florencia; Nokes, D. James; Munywoki, Patrick K.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Groome, Michelle J; Cohen, Cheryl; Moyes, Jocelyn; Thorburn, Kentigern; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Gordon, Aubree; Sánchez, José F.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Sutanto, Agustinus; Mejias, Asuncion; Ramilo, Octavio; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Halasa, Natasha; de-Paris, Fernanda; Pires, Márcia Rosane; Spaeder, Michael C.; Paes, Bosco A.; Simões, Eric A F; Leung, Ting F.; da Costa Oliveira, Maria Tereza; de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Carla Cecília; Bassat, Quique; Butt, Warwick; Chi, Hsin; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Ali, Asad; Lucero, Marilla G.; Fasce, Rodrigo A.; Lopez, Olga; Rath, Barbara A.; Polack, Fernando P.; Papenburg, Jesse; Roglić, Srđan; Ito, Hisato; Goka, Edward A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Nair, Harish; Bont, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related

  18. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  19. Incidence and seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisations in young children in Denmark, 2010 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin T; Trebbien, Ramona; Emborg, Hanne Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    For future decisions on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-vaccination strategies and implementation into national immunisation-programmes, we used national registry data (hospitalisation, microbiology and vital statistics) to determine the age-specific incidence and direct medical costs of annual...... RSV-associated admissions in children ... be maternal vaccination due to general challenges in achieving sufficient and protective immune responses in young infants....

  20. Impact of PCR for respiratory viruses on antibiotic use : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Tacke, Carline E. A.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P.; Forster, Johannes; van Loon, Anton M.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Rossen, John W. A.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.

    RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses is more sensitive, yet more expensive, than conventionally used direct immunofluorescence (DIF). We determined the impact of real-time PCR, additional to DIF, on antibiotic prescription in ventilated children

  1. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Wijk, van H.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contain six membrane proteins: the major proteins GP5 and M and the minor proteins GP2a, E, GP3, and GP4. Here, we studied the envelope protein requirements for PRRSV particle formation and infectivity using full-length cDNA

  2. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register-...

  3. Oral transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by muscle of experimentally infected pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der I.F.A.; Bril, E.M.; Voermans, J.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Martin, R.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be transmitted to pigs by feeding muscle tissue obtained from recently infected pigs. Muscle obtained from pigs infected with either a European strain (EU donor pigs) or American strain

  4. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infections of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero, F.J.; Frossard, J.P.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stadejek, T.; Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.; Steinbach, F.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and

  5. Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination of dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K.; Meijboom, M.; Luytjes, W.; Hak, E.; Postma, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality and health-care resource use in the elderly. Therefore we determined whether there are specific levels of vaccine cost and effectiveness for which a hypothetical RSV-vaccine for

  6. Pericarditis mediated by respiratory syncytial virus in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, M P; Pavlisko, E N; Perfect, J R

    2013-08-01

    We describe a case of pericarditis and large pericardial effusion in a 63-year-old African-American man undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma. Pericardial tissue biopsy demonstrated fibrinous pericarditis, and immunohistochemistry stains were positive for respiratory syncytial virus. The patient improved with oral ribavirin and intravenous immune globulin infusions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    Era Tuladhar

    Abstract

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks

  8. Risk factors for admission and the role of respiratory syncytial virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretions were tested with monoclonal antibodies for RSV and pooled respiratory viruses; shell vial cultures were also established. Permission was requested from parents of RSV-infected subjects for blood draws for specific cytotoxic T-cell assays and CD4/CD8 cells on admission and repeat CTL on day 7. Results.

  9. High prevalence of common respiratory viruses and no evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hajj pilgrims returning to Ghana, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Larbi, Richard; Sarpong, Francisca Naana; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Amankwa, Joseph; Fiafemetsi, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Eckerle, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 on the Arabian Peninsula and has caused severe respiratory disease with more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases. The return of infected pilgrims to their home countries with a putative spread of MERS-CoV necessitates further surveillance. A cross sectional study of 839 adult African Hajj pilgrims returning to Accra in Ghana, West Africa, was conducted in 2013 to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as of MERS-CoV, human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (FLU A) infection. Six hundred and fifty-one (77.6%) pilgrims had respiratory symptoms. Tests were positive for at least one of the viruses other than MERS-CoV in 179 (21.3%) of all pilgrims, with 22.4% detection in symptomatic vs. 17.6% detection in asymptomatic pilgrims. No MERS-CoV was detected, although common respiratory viruses were prevalent, with positive findings for HRV in 141 individuals (16.8%), RSV in 43 individuals (5.1%) and FLU A in 11 individuals (1.3%). Results were positive for more than one virus in 16 (1.9%) individuals, including 14 (1.7%) RSV/HRV co-infections and 2 (0.2%) FLU A/HRV co-infections. A total 146 (22.4%) of the symptomatic returnees tested positive for at least one respiratory virus compared with 33 (17.6%) of the asymptomatic pilgrims who had at least one detectable virus in their sample. The prevalence of viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects was high. Although it is reassuring that MERS-CoV was not detected in the tested population, there is a need for active surveillance of Hajj pilgrims. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel treatment with neuroprotective and antiviral properties against a neuroinvasive human respiratory virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, Elodie; Jacomy, Hélène; Desforges, Marc; Talbot, Pierre J

    2014-02-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are recognized respiratory pathogens with neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties in mice and humans. HCoV strain OC43 (HCoV-OC43) can infect and persist in human neural cells and activate neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms, suggesting that it could be involved in neurological disease of unknown etiology in humans. Moreover, we have shown that HCoV-OC43 is neurovirulent in susceptible mice, causing encephalitis, and that a viral mutant with a single point mutation in the viral surface spike (S) protein induces a paralytic disease that involves glutamate excitotoxicity in susceptible mice. Herein, we show that glutamate recycling via the glial transporter 1 protein transporter and glutamine synthetase are central to the dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis and development of motor dysfunctions and paralytic disease in HCoV-OC43-infected mice. Moreover, memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of neurological diseases in humans, improved clinical scores related to paralytic disease and motor disabilities by partially restoring the physiological neurofilament phosphorylation state in virus-infected mice. Interestingly, memantine attenuated mortality rates and body weight loss and reduced HCoV-OC43 replication in the central nervous system in a dose-dependent manner. This novel action of memantine on viral replication strongly suggests that it could be used as an antiviral agent to directly limit viral replication while improving neurological symptoms in various neurological diseases with a viral involvement. Mutations in the surface spike (S) protein of human respiratory coronavirus OC43 appear after persistent infection of human cells of the central nervous system, a possible viral adaptation to this environment. Furthermore, a single amino acid change in the viral S protein modulated virus-induced neuropathology in mice from an encephalitis to a neuropathology characterized by

  12. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infection of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, Francisco J; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Johanna M J; Stadejek, Tomasz; Morgan, Sophie B; Graham, Simon P; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-04-16

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and biologically distinct. In addition, the disease outcome is directly linked to co-infections associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex and the host response is variable between different breeds of pigs. It is therefore warranted when studying the pathogenesis of PRRS to consider each viral genotype separately and apply careful consideration to the disease model studied. We here review the respiratory pig model for PRRSV-1, with a focus on a recent set of studies conducted with carefully selected virus strains and pigs, which may serve as both a baseline and benchmark for future investigation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the leading cause of economic casualty in swine industry worldwide. The virus can cause reproductive failure, respiratory disease, and growth retardation in the pigs. This review deals with current status of commercial PRRS vaccines presently used to control PRRS. The review focuses on the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety aspects of the vaccines. Commercial PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine elicits delayed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination. The vaccine confers late but effective protection against genetically homologous PRRSV, and partial protection against genetically heterologous virus. The MLV vaccine is of concern for its safety as the vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause diseases. PRRS killed virus (KV) vaccine, on the other hand, is safe but confers limited protection against either homologous or heterologous virus. The KV vaccine yet helps reduce disease severity when administered to the PRRSV-infected pigs. Although efforts have been made to improve the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of PRRS vaccines, a better vaccine is still needed in order to protect against PRRSV. PMID:24175208

  15. Comparison of the prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infections at different hospital settings in North China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Xie, Zhengde; Zhang, Tiegang; Lu, Yanqin; Fan, Hongwei; Yang, Donghong; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe; Shen, Kunling; Huang, Fang; Han, Jinxiang; Li, Taisheng; Gao, Zhancheng; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei

    2018-02-08

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays. The prevalence of respiratory viruses was determined and compared between patients at different hospital settings. A total of 3487 hospitalized cases and 6437 outpatients/Emergency Department (ED) patients were enrolled. The most commonly detected viruses in the hospitalized cases were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 33.3%) in children less than two years old, adenoviruses (13.0%) in patients 15-34 years old, and influenza viruses (IFVs, 9.6%) in patients ≥65 years. IFVs were the most common virus in outpatient/ED patients across all age groups (22.7%). After controlling for the confounders caused by other viruses and covariates, adenoviruses (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 99% confidence interval [99% CI]: 2.19-7.20) and RSV (aOR: 2.04, 99% CI: 1.34-3.11) were independently associated with increased hospitalization in children, as well as adenoviruses in adults (aOR: 2.14, 99% CI: 1.19-3.85). Additionally, co-infection of RSV with IFVs was associated with increased hospitalization in children (aOR: 12.20, 99% CI: 2.65-56.18). A substantial proportion of ARIs was associated with respiratory viruses in North China. RSV, adenoviruses, and co-infection of RSV and IFVs were more frequent in hospitalized children (or adenoviruses in adults), which might predict the severity of ARIs. Attending clinicians should be more vigilant of these infections.

  16. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, Brazil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Teixeira de Mello Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are scanty data on the epidemiology of influenza and other respiratory viruses in South America and Brazil. The aim of this study was to summarize the data from the Brazilian surveillance system of influenza and other respiratory viruses and discuss the patterns of viral circulation. The system is based on detecting cases of influenza-like illness in sentinel sites and weekly collection of five nasopharyngeal secretions samples, which are processed in state public health laboratories for respiratory viruses by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Data from 2000 to 2010 were described over time, by region, gender, and age group, and an analysis of Spearman correlation was performed between monthly influenza detection and rainfall and temperature data in two state capitals with the highest number of positive samples, one from the northeast region (Maceió and other from the southern region (Curitiba. There were 3,291,946 visits for influenza-like illness; of these, 37,120 had samples collected and 6421 tested positive: 1690 (26% influenza A, 567 (9% influenza B, 277 (4% parainfluenza 1, 571 (9% parainfluenza 2, 589 (9% parainfluenza 3, 742 (12% adenovirus, and 1985 (31% respiratory syncytial virus. Overall, increased activity of respiratory syncytial virus was observed from March to June, preceding the peak of influenza activity, from May to August, but with regional differences. In Maceió, there was a weak correlation between temperature and influenza detection (ρ = 0.05, but a moderate positive correlation between rainfall and influenza detection (ρ = 0.36. In Curitiba, a high correlation was observed between the decrease in temperature and rainfall and the increase in influenza detection (ρ = -0.83 and -0.78 respectively. These data are important to guide public health control measures as the best time for influenza vaccination and use of antivirals.

  17. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, Brazil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Teixeira de Mello Freitas

    Full Text Available There are scanty data on the epidemiology of influenza and other respiratory viruses in South America and Brazil. The aim of this study was to summarize the data from the Brazilian surveillance system of influenza and other respiratory viruses and discuss the patterns of viral circulation. The system is based on detecting cases of influenza-like illness in sentinel sites and weekly collection of five nasopharyngeal secretions samples, which are processed in state public health laboratories for respiratory viruses by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Data from 2000 to 2010 were described over time, by region, gender, and age group, and an analysis of Spearman correlation was performed between monthly influenza detection and rainfall and temperature data in two state capitals with the highest number of positive samples, one from the northeast region (Maceió and other from the southern region (Curitiba. There were 3,291,946 visits for influenza-like illness; of these, 37,120 had samples collected and 6421 tested positive: 1690 (26% influenza A, 567 (9% influenza B, 277 (4% parainfluenza 1, 571 (9% parainfluenza 2, 589 (9% parainfluenza 3, 742 (12% adenovirus, and 1985 (31% respiratory syncytial virus. Overall, increased activity of respiratory syncytial virus was observed from March to June, preceding the peak of influenza activity, from May to August, but with regional differences. In Maceió, there was a weak correlation between temperature and influenza detection (ρ = 0.05, but a moderate positive correlation between rainfall and influenza detection (ρ = 0.36. In Curitiba, a high correlation was observed between the decrease in temperature and rainfall and the increase in influenza detection (ρ = -0.83 and -0.78 respectively. These data are important to guide public health control measures as the best time for influenza vaccination and use of antivirals.

  18. A serological survey of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in Korean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Jeong, Wooseog; Chae, Sungwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) seropositivity in dogs in Korea was examined. Sixty-two of the 483 samples (12.8%) were seropositive for CRCoV by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. Nineteen animals were seropositive for CIV by ELISA out of the 385 samples tested. Serum antibodies for both viruses were detected in 6 of the 483 dogs sampled, suggesting that these viruses are present in dogs in Korea. Although the role of CRCoV in canine infectious tracheobronchitis has not been fully elucidated, co-infection with CIV may synergistically worsen respiratory clinical signs and result in more severe canine tracheobronchitis.

  19. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  20. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  1. Curcumin is a promising inhibitor of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-10-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.

  2. Mouse Saliva Inhibits Transit of Influenza Virus to the Lower Respiratory Tract by Efficiently Blocking Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Brad; Ng, Wy Ching; Crawford, Simon; McKimm-Breschkin, Jenny L; Brown, Lorena E

    2017-07-15

    We previously identified a novel inhibitor of influenza virus in mouse saliva that halts the progression of susceptible viruses from the upper to the lower respiratory tract of mice in vivo and neutralizes viral infectivity in MDCK cells. Here, we investigated the viral target of the salivary inhibitor by using reverse genetics to create hybrid viruses with some surface proteins derived from an inhibitor-sensitive strain and others from an inhibitor-resistant strain. These viruses demonstrated that the origin of the viral neuraminidase (NA), but not the hemagglutinin or matrix protein, was the determinant of susceptibility to the inhibitor. Comparison of the NA sequences of a panel of H3N2 viruses with differing sensitivities to the salivary inhibitor revealed that surface residues 368 to 370 (N2 numbering) outside the active site played a key role in resistance. Resistant viruses contained an EDS motif at this location, and mutation to either EES or KDS, found in highly susceptible strains, significantly increased in vitro susceptibility to the inhibitor and reduced the ability of the virus to progress to the lungs when the viral inoculum was initially confined to the upper respiratory tract. In the presence of saliva, viral strains with a susceptible NA could not be efficiently released from the surfaces of infected MDCK cells and had reduced enzymatic activity based on their ability to cleave substrate in vitro This work indicates that the mouse has evolved an innate inhibitor similar in function, though not in mechanism, to what humans have created synthetically as an antiviral drug for influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Despite widespread use of experimental pulmonary infection of the laboratory mouse to study influenza virus infection and pathogenesis, to our knowledge, mice do not naturally succumb to influenza. Here, we show that mice produce their own natural form of neuraminidase inhibitor in saliva that stops the virus from reaching the lungs, providing a

  3. In vitro and ex vivo analyses of co-infections with swine influenza and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrescu, I; Levast, B; Lai, K; Delgado-Ortega, M; Walker, S; Banman, S; Townsend, H; Simon, G; Zhou, Y; Gerdts, V; Meurens, F

    2014-02-21

    Viral respiratory diseases remain problematic in swine. Among viruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV), alone or in combination, are the two main known contributors to lung infectious diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that experimental dual infections of pigs with PRRSV followed by SIV can cause more severe disease than the single viral infections. However, our understanding of the impact of one virus on the other at the molecular level is still extremely limited. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the influence of dual infections, compared to single infections, in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). PAMs were isolated and PCLS were acquired from the lungs of healthy 8-week-old pigs. Then, PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) and a local SIV strain of H1N1 subtype (A/Sw/Saskatchewan/18789/02) were applied simultaneously or with 3h apart on PAMs and PCLS for a total of 18 h. Immuno-staining for both viruses and beta-tubulin, real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA assays targeting various genes (pathogen recognition receptors, interferons (IFN) type I, cytokines, and IFN-inducible genes) and proteins were performed to analyze the cell and the tissue responses. Interference caused by the first virus on replication of the second virus was observed, though limited. On the host side, a synergistic effect between PRRSV and SIV co-infections was observed for some transcripts such as TLR3, RIG-I, and IFNβ in PCLS. The PRRSV infection 3h prior to SIV infection reduced the response to SIV while the SIV infection prior to PRRSV infection had limited impact on the second infection. This study is the first to show an impact of PRRSV/SIV co-infection and superinfections in the cellular and tissue immune response at the molecular level. It opens the door to further research in this exciting and intriguing field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Small molecules VP-14637 and JNJ-2408068 inhibit respiratory syncytial virus fusion by similar mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Janet L; Panis, Marites L; Ho, Edmund; Lin, Kuei-Ying; Krawczyk, Steve H; Grant, Deborah M; Cai, Ruby; Swaminathan, Swami; Chen, Xiaowu; Cihlar, Tomas

    2005-06-01

    Here we present data on the mechanism of action of VP-14637 and JNJ-2408068 (formerly R-170591), two small-molecule inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Both inhibitors exhibited potent antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 1.4 and 2.1 nM, respectively. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in a RSV-mediated cell fusion assay (EC50=5.4 and 0.9 nM, respectively). Several drug-resistant RSV variants were selected in vitro in the presence of each compound. All selected viruses exhibited significant cross-resistance to both inhibitors and contained various single amino acid substitutions in two distinct regions of the viral F protein, the heptad repeat 2 (HR2; mutations D486N, E487D, and F488Y), and the intervening domain between HR1 and HR2 (mutation K399I and T400A). Studies using [3H]VP-14637 revealed a specific binding of the compound to RSV-infected cells that was efficiently inhibited by JNJ-2408068 (50% inhibitory concentration=2.9 nM) but not by the HR2-derived peptide T-118. Further analysis using a transient T7 vaccinia expression system indicated that RSV F protein is sufficient for this interaction. F proteins containing either the VP-14637 or JNJ-2408068 resistance mutations exhibited greatly reduced binding of [3H]VP-14637. Molecular modeling analysis suggests that both molecules may bind into a small hydrophobic cavity in the inner core of F protein, interacting simultaneously with both the HR1 and HR2 domains. Altogether, these data indicate that VP-14637 and JNJ-2408068 interfere with RSV fusion through a mechanism involving a similar interaction with the F protein.

  5. Identification of a Novel Recombinant Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17 was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs NADC30, JXA1, CH-1a, and VR-2332, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SCcd17 strain was classified into the NADC30-like sub-genotype, in which all the strains contained the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 when compared to VR-2332-like viruses. Notably, extensive amino acid substitutions were observed in nsp2 and a unique single amino acid deletion at position 33 of the GP5 is being described for the first time. Strikingly, recombination analysis revealed that SCcd17 was the result of recombination between the NADC30-like, JXA1-like, and VR-2332-like strains at five recombination breakpoints: nsp1α (nt 641, nsp3 (nt 5141, nsp10 (nt 9521, open reading frame 3 (ORF3 (nt 12,581, and ORF4 (nt 13,021. The genomic data of SCcd17 will be helpful for understanding the role of genomic recombination in the evolution of PRRSV.

  6. Strategic priorities for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L.J.; Dormitzer, P.R.; Nokes, D.J.; Rappuoli, R.; Roca, A.; Graham, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    Although RSV has been a high priority for vaccine development, efforts to develop a safe and effective vaccine have yet to lead to a licensed product. Clinical and epidemiologic features of RSV disease suggest there are at least 4 distinct target populations for vaccines, the RSV naïve young infant, the RSV naïve child ≥6 months of age, pregnant women (to provide passive protection to newborns), and the elderly. These target populations raise different safety and efficacy concerns and may require different vaccination strategies. The highest priority target population is the RSV naïve child. The occurrence of serious adverse events associated with the first vaccine candidate for young children, formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV), has focused vaccine development for the young RSV naïve child on live virus vaccines. Enhanced disease is not a concern for persons previously primed by a live virus infection. A variety of live-attenuated viruses have been developed with none yet achieving licensure. New live-attenuated RSV vaccines are being developed and evaluated that maybe sufficiently safe and efficacious to move to licensure. A variety of subunit vaccines are being developed and evaluated primarily for adults in whom enhanced disease is not a concern. An attenuated parainfluenza virus 3 vector expressing the RSV F protein was evaluated in RSV naïve children. Most of these candidate vaccines have used the RSV F protein in various vaccine platforms including virus-like particles, nanoparticles, formulated with adjuvants, and expressed by DNA or virus vectors. The other surface glycoprotein, the G protein, has also been used in candidate vaccines. We now have tools to make and evaluate a wide range of promising vaccines. Costly clinical trials in the target population are needed to evaluate and select candidate vaccines for advancement to efficacy trials. Better data on RSV-associated mortality in developing countries, better estimates of the risk of long term

  7. The seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knesl, O; Allan, F J; Shields, S

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) are present in dogs in New Zealand. Serum samples from 251 dogs of varying age, breed and clinical histories were tested for the presence of antibodies to CRCoV and CIV, using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. The population sampled represented a wide geographic area but principally encompassed the central and lower North Island of New Zealand. Seventy-three of the 251 samples (29%) were seropositive for CRCoV. Dogs Canine respiratory coronavirus is present in New Zealand. Although the role of this virus in canine infectious tracheobronchitis has not been fully elucidated, evidence suggests that it may have a causal role in this disease. Veterinarians should consider CRCoV as a differential diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease in dogs in New Zealand. While CIV appears not to be currently present in New Zealand, veterinarians should consider infection with this virus as a differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with respiratory signs.

  8. Respiratory viruses in the pediatric intensive care unit: prevalence and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M Straliotto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in two pediatric intensive care units in hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in order to monitor the main respiratory viruses present in bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia and their involvement in the severity of viral respiratory infections. Viral respiratory infection prevalence was 38.7%. In bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was detected in 36% of the cases. In pneumonia, the prevalence rates were similar for adenovirus (10.3% and RSV (7.7%. There was a difference among the viruses detected in terms of frequency of clinical findings indicating greater severity. Frequency of crackles in patients with RSV (47.3% showed a borderline significance (p = 0.055, Fisher's exact test as compared to those with adenovirus (87.5%. The overall case fatality rate in this study was 2.7%, and adenovirus showed a significantly higher case fatality rate (25% than RSV (2.8% (p = 0.005. Injected antibiotics were used in 49% of the children with RSV and 60% of those with adenovirus. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the 33 children submitted to oxygen therapy.

  9. Lung Injury; Relates to Real-Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0253 TITLE: Lung Injury; Relates to Real- Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Sep 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lung Injury; Relates to Real- Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

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    Torres Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.

  11. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective efficacy of a virus-vectored multi-component vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Sooryanarain, Harini; Matzinger, Shannon R; Gauger, Phil C; Karuppannan, Anbu K; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are three of the most economically important swine pathogens, causing immense economic losses to the global swine industry. Monovalent commercial vaccines against each of the three viruses are routinely used in pig farms worldwide. A trivalent vaccine against all three pathogens would greatly simplify the vaccination programme and reduce the financial burden to the swine industry. In this study, by using an attenuated strain of PRRSV (strain DS722) as a live virus vector, we generated a multi-component vaccine virus, DS722-SIV-PCV2, which expresses the protective antigens from SIV and PCV2. The DS722-SIV-PCV2 trivalent vaccine virus replicates well, and expresses PCV2 capsid and SIV HA proteins in vitro. A subsequent vaccination and challenge study in 48 pigs revealed that the DS722-SIV-PCV2-vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced lung lesions and viral RNA loads when challenged with PRRSV. Upon challenge with PCV2, the vaccinated pigs had partially reduced lymphoid lesions and viral DNA loads, and when challenged with SIV the vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced acute respiratory sign scores. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of DS722-SIV-PCV2 as a candidate trivalent vaccine, and also shed light on exploring PRRSV as a potential live virus vaccine vector.

