WorldWideScience

Sample records for single researcher impact

  1. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  2. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  3. Novel Research Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fenner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Citation counts and more recently usage statistics provide valuable information about the attention and research impact associated with scholarly publications. The open access publisher Public Library of Science (PLOS has pioneered the concept of article-level metrics, where these metrics are collected on a per article and not a per journal basis and are complemented by real-time data from the social web or altmetrics: blog posts, social bookmarks, social media and other.

  4. Measuring Research Impact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  5. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  6. Single cell analysis contemporary research and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cossarizza, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the current state of the art in single cell analysis, an area that involves many fields of science – from clinical hematology, functional analysis and drug screening, to platelet and microparticle analysis, marine biology and fundamental cancer research. This book brings together an eclectic group of current applications, all of which have a significant impact on our current state of knowledge. The authors of these chapters are all pioneering researchers in the field of single cell analysis. The book will not only appeal to those readers more focused on clinical applications, but also those interested in highly technical aspects of the technologies. All of the technologies identified utilize unique applications of photon detection systems.

  7. Professional impact of clinical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelhans, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, professional impact is defined as the academic literature that is cited in the literature that is used by professions in order to pursue skilled activities that are specific to their expertise. Specifically, we are focusing on the clinical guidelines that are used in the many health and medical professions that are issued by government bodies at national and international levels to ensure a certain quality level and to make results comparable at the national level. To date, more than 50.000 references have been identified in about 500 Swedish clinical guidelines issued by the above mentioned governmental bodies in Sweden. Of these, 73 % of the references have been matched to a PubMed id. The goal of this project is to develop a conceptual and theoretical contribution to the development of indicators for measuring the impact of research outside of the specifically academic literature. (Author)

  8. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron impact single and double ionization cross sections of gallium have been calcu- ... The experimental data on single ionization have been compared with the empirical and ..... and multiplication sign curve (¢¢¢) represent present.

  9. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  10. Social Impact of SSH Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    More than 38 percent of the funding allocated under the European Union’s Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon2020, is dedicated to research on societal challenges such as health, energy and climate. This amounts to 29.7 billion Euros in funding for research with the explicit aim...

  11. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  12. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  13. Single and multiple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact are presented for collision energies from threshold to 500 eV. The cross sections for single ionization of sulfur are measured relative to those of several elements whose absolute cross sections for single ionization are known. Cross sections for each multiple ionization process are then measured relative to those for single ionization. The configuration and operation of the apparatus for these measurements are described. The possible effects of excited sulfur reactants are examined, and the reported cross sections are felt to be characteristic of ground state sulfur atoms

  14. Scientist, Single Cell Analysis Facility | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Scientist II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The Scientist: Will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research Will work on single cell isolation/preparation from various tissues and cells and related NexGen sequencing library preparation Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  15. Creating Research Impact: The Roles of Research Users in Interactive Research Mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    An impact assessment of research into children's concerns about their families and relationships found many ways research had been used in different sectors by different actors. Specific impacts from the research were harder to identify. However, instances where there were clear impacts highlighted the ways research users had adapted research to…

  16. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  17. Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.

  18. Research and research impact of a technical university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Schwarz, S.; Tijssen, R. J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The research output of the Danish Technical University (DTU) has been studied as an aspect of the organization's research policy and visibility in its international context. Papers published in the three-year period (1992-94) were grouped according to 20 clusters of research areas. Using citation...... analysis techniques, the dynamics of citation frequencies, and a number of other features of the research system, like self-citation, research collaborations, relative impact on the international literature, etc., could be studied. The methods can be used to analyze institutional and national research...