  13. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

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    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  14. Quantitative Imaging of Single, Unstained Viruses with Coherent X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Changyong; Jiang Huaidong; Mancuso, Adrian; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Miao Jianwei; Peng Li; Sun Ren; Shah, Sanket S.; Zhou, Z. Hong; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    We report the recording and reconstruction of x-ray diffraction patterns from single, unstained viruses, for the first time. By separating the diffraction pattern of the virus particles from that of their surroundings, we performed quantitative and high-contrast imaging of a single virion. The structure of the viral capsid inside a virion was visualized. This work opens the door for quantitative x-ray imaging of a broad range of specimens from protein machineries and viruses to cellular organelles. Moreover, our experiment is directly transferable to the use of x-ray free electron lasers, and represents an experimental milestone towards the x-ray imaging of large protein complexes

  15. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  16. Protection induced by virus-like particle vaccine containing tandem repeat gene of respiratory syncytial virus G protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children and the elderly. However, there is no licensed vaccine available against RSV infection. In this study, we generated virus-like particle (VLP vaccine and investigated the vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. For VLP vaccines, tandem gene (1-780 bp for V1 VLPs and tandem repeat gene (repeated 450-780 bp for V5 VLPs were constructed in pFastBacTM vectors, respectively. Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1 was used as a core protein in the VLPs. Notably, upon challenge infection, significantly lower virus loads were measured in the lung of mice immunized with V1 or V5 VLPs compared to those of naïve mice and formalin-inactivated RSV immunized control mice. In particular, V5 VLPs immunization showed significantly lower virus titers than V1 VLPs immunization. Furthermore, V5 VLPs immunization elicited increased memory B cells responses in the spleen. These results indicated that V5 VLP vaccine containing tandem repeat gene protein provided better protection than V1 VLPs with significantly decreased inflammation in the lungs. Thus, V5 VLPs could be a potential vaccine candidate against RSV.

  17. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations mig ht be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated...

  18. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Forsberg, R

    2001-01-01

    was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations might be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated...

  19. Regulation and evasion of antiviral immune responses by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Qiong; Feng, Wen-hai

    2015-04-16

    Virus infection of mammalian cells triggers host innate immune responses to restrict viral replication and induces adaptive immunity for viral elimination. In order to survive and propagate, viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host defense system by encoding proteins that target key components of the immune signaling pathways. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a RNA virus, impairs several processes of host immune responses including interfering with interferon production and signaling, modulating cytokine expression, manipulating apoptotic responses and regulating adaptive immunity. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanisms of how PRRSV interferes with the different steps of initial antiviral host responses to establish persistent infection in pigs. Dissection of the PRRSV-host interaction is the key in understanding PRRSV pathogenesis and will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  1. Modulation of Host Immunity by Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Virulence Factors: A Synergic Inhibition of Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Canedo-Marroquín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins. These include the Fusion protein (F, the Glycoprotein (G, and the Small Hydrophobic (SH protein, which are located on the virus surface. In addition, the Nucleoprotein (N, Phosphoprotein (P large polymerase protein (L part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, the M2-1 protein as a transcription elongation factor, the M2-2 protein as a regulator of viral transcription and (M protein all of which locate inside the virion. Apart from the structural proteins, the hRSV genome encodes for the non-structural 1 and 2 proteins (NS1 and NS2. HRSV has developed different strategies to evade the host immunity by means of the function of some of these proteins that work as virulence factors to improve the infection in the lung tissue. Also, hRSV NS-1 and NS-2 proteins have been shown to inhibit the activation of the type I interferon response. Furthermore, the hRSV nucleoprotein has been shown to inhibit the immunological synapsis between the dendritic cells and T cells during infection, resulting in an inefficient T cell activation. Here, we discuss the hRSV virulence factors and the host immunological features raised during infection with this virus.

  2. Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.We followed a cohort of children for two years. We collected nasal washes when children presented with respiratory symptoms. Study physicians diagnosed children with cough and age-specific tachypnea and positive lung findings as pneumonia case-patients. We tested respiratory samples for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinoviruses, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV 1, 2, 3, and adenoviruses using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.Between April 2009-March 2011, we followed 515 children for 730 child-years. We identified a total of 378 pneumonia episodes, 77% of the episodes were associated with a respiratory viral pathogen. The overall incidence of pneumonia associated with a respiratory virus infection was 40/100 child-years. The annual incidence of pneumonia/100 child-years associated with a specific respiratory virus in children aged < 2 years was 12.5 for RSV, 6 for rhinoviruses, 6 for HMPV, 4 for influenza viruses, 3 for HPIV and 2 for adenoviruses.Young children in Dhaka are at high risk of childhood pneumonia and the majority of these episodes are associated with viral pathogens. Developing effective low-cost strategies for prevention are a high priority.

  3. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

    2012-08-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... that the vaccine induced only sparse levels of antibodies probably due to the presence of maternally derived antibodies at the time of vaccination. Necropsy findings in 5 calves revealed changes typical for infectious pneumonia with involvment of BRSV. In conclusion, vaccination of calves against BRSV in 2 Danish...

  6. Impact of pollution, climate, and sociodemographic factors on spatiotemporal dynamics of seasonal respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel; Moore, Martin L; Hartert, Tina

    2011-02-01

    Seasonal viruses present a major cause of morbidity and mortality in temperate climates. Through major pandemics and smaller annual epidemics, viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) result in lost school and work days for most that are infected and more serious complications for the immunocompromised. The reasons for these viruses showing strict seasonality include but are not limited to the influence of cold weather and humidity on virus particles, human physiology, and human behavior. The relative importance of each is dependent on what geographic scale is being explored as well as the individual region and time period. Theoretical mathematics has also revealed that climatic changes are likely not the only reasons for strong seasonal cycles, but these are also based in periodic resonance with the natural cycles of immunity and antigenic variance, as well as nationwide synchrony through transportation networks. Investigations of seasonality will aid in understanding disease transmission, and thereby effective prevention strategies. The authors present a review of the literature on seasonal viruses, their annual diffusion through populations, and factors that reduce or enhance their seasonal spread. They also offer suggestions for targeted interventions to reduce the disease burden from seasonal viruses. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distinguishing characteristics between pandemic 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1 and other viruses in patients hospitalized with respiratory illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in clinical presentation and outcomes among patients infected with pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1 compared to other respiratory viruses have not been fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was performed of all hospitalized patients at the peak of the pH1N1 season in whom a single respiratory virus was detected by a molecular assay targeting 18 viruses/subtypes (RVP, Luminex xTAG. Fifty-two percent (615/1192 of patients from October, 2009 to December, 2009 had a single respiratory virus (291 pH1N1; 207 rhinovirus; 45 RSV A/B; 37 parainfluenza; 27 adenovirus; 6 coronavirus; and 2 metapneumovirus. No seasonal influenza A or B was detected. Individuals with pH1N1, compared to other viruses, were more likely to present with fever (92% & 70%, cough (92% & 86%, sore throat (32% & 16%, nausea (31% & 8%, vomiting (39% & 30%, abdominal pain (14% & 7%, and a lower white blood count (8,500/L & 13,600/L, all p-values<0.05. In patients with cough and gastrointestinal complaints, the presence of subjective fever/chills independently raised the likelihood of pH1N1 (OR 10. Fifty-five percent (336/615 of our cohort received antibacterial agents, 63% (385/615 received oseltamivir, and 41% (252/615 received steroids. The mortality rate of our cohort was 1% (7/615 and was higher in individuals with pH1N1 compared to other viruses (2.1% & 0.3%, respectively; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the peak pandemic 2009-2010 influenza season in Rhode Island, nearly half of patients admitted with influenza-like symptoms had respiratory viruses other than influenza A. A high proportion of patients were treated with antibiotics and pH1N1 infection had higher mortality compared to other respiratory viruses.

  8. Distinguishing Characteristics between Pandemic 2009–2010 Influenza A (H1N1) and Other Viruses in Patients Hospitalized with Respiratory Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A.; Mermel, Leonard A.; Andrea, Sarah B.; McCulloh, Russell; Mills, John P.; Echenique, Ignacio; Leveen, Emily; Rybak, Natasha; Cunha, Cheston; Machan, Jason T.; Healey, Terrance T.; Chapin, Kimberle C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in clinical presentation and outcomes among patients infected with pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) compared to other respiratory viruses have not been fully elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study was performed of all hospitalized patients at the peak of the pH1N1 season in whom a single respiratory virus was detected by a molecular assay targeting 18 viruses/subtypes (RVP, Luminex xTAG). Fifty-two percent (615/1192) of patients from October, 2009 to December, 2009 had a single respiratory virus (291 pH1N1; 207 rhinovirus; 45 RSV A/B; 37 parainfluenza; 27 adenovirus; 6 coronavirus; and 2 metapneumovirus). No seasonal influenza A or B was detected. Individuals with pH1N1, compared to other viruses, were more likely to present with fever (92% & 70%), cough (92% & 86%), sore throat (32% & 16%), nausea (31% & 8%), vomiting (39% & 30%), abdominal pain (14% & 7%), and a lower white blood count (8,500/L & 13,600/L, all p-values<0.05). In patients with cough and gastrointestinal complaints, the presence of subjective fever/chills independently raised the likelihood of pH1N1 (OR 10). Fifty-five percent (336/615) of our cohort received antibacterial agents, 63% (385/615) received oseltamivir, and 41% (252/615) received steroids. The mortality rate of our cohort was 1% (7/615) and was higher in individuals with pH1N1 compared to other viruses (2.1% & 0.3%, respectively; p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance During the peak pandemic 2009–2010 influenza season in Rhode Island, nearly half of patients admitted with influenza-like symptoms had respiratory viruses other than influenza A. A high proportion of patients were treated with antibiotics and pH1N1 infection had higher mortality compared to other respiratory viruses. PMID:21949746

  9. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortney M Gustin

    Full Text Available The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections.

  10. Evaluation of systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Batista, Laura; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, low-cost filtration, and ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The HEPA-filtration system involved a pre-filter screen, a bag filter (EU8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (pre-filter), a fiberglass furnace filter, and an ele...

  11. Global respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality in young children (RSV GOLD): a retrospective case series

    OpenAIRE

    Scheltema, Nienke M; Gentile, Angela; Lucion, Florencia; Nokes, D James; Munywoki, Patrick K; Madhi, Shabir A; Groome, Michelle J; Cohen, Cheryl; Moyes, Jocelyn; Thorburn, Kentigern; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Lupisan, Socorro P; Gordon, Aubree; S?nchez, Jos? F

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data. Methods In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic charac...

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis: comparative study of RSV groups A and B infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M. Straliotto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The grouping characteristics of 29 respiratory syncitial virus (RSV present in nasopharyngeal cells collectedfrom hospitalized children with bronchiolitis during the 1990RSVseason in Porto Alegre, RS, were analysed. Twenty-two were grouped as belonging to group A and 7 to group B. Cyanosis, oxigen therapy, cough, lenght of hospitalization and atelectasis were observed to be more frequently found within group B infected children. Other clinical signs and symptoms were similarly found in both groups.

  13. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus ofArisaemaagainst Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik

    2018-01-01

    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  14. The relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Miao; Xiao-Rong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels. Methods: A total of 85 children who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected as asthma group and further divided into asthma-RSV group, asthma-AV group, asthma-PIV group, asthma-IFV group and pure asthma group according to the condition of respiratory virus infection...

  15. Vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) proteins protects calves against RSV challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.; Most, van der R.G.; Suezer, Y.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Daus, F.J.; Sutter, G.; Schrijver, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and calves. Bovine RSV (bRSV) is a natural pathogen for cattle, and bRSV infection in calves shares many features with the human infection. Thus, bRSV infection in cattle provides the ideal setting to

  16. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  17. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as Production Platform for Vaccines against Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Arwen F.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; de Vries, Rory D.; Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Sutter, Gerd; Volz, Asisa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory viruses infections caused by influenza viruses, human parainfluenza virus (hPIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and coronaviruses are an eminent threat for public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines available for hPIV, RSV and coronaviruses, and the available seasonal influenza vaccines have considerable limitations. With regard to pandemic preparedness, it is important that procedures are in place to respond rapidly and produce tailor made vaccines against these respiratory viruses on short notice. Moreover, especially for influenza there is great need for the development of a universal vaccine that induces broad protective immunity against influenza viruses of various subtypes. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-deficient viral vector that holds great promise as a vaccine platform. MVA can encode one or more foreign antigens and thus functions as a multivalent vaccine. The vector can be used at biosafety level 1, has intrinsic adjuvant capacities and induces humoral and cellular immune responses. However, there are some practical and regulatory issues that need to be addressed in order to develop MVA-based vaccines on short notice at the verge of a pandemic. In this review, we discuss promising novel influenza virus vaccine targets and the use of MVA for vaccine development against various respiratory viruses. PMID:25036462

  18. Comparative studies on virus detection in acute respiratory diseases in humans by means of RIA and cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlicher, L.

    1982-01-01

    In winter 1981, 146 patients with an acute respiratory infection were examined. Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained by intranasal catheter. Comparative investigations were performed by cultivation in tissue culture and by a four-layer radioimmunoassay. In the radioimmunoassay, polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, ginea pig antivirus immunoglobulins as the captive antibodies, rabbit anti-virus immunoglobulins as the secondary antibodies and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were used as the indicator antibodies. The radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B virus and parainfluenza type 1, type 2 and type 3 virus. Tissue culture seems to be more sensitive for detection of adenovirus and influenza A virus, though some infections with influenza A virus could only be diagnosed by the radioimmunoassay. In other cases (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B virus) antigen detection by radioimmunoassay is more efficient. Presently the combination of both antigen-detection-systems still is the optimal diagnostic procedure for detecting virus infections of the respiratory tract. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Risk Factors for Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Kristensen, Kim; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    of gestational age. Plurality was associated with a decreased risk in children born between 23 and 36 weeks of gestation, whereas young maternal age, maternal asthma, single parenthood, maternal smoking, being born small for gestational age, Caesarian section, male gender and day care were associated...

  20. Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogka, Vasiliki; Kossivakis, Athanasios; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Moutousi, Afroditi; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Chrousos, George P; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P; Mentis, Andreas F

    2011-10-01

    Viruses are the major cause of pediatric respiratory tract infection and yet many suspected cases of illness remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to determine the distribution of several respiratory viruses in children diagnosed as having influenza-like illness, over the winter period of 2005-2008. Molecular assays including conventional and real time PCR protocols, were employed to screen respiratory specimens, collected by clinicians of the Influenza sentinel system and of outpatient pediatric clinics, for identification of several respiratory viruses. Of 1,272 specimens tested, 814 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and included 387 influenza viruses, 160 rhinoviruses, 155 respiratory syncytial viruses, 95 adenoviruses, 81 bocaviruses, 47 parainfluenza viruses, 44 metapneumoviruses, and 30 coronaviruses. Simultaneous presence of two or three viruses was observed in 173 of the above positive cases, 21% of which included influenza virus and rhinovirus. The majority of positive cases occurred during January and February. Influenza virus predominated in children older than 1 year old, with type B being the dominant type for the first season and subtypes A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 the following two winter seasons, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus prevailed in children younger than 2 years old, with subtypes A and B alternating from year to year. This is the most comprehensive study of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Greece, indicating influenza, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as major contributors to influenza-like illness in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Development and evaluation of a Luminex multiplex serology assay to detect antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, with comparison to existing ELISA detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steve; Wakeley, Phil; Wibberley, Guy; Webster, Kath; Sawyer, Jason

    2011-03-07

    Detection of circulating antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using ELISA is widely used for veterinary diagnostics and surveillance. In this paper, the potential of a multiplex serology test based on Luminex technology, where all antibodies are simultaneously detected in a single assay was investigated. The performance of "in-house" separate ELISAs which use relatively crude lysates of cultured virus as capture antigens, was compared to the multiplex assay where the same antigens were covalently bound to the fluorescent beads used in the Luminex platform. A panel of field serum samples was tested by the multiplex assay in parallel with the separate routine ELISAs to provide a comparison between tests. The BHV-1 and PI3V components of the multiplex test showed similar sensitivities and specificities to the separate "in-house" ELISAs. The performance of the BVDV and BRSV components was less successful and was attributed to relatively low signal strength for these antigens, leading to higher assay variability and a reduced ability to distinguish positive and negative samples compared to the "in-house" ELISAs. The results illustrated that antigens commonly used successfully in ELISAs cannot always be transferred for use in alternative assay systems. The use of recombinant BVDV E2 protein was investigated and was shown to lead to an appreciable increase in signal strength compared to the use of crude BVDV antigen in the Luminex system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microcavity single virus detection and sizing with molecular sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantham, V. R.; Holler, S.; Kolchenko, V.; Wan, Z.; Arnold, S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the label-free detection and sizing of the smallest individual RNA virus, MS2 by a spherical microcavity. Mass of this virus is ~6 ag and produces a theoretical resonance shift ~0.25 fm upon adsorbing an individual virus at the equator of the bare microcavity, which is well below the r.m.s background noise of 2 fm. However, detection was accomplished with ease (S/N = 8, Q = 4x105) using a single dipole stimulated plasmonic-nanoshell as a microcavity wavelength shift enhancer. Analytical expressions based on the "reactive sensing principle" are developed to extract the radius of the virus from the measured signals. Estimated limit of detection for these experiments was ~0.4 ag or 240 kDa below the size of all known viruses, largest globular and elongated proteins [Phosphofructokinase (345 kDa) and Fibrinogen (390 kDa), respectively].

  3. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria in respiratory epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus and functional implications for virus and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Diane C; Howell, Gareth; Barr, John N; Hiscox, Julian A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise the mitochondrial proteome of airway epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), a major cause of paediatric illness. Quantitative proteomics, underpinned by stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture, coupled to LC-MS/MS, was applied to mitochondrial fractions prepared from HRSV-infected and mock-infected cells 12 and 24 h post-infection. Datasets were analysed using ingenuity pathway analysis, and the results were validated and characterised using bioimaging, targeted inhibition and gene depletion. The data quantitatively indicated that antiviral signalling proteins converged on mitochondria during HRSV infection. The mitochondrial receptor protein Tom70 was found to act in an antiviral manner, while its chaperone, Hsp90, was confirmed to be a positive viral factor. Proteins associated with different organelles were also co-enriched in the mitochondrial fractions from HRSV-infected cells, suggesting that alterations in organelle dynamics and membrane associations occur during virus infection. Protein and pathway-specific alterations occur to the mitochondrial proteome in a spatial and temporal manner during HRSV infection, suggesting that this organelle may have altered functions. These could be targeted as part of potential therapeutic strategies to disrupt virus biology. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ON CATTLE HERDS OF CAMPECHE STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Alberto Encalada Mena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High seroprevalence in Yucatan and proximity to the state of Campeche make it necessary to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Thus the objective of the present work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV of the state of Campeche, Mexico. The sampled of 36 cattle herds (842 sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA kit, in the 11 municipalities of Campeche. A survey to obtain risk factors (sex, age of animals, number of animals grazing density, management system, presence of sheep on the farm and access to the roadside was applied and calculated X2 for each variable considered. Of the total number of samples analyzed (842, 273 were positive (32.47%. The prevalence ranges found ranged from 0% to 84%, so in 9 of the herds there were no positive samples, indicating a 75% (27/36 of dispersion of this virus. X2 analysis indicated that all variables were significant and are risk factors regarding with respect to the variable seroprevalence of BRSV. The results indicate a wide circulation of BRSV and we suggest implement recommendations that will enable a lower spread of this virus in the cattle population.

  5. Immunological Features of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Caused Pneumonia—Implications for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rey-Jurado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance. Based on animal studies, it is thought that the host immune response to hRSV is based on a biased T helper (Th-2 and Th17 T cell responses with the recruitment of T cells, neutrophils and eosinophils to the lung, causing inflammation and tissue damage. In contrast, human immunity against RSV has been shown to be more complex with no definitive T cell polarization profile. Nowadays, only a humanized monoclonal antibody, known as palivizumab, is available to protect against hRSV infection in high-risk infants. However, such treatment involves several injections at a significantly high cost. For these reasons, intense research has been focused on finding novel vaccines or therapies to prevent hRSV infection in the population. Here, we comprehensively review the recent literature relative to the immunological features during hRSV infection, as well as the new insights into preventing the disease caused by this virus.

  6. Comparison of rapid immunofluorescence procedure with TestPack RSV and Directigen FLU-A for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, S J; Minnich, L; Waner, J L

    1995-01-01

    A rapid immunofluorescence format requiring 20 min for completion was as effective as conventional indirect and direct immunofluorescence procedures for detecting respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus antigens in clinical specimens. Rapid immunofluorescence was more sensitive than TestPack RSV and comparable to Directigen FLU-A immunosorbent assays, which require 20 min for completion.

  7. [Monitoring respiratory syncytial virus through the Spanish influenza surveillance system, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Delgado-Sanz, Concepción; de Mateo, Salvador; Pozo, Francisco; Casas, Inmaculada; Larrauri, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the information on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) obtained through the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS) and to study its usefulness as supplementary information for the characterization of influenza epidemics. The temporal patterns of both RSV and influenza viruses were analyzed by patterns comparing the weekly viral detection rates from 2006 to 2014. In general, the RSV circulation was characterized by showing a peak between 52-1 weeks, and circulated from 2 to 8 weeks before/prior to influenza viruses. RSV information obtained from the SISS is useful for the characterization of influenza epidemics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene-gun DNA vaccination aggravates respiratory syncytial virus-induced pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Christina; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Stryhn, Anette

    2004-01-01

    A CD8+ T-cell memory response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was generated by using a DNA vaccine construct encoding the dominant Kd-restricted epitope from the viral transcription anti-terminator protein M2 (M2(82-90)), linked covalently to human beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). Cutaneous gene......-gun immunization of BALB/c mice with this construct induced an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell memory. After intranasal RSV challenge, accelerated CD8+ T-cell responses were observed in pulmonary lymph nodes and virus clearance from the lungs was enhanced. The construct induced weaker CD8+ T-cell responses than those...... elicited with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the complete RSV M2 protein, but stronger than those induced by a similar DNA construct without the beta2m gene. DNA vaccination led to enhanced pulmonary disease after RSV challenge, with increased weight loss and cell recruitment to the lung. Depletion...

  9. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  10. Etiology and clinical characterization of respiratory virus infections in adult patients attending an emergency department in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED. Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in Beijing, a 1-year consecutive study was conducted from May, 2010, to April, 2011. Nose and throat swab samples from 416 ARTI patients were checked for 13 respiratory viruses using multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR assays for common respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses (Flu A, B, and adenoviruses (ADVs, picornaviruses (PICs, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs 1-3, combined with real-time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human coronaviruses (HCoVs, -OC43, -229E, -NL63, and -HKU1. Viral pathogens were detected in 52.88% (220/416 of patient samples, and 7.21% (30/416 of patients tested positive for more than one virus. PICs (17.79% were the dominant agents detected, followed by FluA (16.11%, HCoVs (11.78%, and ADV (11.30%. HMPV, PIVs, and FluB were also detected (<3%, but not RSV. The total prevalence and the dominant virus infections detected differed significantly between ours and a previous report. Co-infection rates were high for HCoV-229E (12/39, 30.76%, PIC (22/74, 29.73%, ADV (12/47, 25.53% and FluA (15/67, 22.39%. Different patterns of clinical symptoms were associated with different respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of RV involvement in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in China differs from that previously reported. The high prevalence of viruses (PIC, FluA, HCoVs and ADV reported here strongly highlight the need for the development of safe and

  11. Respiratory insufficiency correlated strongly with mortality of rodents infected with West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Morrey

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV disease can be fatal for high-risk patients. Since WNV or its antigens have been identified in multiple anatomical locations of the central nervous system of persons or rodent models, one cannot know where to investigate the actual mechanism of mortality without careful studies in animal models. In this study, depressed respiratory functions measured by plethysmography correlated strongly with mortality. This respiratory distress, as well as reduced oxygen saturation, occurred beginning as early as 4 days before mortality. Affected medullary respiratory control cells may have contributed to the animals' respiratory insufficiency, because WNV antigen staining was present in neurons located in the ventrolateral medulla. Starvation or dehydration would be irrelevant in people, but could cause death in rodents due to lethargy or loss of appetite. Animal experiments were performed to exclude this possibility. Plasma ketones were increased in moribund infected hamsters, but late-stage starvation markers were not apparent. Moreover, daily subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in physiological saline solution did not improve survival or other disease signs. Therefore, infected hamsters did not die from starvation or dehydration. No cerebral edema was apparent in WNV- or sham-infected hamsters as determined by comparing wet-to-total weight ratios of brains, or by evaluating blood-brain-barrier permeability using Evans blue dye penetration into brains. Limited vasculitis was present in the right atrium of the heart of infected hamsters, but abnormal electrocardiograms for several days leading up to mortality did not occur. Since respiratory insufficiency was strongly correlated with mortality more than any other pathological parameter, it is the likely cause of death in rodents. These animal data and a poor prognosis for persons with respiratory insufficiency support the hypothesis that neurological lesions affecting respiratory

  12. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and respiratory disease in critically-ill patients: Real pathogen or innocent bystander?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoons-Smit, A. M.; Kraan, E. M.; Beishuizen, A.; Strack van Schijndel, R. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with pulmonary disease, mostly in severely immunocompromised patients. After reactivation and shedding in the oropharynx, the virus may reach the lower respiratory tract by aspiration or by contiguous spread. HSV-1 can be detected in clinical

  14. Sensitive detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR amplification of whole viral genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Following the recent use of a live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Denmark, both American (vaccine) and European-type PRRSV now coexist in Danish herds. This situation highlighted a requirement for supplementary tests for precise virus-typing. As a r...

  15. [Effect of interferon-γ on airway inflammation following respiratory syncytial virus reinfection in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, X R; Xie, J; Li, W; Zhao, K T; Xie, X H; Wang, L J; Ren, L; Liu, E M; Deng, Y

    2017-10-02

    Objective: To identify the role of interferon (IFN)-γ during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) re-infection in mice. Method: Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and IFN-γ knockout mice (IFN-γ(-/-) mice) at the age of 6 to 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: control group and RSV group, according to random number table.Each group was further divided into primary infection group and re-infection group.There were 8 groups.Mice were sacrificed on days 5, 7, 14 to collect samples.There were 5-8 mice in each group at each time point.And experiment was repeated twice. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, left lung tissues were stained with HE and histopathological scoring (HPS) was performed.The concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-13 were determined with ELISA. T test or single factor analysis of variance was used to compare between groups. Result: (1) Mice infected or reinfected with RSV showed pale hair, weight loss, decreased activity and anorexia.(2) IFN-γ levels significantly increased on days 5 and 7 following RSV primary infection and reinfection as compared to control groups in wild type mice ((192±44) vs .(36±8) and (531±161) vs .(23±4) pg/ml on day 5, (100±23) vs .(36±8) and (862±186) vs .(23±4) pg/ml on day 7, t =2.654, 2.513, 2.654, 3.968, all P mice, RSV-reinfected wild type mice had less body weight loss ((13.6±2.6)% vs .(22.7±2.9)% on day 5, (18.0±3.1)% vs .(26.5±1.8)% on day 7, t =2.314, 2.308, both P mice.

  16. Caesarean section and hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Kim; Fisker, Niels; Haerskjold, Ann; Ravn, Henrik; Simões, Eric A F; Stensballe, Lone

    2015-02-01

    Hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and asthma share common determinants, and meta-analyses indicate that children delivered by caesarean section (CS) are at increased risk of asthma. We aimed to investigate whether birth by CS is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for RSV illness. This was a population-based national register-based cohort study, conducted between January, 1997 and June, 2003, which included all children born in Denmark and all hospitalizations for RSV disease in them from 0 to 23 months of age. We used Cox regression with adjustment for prematurity, asphyxia, birthweight, multiple births, single parenthood, maternal smoking during pregnancy, older siblings and asthma diagnoses up to 2 weeks before hospitalization for RSV infection, to compare the effects of acute or elective CS versus vaginal delivery, on subsequent hospitalization for RSV disease. A test for homogeneity was used to assess for effect over time. 399,175 children with 10,758 hospitalizations for RSV illness were included; 31,715 were born by acute CS and 30,965 by elective CS. Adjusted hazard ratios for hospitalization for RSV infection in children born by acute CS and by elective CS were 1.09 (1.01-1.17) and 1.27 (1.19-1.36), respectively. The effect of elective CS remained unchanged throughout the first 2 years of life (P = 0.53), whereas the effect of acute CS was only present in the second year of life (P = 0.001). Delivery by caesarian section is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for RSV infection. This effect continues at least throughout the first 2 years of life.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus over three consecutive seasons in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaks, Reinis; Ribakova, Irina; Gardovska, Dace; Kazaks, Andris

    2014-11-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) represent an immense burden of the disease, especially in young children. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary history of HRSV strains isolated in the Children's Clinical University Hospital (Riga, Latvia) over three consecutive HRSV seasons. Of 207 samples from children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections, 88 (42.5%) tested positive for HRSV by RT-PCR. The seasonal activity started and peaked later than the average for the Northern hemisphere. Patients with HRSV lower respiratory tract infection were significantly younger than patients not infected with HRSV. HRSV-A viruses predominated for two consecutive seasons and were followed by an HRSV-B dominant season. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein G gene partial sequences revealed that viruses of both groups belonged to the worldwide dominant genotypes NA1 (HRSV-A) and BA-IV (HRSV-B). High diversity of this gene was driven only partially by selection pressure, as only two positively selected sites were identified in each group. Two of the HRSV-A isolates in this study contained a 72-nt duplication in the C-terminal end of the G gene (genotype ON1) that was first described in Canada in the 2010-2011 season. Initial spatial and temporal dynamics of this novel genotype were reconstructed by discrete phylogeographic analysis. Fifteen years after acquiring comparable 60-nt duplication in the G gene, genotype BA lineages have replaced all other HRSV-B strains. However, the population size of genotype ON1 plateaued soon and even decreased slightly before the beginning of the 2012-2013 season. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  19. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Influenza B Virus Infection in a Patient with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza B virus infections are less common than infections caused by influenza A virus in critically ill patients, but similar mortality rates have been observed for both influenza types. Pneumonia caused by influenza B virus is uncommon and has been reported in pediatric patients and previously healthy adults. Critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by influenza virus may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a critically ill patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma nongerminal center B-cell phenotype who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza B virus infection. This paper emphasizes the need to suspect influenza B virus infection in critically ill immunocompromised patients with progressive deterioration of cardiopulmonary function despite treatment with antibiotics. Early initiation of neuraminidase inhibitor and the implementation of guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock should be considered.

  20. Vertical transmission of respiratory syncytial virus modulates pre- and postnatal innervation and reactivity of rat airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Piedimonte

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a leading cause of respiratory infections in infants, but it remains unknown whether this infection is transmitted transplacentally from the lungs of infected mothers to the offspring. We sought to test the hypothesis that RSV travels from the respiratory tract during pregnancy, crosses the placenta to the fetus, persists in the lung tissues of the offspring, and modulates pre- and postnatal expression of growth factors, thereby predisposing to airway hyperreactivity.Pregnant rats were inoculated intratracheally at midterm using recombinant RSV expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP. Viral RNA was amplified by RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. RFP expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and viral culture. Developmental and pathophysiologic implications of prenatal infection were determined by analyzing the expression of genes encoding critical growth factors, particularly neurotrophic factors and receptors. We also measured the expression of key neurotransmitters and postnatal bronchial reactivity in vertically infected lungs, and assessed their dependence on neurotrophic signaling using selective biological or chemical inhibition.RSV genome was found in 30% of fetuses, as well as in the lungs of 40% of newborns and 25% of adults. RFP expression was also shown by flow cytometry and replicating virus was cultured from exposed fetuses. Nerve growth factor and its TrkA receptor were upregulated in RSV- infected fetal lungs and co-localized with increased cholinergic innervation. Acetylcholine expression and smooth muscle response to cholinergic stimulation increased in lungs exposed to RSV in utero and reinfected after birth, and blocking TrkA signaling inhibited both effects.Our data show transplacental transmission of RSV from mother to offspring and persistence of vertically transmitted virus in lungs after birth. Exposure to RSV in utero is followed by dysregulation of

  1. Acute Respiratory Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single Intensive Care Unit Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Aydin; Kaplan, Serife; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Torgay, Adnan; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Frequency of pulmonary complications after renal transplant has been reported to range from 3% to 17%. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal transplant recipients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify incidence and cause of acute respiratory failure in the postoperative period and compare clinical features and outcomes between those with and without acute respiratory failure. We retrospectively screened the data of 540 consecutive adult renal transplant recipients who received their grafts at a single transplant center and included those patients admitted to an intensive care unit during this period for this study. Acute respiratory failure was defined as severe dyspnea, respiratory distress, decreased oxygen saturation, hypoxemia or hypercapnia on room air, or requirement of noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Among the 540 adult renal transplant recipients, 55 (10.7%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, including 26 (47.3%) admitted for acute respiratory failure. Median time from transplant to intensive care unit admission was 10 months (range, 0-67 mo). The leading causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia (56%) and cardiogenic pulmonary edema (44%). Mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen ratio was 174 ± 59, invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 13 patients (50%), and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 8 patients (31%). The overall mortality was 16.4%. Acute respiratory failure was the reason for intensive care unit admission in almost half of our renal transplant recipients. Main causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Mortality of patients admitted for acute respiratory failure was similar to those without acute respiratory failure.

  2. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase complex associates with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells: a proteomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Terence P.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Brown, Gaie; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) polymerase complex and lipid rafts was examined in HEp2 cells. Lipid-raft membranes were prepared from virus-infected cells and their protein content was analysed by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed the presence of the N, P, L, M2-1 and M proteins. However, these proteins appeared to differ from one another in their association with these structures, with the M2-1 protein showing a greater partitioning into raft membranes compared to that of the N, P or M proteins. Determination of the polymerase activity profile of the gradient fractions revealed that 95% of the detectable viral enzyme activity was associated with lipid-raft membranes. Furthermore, analysis of virus-infected cells by confocal microscopy suggested an association between these proteins and the raft-lipid, GM1. Together, these results provide evidence that the RSV polymerase complex is able to associate with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells

  3. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein are not essential for virus viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Runxia; Li, Yanhua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Hongjie; Yuan, Shishan; Wei, Zuzhang; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-02-02

    ORF5a protein was recently identified as a novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The ORF5a protein possesses two cysteines at positions 29 and 30 that are highly conserved among type 2 PRRSV. In this study, the significance of the ORF5a protein cysteine residues on virus replication was determined based on a type 2 PRRSV cDNA clone (pAJXM). Each cysteine was substituted by serine or glycine and the mutations were introduced into pAJXM. We found that the replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 was lethal for virus viability, but all serine mutant clones produced infectious progeny viruses. This data indicated that cysteine residues in the ORF5a protein were not essential for replication of type 2 PRRSV. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay were used to study ORF5a protein interacted with other enveloped proteins. These results showed that ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself and interacted with GP4 and 2b protein. The replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 affected the ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself, which may account for the lethal phenotype of mutants carrying substitution of cysteine to glycine at position 30. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influenza and other respiratory viruses detected by influenza-like illness surveillance in Leyte Island, the Philippines, 2010-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Otomaru

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined as fever ≥38°C or feverish feeling and either cough or running nose in a patient of any age. Influenza virus and other 5 respiratory viruses were searched. A total of 5,550 ILI cases visited the 3 sites and specimens were collected from 2,031 (36.6% cases. Among the cases sampled, 1,637 (75.6% were children aged <5 years. 874 (43.0% cases were positive for at least one of the respiratory viruses tested. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were predominantly detected (both were 25.7% followed by human rhinovirus (HRV (17.5%. The age distributions were significantly different between those who were positive for influenza, HRV, and RSV. ILI cases were reported throughout the year and influenza virus was co-detected with those viruses on approximately half of the weeks of study period (RSV in 60.5% and HRV 47.4%. In terms of clinical manifestations, only the rates of headache and sore throat were significantly higher in influenza positive cases than cases positive to other viruses. In conclusion, syndromic ILI surveillance in this area is difficult to detect the start of influenza epidemic without laboratory confirmation which requires huge resources. Age was an important factor that affected positive rates of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Involvement of older age children may be useful to detect influenza more effectively.

  5. RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2014-02-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-β and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10⁴·⁵ TCID₅₀ of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Community Surveillance of Respiratory Viruses Among Families in the Utah Better Identification of Germs-Longitudinal Viral Epidemiology (BIG-LoVE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Carrie L; Ampofo, Krow; Stockmann, Chris; Adler, Frederick R; Herbener, Amy; Miller, Trent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Blaschke, Anne J; Crisp, Robert; Pavia, Andrew T

    2015-10-15

    This study: (1) describes the viral etiology of respiratory illness by prospectively collecting weekly symptom diaries and nasal swabs from families for 1 year, (2) analyzed data by reported symptoms, virus, age, and family composition, and (3) evaluated the duration of virus detection. Twenty-six households (108 individuals) provided concurrent symptom and nasal swab data for 4166 person-weeks. The FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC) was used to detect 16 respiratory viruses. Viral illnesses were defined as ≥1 consecutive weeks with the same virus detected with symptoms reported in ≥1 week. Participants reported symptoms in 23% and a virus was detected in 26% of person-weeks. Children younger than 5 years reported symptoms more often and were more likely to have a virus detected than older participants (odds ratio [OR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.94 and OR 3.96, 95% CI, 3.35-4.70, respectively). Compared with single person households, individuals living with children experienced 3 additional weeks of virus detection. There were 783 viral detection episodes; 440 (56%) associated with symptoms. Coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A detections were usually symptomatic; bocavirus and rhinovirus detections were often asymptomatic. The mean duration of PCR detection was ≤2 weeks for all viruses and detections of ≥3 weeks occurred in 16% of episodes. Younger children had longer durations of PCR detection. Viral detection is often asymptomatic and occasionally prolonged, especially for bocavirus and rhinovirus. In clinical settings, the interpretation of positive PCR tests, particularly in young children and those who live with them, may be confounded. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Crucial roles of reactive chemical species in modification of respiratory syncytial virus by nitrogen gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2017-05-01

    The exact mechanisms by which nanoparticles, especially those composed of soft materials, are modified by gas plasma remain unclear. Here, we used respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which has a diameter of 80-350nm, as a model system to identify important factors for gas plasma modification of nanoparticles composed of soft materials. Nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse using a static induction (SI) thyristor power supply produced reactive chemical species (RCS) and caused virus inactivation. The plasma treatment altered the viral genomic RNA, while treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide, which is a neutral chemical species among RCS, effectively inactivated the virus. Furthermore, a zero dimensional kinetic global model of the reaction scheme during gas plasma generation identified the production of various RCS, including neutral chemical species. Our findings suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates RCS, including neutral species that damage the viral genomic RNA, leading to virus inactivation. Thus, RCS generated by gas plasma appears to be crucial for virus inactivation, suggesting this may constitute an important factor in terms of the efficient modification of nanoparticles composed of soft materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequence analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus of the American type collected from Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K.G.; Hansen, C.M.; Madsen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine-like viruses of American type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were detected in serum samples by RT-PCR. The viruses were analysed by nucleotide sequencing of the genomic region encoding open reading frames 2 to 7. During the ongoing study of Danish isolates...... of PRRSV by means of nucleotide sequencing, RT-PCR reactions and subsequent nucleotide sequencing showed the presence of American type PRRSV in Danish breeding herds. Most likely, these atypical viruses originated from boars vaccinated with live vaccine of American type (MLV RespPRRS), which were taken.......2-99.5% to the vaccine virus RespPRRS and 99.0-99.3% to VR2332 which are the parental virus to the vaccine virus. Phylogenetic analysis including field isolates of American type supports the conclusion chat the introduction of American type PRRSV in Denmark was due to spread of vaccine virus....

  9. Expression and diagnostic use of recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Frölichová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix M protein combined with nucleocapsid N protein could be a promising combination of virus antigens for diagnosing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. The goal of this work was to express the recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Escherichia coli cells and compare its serological reactivity with the N protein of the virus. The gene coding for the M protein was cloned into the pDest17 vector. The resulting protein was purified by metalochelating affinity chromatography. Recombinant M protein was applied as an antigen in immunoblot test and compared on a panel of porcine sera with N protein based IDEXX test. Of 120 examined samples, the majority (78.3% gave identical results using both compared tests. From the group of discrepant results, IDEXX test identified considerably more positive sera (17.5% than M protein based test (4.2%. The main contribution of the work is finding that although IDEXX test proved to be more sensitive than M protein based test, 4.2% of sera would escape detection by serological test based on N protein. Further development and purification of the M protein for the use in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay format test could increase the performance of serological testing.

  10. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  11. Performance of a Novel Point-of-Care Molecular Assay for Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Enigma MiniLab) in Children with Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, Sam T; Walker, Charlotte; Adams, Elisabeth J; Mak, Catherine; Vecino Ortiz, Andres; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; Goldenberg, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the Enigma MiniLab assay for influenza A and B viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was compared to a centralized laboratory respiratory virus panel. The positive and negative percent agreement for influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and RSV were 79.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 57.8 to 92.9%) and 99.4% (95% CI, 98.4 to 99.9), 100% (95% CI, 47.8 to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.3 to 100%), 98.5% (95% CI, 94.6 to 99.8%) and 94.5% (95% CI, 91.9 to 96.4%), respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Basic chemokine-derived glycosaminoglycan binding peptides exert antiviral properties against dengue virus serotype 2, herpes simplex virus-1 and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Vincent; Vervaeke, Peter; Mortier, Anneleen; Noppen, Sam; Gouwy, Mieke; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Van Damme, Jo; Liekens, Sandra; Proost, Paul

    2016-01-15

    Chemokines attract leukocytes to sites of infection in a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dependent manner. Therefore, chemokines are crucial molecules for proper functioning of our antimicrobial defense mechanisms. In addition, some chemokines have GPCR-independent defensin-like antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. Recently, high affinity for GAGs has been reported for the positively charged COOH-terminal region of the chemokine CXCL9. In addition to CXCL9, also CXCL12γ has such a positively charged COOH-terminal region with about 50% positively charged amino acids. In this report, we compared the affinity of COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ for GAGs and KD values in the low nM range were detected. Several enveloped viruses such as herpesviruses, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), etc. are known to bind to GAGs such as the negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS). In this way GAGs are important for the initial contacts between viruses and host cells and for the infection of the cell. Thus, inhibiting the virus-cell interactions, by blocking GAG-binding sites on the host cell, might be a way to target multiple virus families and resistant strains. This article reports that the COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ have antiviral activity against DENV serotype 2, clinical and laboratory strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Moreover, we show that CXCL9(74-103) competes with DENV envelope protein domain III for binding to heparin. These short chemokine-derived peptides may be lead molecules for the development of novel antiviral agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Duration of homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) homologous immunity was tested in this study and found to last for at least 604 days post experimental exposure to field PRRSV. Eleven gilts (group A) received a primary exposure to field PRRSV by either an oronasal (n = 6) or an intrauterine (n = 5) route. The gilts were naturally bred at selected times (143 to 514 days) after primary virus exposure. They were oronasally exposed a second time to the same strain of virus on or about gestation day 90. Ten age-matched control sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody from the same source farm (group B) were naturally bred and were oronasally exposed to aliquots of the homologous challenge virus on or about gestation day 90. Nine of the 11 gilts in group A and all animals in group B became pregnant following one breeding cycle. The two nonpregnant gilts in group A were each naturally bred during four additional estrus cycles and neither became pregnant. They were exposed to homologous challenge virus 562 and 604 days post primary exposure, respectively. All animals were necropsied 21 days post homologous challenge. Sera and alveolar macrophages from each dam, and sera from each fetus were tested for virus. Transplacental infection was detected in 0/9 and 8/10 litters in groups A and B, respectively. Virus was detected in 0/11 and 10/10 of the alveolar macrophage samples collected in groups A and B, respectively. Serum was harvested at selected times throughout the experiment and tested for PRRSV-specific antibody by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. All gilts in group A were seropositive for the duration of the experiment, and all animals in group B seroconverted following exposure to field PRRSV. This study shows that adult swine can produce a homologous protective immunity after PRRSV exposure that may persist for the production life of the animal.

  14. Genomic characterization and pathogenicity of a strain of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2016-10-02

    The emergence of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been noticed recently in China. In the present study, the complete genomic characterization of a strain of type 1 PRRSV (designated GZ11-G1) was described and its pathogenicity for piglets was analyzed. The results showed that the complete genome of GZ11-G1 with a size of 15,094 nt, excluding the poly (A) tails, shared 80.2-96.3% identity with the representative strains of type 1 PRRSV, and in particular, it had highest homology (96.3%) with Amervac PRRS, a live vaccine virus of type 1 PRRSV and SHE, a rescued virus from an infectious clone of Amervac PRRS virus. Compared with the vaccine virus, the nonstructural and structural proteins of GZ11-G1 displayed extensive amino acid variations except for its ORF5a. GZ11-G1 was clustered with the strains of type 1 PRRSV including Cresa3267, Cresa3249, Cresa3256, Olot/91, 9625/2012, ESP-1991-Olot91 and Amervac PRRS vaccine virus by further phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, GZ11-G1 was shown to cause fever, higher viremia and lung and lymph node lesions in piglets. Our findings indicate that GZ11-G1 is genetically related to type 1 PRRSV strains within the cluster formed by Cresa3267, Cresa3249, Cresa3256, Olot/91, 9625/2012, ESP-1991-Olot91 and Amervac PRRS vaccine virus, and it is a pathogenic for piglets. This study aids in understanding the genetic variation and evolution of type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolated single umbilical artery poses neonates at increased risk of long-term respiratory morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharier, Ofer; Sheiner, Eyal; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniela; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Walfisch, Asnat

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. Soroka University Medical Center. all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013. hospitalization due to respiratory morbidity. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of respiratory morbidity. A Cox hazards model analysis was used to establish an independent association between iSUA and pediatric respiratory morbidity of the offspring while controlling for clinically relevant confounders. The study included 232,281 deliveries. 0.3% were of newborns with iSUA (n = 766). Newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher rate of long-term respiratory morbidity compared to newborns without iSUA (7.6 vs 5.5%, p = 0.01). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of respiratory hospitalizations (log rank = 0.006). In the Cox model, while controlling for the maternal age, gestational age, and birthweight, iSUA at term was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term respiratory morbidity (adjusted HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.81; p = 0.012). Newborns with iSUA are at an increased risk for long-term respiratory morbidity.

  16. Identification of common biological pathways and drug targets across multiple respiratory viruses based on human host gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Smith

    Full Text Available Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning.In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease.Our study suggests that

  17. A Decade of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemiology and Prophylaxis: Translating Evidence into Everyday Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco A Paes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common infection in infancy, with nearly all children affected by two years of age. Approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all children are hospitalized with lower respiratory tract disease, of which 50% to 90% have bronchiolitis and 5% to 40% have pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality are highest in children with nosocomial infection and in those with underlying medical illnesses such as cardiac and chronic lung disease. Aboriginal children residing in remote northern regions are specifically considered to be at high risk for hospitalization due to RSV infection. Thorough hand washing and health education are the principal strategies in primary prevention. In the absence of a vaccine, palivizumab prophylaxis is currently the best intervention to reduce the burden of illness and RSV-related hospitalization in high-risk children. Health care professionals should provide palivizumab prophylaxis cost effectively in accordance with recommendations issued by pediatric societies and national advisory bodies.

  18. A Two-Dimensional Human Minilung System (Model for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

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    Esmeralda Magro-Lopez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of serious pediatric respiratory diseases that lacks effective vaccine or specific therapeutics. Although our understanding about HRSV biology has dramatically increased during the last decades, the need for adequate models of HRSV infection is compelling. We have generated a two-dimensional minilung from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. The differentiation protocol yielded at least six types of lung and airway cells, although it is biased toward the generation of distal cells. We show evidence of HRSV replication in lung cells, and the induction of innate and proinflammatory responses, thus supporting its use as a model for the study of HRSV–host interactions.

  19. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation in children with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Stensballe, LG; Fisker, Niels

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalisation and determinants of the severity of RSV disease in children with heart disease. METHODS: By using a database on RSV tests in Denmark all children with RSV diagnosed with heart disease in Denmark...... from January 1996 to April 2003 were identified. For each case child one control child matched for age and centre was drawn from the population of children with heart disease. Clinical information was obtained through a review of all records. RESULTS: Data were obtained on 313 pairs. Median age...... hospitalisation predictors of the need for respiratory support (supplemental oxygen, nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation) were young age (relative risk (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.67 per additional year of age) and cardiac decompensation (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02 to 3...