  19. Plastic flow produced by single ion impacts on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Single ion impacts have been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy and video recording with a time resolution of 33 milliseconds. Gold was irradiated at 50 K and room temperature. Single ion impacts produce holes, modify existing holes, and extrude material into the initial specimen hole and holes formed by other ion impacts. The same behavior is observed at both temperatures. At both temperatures, ion impacts result in craters and ejected material. Ion impacts produce more small craters than large ones for all ion masses, while heavier mass ions produce more and larger craters than lighter mass ions. This comparison is affected by the ion energy. As the energy of an ion is increased, the probability for deposition near the surface decreases and fewer craters are formed. For a given ion mass, crater production depends on the probability for displacement cascade production in the near surface region. Crater and holes are stable at room temperature, however, ion impacts near an existing crater may cause flow of material into the crater either reshaping or annihilating it. Holes and craters result from the explosive outflow of material from the molten zone of near-surface cascades. The outflow may take the form of molten material, a solid lid or an ejected particle. The surface is a major perturbation on displacement cascades resulting from ion impacts

  20. The Impact of Accounting Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Alan; Fogarty, Tim; Stoner, Greg; Marriott, Neil

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study into the nature and patterns of usage of accounting education research. The study adopts the most accessible metric, "Google Advanced Scholar" citations, to analyse the impact of research published in the six principal English-language accounting education journals. The analysis reveals a global…

  1. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  2. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research: Computer simulation -climate impact research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Climate impact assessment is a new field of research which, owing to international and national efforts to understand and cope with the impending global climate changes on a global, regional and local level, has rapidly become a central field of research of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. In contrast to other countries, Germany had no research facilities and infrastructure that could be used. The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research was to provide the infrastructure basis for climate impact research in Germany. The Institute was founded by the BMFT and the Land of Brandenburg. (orig.) [de

  3. The Impact of Single-Gender Scheduling on Students in a Title I School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact that single-gender scheduling would have on students who attend a struggling Title I middle school. The importance of the middle level cannot be denied. Strong research points to this time in a student's life as the pivotal crux on which success and failure are balanced. Middle level educators…

  4. Validation of an "Intelligent Mouthguard" Single Event Head Impact Dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Brett, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Dating to Colonel John Paul Stapp MD in 1975, scientists have desired to measure live human head impacts with accuracy and precision. But no instrument exists to accurately and precisely quantify single head impact events. Our goal is to develop a practical single event head impact dosimeter known as "Intelligent Mouthguard" and quantify its performance on the benchtop, in vitro and in vivo. In the Intelligent Mouthguard hardware, limited gyroscope bandwidth requires an algorithm-based correction as a function of impact duration. After we apply gyroscope correction algorithm, Intelligent Mouthguard results at time of CG linear acceleration peak correlate to the Reference Hybrid III within our tested range of pulse durations and impact acceleration profiles in American football and Boxing in vitro tests: American football, IMG=1.00REF-1.1g, R2=0.99; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.6g and 370 rad/s2; maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 4.8° and 2.9°; maximum average XYZ component temporal imprecision 3.3g and 390 rad/s2. Boxing, IMG=1.00REF-0.9 g, R2=0.99, R2=0.98; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.9 g and 390 rad/s2, maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 2.9° and 2.1°; average XYZ component temporal imprecision 4.0 g and 440 rad/s2. In vivo Intelligent Mouthguard true positive head impacts from American football players and amateur boxers have temporal characteristics (first harmonic frequency from 35 Hz to 79 Hz) within our tested benchtop (first harmonic frequencyIntelligent Mouthguard qualifies as a single event dosimeter in American football and Boxing.