  20. Patterns of Human Respiratory Viruses and Lack of MERS-Coronavirus in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Southwestern Province of Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed A. Abdulhaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time. Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2% of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV was the most detected pathogen (40.9% followed by non-MERS-CoV human coronaviruses (19.3%, influenza (Flu viruses (15.9%, and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV (13.6%. Viruses differed markedly depending on age in which hRV, Flu A, and hCoV-OC43 were more prevalent in adults and RSV, hCoV-HKU1, and hCoV-NL63 were mostly restricted to children under the age of 15. Moreover, coinfection was not uncommon in this study, in which 17.3% of the infected patients had dual infections due to several combinations of viruses. Dual infections decreased with age and completely disappeared in people older than 45 years. Our study confirms that MERS-CoV is not common in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia and shows high diversity and prevalence of other common respiratory viruses. This study also highlights the importance and contribution of enhanced surveillance systems for better infection control.

  1. Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in Sudan, an abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Ali, Yahia Hassan; AbdulRahman, Magdi Badawi; Mohammed, Zakia Abas; Osman, Halima Mohammed; Taha, Khalid Mohammed; Musa, Mohammed Zain; Khalafalla, AbdelMelik Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV.

  2. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonur, Leenadevi; Maley, Madeleine; Gilray, Janice; Crook, Tara; Laming, Ellie; Turnbull, Dylan; Nath, Mintu; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-03-28

    Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  3. Reduction in Rate of Nosocomial Respiratory Virus Infections in a Children's Hospital Associated With Enhanced Isolation Precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lorry G; Kohn, Nina; Nullet, Susan; Hill, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital. INTERVENTION During years 1 and 2 (July 2012 through June 2014), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee's recommended isolation precautions for inpatients with selected respiratory virus infections were in effect. Enhanced isolation precautions were in effect during years 3 and 4 (July, 2014 through June, 2016), except for influenza, for which enhanced precautions were in effect during year 4 only. RESULTS During the period of enhanced isolation precautions, the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections with any of 4 virus categories decreased 39% from 0.827 per 1,000 hospital days prior to enhanced precautions to 0.508 per 1,000 hospital days (Pinfections, the rates decreased 58% from 0.317 per 1,000 hospital days to 0.134 per 1,000 hospital days during enhanced precautions (Pnosocomial C. difficile infection. CONCLUSIONS Enhanced isolation precautions for inpatients with respiratory virus infections were associated with a reduction in the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:152-156.

  4. Production of chemokines in respiratory syncytial virus infection with central nervous system manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hisashi; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Ioi, Hiroaki; Morichi, Shinichiro; Oana, Shingo; Yamanaka, Gaku; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Sawai, Jun; Kato, Yuichi

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children can be associated with acute encephalopathy. However, the roles of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of such patients remain unevaluated. In this study, a profile of 17 cytokines was determined for eight RSV-infected children with neurological complications. In one patient with high levels of 13 cytokines, a cytokine storm was considered to have occurred. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β levels were also high in other patients. These data suggest that chemokines in CSF play roles in neurological complications in RSV-infected children.

  5. A Case of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in an HIV-Positive Adult

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    Aakriti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is commonly known to cause an influenza-like illness. However, it can also cause more severe disease in young children and older adults comprising of organ transplant patients with immunocompromised status. Till date, only four cases of RSV infections have been reported in HIV-positive adults. We describe here a case of HIV-positive female with relatively preserved immune function who presented with RSV infection requiring ventilation and showed improvement after prompt treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

  6. Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Madelyn R; McGinnes-Cullen, Lori W; Kenward, Sarah A; Willems, Kristin N; Woodland, Robert T; Morrison, Trudy G

    2014-09-01

    Immunization with virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) core proteins, NP and M, and two chimera proteins (F/F and H/G) containing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F- and G-protein ectodomains fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of NDV F and HN proteins, respectively, stimulated durable RSV-neutralizing antibodies, F-protein-specific long-lived, bone marrow-associated plasma cells (LLPCs), and B cell memory, in striking contrast to RSV infection, which did not (M. R. Schmidt, L. W. McGinnes, S. A. Kenward, K. N. Willems, R. T. Woodland, and T. G. Morrison, J. Virol. 86:11654-11662, 2012). Here we report the characterization of a VLP with an RSV F-protein ectodomain fused to the NDV F-protein heptad repeat 2 (HR2), transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domain sequences, creating a chimera with two tandem HR2 domains, one from the RSV F protein and the other from the NDV F-protein ectodomain (F/HR2F). The F/HR2F chimera protein was efficiently assembled into VLPs along with the H/G chimera protein. This VLP (VLP-H/G+F/HR2F) stimulated anti-F-protein and anti-G-protein IgG, durable RSV-neutralizing antibodies, and anti-RSV F-protein-secreting LLPCs. However, the subtypes of anti-F-protein IgG induced were different from those elicited by VLPs containing the F/F chimera (VLP-H/G+F/F). Most importantly, VLP-H/G+F/HR2F did not induce RSV F-protein-specific B cell memory, as shown by the adoptive transfer of B cells from immunized animals to immunodeficient animals. The VLP did, however, induce B cell memory specific to the RSV G protein. Thus, the form of the F protein has a direct role in inducing anti-F-protein B cell memory. The development of vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is hampered by a lack of a clear understanding of the requirements for eliciting protective as well as durable human immune responses to virus antigens. The results of this study indicate that the form of the RSV F protein has a direct

  7. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Yang, Hanchun, E-mail: yanghanchun1@cau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongbo, E-mail: hongbo@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/{beta}-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome-lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  8. FC GAMMA RECEPTORS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR INNATE IMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Jop; Vissers, Marloes; Heldens, Jacco G.M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Levy, Ofer; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory syncytial virus infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with Fc gamma receptors leading to enhancement or neutralization of viral infections. The mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effect of Fc gamma receptors on viral infections have yet to be elucidated in infants. Herein, we will discuss current knowledge of the effects of antibodies and Fc gamma receptors on infant innate immunity to RSV. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of RSV infections in young infants may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies like vaccination. PMID:24227634

  9. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  10. Positive selection results in frequent reversible amino acid replacements in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F Botosso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age and the elderly, causing annual disease outbreaks during the fall and winter. Multiple lineages of the HRSVA and HRSVB serotypes co-circulate within a single outbreak and display a strongly temporal pattern of genetic variation, with a replacement of dominant genotypes occurring during consecutive years. In the present study we utilized phylogenetic methods to detect and map sites subject to adaptive evolution in the G protein of HRSVA and HRSVB. A total of 29 and 23 amino acid sites were found to be putatively positively selected in HRSVA and HRSVB, respectively. Several of these sites defined genotypes and lineages within genotypes in both groups, and correlated well with epitopes previously described in group A. Remarkably, 18 of these positively selected tended to revert in time to a previous codon state, producing a "flip-flop" phylogenetic pattern. Such frequent evolutionary reversals in HRSV are indicative of a combination of frequent positive selection, reflecting the changing immune status of the human population, and a limited repertoire of functionally viable amino acids at specific amino acid sites.

  11. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and fusion proteins protects hamsters from challenge with human PIV3 and RSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Aurelia A; Mitiku, Misrach; MacPhail, Mia

    2003-08-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the main causes of ubiquitous acute respiratory diseases of infancy and early childhood, causing 20-25 % of pneumonia and 45-50 % of bronchiolitis in hospitalized children. The primary goal of this study was to create an effective and safe RSV vaccine based on utilizing attenuated bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) as a virus vector backbone. bPIV3 had been evaluated in human clinical trials and was shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in children as young as 2 months of age. The ability of bPIV3 to function as a virus vaccine vector was explored further by introducing the RSV attachment (G) and fusion (F) genes into the bPIV3 RNA genome. The resulting virus, bPIV3/RSV(I), contained an insert of 2900 nt, comprising two translationally competent transcription units. Despite this increase in genetic material, the virus replicated to high titres in Vero cells. This recombinant virus expressed the RSV G and F proteins sufficiently to evoke a protective immune response in hamsters upon challenge with RSV or human PIV3 and to elicit RSV neutralizing and PIV3 haemagglutinin inhibition serum antibodies. In effect, a bivalent vaccine was produced that could protect vaccinees from RSV as well as PIV3. Such a vaccine would vastly reduce the respiratory disease burden, the associated hospitalization costs and, most importantly, decrease morbidity and mortality of infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly.

  12. Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Víctor; Mena, Juan; Culhane, Marie; Apel, Maria Ignacia; Max, Vanessa; Perez, Patricio; Moreno, Valentina; Mathieu, Christian; Johow, Magdalena; Badia, Catalina; Torremorell, Montserrat; Medina, Rafael; Ortega, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013–2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country. PMID:28742879

  13. Curcumin modified silver nanoparticles for highly efficient inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao Xi; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nanoparticles and viruses have attracted increasing attention due to the antiviral activity of nanoparticles and the resulting possibility to be employed as biomedical interventions. In this contribution, we developed a very simple route to prepare uniform and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antiviral properties by using curcumin, which is a member of the ginger family isolated from rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa and has a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, and acts as reducing and capping agents in this synthetic route. The tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay showed that the curcumin modified silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) have a highly efficient inhibition effect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, giving a decrease of viral titers about two orders of magnitude at the concentration of cAgNPs under which no toxicity was found to the host cells. Mechanism investigations showed that cAgNPs could prevent RSV from infecting the host cells by inactivating the virus directly, indicating that cAgNPs are a novel promising efficient virucide for RSV.Interactions between nanoparticles and viruses have attracted increasing attention due to the antiviral activity of nanoparticles and the resulting possibility to be employed as biomedical interventions. In this contribution, we developed a very simple route to prepare uniform and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antiviral properties by using curcumin, which is a member of the ginger family isolated from rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa and has a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, and acts as reducing and capping agents in this synthetic route. The tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay showed that the curcumin modified silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) have a highly efficient inhibition

  14. Functional organization of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincheval, Vincent; Lelek, Mickael; Gault, Elyanne; Bouillier, Camille; Sitterlin, Delphine; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Galloux, Marie; Zimmer, Christophe; Eleouet, Jean-François; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne

    2017-09-15

    Infection of cells by respiratory syncytial virus induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where all the components of the viral RNA polymerase complex are concentrated. However, the exact organization and function of these IBs remain unclear. In this study, we use conventional and super-resolution imaging to dissect the internal structure of IBs. We observe that newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral transcription anti-terminator M2-1 concentrate in IB sub-compartments, which we term "IB-associated granules" (IBAGs). In contrast, viral genomic RNA, the nucleoprotein, the L polymerase and its cofactor P are excluded from IBAGs. Live imaging reveals that IBAGs are highly dynamic structures. Our data show that IBs are the main site of viral RNA synthesis. They further suggest that shortly after synthesis in IBs, viral mRNAs and M2-1 transiently concentrate in IBAGs before reaching the cytosol and suggest a novel post-transcriptional function for M2-1.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) sheltering viral RNA synthesis. Here, Rincheval et al. identify highly dynamic IB-associated granules (IBAGs) that accumulate newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral M2-1 protein but exclude viral genomic RNA and RNA polymerase complexes.

  15. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

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    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  16. Clinical performance evaluation of the Sofia RSV FIA rapid antigen test for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin Woo; Cho, Chi Hyun; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Yoon, Soo Young; Lee, Chang Kyu; Lim, Chae Seung; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-02-01

    A recently introduced Sofia respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) was evaluated against the BinaxNOW RSV card and the SD Bioline RSV test using 348 respiratory samples. The Sofia, BinaxNOW, and SD Bioline kits showed sensitivities of 66%, 65%, and 64%, respectively, for detecting RSV-A, and 71%, 63%, and 65% for detecting RSV-B, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves resistance of infant mice against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Eriko; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria Guadalupe; Salva, Susana; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-10-01

    Previously we showed that orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 beneficially regulated the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the lungs of poly(I:C)-challenged mice, allowing an effective inflammatory response against the TLR3/RIG-I agonist but at the same time reducing tissue damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral administration of the CRL1505 strain was able to improve resistance against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infant mice and to evaluate the immunological mechanisms involved in the immunobiotic effect. We demonstrated that treatment of 3-week old BALB/c mice with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 significantly reduce lung viral loads and tissue injuries after the challenge with RSV. Moreover, we showed that the protective effect achieved by the CRL1505 strain is related to its capacity to differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune response. Our results shows that IFN-γ and IL-10 secreted in response to L. rhamnosus CRL1505 oral stimulation would modulate the pulmonary innate immune microenvironment conducting to the activation of CD103(+) and CD11b(high) dendritic cells and the generation of CD3(+)CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) Th1 cells with the consequent attenuation of the strong and damaging Th2 reactions associated with RSV challenge. Our results indicate that modulation of the common mucosal immune system by immunobiotics could favor protective immunity against respiratory viral pathogens with a high attack rate in early infancy, such as RSV. © 2013.

  18. Central nervous system alterations caused by infection with the human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2014-11-01

    Worldwide, the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization because of acute respiratory tract infections, including severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Despite intense research, to date there is neither vaccine nor treatment available to control hRSV disease burden globally. After infection, an incubation period of 3-5 days is usually followed by symptoms, such as cough and low-grade fever. However, hRSV infection can also produce a larger variety of symptoms, some of which relate to the individual's age at infection. Indeed, infants can display severe symptoms, such as dyspnea and chest wall retractions. Upon examination, crackles and wheezes are also common features that suggest infection by hRSV. Additionally, infection in infants younger than 1 year is associated with several non-specific symptoms, such as failure to thrive, periodic breathing or apnea, and feeding difficulties that usually require hospitalization. Recently, neurological symptoms have also been associated with hRSV respiratory infection and include seizures, central apnea, lethargy, feeding or swallowing difficulties, abnormalities in muscle tone, strabismus, abnormalities in the CSF, and encephalopathy. Here, we discuss recent findings linking the neurological, extrapulmonary effects of hRSV with infection and functional impairment of the CNS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Altered cardiac rhythm in infants with bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus infection

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    Galeone Carlotta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the most frequent extra-pulmonary manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection involve the cardiovascular system, no data regarding heart function in infants with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection have yet been systematically collected. The aim of this study was to verify the real frequency of heart involvement in patients with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection, and whether infants with mild or moderate disease also risk heart malfunction. Methods A total of 69 otherwise healthy infants aged 1-12 months with bronchiolitis hospitalised in standard wards were enrolled. Pernasal flocked swabs were performed to collect specimens for the detection of RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and a blood sample was drawn to assess troponin I concentrations. On the day of admission, all of the infants underwent 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and a complete heart evaluation with echocardiography. Patients were re-evaluated by investigators blinded to the etiological and cardiac findings four weeks after enrolment. Results Regardless of their clinical presentation, sinoatrial blocks were identified in 26/34 RSV-positive patients (76.5% and 1/35 RSV-negative patients (2.9% (p Conclusions RSV seems associated with sinoatrial blocks and transient rhythm alterations even when the related respiratory problems are mild or moderate. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these rhythm problems and whether they remain asymptomatic and transient even in presence of severe respiratory involvement or chronic underlying disease.

  20. Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Chih; Chang, Jung-San; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious infection of the lower respiratory tract in children and an effective antiviral therapy against the viral pathogen remains unavailable. We previously demonstrated that the oriental medicinal plant, Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida), possessed inhibitory activity against RSV. Since cimicifugin is a major constituent of C. foetida, we sought to examine in this study its anti-RSV effect on both the human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Results revealed that cimicifugin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cells (p < 0.0001), with a superior effect in the latter cell type (p < 0.0001). The antiviral activity of cimicifugin was time-dependent (p < 0.0001) and was most effective when cells were treated with the compound before viral inoculation. Additional experiments demonstrated that cimicifugin could inhibit viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and viral internalization (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the drug could potentiate heparin's effect against attachment of RSV, particularly in A549 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of antiviral cytokines induction revealed that cimicifugin could also stimulate epithelial cells to secrete IFN-β to counteract viral infection. Taken together, these results indicate that cimicifugin is an efficient antiviral agent against RSV infection. We suggest that cimicifugin might be useful for the management of RSV pathogenesis.

  1. Cimicifuga foetida L. inhibited human respiratory syncytial virus in HEp-2 and A549 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo Chih; Chang, Jung San; Chiang, Lien Chai; Lin, Chun Ching

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes serious pediatric infection of the lower respiratory tract without effective therapeutic modality. Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (SMGGT; Shoma-kakkon-to) has been proven to be effective at inhibiting HRSV-induced plaque formation, and Cimicifuga foetida is the major constituent of SMGGT. We tested the hypothesis that C. foetida effectively inhibited the cytopathic effects of HRSV by a plaque reduction assay in both human upper (HEp2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Its ability to stimulate anti-viral cytokines was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. foetida dose-dependently inhibited HRSV-induced plaque formation (p < 0.0001) before and after viral inoculation, especially in A549 cells (p < 0.0001). C. foetida dose-dependently inhibited viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and could increase heparins effect on viral attachment. In addition, C. foetida time-dependently and dose-dependently (p < 0.0001) inhibited HRSV internalization. C. foetida could stimulate epithelial cells to secrete IFN-β to counteract viral infection. However, C. foetida did not stimulate TNF-α secretion. Therefore, C. foetida could be useful in managing HRSV infection. This is the first evidence to support that C. foetida possesses antiviral activity.

  2. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell

  3. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  4. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus infection outbreak among pediatric patients with oncologic diseases and/or BMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anak, Sema; Atay, Didem; Unuvar, Aysegul; Garipardic, Mesut; Agaoglu, Leyla; Ozturk, Gulyuz; Karakas, Zeynep; Devecioglu, Omer

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported to cause severe morbidity and mortality among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with or without autologous/allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There have been few reports describing the outcome of RSV infection specifically among pediatric oncology patients. Two RSV infection outbreaks developed between February-April 2006 and January-March 2009 in hospitalized pediatric patients for various hemato-oncological diseases + or - HSCT. A survey of respiratory viruses was done using direct immunofluorescent antibody assay from nasopharyngeal washing aspirate. In two RSV infection outbreaks (2006 and 2009), RSV antigen was detected in 6/30 patients. Five of six patients with RSV antigen were all treated with 0.2-0.4 g/kg intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and specific antiviral therapy, oral ribavirin (20-25 mg/kg/day in three doses). Five patients recovered fully, although two were retreated due to recurrent (+) RSV antigen and respiratory symptoms within 2 weeks. We did not give oral ribavirin to one patient with (+) RSV antigen due to mild symptoms. All patients are alive and well. In contrast with the outcome of RSV infection in adult oncology patients, the mortality associated with RSV infection in pediatric oncology patients even in post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) period, is low when diagnosed and treated early enough. Oral ribavirin might be an option together with IVIG in the treatment of RSV especially when other forms of antivirals could not be obtained. This approach will make it possible to give the scheduled anti-neoplastic therapy on time.

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Targeting the G Protein Provides a New Approach for an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A; Power, Ultan F; Openshaw, Peter J M; Kauvar, Lawrence M

    2018-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) annually affecting >2 million children in the United States 65 years old), RSV results in ∼175,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States with a worldwide incidence of ∼34 million. There is no approved RSV vaccine, and treatments are limited. Recently, a phase 3 trial in the elderly using a recombinant RSV F protein vaccine failed to meet its efficacy objectives, namely, prevention of moderate-to-severe RSV-associated LRTI and reduced incidence of acute respiratory disease. Moreover, a recent phase 3 trial evaluating suptavumab (REGN2222), an antibody to RSV F protein, did not meet its primary endpoint of preventing medically attended RSV infections in preterm infants. Despite these setbacks, numerous efforts targeting the RSV F protein with vaccines, antibodies, and small molecules continue based on the commercial success of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the RSV F protein (palivizumab). As the understanding of RSV biology has improved, the other major coat protein, the RSV G protein, has reemerged as an alternative target reflecting progress in understanding its roles in infecting bronchial epithelial cells and in altering the host immune response. In mouse models, a high-affinity, strain-independent human MAb to the RSV G protein has shown potent direct antiviral activity combined with the alleviation of virus-induced immune system effects that contribute to disease pathology. This MAb, being prepared for clinical trials, provides a qualitatively new approach to managing RSV for populations not eligible for prophylaxis with palivizumab. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Apnea induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection is not associated with viral invasion of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Yarden-Bilavsky, Havatzelet; Mendelson, Ella; Yuhas, Yael; Ashkenazi, Shai; Nahum, Elhanan; Berent, Eva; Hindiyeh, Musa; Bilavsky, Efraim

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to study whether direct central nervous system invasion is responsible for the neurologic manifestations seen in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Cerebrospinal fluid from infants with RSV infection was tested for the detection of the following respiratory RNA viruses: RSV, influenza A and B, pandemic influenza H1N1, Parainfluenza-3, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus and enterovirus. All children tested negative for the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the notion that the mechanism of RSV-induced neurologic manifestations, including apnea, is not direct central nervous system invasion.

  8. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies.

  9. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies

  10. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Molecular diagnosis of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus and other respiratory viruses during the first pandemic wave in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza Fernández, Suset; Acosta Herrera, Belsy; Piñón Ramos, Alexander; Valdés Ramírez, Odalys; Savón Valdés, Clara; Arencibia García, Amely; Guilarte García, Elias; González Muñoz, Grehete; Goyenechea Hernández, Angel; Muné Jiménez, Mayra; González Báez, Guelsys; Hernández Espinosa, Bárbara; Guzmán Tirado, María G; Llop Hernández, Alina

    2011-01-01

    the first pandemic virus of the 21st century - the influenza A (H1N1)/2009 virus-appeared in Mexico in April 2009 after triple reassortment of influenza strains of avian, human and pig origin and from there, it was spread worldwide. With the purpose of facing up to this event, Cuba adopted antipandemic measures including the virology surveillance using all necessary actions. the detection and validation of the entry of the causative agent of pandemic into the country in a fast and timely way, in addition to the definition of involvement of other viruses in the etiology of acute respiratory infections. as a result of the lab surveillance, from the 38th to the 42nd epidemiological weeks (September and October, 2009), 1 063 respiratory clinical samples were processed (nasopharyngeal exudates, bronchial aspirates and lung necropsy samples). The highest number of confirmed cases caused by the new virus was detected in this period that represented the first pandemic wave in Cuba. Diagnosis was based on molecular diagnosis algorithm. out of the 1063 samples, 597 (56.0 %) were positive. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus was the most commonly detected etiological agent in 306 suspected cases (51 %) followed by influenza A (H3N2) virus in 228 cases (38 %). Other respiratory viruses were diagnosed in 63 clinical samples (11 %). The pandemic virus was confirmed in 50 pregnant women. Rhinoviruses were identified more frequently in those samples from patients with clinical diagnosis of bronchial pneumonia and broncholitis. Morbidity increased during this period; 225 825 medical consultations were notified due to acute respiratory infections mid-October 2009. the molecular diagnosis algorithm proved to be sensitive, specific and effective to assure the systematic virological surveillance in our country during the pandemic phase.

  12. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

  14. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  15. 1918 H1N1 influenza virus replicates and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in extra-respiratory tissues of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Siegers, Jurre; Cronin, Jacqueline M; Weatherman, Sarah; van den Brand, Judith; Leijten, Lonneke M; van Run, Peter; Begeman, Lineke; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Andeweg, Arno C; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana P; Saturday, Greg; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz; van Riel, Debby

    2018-01-10

    The 1918 Spanish H1N1 influenza pandemic was the most severe recorded influenza pandemic with an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide. Even though it is known that influenza viruses can cause extra-respiratory tract complications-which are often severe or even fatal- the potential contribution of extra-respiratory tissues to the pathogenesis of 1918 H1N1 virus infection has not been studied comprehensively. Here, we performed a time course study in ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus, with special emphasis on the involvement of extra-respiratory tissues. Respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues were collected after inoculation for virological, histological and immunological analysis. Infectious virus was detected at high titers in respiratory tissues, and-at lower titers-in most extra-respiratory tissues. Evidence for active virus replication, as indicated by the detection of nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry, was observed in the respiratory tract, peripheral and central nervous system, and liver. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in respiratory tissues, olfactory bulb, spinal cord, liver, heart and pancreas. 1918 H1N1 virus spread to, and induced cytokine responses in tissues outside the respiratory tract, which likely contributed to the severity of infection. Moreover, our data support the suggested link between 1918 H1N1 infection and CNS disease.

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-Induced Ascending Experimental Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis. PMID:22768228

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Elizabeth Brockson

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M

  18. Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In temperate climates, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD incidence tends to coincide with or closely follow peak incidence of influenza virus infection; at a seasonal level, increased influenza activity frequently correlates with increased seasonal risk of IMD. METHODS: We evaluated 240 cases of IMD reported in central Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2006. Associations between environmental and virological (influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV exposures and IMD incidence were evaluated using negative binomial regression models controlling for seasonal oscillation. Acute effects of weekly respiratory virus activity on IMD risk were evaluated using a matched-period case-crossover design with random directionality of control selection. Effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Multivariable negative binomial regression identified elevated IMD risk with increasing influenza A activity (per 100 case increase, incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.06, 1.31. In case-crossover models, increasing weekly influenza A activity was associated with an acute increase in the risk of IMD (per 100 case increase, odds ratio (OR  = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23. Increasing weekly RSV activity was associated with increased risk of IMD after adjusting for RSV activity in the previous 3 weeks (per 100 case increase, OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 1.14, 16.32. No change in disease risk was seen with increasing influenza B activity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified an acute effect of influenza A and RSV activity on IMD risk. If confirmed, these finding suggest that influenza vaccination may have the indirect benefit of reducing IMD risk.

  19. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infect...

  20. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, A; De Schryver, M; Van der Gucht, W; Heykers, A; Pintelon, I; Hotard, A L; Moore, M L; Melero, J A; McLellan, J S; Graham, B S; Broadbent, L; Power, U F; Caljon, G; Cos, P; Maes, L; Delputte, P

    2017-07-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells. The RSV F protein and attachment (G) protein were found to be internalized in both infected and transfected cells after the addition of either RSV-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) or RSV glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Internalization experiments with different cell lines, well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells (WD-PBECs), and RSV isolates suggest that antibody internalization can be considered a general feature of RSV. More specifically for RSV F, the mechanism of internalization was shown to be clathrin dependent. All RSV F-targeted MAbs tested, regardless of their epitopes, induced internalization of RSV F. No differences could be observed between the different MAbs, indicating that RSV F internalization was epitope independent. Since this process can be either antiviral, by affecting virus assembly and production, or beneficial for the virus, by limiting the efficacy of antibodies and effector mechanism, further research is required to determine the extent to which this occurs in vivo and how this might impact RSV replication. IMPORTANCE Current research into the development of new immunoprophylaxis and vaccines is mainly focused on the RSV F protein since, among others, RSV F-specific antibodies are

  1. Viruses and Tetraspanins: Lessons from Single Molecule Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmane, Selma; Rubinstein, Eric; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Tetraspanins are four-span membrane proteins that are widely distributed in multi-cellular organisms and involved in several infectious diseases. They have the unique property to form a network of protein-protein interaction within the plasma membrane, due to the lateral associations with one another and with other membrane proteins. Tracking tetraspanins at the single molecule level using fluorescence microscopy has revealed the membrane behavior of the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 in epithelial cell lines, providing a first dynamic view of this network. Single molecule tracking highlighted that these 2 proteins can freely diffuse within the plasma membrane but can also be trapped, permanently or transiently, in tetraspanin-enriched areas. More recently, a similar strategy has been used to investigate tetraspanin membrane behavior in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this review we summarize the main results emphasizing the relationship in terms of membrane partitioning between tetraspanins, some of their partners such as Claudin-1 and EWI-2, and viral proteins during infection. These results will be analyzed in the context of other membrane microdomains, stressing the difference between raft and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, but also in comparison with virus diffusion at the cell surface. New advanced single molecule techniques that could help to further explore tetraspanin assemblies will be also discussed. PMID:24800676

  2. A new recombined porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus virulent strain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Guo; Yu, Lin-Yang; Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Le-Yi; Liu, Yan-Ling; Liang, Peng-Shuai; Song, Chang-Xu

    2018-01-31

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important swine diseases worldwide. In the present study, a new virulent strain of PRRS virus (PRRSV), GDsg, was isolated in Guangdong province, China, and caused high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in sows and piglets. The genome of this new strain was 15,413 nucleotides (nt) long, and comparative analysis revealed that GDsg shared 82.4% to 94% identity with type 2 PRRSV strains, but only 61.5% identity with type 1 PRRSV Lelystad virus strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that type 2 PRRSV isolates include five subgenotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V), which are represented by NADC30, VR-2332, GM2, CH-1a, and HuN4, respectively. Moreover, GDsg belongs to a newly emerging type 2 PRRSV subgenotype III. More interestingly, the newly isolated GDsg strain has multiple discontinuous nt deletions, 131 (19 + 18 + 94) at position 1404-1540 and a 107 nt insertion in the NSP2 region. Most importantly, the GDsg strain was identified as a virus recombined between low pathogenic field strain QYYZ and vaccine strain JXA1-P80. In conclusion, a new independent subgenotype and recombinant PRRSV strain has emerged in China and could be a new threat to the swine industry of China.

  3. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) β and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects

  4. Nucleic acid-based vaccines targeting respiratory syncytial virus: Delivering the goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor R F; Schultheis, Katherine; Broderick, Kate E

    2017-11-02

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden on a global scale. Infants, children and the elderly represent the vulnerable populations. Currently there is no approved vaccine to protect against the disease. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease (VED) associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines, inability of target populations to raise protective immune responses after vaccination or natural viral infection, and a lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate virus-associated target antigen. However, with recent advances in the molecular understanding of the virus, and design of highly characterized vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity there is new belief a RSV vaccine is possible. One promising approach is nucleic acid-based vaccinology. Both DNA and mRNA RSV vaccines are showing promising results in clinically relevant animal models, supporting their transition into humans. Here we will discuss this strategy to target RSV, and the ongoing studies to advance the nucleic acid vaccine platform as a viable option to protect vulnerable populations from this important disease.

  5. Ameliorating Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. The lack of proper prophylactics and therapeutics for controlling hRSV infection has been of great concern worldwide. Xylitol is a well-known sugar substitute and its effect against bacteria in the oral cavity is well known. However, little is known of its effect on viral infections. In this study, the effect of dietary xylitol on hRSV infection was investigated in a mouse model for the first time. Mice received xylitol for 14 d prior to virus challenge and for a further 3 d post challenge. Significantly larger reductions in lung virus titers were observed in the mice receiving xylitol than in the controls receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, fewer CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes, whose numbers reflect inflammatory status, were recruited in the mice receiving xylitol. These results indicate that dietary xylitol can ameliorate hRSV infections and reduce inflammation-associated immune responses to hRSV infection.

  6. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses.

  7. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-10-13

    Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Keil, Günther M; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Ganter, Martin; Herrler, Georg

    2014-05-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Non-bovine ruminants such as goats may also be infected and serve as a virus reservoir to be considered in the development of control strategies. To evaluate the susceptibility of caprine airway epithelial cells to infection by viruses of BRDC, we established a culture system for differentiated caprine epithelial cells. For this purpose, we generated precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), in which cells are retained in their original structural configuration and remain viable for more than a week. The three bovine viruses were found to preferentially infect different cell types. Ciliated epithelial cells were the major target cells of BPIV3, whereas BHV-1 preferred basal cells. Cells infected by BRSV were detected in submucosal cell layers. This spectrum of susceptible cells is the same as that reported recently for infected bovine PCLS. While infection of caprine cells by BRSV and BPIV3 was as efficient as that reported for bovine cells, infection of caprine cells by BHV-1 required a tenfold higher dose of infectious virus as compared to infection of bovine airway cells. These results support the notion that non-bovine ruminants may serve as a reservoir for viruses of BRDC and introduce a culture system to analyze virus infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from the caprine lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  10. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  11. Unexpectedly Higher Morbidity and Mortality of Hospitalized Elderly Patients Associated with Rhinovirus Compared with Influenza Virus Respiratory Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan F. N. Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period. All recruited patients were followed up for at least 3 months up to 15 months. Independent risk factors associated with mortality for rhinovirus infection were identified. Between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015, a total of 1946 patients were consecutively included for analysis. Of these, 728 patients were hospitalized for rhinovirus infection and 1218 patients were hospitalized for influenza infection. Significantly more rhinovirus patients were elderly home residents and had chronic lung diseases (p < 0.001, whereas more influenza patients had previous stroke (p = 0.02; otherwise, there were no differences in the Charlson comorbidity indexes between the two groups. More patients in the rhinovirus group developed pneumonia complications (p = 0.03, required oxygen therapy, and had a longer hospitalization period (p < 0.001, whereas more patients in the influenza virus group presented with fever (p < 0.001 and upper respiratory tract symptoms of cough and sore throat (p < 0.001, and developed cardiovascular complications (p < 0.001. The 30-day (p < 0.05, 90-day (p < 0.01, and 1-year (p < 0.01 mortality rate was significantly higher in the rhinovirus group than the influenza virus group. Intensive care unit admission (odds ratio (OR: 9.56; 95% confidence interval (C.I. 2.17–42.18, elderly home residents (OR: 2.60; 95% C.I. 1.56–4.33, requirement of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (OR: 2.62; 95% C.I. 1.62–4.24, and hemoglobin

  12. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Tang (Roderick); J.H. Schickli (Jeanne); M. MacPhail (Mia); F. Fernandes (Fiona); L. Bicha (Leenas); J. Spaete (Joshua); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Spaete (Richard); A.A. Haller (Aurelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), harboring the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of human PIV3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory

  13. Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus: evolution and recombination yields distinct ORF5 RFLP 1-7-4 viruses with individual pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swineherds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (...

  14. Significance of the oligosaccharides of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoproteins GP2a and GP5 for infectious virus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.G.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains four glycoproteins, GP2a, GP3, GP4 and GP5, the functions of which are still largely unresolved. In this study, the significance of the N-glycosylation of the GP2a and GP5 proteins of PRRSV strain LV was

  15. Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadejek, T.; Stankevicius, A.; Storgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish...

  16. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  17. The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus challenge on growing pigs II: Intestinal integrity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, W P; Pearce, S C; Burrough, E R; Schwartz, K; Yoon, K J; Sparks, J C; Gabler, N K

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intestinal function and integrity is altered due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus infection in growing pigs. Forty-two gilts (16.8 ± 0.6 kg BW), naïve for PRRS and PED, were selected and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) a control (CON; = 6), 2) PRRS virus challenge only (PRRS; = 12), 3) PED virus challenge only (; = 12), or 4) coinfection of PRRS + PED viruses (PRP; = 12). Treatments 2 and 4 were inoculated with a live field strain of PRRS virus on d 0 after inoculation. Treatments 3 and 4 were inoculated with PED virus on 14 d after inoculation (dpi) and all pigs were euthanized 7 d later (21 dpi). Infection with PRRS virus was determined by viremia and seroconversion. Fecal quantitative PCR was used to confirm PED virus infection. Control pigs remained PRRS and PED virus negative throughout the study. Compared with the CON, intestinal morphology was unaffected by PRRS. As expected, PED and PRP treatments resulted in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum villus atrophy compared with the CON treatment ( PRRS pigs (P PRRS pigs over CON pigs ( PRRS pigs compared with CON pigs ( PRRS infection supports a higher affinity for glucose uptake, whereas PED favors glutamine uptake. Interestingly, digestive machinery during PED challenge remained intact. Altogether, PED but not PRRS challenges alter intestinal morphology and integrity in growing pigs.

  18. Antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S K; Nelson, E A; Yoo, D

    1998-11-01

    A collection of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was used to study the antigenic structure of the virus nucleocapsid protein (N). The full-length N gene, encoded by open reading frame 7, was cloned from the Canadian PRRS virus, PA-8. Deletions were introduced into the N gene to produce a series of nine overlapping protein fragments ranging in length from 25 to 112 amino acids. The individual truncated genes were cloned as glutathione S-transferase fusions into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding the N protein fragments, and the antigenicity of the synthesized proteins was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Based on the immunoreactivities of the N protein deletion mutants with the panel of N-specific MAbs, five domains of antigenic importance were identified. MAbs SDOW17, SR30, and 5H2.3B12.1C9 each identified independent domains defined by amino acids 30 to 52, 69 to 123, and 37 to 52, respectively. Seven of the MAbs tested specifically recognized the local protein conformation formed in part by the amino acid residues 52 to 69. Furthermore, deletion of 11 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of the nucleocapsid protein disrupted the epitope configuration recognized by all of the conformation-dependent MAbs, suggesting that the carboxy-terminal region plays an important role in maintaining local protein conformation.

  19. Laboratory-based respiratory virus surveillance pilot project on select cruise ships in Alaska, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kimberly B; Roohi, Shahrokh; Uyeki, Timothy M; Montgomery, David; Parker, Jayme; Fowler, Nisha H; Xu, Xiyan; Ingram, Deandra J; Fearey, Donna; Williams, Steve M; Tarling, Grant; Brown, Clive M; Cohen, Nicole J

    2017-09-01

    Influenza outbreaks can occur among passengers and crews during the Alaska summertime cruise season. Ill travellers represent a potential source for introduction of novel or antigenically drifted influenza virus strains to the United States. From May to September 2013-2015, the Alaska Division of Public Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and two cruise lines implemented a laboratory-based public health surveillance project to detect influenza and other respiratory viruses among ill crew members and passengers on select cruise ships in Alaska. Cruise ship medical staff collected 2-3 nasopharyngeal swab specimens per week from passengers and crew members presenting to the ship infirmary with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for respiratory viruses at the Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL); a subset of specimens positive for influenza virus were sent to CDC for further antigenic characterization. Of 410 nasopharyngeal specimens, 83% tested positive for at least one respiratory virus; 71% tested positive for influenza A or B virus. Antigenic characterization of pilot project specimens identified strains matching predominant circulating seasonal influenza virus strains, which were included in the northern or southern hemisphere influenza vaccines during those years. Results were relatively consistent across age groups, recent travel history, and influenza vaccination status. Onset dates of illness relative to date of boarding differed between northbound (occurring later in the voyage) and southbound (occurring within the first days of the voyage) cruises. The high yield of positive results indicated that influenza was common among passengers and crews sampled with ARI. This finding reinforces the need to bolster influenza prevention and control activities on cruise ships. Laboratory-based influenza surveillance on cruise ships may augment inland influenza surveillance and inform control activities. However, these

  20. Respiratory viruses associated with severe pneumonia in children under 2 years old in a rural community in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Akhund, Tauseef; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Aziz, Fatima; Rahman, Najeeb; Umrani, Fayyaz Ahmed; Qureshi, Shahida; Petri, William A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Zaidi, Anita K M; Hughes, Molly A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of respiratory viruses associated with severe pneumonia among children less than 2 years of age in the rural district of Matiari in Sindh, Pakistan. This study was a community-based prospective cohort active surveillance of infants enrolled at birth and followed for 2 years. Cases were identified using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses' definition of severe pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for assessment by multiplex RT-PCR for eight viruses and their subtypes, including RSV, influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and human bocavirus. Blood cultures were collected from febrile participants. A total of 817 newborns were enrolled and followed with fortnightly surveillance for 2 years, accounting for a total of 1,501 child-years of follow-up. Of the nasopharyngeal swabs collected, 77.8% (179/230) were positive for one or more of the above mentioned respiratory viruses. The incidence of laboratory confirmed viral-associated pneumonia was 11.9 per 100 child-years of follow-up. Enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected in 51.7% patients, followed by parainfluenza virus type III (8.3%), and RSV (5.7%). Of the uncontaminated blood cultures, 1.4% (5/356) were positive. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected during acute respiratory infection episodes in children under 2 years old in a rural community in Pakistan. However, causal association is yet to be established and the concomitant role of bacteria as a co-infection or super-infection needs further investigation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1882-1890, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Eric AF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost

  2. An evaluation of the emerging interventions against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harish; Verma, Vasundhara R; Theodoratou, Evropi; Zgaga, Lina; Huda, Tanvir; Simões, Eric A F; Wright, Peter F; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2011-04-13

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children. Currently there are several vaccine and immunoprophylaxis candidates against RSV in the developmental phase targeting active and passive immunization. We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging vaccines against RSV relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their "collective optimism" towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. In the case of candidate vaccines for active immunization of infants against RSV, the experts expressed very low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability and low cost of development; moderate levels of optimism regarding the criteria of answerability, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, sustainability and acceptance to end users for the interventions; and high levels of optimism regarding impact on equity and acceptance to health workers. While considering the candidate vaccines targeting pregnant women, the panel expressed low levels of optimism for low product cost, affordability, answerability and low development cost; moderate levels of optimism for likelihood of efficacy

  3. Antibody responses against epitopes on the F protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus differ in infected or vaccinated cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Hensen, E.J.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Daus, F.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1997-01-01

    The fusion protein F of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important target for humoral and cellular immune responses, and antibodies against the F protein have been associated with protection. However, the F protein can induce antibodies with different biological activity, possibly

  4. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the

  5. Whole blood microarray analysis of pigs showing extreme phenotypes after a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Observed variability in pig response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recently demonstrated genetic control of such responses, suggest that it may be possible to reduce the economic impact of this disease by selecting more disease-resistant pig...

  6. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  7. Infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus needed less ventilator time with nasal continuous airways pressure then invasive mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borckink, Ilse; Essouri, Sandrine; Laurent, Marie; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Tissieres, Pierre; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    AIM: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has been proposed as an early first-line support for infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We hypothesised that infants <6 months with severe RSV would require shorter ventilator support on NCPAP than invasive

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (BBG2Na) in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.F. Power; T.N. Nguyen; E. Rietveld (Edwin); R.L. de Swart (Rik); J.M. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. de Groot (Ronald); N. Corvaia; A. Beck (Alain); N. Bouveret-le-Cam; J-Y. Bonnefoy

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA novel recombinant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subunit vaccine, designated BBG2Na, was administered to 108 healthy adults randomly assigned to receive 10, 100, or 300 μg of BBG2Na in aluminum phosphate or saline placebo. Each subject received 1, 2, or 3 intramuscular injections of

  9. GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS BRONCHIOLITIS IN PRETERM CHILDREN IS ASSOCIATED WITH AIRWAY REMODELING GENES AND INNATE IMMUNE GENES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, Christine L. E.; Bont, Louis; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Ermers, Marieke J.; Doornbos, Gerda; van't Slot, Ruben; Wijmenga, Ciska; van Hottwelingen, Hans C.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Kimman, Tjeerd G.; Hoebee, Barbara; Janssen, Riny

    Prematurity is a risk factor for severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We show that genetic factors in innate immune genes (IFNA13, IFNAR2, STAT2. IL27, NFKBIA, C3, IL1RN, TLR5), in innate and adaptive immunity (IFNG), and in airway remodeling genes (ADAM33 and TGFBR1), affect disease

  10. A review of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Dutch breeding herds: population dynamics and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.; Nielen, M.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig populations is essential to the development of effective PRRS prevention and control strategies. Moreover, knowledge of the field dynamics of PRRSV in pigs will provide insights into the clinical relevance

  11. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  12. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  14. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  15. Clinical perspectives on the association between respiratory syncytial virus and reactive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurs Nele

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide, as is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. This report reviews controlled retrospective and prospective studies conducted to investigate whether there is an association between RSV bronchiolitis in infancy and subsequent development of reactive airway disease or allergic sensitization. Findings indicate that such a link to bronchial obstructive symptoms does exist and is strongest for children who experienced severe RSV illness that requires hospitalization. However, it is not yet clear what roles genetic predisposition and environmental or other risk factors may play in the interaction between RSV bronchiolitis and reactive airway disease or allergic sensitization. Randomized, prospective studies utilizing an intervention against RSV, such as a passive immunoprophylactic agent, may determine whether preventing RSV bronchiolitis reduces the incidence of asthma.

  16. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): Pathogenesis and Interaction with the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Joan K; Fang, Ying; Ladinig, Andrea; Chen, Nanhua; Li, Yanhua; Rowland, Bob; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis, and control. Worldwide, PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic mechanisms, and host immunity, with a special focus on immune factors that modulate PRRSV infections during the acute and chronic/persistent disease phases. We address genetic control of host resistance and probe effects of PRRSV infection on reproductive traits. A major goal is to identify cellular/viral targets and pathways for designing more effective vaccines and therapeutics. Based on progress in viral reverse genetics, host transcriptomics and genomics, and vaccinology and adjuvant technologies, we have identified new areas for PRRS control and prevention. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge base and the need for advanced molecular and immune tools to stimulate PRRS research and field applications.

  17. The causal direction in the association between respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob Brunbjerg; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have reported an increased risk of asthma after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. Other studies found that asthmatic disposition and propensity to wheeze increase the risk of RSV hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the causal direction...... of the associations between RSV hospitalization and asthma in a population-based cohort of twins. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study examining the associations between RSV hospitalization and asthma by using registry information on RSV hospitalization and asthma among 18,614 Danish twins born 1994...... to 2003. The associations between RSV and asthma were examined in both directions: we examined the risk of asthma after RSV hospitalization, and the risk of RSV hospitalization in children with asthma in the same population-based cohort. RESULTS: Asthma hospitalization after RSV hospitalization...

  18. Trends of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Children under 2 Years of Age in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Israel; García, Inés; García-Fragoso, Lourdes; Puig, Gilberto; Pedraza, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Luis; Santaella, Alvaro; Arce, Sylvia; Toledo, Marilyn; Soto, Edwin; Valcárcel, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant viral pathogen causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, today. In tropical climates the RSV infection may occur throughout the year. The purpose of this study was to asses RSV infections during the 2009‒2010 RSV season in children under 2 years of age and to evaluate the trend of positive RSV tests in the period of 2007 to 2009. A retrospective review of data collected from 6 hospitals in Puerto Rico was performed. Patients with confirmed RSV bronchiolitis were included in the study. A total of 4,678 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 7 months. Data showed that RSV infection occurred throughout the studied months. Data confirms a year-round presence of RSV in Puerto Rico. The RSV surveillance system needs to be reinforced to establish and understand the epidemiology of RSV and to review the current immunoprophylaxis guidelines.

  19. Quasispecies variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during natural infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Tony L.; Lowe, James F.; Milburn, Suzanne M.; Firkins, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from two farms. All animals harbored multiple PRRSV variants at both the nucleic and the amino acid levels. Structural variation and rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution were no different within known epitopes than elsewhere. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that differences between farms, among animals within farms, and within individual animals accounted for 92.94, 3.84, and 3.22% of the total viral genetic variability observed, respectively. PRRSV exists during natural infection as a quasispecies distribution of related genotypes. Positive natural selection for immune evasiveness does not appear to maintain this diversity

  20. Genetic diversity and multiple introductions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawonguwech Roongroje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is prevalent in Thailand, causing a huge impact on the country's swine industry. Yet the diversity and origin of these Thai PRRSVs remained vague. In this context, we collected all the Thai PRRSV sequences described earlier and incorporated them into the global diversity. The results indicated that PRRSVs in Thailand were originated from multiple introductions involving both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSVs. Many of the introductions were followed by extensive geographic expansion, causing regional co-circulation of diverse PRRSV variants in three major pig-producing provinces. Based on these results, we suggest (1 to avoid blind vaccination and to apply vaccines tailor-made for target diversity, (2 to monitor pig importation and transportation, and (3 to implement a better biosecurity to reduce horizontal transmissions as three potentially effective strategies of controlling PRRS in Thailand.

  1. Serological evidence of type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barun Kumar; Manandhar, Salina; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. However, little is known about PRRS in Nepal, a South Asian country with a gradually increasing pig industry. In 2011, a pilot project was initiated to identify the status of PRRSV in pigs of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Out of 98 serum samples, 31 (32 %; 95 % CI 23-42 %) were found positive by ELISA. All positive samples belonged to the type 2 (North American) genotype. Molecular evaluation by real-time PCR however did not yield positive results. At the herd level, seropositivity was associated with a history of abortion and premature birth. Veterinarians, farmers and government should be aware of this threat to the Nepalese pig industry and initiate an appropriate response.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and phylodynamics of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein in northern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The glycoprotein (G protein and fusion protein (F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV both show genetic variability, but few studies have examined the F protein gene. This study aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and phylodynamics of the F protein gene in clinical RSV strains isolated in northern Taiwan from 2000-2011. METHODS: RSV isolates from children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms between July 2000 and June 2011 were typed based on F protein gene sequences. Phylogeny construction and evaluation were performed using the neighbor-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML methods. Phylodynamic patterns in RSV F protein genes were analyzed using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework. Selection pressure on the F protein gene was detected using the Datamonkey website interface. RESULTS: From a total of 325 clinical RSV strains studied, phylogenetic analysis showed that 83 subgroup A strains (RSV-A could be further divided into three clusters, whereas 58 subgroup B strains (RSV-B had no significant clustering. Three amino acids were observed to differ between RSV-A and -B (positions 111, 113, and 114 in CTL HLA-B*57- and HLA-A*01-restricted epitopes. One positive selection site was observed in RSV-B, while none was observed in RSV-A. The evolution rate of the virus had very little change before 2000, then slowed down between 2000 and 2005, and evolved significantly faster after 2005. The dominant subtypes of RSV-A in each epidemic were replaced by different subtypes in the subsequent epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: Before 2004, RSV-A infections were involved in several small epidemics and only very limited numbers of strains evolved and re-emerged in subsequent years. After 2005, the circulating RSV-A strains were different from those of the previous years and continued evolving through 2010. Phylodynamic pattern showed the evolutionary divergence of RSV increased significantly in the recent 5

  3. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (pibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes. However lung

  4. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction experiments

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    Saldin, D. K.; Poon, H.-C.; Schwander, P.; Uddin, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-08-01

    The first experimental data from single-particle scattering experiments from free electron lasers (FELs) are now becoming available. The first such experiments are being performed on relatively large objects such as viruses, which produce relatively low-resolution, low-noise diffraction patterns in so-called ``diffract-and-destroy'' experiments. We describe a very simple test on the angular correlations of measured diffraction data to determine if the scattering is from an icosahedral particle. If this is confirmed, the efficient algorithm proposed can then combine diffraction data from multiple shots of particles in random unknown orientations to generate a full 3D image of the icosahedral particle. We demonstrate this with a simulation for the satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV), the atomic coordinates of whose asymmetric unit is given in Protein Data Bank entry 2BUK.

  5. Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Namita; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Torres, Siddartha; Li, Feng; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease affecting the cattle industry. The pathogenesis of BRD is complex and includes contributions from microbial pathogens as well as host, environmental and animal management factors. In this study, we utilized viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the virome of nasal swab samples obtained from feedlot cattle with acute BRD and asymptomatic pen-mates at six and four feedlots in Mexico and the USA, respectively, in April-October 2015. Twenty-one viruses were detected, with bovine rhinitis A (52.7 %) and B (23.7 %) virus, and bovine coronavirus (24.7 %) being the most commonly identified. The emerging influenza D virus (IDV) tended to be significantly associated (P=0.134; odds ratio=2.94) with disease, whereas viruses commonly associated with BRD such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus were detected less frequently. The detection of IDV was further confirmed using a real-time PCR assay. Nasal swabs from symptomatic animals had significantly more IDV RNA than those collected from healthy animals (P=0.04). In addition to known viruses, new genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus and enterovirus E were identified and a newly proposed species of bocaparvovirus, Ungulate bocaparvovirus 6, was characterized. Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 was also detected for the first time in North America to our knowledge. These results illustrate the complexity of the virome associated with BRD and highlight the need for further research into the contribution of other viruses to BRD pathogenesis.

  6. Analysis of the interaction between respiratory syncytial virus and lipid-rafts in Hep2 cells during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Gaie; Jeffree, Chris E.; McDonald, Terence; McL Rixon, Helen W.; Aitken, James D.; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The assembly of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in lipid-rafts was examined in Hep2 cells. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that during RSV assembly, the cellular distribution of the complement regulatory proteins, decay accelerating factor (CD55) and CD59, changes and high levels of these cellular proteins are incorporated into mature virus filaments. The detergent-solubility properties of CD55, CD59, and the RSV fusion (F) protein were found to be consistent with each protein being located predominantly within lipid-raft structures. The levels of these proteins in cell-released virus were examined by immunoelectronmicroscopy and found to account for between 5% and 15% of the virus attachment (G) glycoprotein levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that an intimate association exists between RSV and lipid-raft membranes and that significant levels of these host-derived raft proteins, such as those regulating complement activation, are subsequently incorporated into the envelope of mature virus particles

  7. Influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Conrad, Tim; Myles, Puja; Alchikh, Maren; Ma, Xiaolin; Hoppe, Christian; Tief, Franziska; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Kisler, Bron; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2017-06-01

    Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3.13; S.D. 3.89; range: 0 to 18.79). Expert commentary: The ViVI Score was correlated with risk of antibiotic use as well as need for hospitalization and intensive care. The ViVI Score was used to track children with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections and is fully compliant with regulatory data standards. The ViVI Disease Severity Score mobile application allows physicians to measure disease severity at the point-of care thereby taking clinical trials to the next level.

  8. [Incidence and severity of pertussis in infants with a respiratory syncytial virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Samos, María; Amores Torres, María; Pradillo Martín, María Cristina; Moreno-Pérez, David; Cordón Martínez, Ana; Urda Cardona, Antonio; Ramos Fernández, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a re-emerging disease that mostly affects infants. At this age, the severity can be affected by intercurrent infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). To estimate the incidence of RSV infection during an epidemic period in patients hospitalized due to pertussis. The impact on the severity was also observed during hospitalization. A descriptive study of cases diagnosed with pertussis admitted to a tertiary hospital over a 3year period, where the presence of co-infection with RSV was analyzed. The estimate of severity was estimated using the incidence of complications and the level of care required. From a total of 73 infants with pertussis, 34 occurred in a bronchiolitis season epidemic. A co-infection due to RSV was detected in 17 patients. The mean age was not significantly different compared to the non co-infected. The mean stay and the need for intensive care was similar in both groups. The need for oxygen therapy care and nutritional support was higher in the coinfected patients. Coinfection with RSV in infants hospitalized with pertussis occurred in ono in 2 patients during a RSV epidemic season, in infants of similar age. Severity in terms of stay, presence of apnea and admission to intensive care was similar, but more need for respiratory care and nutritional support was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational redesign of human respiratory syncytial virus epitope as therapeutic peptide vaccines against pediatric pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangxiang; Zheng, Jun; Yan, Tingting

    2018-03-02

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Here, the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein epitope FFL was redesigned based on its complex crystal structure with motavizumab, an mAb drug in development for the prevention of RSV infections, aiming to obtain therapeutic peptide vaccines with high affinity to induce RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Computational modeling and analysis found that only a small region covering the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of FFL can directly interact with motavizumab and confer stability and specificity to the complex system, while the rest of the epitope primarily serves as a structural scaffold that stabilizes the HTH conformation of motavizumab-binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a large flexibility and intrinsic disorder for the isolated linear HTH peptide, which would incur a considerable entropy penalty upon binding to motavizumab. In this respect, the FFL epitope was redesigned by truncation, mutation, and cyclization to derive a number of small cyclic peptide immunogens. We also employed in vitro fluorescence-based assays to demonstrate that the linear epitope peptide has no observable affinity to motavizumab, whereas redesigned versions of the peptide can bind with a moderate or high potency. Graphical abstract Computationally modeled complex structure of RSV F glycoprotein with motavizumab and zoom up of the complex binding site.

  10. Factors Affecting the Immunity to Respiratory Syncytial Virus: From Epigenetics to Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Fonseca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common pathogen that infects virtually all children by 2 years of age and is the leading cause of hospitalization of infants worldwide. While most children experience mild symptoms, some children progress to severe lower respiratory tract infection. Those children with severe disease have a much higher risk of developing childhood wheezing later in life. Many risk factors are known to result in exacerbated disease, including premature birth and early age of RSV infection, when the immune system is relatively immature. The development of the immune system before and after birth may be altered by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors that could lead to severe disease predisposition in children who do not exhibit any currently known risk factors. Recently, the role of the microbiome and the resulting metabolite profile has been an area of intense study in the development of lung disease, including viral infection and asthma. This review explores both known risk factors that can lead to severe RSV-induced disease as well as emerging topics in the development of immunity to RSV and the long-term consequences of severe infection.

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus is present in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaira, Nusrat; Sheils, Joanne; Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Lui, Kei; Oie, Ju-Lee; Snelling, Tom; Jaffe, Adam; Rawlinson, William

    2016-02-01

    Nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occurs in children within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During peak community RSV transmission, three swabs were collected from the nose, hand and personal clothing of visitors and health care workers (HCW) in NICU once every week for eight weeks. Nasal swabs were collected from every third neonate and from any neonate clinically suspected of having a respiratory infection. Environmental sampling of high touch areas was done once during the study period. All swabs were tested for RSV using real time RT-PCR. There were 173 (519 total) and 109 (327 total) swabs, each of nose, hand and dress from 84 HCWs and 80 visitors respectively and 81 nasal swabs from 55 neonates collected. Thirty five environmental swabs from surfaces of the beds, side tables, counter tops, chairs, tables and computers were collected. Overall 1% of nasal swabs from each of HCWs, visitors and neonates, 4% of dress specimens from visitors and 9% of environmental swabs were positive for RSV-RNA. The results suggest that though the risk for RSV in the NICU remains low, personnel clothing are contaminated with RSV-RNA and may have a role in transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Retrospective Parameter Estimation and Forecast of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the United States.

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    Julia Reis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that systems combining mathematical modeling and Bayesian inference methods can be used to generate real-time forecasts of future infectious disease incidence. Here we develop such a system to study and forecast respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. RSV is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection and bronchiolitis. Advanced warning of the epidemic timing and volume of RSV patient surges has the potential to reduce well-documented delays of treatment in emergency departments. We use a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR model in conjunction with an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF and ten years of regional U.S. specimen data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data and EAKF are used to optimize the SIR model and i estimate critical epidemiological parameters over the course of each outbreak and ii generate retrospective forecasts. The basic reproductive number, R0, is estimated at 3.0 (standard deviation 0.6 across all seasons and locations. The peak magnitude of RSV outbreaks is forecast with nearly 70% accuracy (i.e. nearly 70% of forecasts within 25% of the actual peak, four weeks before the predicted peak. This work represents a first step in the development of a real-time RSV prediction system.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

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    Rungnapa Malasao

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%, of which 305 (72.1% and 118 (27.9% were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05 and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Isolde; Dapat, Clyde; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mayuko; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Quicho, Reynaldo Frederick Negosa; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR) of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%), of which 305 (72.1%) and 118 (27.9%) were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (pPhilippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines.

  15. Sustained protein kinase D activation mediates respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Fariba; DeSando, Samantha A; Ivanov, Andrei I; Chapman, Timothy J; Knowlden, Sara A; Beck, Lisa A; Georas, Steve N

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function is a new frontier in asthma and respiratory viral infections. Despite recent progress, little is known about how respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acts at mucosal sites, and very little is known about its ability to influence airway epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied the effect of RSV infection on the airway epithelial barrier using model epithelia. 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cells were grown on Transwell inserts and infected with RSV strain A2. We analyzed (i) epithelial apical junction complex (AJC) function, measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran, and (ii) AJC structure using immunofluorescent staining. Cells were pretreated or not with protein kinase D (PKD) inhibitors. UV-irradiated RSV served as a negative control. RSV infection led to a significant reduction in TEER and increase in permeability. Additionally it caused disruption of the AJC and remodeling of the apical actin cytoskeleton. Pretreatment with two structurally unrelated PKD inhibitors markedly attenuated RSV-induced effects. RSV induced phosphorylation of the actin binding protein cortactin in a PKD-dependent manner. UV-inactivated RSV had no effect on AJC function or structure. Our results suggest that RSV-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption involves PKD-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling, possibly dependent on cortactin activation. Defining the mechanisms by which RSV disrupts epithelial structure and function should enhance our understanding of the association between respiratory viral infections, airway inflammation, and allergen sensitization. Impaired barrier function may open a potential new therapeutic target for RSV-mediated lung diseases.

  16. Neonatal calf infection with respiratory syncytial virus: drawing parallels to the disease in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Randy E; McGill, Jodi L; Palmer, Mitchell V; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Nonnecke, Brian J

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  17. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  18. Clinical characterization of influenza A and human respiratory syncytial virus among patients with influenza like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Dharamveer; Zia, Amreen; Umrao, Jyoti; Srivastava, Naveen; Pandey, Ankita; Singh, Sushma; Bhattacharya, Piyali; Kumari, Reema; Kushwaha, Ramawadh; Dhole, T N

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) has been recognized as a major cause of acute respiratory tract infection. H1N1 is one of the subtypes of influenza A, pandemic worldwide in July 2009, causing 18,449 deaths globally. To investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of the influenza A, H1N1pdm09, and RSV. Throat/nasal swab collected from the patients of all age group either outpatients/inpatients having respiratory illness from 2 to 5 days. The clinical data were recorded in a predesigned questionnaire. RNA was extracted and analyzed by real time PCR at a tertiary care center, 2009-2014. Total 4,352 samples tested for influenza A and H1N1. Out of 4,352, 32.2% (median positivity 21%; range 16-41% during 6 years) were positive for influenza A and 19% were H1N1 (median positivity 16.7%; range 8.7-23% during 6 years). Total 1653 samples were analyzed for RSV from 2011 to 2014, 12% were RSV positive (median positivity 11.35%; range 10-16.3% during 4 years). Pharyngitis, dyspnea were frequent symptoms in influenza A and H1N1 (P influenza A and H1N1 was higher in age-group 21-30, whereas RSV in infant and children. H1N1 and RSV were co-circulated and have common clinical symptoms particularly in lower age group. Therefore, laboratory confirmation is necessary for further disease prognosis. Age was an important risk factor that affects the positivity of influenza A, H1N1, and RSV. Different clinical manifestation of H1N1 and RSV will be helpful for early and accurate diagnosis. J. Med. Virol. 89:49-54, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of an alternative chest physiotherapy method in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiaux, Guy; Louis, Jacques; Labasse, Henri C; Gerroldt, Julien; Kotik, Anne-Claire; Lemuhot, Amandine; Patte, Caroline

    2011-07-01

    We proposed a new chest physiotherapy (CPT) secretion clearance method to treat respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants. Our new CPT method consists of 15 prolonged slow expirations, then 5 provoked cough maneuvers. We randomized 20 infants (mean age 4.2 months) into 2 groups: 8 patients received 27 sessions of nebulization of hypertonic saline; 12 patients received 31 sessions of nebulization of hypertonic saline followed by our new CPT method. We used the Wang clinical severity scoring system (which assesses wheezing, respiratory rate, retractions, and general condition) and measured S(pO(2)) and heart rate before each CPT session (T0), immediately after the 30-min session (T30), and 120 min after the session (T150). Within the groups: in the first group, Wang score was significantly lower at T150 than at T0: 4.6 vs 5.0 (P = .008). In the new-method-CPT group, Wang score was significantly lower at T30 (3.6 vs 4.3, P = .001) and at T150 (3.7 vs 4.3, P = .002). Wheezing score was significantly lower at T150 than at T0 (1.1 vs 1.2, P = .02) in the first group, and in the new-method-CPT group at T30 than at T0 (0.8 vs 1.3, P = .001) and at T150 than at T0 (0.9 vs 1.3, P = .001). Between the groups: at T30 the improvement was significantly better in the new-method-CPT group for overall Wang score (P = .02), retractions (P = .05), respiratory rate (P = .001), and heart rate (P bronchiolitis.

  20. Increased acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein enhances H5N1 influenza virus growth in the upper respiratory tract but is insufficient for transmission in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraket, Hassan; Bridges, Olga A; Duan, Susu; Baranovich, Tatiana; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Reed, Mark L; Salomon, Rachelle; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Russell, Charles J

    2013-09-01

    Influenza virus entry is mediated by the acidic-pH-induced activation of hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here, we investigated how a decrease in the HA activation pH (an increase in acid stability) influences the properties of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in mammalian hosts. We generated isogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) (VN1203) viruses containing either wild-type HA protein (activation pH 6.0) or an HA2-K58I point mutation (K to I at position 58) (activation pH 5.5). The VN1203-HA2-K58I virus had replication kinetics similar to those of wild-type VN1203 in MDCK and normal human bronchial epithelial cells and yet had reduced growth in human alveolar A549 cells, which were found to have a higher endosomal pH than MDCK cells. Wild-type and HA2-K58I viruses promoted similar levels of morbidity and mortality in C57BL/6J mice and ferrets, and neither virus transmitted efficiently to naive contact cage-mate ferrets. The acid-stabilizing HA2-K58I mutation, which diminishes H5N1 replication and transmission in ducks, increased the virus load in the ferret nasal cavity early during infection while simultaneously reducing the virus load in the lungs. Overall, a single, acid-stabilizing mutation was found to enhance the growth of an H5N1 influenza virus in the mammalian upper respiratory tract, and yet it was insufficient to enable contact transmission in ferrets in the absence of additional mutations that confer α(2,6) receptor binding specificity and remove a critical N-linked glycosylation site. The information provided here on the contribution of HA acid stability to H5N1 influenza virus fitness and transmissibility in mammals in the background of a non-laboratory-adapted virus provides essential information for the surveillance and assessment of the pandemic potential of currently circulating H5N1 viruses.

  1. Detection of influenza C viruses among outpatients and patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory infection, Minnesota, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Beth K; Friedlander, Hannah; Bistodeau, Sarah; Shu, Bo; Lynch, Brian; Martin, Karen; Bye, Erica; Como-Sabetti, Kathyrn; Boxrud, David; Strain, Anna K; Chaves, Sandra S; Steffens, Andrea; Fowlkes, Ashley L; Lindstrom, Stephen; Lynfield, Ruth

    2017-10-23

    Existing literature suggests that influenza C typically causes mild respiratory tract disease. However, clinical and epidemiological data are limited. Four outpatient clinics and three hospitals submitted clinical data and respiratory specimens through a surveillance network for acute respiratory infection (ARI) during May 2013 through December 2016. Specimens were tested using multi-target nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for 19-22 respiratory pathogens, including influenza C. Influenza C virus was detected among 59 of 10,202 (0.58%) hospitalized SARI cases and 11 of 2,282 (0.48%) outpatients. Most detections occurred from December to March, with 73% during the 2014-2015 season. Influenza C detections occurred among patients of all ages, with similar rates between inpatients and outpatients. The highest rate of detection occurred among children aged 6 to 24 months (1.2%). Among hospitalized cases, seven required intensive care. Medical co-morbidities were reported in 58% of hospitalized cases and all who required intensive care. At least one other respiratory pathogen was detected in 40 (66%) cases, most commonly rhinovirus/enterovirus (25%) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (20%). The hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) gene was sequenced in 37 specimens, and both C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo lineages were detected in inpatients and outpatients. We found seasonal circulation of influenza C with year-to-year variability. Detection was most frequent among young children, but occurred in all ages. Some cases positive for influenza C, particularly those with co-morbid conditions, had severe disease, suggesting a need for further study of the role of influenza C virus in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease.

  2. The role of neutrophils in the upper and lower respiratory tract during influenza virus infection of mice

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    Reading Patrick C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils have been shown to play a role in host defence against highly virulent and mouse-adapted strains of influenza virus, however it is not clear if an effective neutrophil response is an important factor moderating disease severity during infection with other virus strains. In this study, we have examined the role of neutrophils during infection of mice with influenza virus strain HKx31, a virus strain of the H3N2 subtype and of moderate virulence for mice, to determine the role of neutrophils in the early phase of infection and in clearance of influenza virus from the respiratory tract during the later phase of infection. Methods The anti-Gr-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb RB6-8C5 was used to (i identify neutrophils in the upper (nasal tissues and lower (lung respiratory tract of uninfected and influenza virus-infected mice, and (ii deplete neutrophils prior to and during influenza virus infection of mice. Results Neutrophils were rapidly recruited to the upper and lower airways following influenza virus infection. We demonstrated that use of mAb RB6-8C5 to deplete C57BL/6 (B6 mice of neutrophils is complicated by the ability of this mAb to bind directly to virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, we investigated the role of neutrophils in both the early and later phases of infection using CD8+ T cell-deficient B6.TAP-/- mice. Infection of B6.TAP-/- mice with a low dose of influenza virus did not induce clinical disease in control animals, however RB6-8C5 treatment led to profound weight loss, severe clinical disease and enhanced virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Conclusion Neutrophils play a critical role in limiting influenza virus replication during the early and later phases of infection. Furthermore, a virus strain of moderate virulence can induce severe clinical disease in the absence of an effective neutrophil response.

  3. The respiratory syncytial virus G protein conserved domain induces a persistent and protective antibody response in rodents.

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    Thien N Nguyen

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is an important cause of severe upper and lower respiratory disease in infants and in the elderly. There are 2 main RSV subtypes A and B. A recombinant vaccine was designed based on the central domain of the RSV-A attachment G protein which we had previously named G2Na (aa130-230. Here we evaluated immunogenicity, persistence of antibody (Ab response and protective efficacy induced in rodents by: (i G2Na fused to DT (Diphtheria toxin fragments in cotton rats. DT fusion did not potentiate neutralizing Ab responses against RSV-A or cross-reactivity to RSV-B. (ii G2Nb (aa130-230 of the RSV-B G protein either fused to, or admixed with G2Na. G2Nb did not induce RSV-B-reactive Ab responses. (iii G2Na at low doses. Two injections of 3 µg G2Na in Alum were sufficient to induce protective immune responses in mouse lungs, preventing RSV-A and greatly reducing RSV-B infections. In cotton rats, G2Na-induced RSV-reactive Ab and protective immunity against RSV-A challenge that persisted for at least 24 weeks. (iv injecting RSV primed mice with a single dose of G2Na/Alum or G2Na/PLGA [poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide]. Despite the presence of pre-existing RSV-specific Abs, these formulations effectively boosted anti-RSV Ab titres and increased Ab titres persisted for at least 21 weeks. Affinity maturation of these Abs increased from day 28 to day 148. These data indicate that G2Na has potential as a component of an RSV vaccine formulation.

  4. Multiplex PCR system for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H-S; Tsai, C-L; Chang, J; Hsu, T-C; Lin, S; Lee, C-C

    2017-12-05

    To provide a summary of evidence for the diagnostic accuracies of three multiplex PCR systems (mPCRs)-BioFire FilmArray RP (FilmArray), Nanosphere Verigene RV+ test (Verigene RV+) and Hologic Gen-Probe Prodesse assays-on the detection of viral respiratory infections. A comprehensive search up to 1 July 2017 was conducted on Medline and Embase for studies that utilized FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and Prodesse for diagnosis of viral respiratory infections. A summary of diagnostic accuracies for the following five viruses were calculated: influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Hierarchical summary receiver operating curves were used for estimating the viral detection performance per assay. Twenty studies of 5510 patient samples were eligible for analysis. Multiplex PCRs demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) equal to or more than 0.98 for all the above viruses except for adenovirus (AUROC 0.89). FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and ProFlu+ (the only Prodesse assay with enough data) demonstrated a summary sensitivity for FluA of 0.911 (95% confidence interval, 0.848-0.949), 0.949 (95% confidence interval, 0.882-0.979) and 0.954 (95% confidence interval, 0.871-0.985), respectively. The three mPCRs were comparable in terms of detection of FluA. Point estimates calculated from eligible studies showed that the three mPCRs (FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and ProFlu+) are highly accurate and may provide important diagnostic information for early identification of respiratory virus infections. In patients with low pretest probability for FluA, these three mPCRs can predict a low possibility of infection and may justify withholding empirical antiviral treatments. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

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    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  6. Parainfluenza-3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus: intraherd correlation adjusted for sensitivity and specificity

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    José Segura C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and design effects (D estimates adjusted or unadjusted for sensibility (Se and specificity (Sp of the diagnostic tests using a Bayesian procedure. Materials and methods. Sera from 232 animals from 44 randomly selected herds, to detect antibodies against parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV3 from non-vaccinated dual-purpose cattle from Colima Mexico, were used. Only 176 animals from 33 herds were used to evaluate the presence of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV. Results. The ICC and D values adjusted and unadjusted for PIV3 were 0.33, 2.73, 0.32, and 2.71, respectively. For BRSV the values were 0.31, 2.64, 0.28 and 2.49. Conclusions. The adjusted or unadjusted ICC and D estimates were similar because of the high Se and Sp of the diagnostic tests and the relatively high prevalence of the diseases here studied.

  7. Personal clothing as a potential vector of respiratory virus transmission in childcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralton, Jan; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-06-01

    Previous investigations of fomite transmission have focused on the presence of pathogens on inanimate objects in clinical settings. There has been limited investigation of fomite transmission in non-clinical pediatric settings where there is a high prevalence of respiratory virus infections. Over a 5 week period, this study investigated whether the personal clothing of teachers working in childcare centers was contaminated with viral RNA, and potentially could mediate virus transmission. Matched morning and evening clothing and nasal samples were collected for 313 teacher work days (TWDs). Human rhinoviruses (hRV) RNA were detected from samples using real-time PCR. Human rhinovirus RNA was detected in clothing samples on 16 TWDs and in nasal samples on 32 TWDs. There were no TWDs when teachers provided both positive nasal and clothing samples and only three TWDs when hRV persisted on clothing for the entire day. The detection of hRV RNA was significantly predicted by self-recognition of symptomatic illness by the teacher 2 days prior to detection. These findings suggest that teachers' personal clothing in childcare settings is unlikely to facilitate the transmission of hRV. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  9. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. © 2010

  10. Serum High-Mobility-Group Box 1 as a Biomarker and a Therapeutic Target during Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge C G

    2018-03-13

    Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI. However, changes in systemic HMGB1 kinetics during the course of influenza virus infection in animal models and humans have yet to establish an association of HMGB1 release with influenza virus infection. To this end, we used the cotton rat model that is permissive to nonadapted strains of influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Serum HMGB1 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prior to infection until day 14 or 18 post-infection. Infection with either influenza A or B virus resulted in a robust increase in serum HMGB1 levels that decreased by days 14 to 18. Inoculation with the live attenuated vaccine FluMist resulted in HMGB1 levels that were significantly lower than those with infection with live influenza viruses. RSV and HRVs showed profiles of serum HMGB1 induction that were consistent with their replication and degree of lung pathology in cotton rats. We further showed that therapeutic treatment with Eritoran of cotton rats infected with influenza B virus significantly blunted serum HMGB1 levels and improved lung pathology, without inhibiting virus replication. These findings support the use of drugs that block HMGB1 to combat influenza virus-induced ALI. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus is a common infectious agent causing serious seasonal epidemics, and there is urgent need to develop an alternative treatment

  11. Application of Multiplex PCR Coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Analysis for Simultaneous Detection of 21 Common Respiratory Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Xiao, Yan; Du, Jiang; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei; Peng, Junping; Jin, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory infections continue to pose a significant threat to human health. It is important to accurately and rapidly detect respiratory viruses. To compensate for the limits of current respiratory virus detection methods, we developed a 24-plex analysis (common respiratory virus-mass spectrometry [CRV-MS]) that can simultaneously detect and identify 21 common respiratory viruses based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system. To evaluate the efficacy of the CRV-MS method, we used 102 samples that were confirmed positive for these common respiratory viruses. All tests using the CRV-MS method were effective, with no cross-reactivity observed with other common respiratory viruses. To confirm the usefulness of the CRV-MS method, we screened 336 nasal and throat swabs that were collected from adults or children with suspected viral acute respiratory tract infections using the CRV-MS method and consensus PCR/reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. Excluding four RNase P-negative samples, the CRV-MS and consensus PCR/RT-PCR methods detected respiratory viruses in 92.5% (307/332) and 89.5% (297/332) of the samples, respectively. The two methods yielded identical results for 306 (92.2%) samples, including negative results for 25 samples (7.5%) and positive results for 281 samples (84.6%). Differences between the two methods may reflect their different sensitivities. The CRV-MS method proved to be sensitive and robust, and it can be used in large-scale epidemiological studies of common respiratory virus infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. An intracellularly expressed Nsp9-specific nanobody in MARC-145 cells inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Yan; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Angke; Liang, Chao; Gao, Jiming; Zhang, Chong; Huang, Baicheng; Li, Qiongyi; Li, Na; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-12-31

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a widespread viral disease affecting the swine industry, with no cure or effective treatment. Current vaccines are inefficient mainly due to the high degree of genetic and antigenic variation within PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thus, the development of novel anti-PRRSV strategies is an important area of research. The nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) of PRRSV is essential for viral replication, and its sequence is relatively conserved, making it a logical antiviral target for PRRSV. Camel single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) represent a promising antiviral approach because of their small size, high specificity, and solubility. However, no nanobodies against PRRSV have been reported to date. In this study, Nsp9-specific nanobodies were isolated from a phage display library of variable domains of Camellidaeheavy chain-only antibodies (VHH). One of the isolated nanobodies, Nb6, was chosen for further investigation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Nb6 can still maintain antigen binding capabilities when expressed in the cell cytoplasm. A MARC-145 cell line stably expressing Nb6 was established to investigate its potential antiviral activity. Our results showed that intracellularly expressed Nb6 could potently suppress PRRSV replication by inhibiting viral genome replication and transcription. More importantly, Nb6 could protect MARC-145 cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and fully block PRRSV replication at an MOI of 0.01 or lower. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanobody based antiviral strategy against PRRSV, and this finding has the potential to lead to future developments of novel antiviral treatments for PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheem, Insoo; Park, Joowon; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Wan

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analytical performance and clinical potential of a one-step multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of 14 types of respiratory viruses using the AdvanSure RV real-time PCR Kit (LG Life Sciences, Korea). Three hundred and twenty clinical specimens were tested with the AdvanSure RV real-time PCR Kit and conventional multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. The assay results were analyzed and the one-step AdvanSure RV real-time PCR Kit was compared with the conventional multiplex RT-PCR assay with respect to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of respiratory viruses. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.31 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL for human rhinoviruses (hRVs), 4.93 PFU/mL for human coronavirus HCoV-229E/NL63, 2.67 PFU/mL for human coronavirus HCoV-OC43, 18.20 PFU/mL for parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV)-1, 24.57 PFU/mL for PIV-2, 1.73 PFU/mL for PIV-3, 1.79 PFU/mL for influenza virus group (Flu) A, 59.51 PFU/mL for FluB, 5.46 PFU/mL for human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV)-A, 17.23 PFU/mL for hRSV-B, 9.99 PFU/mL for human adenovirus (ADVs). The cross-reactivity test for this assay against 23 types of non-respiratory viruses showed negative results for all viruses tested. The agreement between the one-step AdvanSure multiplex real-time PCR assay and the conventional multiplex RT-PCR assay was 98%. The one-step AdvanSure RV multiplex real-time PCR assay is a simple assay with high potential for specific, rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnosis of respiratory viruses compared to conventional multiplex RT-PCR.

  14. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  15. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kelly M; Mengeling, William L; Wesley, Ronald D

    2003-05-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns). Gilts of study 1 were euthanized on day 7 postpartum. Gilts of study 2 were euthanized on, or about, gestation day 111. All gilts, pigs, and fetuses were tested for the presence and type of strain of PRRSV. Of 128 samples shown to contain PRRSV, 118 contained a single strain, 4 contained 2 strains, and 2 contained a strain or strains for which the RFLP pattern was undecipherable. Only 8 of the 20 strains were isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters. And only 2 of the 20 strains (notably 2 of the same strains isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters), were isolated from vaccinated gilts and their litters. Moreover, 1 of the 2 strains accounted for most (31 of 37; 84%) of the isolates from the vaccinated group. Collectively these results indicate that strains differ in their ability to replicate in pregnant gilts and cross the placental barrier. And they suggest that maternal immunity, although sometimes insufficient to prevent transplacental infection, can exert additional selective pressure.

  16. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin; Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC 50 value of 80.5 ± 16.9 μmol L -1 (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 ± 7.4 μmol L -1 (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  17. Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for the diagnosis of eight respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays.

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    Curi Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many acute respiratory illness surveillance systems collect and test nasopharyngeal (NP and/or oropharyngeal (OP swab specimens, yet there are few studies assessing the relative measures of performance for NP versus OP specimens. METHODS: We collected paired NP and OP swabs separately from pediatric and adult patients with influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory illness at two respiratory surveillance sites in Kenya. The specimens were tested for eight respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Positivity for a specific virus was defined as detection of viral nucleic acid in either swab. RESULTS: Of 2,331 paired NP/OP specimens, 1,402 (60.1% were positive for at least one virus, and 393 (16.9% were positive for more than one virus. Overall, OP swabs were significantly more sensitive than NP swabs for adenovirus (72.4% vs. 57.6%, p<0.01 and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus (91.2% vs. 70.4%, p<0.01. NP specimens were more sensitive for influenza B virus (83.3% vs. 61.5%, p = 0.02, parainfluenza virus 2 (85.7%, vs. 39.3%, p<0.01, and parainfluenza virus 3 (83.9% vs. 67.4%, p<0.01. The two methods did not differ significantly for human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H3N2 virus, parainfluenza virus 1, or respiratory syncytial virus. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivities were variable among the eight viruses tested; neither specimen was consistently more effective than the other. For respiratory disease surveillance programs using qRT-PCR that aim to maximize sensitivity for a large number of viruses, collecting combined NP and OP specimens would be the most effective approach.

  18. Efficacy of an intranasal modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus and temperature-sensitive parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine in 3-week-old calves experimentally challenged with PI3V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Ilse; Ioannou, Faye; Riegler, Lutz; Salt, Jeremy S; Harmeyer, Silke S

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3V) challenge studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an attenuated live vaccine containing modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and temperature-sensitive PI3V in 3-week-old calves. In the first study, vaccine efficacy was evaluated in colostrum deprived calves. Nasal shedding of PI3V was highly significantly reduced in vaccinated calves challenged 10 days or 21 days after vaccination. In the second study, vaccine efficacy was assessed in calves with maternal antibodies against PI3V by challenge 66 days post-vaccination. Vaccination also significantly reduced PI3V excretion after challenge in this study. In both studies, clinical signs after challenge were very mild and were not different between vaccinated and control calves.

  19. Port d’Entrée for Respiratory Infections – Does the Influenza A Virus Pave the Way for Bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Siemens

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract are life-threatening and present a global burden to the global community. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes are frequent colonizers of the upper respiratory tract. Imbalances through acquisition of seasonal viruses, e.g., Influenza A virus, can lead to bacterial dissemination to the lower respiratory tract, which in turn can result in severe pneumonia. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract and focus on potential experimental models suitable for mimicking this disease. Transmission of IAV and pneumonia is mainly modeled by mouse infection. Few studies utilizing ferrets, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and non-human primates are also available. The knowledge gained from these studies led to important discoveries and advances in understanding these infectious diseases. Nevertheless, mouse and other infection models have limitations, especially in translation of the discoveries to humans. Here, we suggest the use of human engineered lung tissue, human ex vivo lung tissue, and porcine models to study respiratory co-infections, which might contribute to a greater translation of the results to humans and improve both, animal and human health.

  20. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  1. Impact of Early Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Multiplex PCR Assay on Clinical Outcomes in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappo, Urania; Schuetz, Audrey N; Jenkins, Stephen G; Calfee, David P; Walsh, Thomas J; Wells, Martin T; Hollenberg, James P; Glesby, Marshall J

    2016-08-01

    Rapid and definitive diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is imperative in patient triage and management. We compared the outcomes for adult patients with positive tests for respiratory viruses at a tertiary care center across two consecutive influenza seasons (winters of 2010-2011 and 2012). Infections were diagnosed by conventional methods in the first season and by multiplex PCR (FilmArray) in the second season. FilmArray decreased the time to diagnosis of influenza compared to conventional methods (median turnaround times of 1.7 h versus 7.7 h, respectively; P = 0.015); FilmArray also decreased the time to diagnosis of non-influenza viruses (1.5 h versus 13.5 h, respectively; P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression found that a diagnosis of influenza by FilmArray was associated with significantly lower odds ratios (ORs) for admission (P = 0.046), length of stay (P = 0.040), duration of antimicrobial use (P = 0.032), and number of chest radiographs (P = 0.005), when controlling for potential confounders. We conclude that the rapid turnaround time, multiplex nature of the test (allowing simultaneous detection of an array of viruses), and superior sensitivity of FilmArray may improve the evaluation and management of patients suspected of having respiratory virus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Comparative Respiratory Pathogenicity and Dynamic Tissue Distribution of Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and its Attenuated Strain in Piglets.

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    Liu, C; Zhang, W; Gong, W; Zhang, D; She, R; Xu, B; Ning, Y

    2015-07-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in 2006 devastated the Chinese swine industry. HP-PRRS virus is still the predominant strain in mainland China, rather than the classical PRRSV strain, and the attenuated live vaccine remains the preferred choice for protecting piglets against HP-PRRSV infection. To fully evaluate the safety of strain GDr180, the 180th attenuated virus of the HP-PRRSV strain GD, we used clinicopathological, microscopical, ultrastructural, serological and molecular biological methods to assess the different clinical manifestations and respiratory characteristics of piglets inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain GD or strain GDr180. The 5-week-old piglets inoculated with strain GD displayed marked clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, dyspnoea and tachypnoea. Significant interstitial pneumonia was present, characterized by thickened alveolar septa infiltrated with mononuclear cells and cell debris. However, the piglets inoculated with strain GDr180 and the negative control piglets showed neither clinical signs nor microscopical or ultrastructural lesions. Ultrastructural observation of the piglets' tracheas and examination of the dynamic tissue distributions of PRRSV strain GD and attenuated strain GDr180, by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, confirmed significant differences in their pathogenicity and distribution in the respiratory systems of piglets. The differences in pathogenicity are attributable to the different severity of the pathological changes in the pigs inoculated with the two strains. Thus, the HP-PRRSV GDr180 strain is practically harmless to the respiratory systems of piglets and may be a safe candidate for inducing immunity against HP-PRRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the Localized Immune Response in the Respiratory Tract of Ferrets following Infection with Influenza A and B Viruses.

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    Carolan, Louise A; Rockman, Steve; Borg, Kathryn; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Reading, Patrick; Mosse, Jennifer; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Laurie, Karen L

    2015-12-30

    The burden of infection with seasonal influenza viruses is significant. Each year is typically characterized by the dominance of one (sub)type or lineage of influenza A or B virus, respectively. The incidence of disease varies annually, and while this may be attributed to a particular virus strain or subtype, the impacts of prior immunity, population differences, and variations in clinical assessment are also important. To improve our understanding of the impacts of seasonal influenza viruses, we directly compared clinical symptoms, virus shedding, and expression of cytokines, chemokines, and immune mediators in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of ferrets infected with contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or influenza B virus. Gene expression in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) was also assessed. Clinical symptoms were minimal. Overall cytokine/chemokine profiles in the URT were consistent in pattern and magnitude between animals infected with influenza A and B viruses, and peak expression levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs correlated with peak levels of viral shedding. MCP1 and IFN-γ were expressed after the virus peak. Granzymes A and B and IL-10 reached peak expression as the virus was cleared and seroconversion was detected. Cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the LRT following A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection reflected the observations seen for the URT but was delayed 2 or 3 days, as was virus replication. These data indicate that disease severities and localized immune responses following infection with seasonal influenza A and B viruses are similar, suggesting that other factors are likely to modulate the incidence and impact of seasonal influenza. Both influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in the human population, and annual influenza seasons are typically dominated by an influenza A virus subtype or an influenza B virus lineage. Surveillance data

  4. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus

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    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

  5. The eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is critical for genome replication of the paramyxovirus respiratory syncytial virus.

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    Ting Wei

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic translation factor eEF1A assists replication of many RNA viruses by various mechanisms. Here we show that down-regulation of eEF1A restricts the expression of viral genomic RNA and the release of infectious virus, demonstrating a biological requirement for eEF1A in the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV life cycle. The key proteins in the replicase/transcriptase complex of RSV; the nucleocapsid (N protein, phosphoprotein (P and matrix (M protein, all associate with eEF1A in RSV infected cells, although N is the strongest binding partner. Using individually expressed proteins, N, but not P or M bound to eEF1A. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between eEF1A and the RSV replication complex, through binding to N protein, to facilitate genomic RNA synthesis and virus production.

  6. The eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is critical for genome replication of the paramyxovirus respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Li, Dongsheng; Marcial, Daneth; Khan, Moshin; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Snape, Natale; Ghildyal, Reena; Harrich, David; Spann, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation factor eEF1A assists replication of many RNA viruses by various mechanisms. Here we show that down-regulation of eEF1A restricts the expression of viral genomic RNA and the release of infectious virus, demonstrating a biological requirement for eEF1A in the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) life cycle. The key proteins in the replicase/transcriptase complex of RSV; the nucleocapsid (N) protein, phosphoprotein (P) and matrix (M) protein, all associate with eEF1A in RSV infected cells, although N is the strongest binding partner. Using individually expressed proteins, N, but not P or M bound to eEF1A. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between eEF1A and the RSV replication complex, through binding to N protein, to facilitate genomic RNA synthesis and virus production.

  7. Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins and antiviral cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 ° IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more

  8. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) ameliorates the effects of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Quincy L; Curiel, Rafael E

    2005-08-15

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) disease, one of the most economically significant viral diseases in the swine industry, is characterized by miscarriages, premature farrowing, stillborn pigs, and respiratory disease associated with death and chronic poor performance of nursing and weaned pigs. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key component in driving the development of cell-mediated immunity as well as stimulating interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production from T cells and natural killer cells. Although some studies have investigated the use of IL-12 as a vaccine adjuvant in swine, little is known about its effectiveness as a treatment against viral diseases in swine. The present study investigated whether recombinant porcine IL-12 (rpIL-12) enhances the immune response and thereby diminishes the effects of PRRSV infection in young pigs. Interestingly, in vitro experiments demonstrated that rpIL-12 is capable of inducing swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the target cells of PRRSV, to produce IFN-gamma in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, in vitro studies also revealed that rpIL-12 treatment was capable of significantly reducing PRRSV viral titers in PAMs. In vivo administration of rpIL-12 significantly decreased PRRSV titers in the lungs and blood of infected animals. Furthermore, treatment with rpIL-12 prevented significant growth retardation in PRRSV-infected animals. Finally, in response to viral antigen recall challenge, PAMs isolated from rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma and lesser amounts of interleukin-10 than PAMs isolated from non-rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals. Taken together our data indicate that treatment with rpIL-12 may provide an effective approach to control or ameliorate PRRSV-induced disease in swine.

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein promotes TLR-4-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap formation by human neutrophils.

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    Giselle A Funchal

    Full Text Available Acute viral bronchiolitis by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the most common respiratory illness in children in the first year of life. RSV bronchiolitis generates large numbers of hospitalizations and an important burden to health systems. Neutrophils and their products are present in the airways of RSV-infected patients who developed increased lung disease. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs are formed by the release of granular and nuclear contents of neutrophils in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli and recent studies have proposed a role for NETs in viral infections. In this study, we show that RSV particles and RSV Fusion protein were both capable of inducing NET formation by human neutrophils. Moreover, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in RSV Fusion protein-induced NET formation. RSV F protein was able to induce NET release in a concentration-dependent fashion with both neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase expressed on DNA fibers and F protein-induced NETs was dismantled by DNase treatment, confirming that their backbone is chromatin. This viral protein caused the release of extracellular DNA dependent on TLR-4 activation, NADPH Oxidase-derived ROS production and ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Together, these results demonstrate a coordinated signaling pathway activated by F protein that led to NET production. The massive production of NETs in RSV infection could aggravate the inflammatory symptoms of the infection in young children and babies. We propose that targeting the binding of TLR-4 by F protein could potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammatory consequences and pathology of viral bronchiolitis.

  10. Prospective Evaluation of Rapid Antigen Tests for Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements. PMID:18337386

  11. Prospective evaluation of rapid antigen tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

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    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  13. Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Children with Acute Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shuichiro; Noguchi, Atsuko; Kikuchi, Wataru; Fukaya, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2017-12-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, a bioactive lipid to regulate cellular physiological functions. Thus, ASM activation has been reported as a key event in pathophysiological reactions including inflammation, cytokine release, oxidative stress, and endothelial damage in human diseases. Since ASM activation is associated with extracellular ASM secretion through unknown mechanisms, it can be detected by recognizing the elevation of secretory ASM (S-ASM) activity. Serum S-ASM activity has been reported to increase in chronic diseases, acute cardiac diseases, and systemic inflammatory diseases. However, the serum S-ASM has not been investigated in common acute illness. This study was designed to evaluate serum S-ASM activity in children with common acute illness. Fifty children with common acute illness and five healthy children were included in this study. The patients were categorized into five groups based on clinical diagnoses: acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, adenovirus infection, streptococcal infection, asthma, and other infections due to unknown origin. The serum S-ASM activity was significantly elevated at 6.9 ± 1.6 nmol/0.1 mL/6 h in the group of acute RSV bronchiolitis patients compared with healthy children who had a mean level of 1.8 ± 0.8 nmol/0.1 mL/6 h (p ASM activity was not significantly elevated. The results suggest an association of ASM activation with RSV infection, a cause for common acute illness. This is the first report to describe the elevation of serum S-ASM activity in respiratory tract infection.

  14. Altered cardiac rhythm in infants with bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Salice, Patrizia; Bosis, Samantha; Ghiglia, Silvia; Tremolati, Elena; Tagliabue, Claudia; Gualtieri, Laura; Barbier, Paolo; Galeone, Carlotta; Marchisio, Paola; Principi, Nicola

    2010-10-24

    Although the most frequent extra-pulmonary manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection involve the cardiovascular system, no data regarding heart function in infants with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection have yet been systematically collected. The aim of this study was to verify the real frequency of heart involvement in patients with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection, and whether infants with mild or moderate disease also risk heart malfunction. A total of 69 otherwise healthy infants aged 1-12 months with bronchiolitis hospitalised in standard wards were enrolled. Pernasal flocked swabs were performed to collect specimens for the detection of RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and a blood sample was drawn to assess troponin I concentrations. On the day of admission, all of the infants underwent 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and a complete heart evaluation with echocardiography. Patients were re-evaluated by investigators blinded to the etiological and cardiac findings four weeks after enrollment. Regardless of their clinical presentation, sinoatrial blocks were identified in 26/34 RSV-positive patients (76.5%) and 1/35 RSV-negative patients (2.9%) (p < 0.0001). The blocks recurred more than three times over 24 hours in 25/26 RSV-positive patients (96.2%) and none of the RSV-negative infants. Mean and maximum heart rates were significantly higher in the RSV-positive infants (p < 0.05), as was low-frequency power and the low and high-frequency power ratio (p < 0.05). The blocks were significantly more frequent in the children with an RSV load of ≥100,000 copies/mL than in those with a lower viral load (p < 0.0001). Holter ECG after 28 ± 3 days showed the complete regression of the heart abnormalities. RSV seems associated with sinoatrial blocks and transient rhythm alterations even when the related respiratory problems are mild or moderate. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these rhythm

  15. Evidence of long distance airborne transport of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Oliveira, Simone; Deen, John

    2009-01-01

    The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to be transported over long distances via the airborne route was evaluated. A source population of 300 grow-finish pigs was experimentally inoculated with PRRSV MN-184 and M. hyopneumoniae 232 and over a 50-day period, air samples were collected at designated distances from the source herd using a liquid cyclonic collector. Samples were tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA and M. hyopneumoniae DNA by PCR and if positive, further characterized. Of the 306 samples collected, 4 (1.3%) were positive for PRRSV RNA and 6 (1.9%) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The PRRSV-positive samples were recovered 4.7 km to the northwest (NW) of the source population. Four of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were obtained at the NW sampling point; 2 samples at approximately 2.3 km and the other 2 samples approximately 4.7 km from the source population. Of the remaining 2 samples, one sample was obtained at the southeast sampling point and the other at the southwest sampling point, with both locations being approximately 4.7 km from the source. The four PRRSV-positive samples contained infectious virus and were ≥ 98.8% homologous to the MN-184 isolate used to inoculate the source population. All 6 of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were 99.9% homologous to M. hyopneumoniae 232. These results support the hypothesis that long distance airborne transport of these important swine pathogens can occur. PMID:19379664

  16. Influence of isolate pathogenicity on the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jenny G.; Deen, John; Dee, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of isolate pathogenicity in the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and to determine whether PRRSV could be detected in air samples. To assess transmission, we exposed naïve recipient pigs to aerosols from pigs inoculated with PRRSV MN-30100, an isolate of low pathogenicity, or MN-184, a highly pathogenic isolate. Blood samples and nasal-swab samples were collected from the inoculated pigs during the exposure period and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of RNA was expressed as the median tissue culture dose per milliliter (TCID50/mL). The recipient pigs were clinically evaluated for 14 d after exposure and tested on days 7 and 14 by qualitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To prove the presence of PRRSV in aerosols, air samples were collected from each recipient-pig chamber by means of an air sampler. The PRRSV RNA concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the blood samples from the pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 than in the blood samples from those infected with PRRSV MN-30100; however, the concentrations in the nasal-swab samples were not significantly different (P = 0.26). Recipient pigs exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 became infected, whereas those exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-30100 did not; the difference in transmission rate was significant at P = 0.04. We detected PRRSV MN-184 RNA but not PRRSV MN-30100 RNA in air samples by PCR. Under the conditions of this study, PRRSV isolate pathogenicity may influence aerosol transmission of the virus. PMID:17193878

  17. Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs

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    Li Limin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06 and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9 were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

  18. Sub-nucleocapsid nanoparticles: a nasal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus.

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    Xavier Roux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in infants less than two years old is a growing public health concern worldwide, and there is currently no safe and effective vaccine. A major component of RSV nucleocapsid, the nucleoprotein (N, has been so far poorly explored as a potential vaccine antigen, even though it is a target of protective anti-viral T cell responses and is remarkably conserved between human RSV A and B serotypes. We recently reported a method to produce recombinant N assembling in homogenous rings composed of 10-11 N subunits enclosing a bacterial RNA. These nanoparticles were named sub-nucleocapsid ring structure (N SRS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The vaccine potential of N SRS was evaluated in a well-characterized and widely acknowledged mouse model of RSV infection. BALB/c adult mice were immunized intranasally with N SRS adjuvanted with the detoxified E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G. Upon RSV challenge, vaccinated mice were largely protected against virus replication in the lungs, with a mild inflammatory lymphocytic and neutrophilic reaction in their airways. Mucosal immunization with N SRS elicited strong local and systemic immunity characterized by high titers of IgG1, IgG2a and IgA anti-N antibodies, antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of using nanoparticles formed by the recombinant nucleocapsid protein as an efficient and safe intra-nasal vaccine against RSV.

  19. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on subsequent Pasteurella multocida challenge in pigs.

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    Carvalho, L F; Segalés, J; Pijoan, C

    1997-04-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) on a subsequent challenge with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Sixteen, 3-4 week-old piglets, from a PRRSv and Aujeszky disease virus (ADV) free herd were used. Animals were equally and randomly allocated in four groups which were treated according the following schedule: Group I: negative controls; Group II: inoculation with only PRRSV; Group III: inoculation with PRRSV and P. multocida; Group IV: inoculation with ADV and P. multocida (positive controls). PRRSV and ADV were inoculated intranasally, at the doses of 10(4.6) and 10(4.5) TCID50/ml, respectively. Five days later, pigs from groups III and IV were inoculated intranasally, with two ml of a 10(9) CFU/ml suspension of equal parts of P. multocida, strains A52 and A24. No lesions were observed in piglets of group I. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was identified in all piglets of groups II and III and 3/4 piglets from group IV. Bronchopneumonia was detected in 3/4 of the piglets from group III and in all animals of group IV which, additionally, showed meningo-encephalitis and purulent rhinitis. Macroscopically, only piglets of groups III and IV had lung consolidation. However, much lower pneumonic scores (2.3%) were observed in group III, where 3 of 4 piglets were affected. On the other hand, all piglets of group IV showed some degree of pulmonary consolidation, with a mean score of 13.7%. Based on these results, it appears that the role of PRRSV as a initiator of secondary diseases is still undefined, but is probably mild. There was no clear interaction between PRRSv and Pasteurella multocida under the conditions and strains tested here.

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

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    Songhui Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6×106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV.

  1. DNGR-1 is dispensable for CD8+ T-cell priming during respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Lydia R; Pereira, Catherine; Boakye, Aime; Makris, Spyridon; Kausar, Fahima; Goritzka, Michelle; Johansson, Cecilia

    2014-08-01

    During respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection CD8(+) T cells both assist in viral clearance and contribute to immunopathology. CD8(+) T cells recognize viral peptides presented by dendritic cells (DCs), which can directly present viral antigens when infected or, alternatively, "cross-present" antigens after endocytosis of dead or dying infected cells. Mouse CD8α(+) and CD103(+) DCs excel at cross-presentation, in part because they express the receptor DNGR-1 that detects dead cells by binding to exposed F-actin and routes internalized cell debris into the cross-presentation pathway. As RSV causes death in infected epithelial cells, we tested whether cross-presentation via DNGR-1 is necessary for CD8(+) T-cell responses to the virus. DNGR-1-deficient or wild-type mice were intranasally inoculated with RSV and the magnitude of RSV-specific CD8(+) T-cell induction was measured. We found that during live RSV infection, cross-presentation via DNGR-1 did not have a major role in the generation of RSV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. However, after intranasal immunization with dead cells infected with RSV, a dependence on DNGR-1 for RSV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses was observed, confirming the ascribed role of the receptor. Thus, direct presentation by DCs may be the major pathway initiating CD8(+) T-cell responses to RSV, while DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation has no detectable role. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 Enhances Resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tianyu; Song, Zhiyuan; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Meng; Liu, Lin; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically relevant viral pathogens in pigs and causes substantial losses in the pig industry worldwide each year. At present, PRRSV vaccines do not effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, it is necessary to develop new antiviral strategies to compensate for the inefficacy of the available vaccines. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an important member of the histone deacetylase family that is responsible for regulating many important biological processes. Studies have shown that HDAC6 has anti-viral activities during the viral life cycle. However, whether HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV in pigs remains unknown. In this study, we used a somatic cell cloning method to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively overexpress porcine HDAC6. These TG pigs showed germ line transmission with continued overexpression of HDAC6. In vitro, virus-challenged porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) overexpressed HDAC6, which suppressed viral gene expression and PRRSV production. In vivo, resistance to PRRSV in TG pigs was evaluated by direct or cohabitation mediated infection with a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain. Compared with non-TG (NTG) siblings, TG pigs showed a significantly lower viral load in the lungs and an extended survival time after infection with HP-PRRSV via intramuscular injection. In the cohabitation study, NTG pigs housed with challenged NTG pigs exhibited significantly worse clinical symptoms than the other three in-contact groups. These results collectively suggest that HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the potential involvement of HDAC6 in the response to PRRSV, which will facilitate the development of novel therapies for PRRSV.

  3. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84 days post-inoculation (dpi they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14 days (98 dpi. In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA and virus-specific IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TGF-β were determined (ELISA after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of ≤ 28 days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-γ responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56 days, higher NA titres (≤ 6 log2 and lower IFN-γ responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-β levels in serum for 7–14 days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection.

  4. Needle-free delivery of measles virus vaccine to the lower respiratory tract of non-human primates elicits optimal immunity and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, Rik L; de Vries, Rory D; Rennick, Linda J; van Amerongen, Geert; McQuaid, Stephen; Verburgh, R Joyce; Yüksel, Selma; de Jong, Alwin; Lemon, Ken; Nguyen, D Tien; Ludlow, Martin; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul

    2017-01-01

    Needle-free measles virus vaccination by aerosol inhalation has many potential benefits. The current standard route of vaccination is subcutaneous injection, whereas measles virus is an airborne pathogen. However, the target cells that support replication of live-attenuated measles virus vaccines in the respiratory tract are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the in vivo tropism of live-attenuated measles virus and determine whether respiratory measles virus vaccination should target the upper or lower respiratory tract. Four groups of twelve cynomolgus macaques were immunized with 10 4 TCID 50 of recombinant measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston-Zagreb expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein. The vaccine virus was grown in MRC-5 cells and formulated with identical stabilizers and excipients as used in the commercial MV EZ vaccine produced by the Serum Institute of India. Animals were immunized by hypodermic injection, intra-tracheal inoculation, intra-nasal instillation, or aerosol inhalation. In each group six animals were euthanized at early time points post-vaccination, whereas the other six were followed for 14 months to assess immunogenicity and protection from challenge infection with wild-type measles virus. At early time-points, enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive measles virus-infected cells were detected locally in the muscle, nasal tissues, lungs, and draining lymph nodes. Systemic vaccine virus replication and viremia were virtually absent. Infected macrophages, dendritic cells and tissue-resident lymphocytes predominated. Exclusive delivery of vaccine virus to the lower respiratory tract resulted in highest immunogenicity and protection. This study sheds light on the tropism of a live-attenuated measles virus vaccine and identifies the alveolar spaces as the optimal site for respiratory delivery of measles virus vaccine.

  5. The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus challenge on growing pigs I: Growth performance and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, W P; Schwartz, K; Burrough, E R; Yoon, K J; Sparks, J C; Gabler, N K

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) are two diseases costly to the U.S. swine industry. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PRRS virus and PED virus, alone or in combination, on growth performance, feed efficiency, and digestibility in grower pigs. Forty-two gilts (16 ± 0.98 kg BW) naïve for PRRS and PED were selected and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments. Treatments included 1) a control, 2) PRRS virus infected, 3) PED virus infected, and 4) PRRS+PED coinfection (PRP). Pigs in treatments 2 and 4 were inoculated with a live field strain of PRRS virus via intramuscular and intranasal routes at 0 d after inoculation (dpi). Treatments 3 and 4 were orally inoculated with a cloned PED virus at 15 dpi. Infection with PRRS virus was confirmed by quantitative PCR and seroconversion. Infection with PED virus was confirmed with PCR. Control pigs remained PRRS and PED virus negative throughout the study. All pigs were offered, ad libitum, a standard diet with free access to water. During the test period, PRRS reduced ADG and ADFI by 30 and 26%, respectively ( PRRS treatments (33 and 16%, respectively). The impact of PED, alone or in combination, on performance (15-21 dpi) reduced ADG (0.66 vs. 0.35 vs. 0.20 kg/d; PRRS infection did not reduce apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. However, PED infection, alone or in combination, decreased ATTD of DM and energy by 8 and 12%, respectively ( PRRS reduced growth but did not alter digestibility. Pigs challenged with PED and, to a greater extent, the coinfection of PED and PRRS viruses had reduced ADG, ADFI, G:F, and ATTD of nutrients and energy.

  6. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  7. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  8. Efficacy of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine against the 2010 isolate of Vietnamese highly pathogenic PRRSV challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Kenji; Tung, Nguyen; Inui, Kenjiro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2017-04-08

    The efficacy of a commercial attenuated live type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine was tested under experimental infection with a highly virulent Vietnamese virus isolated from a diseased pig affected with highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) using specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 4-week-old SPF pigs were divided into three groups as follows: pigs vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine (Group 1, n=10), unvaccinated pigs (Group 2, n=10) and unvaccinated and non-infectious control pigs (Group 3, n=5). Four weeks later, Groups 1 and 2 were challenged with a 1 ml inoculum containing 1 × 10 5.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 )/ml of a Vietnamese HP-PRRS virus isolated in 2010 via the intranasal route. Animals were monitored during the subsequent two-week period post-challenge and necropsied for virological and pathological assays. Results showed a significant reduction in viral replication and shedding in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated pigs. The non-vaccinated pigs showed severe pyrogenic and respiratory illness with marked systematic lesions including interstitial pneumonia and thymic atrophy. In contrast, vaccinated pigs recovered quickly from fever with only mild pathological manifestations. Therefore, although viral shedding was still noted, immunization with the live PRRS vaccine did indeed reduce viral replication and disease severity, suggesting its utility in minimizing outbreaks of HP-PRRS.

  9. Spatial patterns of Bovine Corona Virus and Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Swedish beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Camilla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bovine coronavirus (BCV and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV infections are currently wide-spread in the Swedish dairy cattle population. Surveys of antibody levels in bulk tank milk have shown very high nationwide prevalences of both BCV and BRSV, with large variations between regions. In the Swedish beef cattle population however, no investigations have yet been performed regarding the prevalence and geographical distribution of BCV and BRSV. A cross-sectional serological survey for BCV and BRSV was carried out in Swedish beef cattle to explore any geographical patterns of these infections. Methods Blood samples were collected from 2,763 animals located in 2,137 herds and analyzed for presence of antibodies to BCV and BRSV. Moran's I was calculated to assess spatial autocorrelation, and identification of geographical cluster was performed using spatial scan statistics. Results Animals detected positive to BCV or BRSV were predominately located in the central-western and some southern parts of Sweden. Moran's I indicated global spatial autocorrelation. BCV and BRSV appeared to be spatially related: two areas in southern Sweden (Skaraborg and Skåne had a significantly higher prevalence of BCV (72.5 and 65.5% respectively; almost the same two areas were identified as being high-prevalence clusters for BRSV (69.2 and 66.8% respectively. An area in south-east Sweden (Kronoberg-Blekinge had lower prevalences for both infections than expected (23.8 and 20.7% for BCV and BRSV respectively. Another area in middle-west Sweden (Värmland-Dalarna had also a lower prevalence for BRSV (7.9%. Areas with beef herd density > 10 per 100 km2 were found to be at significantly higher risk of being part of high-prevalence clusters. Conclusion These results form a basis for further investigations of between-herds dynamics and risk factors for these infections in order to design effective control strategies.

  10. Comparative analysis of routes of immunization of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in a heterologous virus challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Schleappi, Rose; Holman, Lynette; Roof, Michael; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-03-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), which infects primarily the respiratory tract of pigs. Thus intranasal (IN) delivery of a potent vaccine-adjuvant formulation is promising. In this study, PRRS-MLV (VR2332) was coadministered ± an adjuvant Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate or CpG ODN through intramuscular (IM) or IN route as a mist, and challenged with a heterologous PRRSV 1-4-4 IN at 42 days post-vaccination (dpv). At 14 and 26 dpv, vaccine viral RNA copies were one log greater in the plasma of PRRS-MLV IM compared to IN vaccinated pigs, and the infectious replicating vaccine virus was detected only in the IM group. In PRRS-MLV ± adjuvant IM vaccinated pigs, reduced viral RNA load and absence of the replicating challenged virus was observed at 7, 10 and 14 days post-challenge (dpc). At 14 dpc, in BAL fluid ≥ 5 log viral RNA copies were detected in all the pig groups, but the replicating challenged virus was undetectable only in IM groups. Immunologically, virus neutralizing antibody titers in the plasma of IM (but not IN) vaccine groups was ≥ 8 against the vaccine and challenged viruses. At 26 dpv, PRRS-MLV IM (without adjuvant) received pigs had significantly increased population of CD4 and CD8 T cells in PBMC. At 14 dpc, relatively increased population of IFN-γ(+) total lymphocytes, NK, CD4, CD8 and γδ T cells were observed in the MLV-IM group. In conclusion, PRRS-MLV IM vaccination induced the virus specific T cell response in pigs, but still it is required to improve its cross-protective efficacy.

  11. Detection of antibodies and risk factors for infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 3 in dual-purpose farms in Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Chávez, Daniel; Segura-Correa, José C; García-Márquez, Luís Jorge; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Valdivia-Flores, Arturo Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out, from November 2007 to March 2008, to estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors associated with bovine syncytial respiratory virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV3) in dual-purpose herds in Colima, México. One hundred and seventy-six sera from 33 herds for PIV3 and 232 sera from 44 herds for BRSV were used. Sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against BRSV and PIV3 in cattle herds to determine the seroprevalence of respiratory diseases. The apparent and true prevalences for PIV3 were 60.8% and 54.4% and for BRSV 52.2% and 50.8%, respectively. The percentage of herds showing at least one positive animal was 78.7% for PIV3, and 93.2% for BRSV. Age (≤ 12, 13-48, and >48 months old) and respiratory signs (no, yes) showed significant association (P < 0.05) with PIV3 and age with BRSV. This study showed that animals were exposed to both viruses and that age was the main risk factor. The need to establish new vaccination plans to effectively protect cattle against those infections in the state of Colima, Mexico is suggested.

  12. Exploring the association between severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and asthma: a registry-based twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; van der Sluis, Sophie; Stensballe, Lone G

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with asthma but the nature of this association is imperfectly understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine the nature of the association between severe RSV infection and asthma in a population-based sample of twins. METHODS: Data......" RSV hospitalization fitted the data significantly better (P = 0.39 for deterioration in model fit) than a model in which RSV hospitalization "causes" asthma (P accounted for. CONCLUSIONS...

  13. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lager, Kelly M.; Mengeling, William L.; Wesley, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restricti...

  14. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo Yugbaré, S O; Ouédraogo, R; Nenebi, A; Traoré, B; Congo, L; Yonli, F; Kima, D; Bonané, P; Yé, D; Plantier, J-C; Vabret, A; Marguet, C; Gueudin, M

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are little known in Burkina Faso. The objective of our work is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of RSV infections in infants in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou. Between July 1(st) 2010 and June 30(th) 2011, we analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR nasopharyngeal swabs from children from 0 to 36 months old. All in all, 210 patients among whom 74 from the external consultation (35.2%) and 136 hospitalized (64.7%) benefited from a nasopharyngeal aspiration. The motives for consultation were cough (91.7%), rhinitis (79.2%), fever (79.2%) and respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%). The evoked diagnoses were predominantly the acute bronchiolitis in 14 cases (58.3%) followed by the acute pulmonary disease in 7 patients (26.2%) then flue in 1 patient (16.7%). We detected by direct immunofluorescence the antigens of the respiratory viruses in 21 nasopharyngeal aspirations with 10 cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (47.6%). The PCR realized on 208 samples allowed to identify 153 positive samples (73.2%) with 24 RSV, i.e. a global prevalence of 16.1% with a peak of 18 cases (75%). In October, all the patients benefited from an often multiple antibiotic treatment of at least 10 days which was not still necessary. The evolution was favorable for all patients. This study confirms the important place of the viruses which are detected in 70% of the cases. The PCR multiplex, certainly expensive but effective and successful, deserves to be used in our developing countries to avoid the irrational prescription of antibiotic.

  15. Dissecting the Cell Entry Pathway of Dengue Virus by Single-Particle Tracking in Living Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Rust, Michael J.; Chen, Chen; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Wilschut, Jan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an enveloped RNA virus that causes the most common arthropod-borne infection worldwide. The mechanism by which DENV infects the host cell remains unclear. In this work, we used live-cell imaging and single-virus tracking to investigate the cell entry, endocytic trafficking,

  16. Molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses versus routine clinical care in adults with acute respiratory illness presenting to secondary care: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial protocol (ResPOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendish, Nathan J; Malachira, Ahalya K; Clark, Tristan W

    2017-02-06

    Respiratory viruses are associated with a huge socio-economic burden and are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in hospitalised adults. Laboratory PCR is accurate but takes at least 24 h to generate a result to clinicians and antigen-based point-of-care tests (POCT) lack sensitivity. Rapid molecular platforms, such as the FilmArray Respiratory Panel, have equivalent diagnostic accuracy to laboratory PCR and can generate a result in 1 h making them deployable as POCT. Molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in hospital has the potential to improve the detection rate of respiratory viruses, improve the use of influenza antivirals and reduce unnecessary antibiotic use, but high quality randomised trials with clinically relevant endpoints are needed. The ResPOC study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illness presenting to a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Eligible participants are adults presenting with acute respiratory illness to the emergency department or the acute medicine unit. Participants are allocated 1:1 by internet-based randomisation service to either the intervention of a nose and throat swab analysed immediately on the FilmArray Respiratory Panel as a POCT or receive routine clinical care. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients treated with antibiotics. Secondary outcomes include turnaround time, virus detection, neuraminidase inhibitor use, length of hospital stay and side room use. Analysis of the primary outcome will be by intention-to-treat and all enrolled participants will be included in safety analysis. Multiple novel molecular POCT platforms for infections including respiratory viruses have been developed and licensed in the last few years and many more are in development but the evidence base for clinical benefit above standard practice is minimal. This randomised controlled

  17. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation in children with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Stensballe, L G; Bjerre, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalisation and determinants of the severity of RSV disease in children with heart disease. METHODS: By using a database on RSV tests in Denmark all children with RSV diagnosed with heart disease in Denmark...... from January 1996 to April 2003 were identified. For each case child one control child matched for age and centre was drawn from the population of children with heart disease. Clinical information was obtained through a review of all records. RESULTS: Data were obtained on 313 pairs. Median age...... at admission was 280 days (range 15-2379). In the multivariate analysis predictors of RSV hospitalisation were Down syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% CI 1.80 to 5.80), cardiomyopathy (OR 5.84, 95% CI 1.26 to 27.16) and haemodynamically significant heart disease (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.26). During RSV...

  18. A review of palivizumab and emerging therapies for respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Kristin A; Wald, Ellen R

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen in children and adults; however, current treatment options are primarily supportive. Palivizumab, the only approved specific monoclonal antibody for RSV is used prophylactically to reduce morbidity in a select population of high-risk children. The development and current use of palivizumab; the potential role of palivizumab as preventive therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis, asthma and compromised immune systems; and explores the limited research in which palivizumab has been used for treatment of RSV. The modified recommendations for the use of palivizumab espoused by the American Academy of Pediatrics and research on the cost-effectiveness of this product are presented. In addition, the authors discuss the development of enhanced monoclonal antibodies including motavizumab, which was recently denied FDA approval for preventative therapy. The authors explore the historical and current efforts to develop a vaccine targeting RSV. The current status of antiviral drug development is also reviewed. The literature search included RSV-Ig, palivizumab, and emerging drugs and vaccines for the treatment of RSV as keywords and titles from 1997 to 2011. Although there are potential drugs and vaccines in development to prevent or reduce the effects of RSV infection, palivizumab remains the only licensed product to reduce the severity of disease in high-risk pediatric patients.

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R., E-mail: alsuwaidia@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Albawardi, Alia, E-mail: alia.albawardi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Almarzooqi, Saeeda, E-mail: saeeda.almarzooqi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Benedict, Sheela, E-mail: sheela.benedict@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Othman, Aws R., E-mail: aws.rashad@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Hartwig, Stacey M., E-mail: stacey-hartwig@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Varga, Steven M., E-mail: steven-varga@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Souid, Abdul-Kader, E-mail: asouid@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  20. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target

  1. The respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex forms a left-handed helical nucleocapsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Saskia E; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Galloux, Marie; Loney, Colin; Conner, Edward; Eléouët, Jean-François; Rey, Félix A; Bhella, David

    2013-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen. Its nucleocapsid (NC), which comprises the negative sense RNA viral genome coated by the viral nucleoprotein N, is a critical assembly that serves as template for both mRNA synthesis and genome replication. We have previously described the X-ray structure of an NC-like structure: a decameric ring formed of N-RNA that mimics one turn of the helical NC. In the absence of experimental data we had hypothesized that the NC helix would be right-handed, as the N-N contacts in the ring appeared to more easily adapt to that conformation. We now unambiguously show that the RSV NC is a left-handed helix. We further show that the contacts in the ring can be distorted to maintain key N-N-protein interactions in a left-handed helix, and discuss the implications of the resulting atomic model of the helical NC for viral replication and transcription.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis: comparative study of RSV groups A and B infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M. Straliotto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The grouping characteristics of 29 respiratory syncitial virus (RSV present in nasopharyngeal cells collectedfrom hospitalized children with bronchiolitis during the 1990RSVseason in Porto Alegre, RS, were analysed. Twenty-two were grouped as belonging to group A and 7 to group B. Cyanosis, oxigen therapy, cough, lenght of hospitalization and atelectasis were observed to be more frequently found within group B infected children. Other clinical signs and symptoms were similarly found in both groups.Estudos recentes de amostras do vírus respiratório sincicial (VRS usando anticorpos monoclonais distiguiram duas variantes antigênicas, designadas como grupos A e B. Estes grupos foram estudados em 29 secreções de nasofaringe positivas para o VRS, provenientes de crianças hospitalizadas com bronquiolite durante surto de virose por VRS, em Porto Alegre, em 1990. Destas, 22 foram grupadas como pertencentes ao grupo A e 7 ao grupo B. Alguns achados clínicos como cianose, tosse, uso de oxigênio e dias de hospitalização foram mais freqüentemente observados em crianças infectadas coin o grupo B do VRS. Outros sinais e sintomas clínicos foram similarmente encontrados nos 2 grupos.

  3. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

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    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-c