  5. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART: an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Greenfeld

    Full Text Available Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

  7. Caregiving: The impact on emotional support for single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, C S

    1987-01-01

    Even though filial caregivers are typically daughters rather than sons, examinations of caregiving have not adequately considered the impact of gender and marital status differences on the support systems that mediate the strain of caring. Because of competing demands on time and energy, caregivers make many changes in their personal activities while maintaining work and immediate family responsibilities. The friendships that provide emotional support for singles are perceived as less important than familial relationships. Therefore, the assumption is made that the single adult daughter has less to give up as compared to her married siblings. The parallel emotional support systems of the married and single caregivers go unrecognized. This study of never-married women over age 30 reveals that these caregivers essentially foreclosed social relationships in order to provide care. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Electron-impact single and double ionization of W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M S; Loch, S D; Foster, A R

    2017-01-01

    Electron-impact single and double ionization cross sections for the W atom are calculated using a semi-relativistic distorted-wave method. The cross sections include contributions from single direct ionization, double direct ionization and excitation-autoionization. Branching ratio calculations are made to determine whether an excitation may contribute to single or double ionization. We check the accuracy of the semi-relativistic distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of various subshells by comparison with fully-relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also check the accuracy of the perturbative distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of the outer most subshells by comparison with non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations. (paper)

  9. Reducing the ecological impact of field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanson, Michelle; Stowe, Rochelle; Watts, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and students at biological field stations, especially in remote areas, are subject to leaving "footprints," as we conduct research, work, and live in sensitive ecosystems. These footprints include travel, personal trash and waste, and field equipment (e.g. flagging, tree markers, plot markers, trail markers, monitoring devices, etc.). In this commentary, we argue that the field of primatology's commitment to minimum impact research should be more explicitly and visibly integrated into our ethical protocols with regard to field research and instruction in sensitive environments. We review current ethical codes and potential solutions to reducing our "researcher footprints" while conducting fieldwork. Using Costa Rica as an example, we address how sustainable fieldwork differs among varying cultural contexts and argue that researchers should be made responsible and accountable for how our presence, research, and teaching might impact the environment. We conclude by recommending a set of guidelines to be added to ethical protocols regarding research design, station policies, and the conduct of research and teaching in the field. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plastic Flow Induced by Single Ion Impacts on Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of holes in thin gold foils as a result of single ion impacts by 200keV Xe ions has been followed using transmission electron microscopy. Video recording provided details of microstructure evolution with a time resolution of 1/30th sec. Hole formation involves the movement by plastic flow of massive amounts of material, on the order of tens of thousands of Au atoms per ion impact. Plastic flow, as a consequence of individual ion impacts, results in a continual filling of both holes and craters as well as a thickening of the gold foil. Changes in morphology during irradiation is attributed to a localized, thermal-spike induced melting, coupled with plastic flow of effected material under the influence of surface forces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Synchronization of impacting mechanical systems with a single constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Biemond, J. J. Benjamin; Leine, Remco I.; van de Wouw, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of mechanical systems subjected to a single geometric unilateral constraint. The impacts of the individual systems, induced by the unilateral constraint, generally do not coincide even if the solutions are arbitrarily 'close' to each other. The mismatch in the impact time instants demands a careful choice of the distance function to allow for an intuitively correct comparison of the discontinuous solutions resulting from the impacts. We propose a distance function induced by the quotient metric, which is based on an equivalence relation using the impact map. The distance function obtained in this way is continuous in time when evaluated along jumping solutions. The property of maximal monotonicity, which is fulfilled by most commonly used impact laws, is used to significantly reduce the complexity of the distance function. Based on the simplified distance function, a Lyapunov function is constructed to investigate the synchronization problem for two identical one-dimensional mechanical systems. Sufficient conditions for the uncoupled individual systems are provided under which local synchronization is guaranteed. Furthermore, we present an interaction law which ensures global synchronization, also in the presence of grazing trajectories and accumulation points (Zeno behavior). The results are illustrated using numerical examples of a 1-DOF mechanical impact oscillator which serves as stepping stone in the direction of more general systems.

  13. Methodological issues in regional impacts research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the literature concerning regional impacts of climatic change research reveals common elements. Global climatic change scenarios are used to derive regional climate change scenarios, but there is no standard approach for doing so. These scenarios are applied as inputs to impact models that have been used to describe past variations but may not be calibrated for global scenarios. The human element (technology, land use, population density) is generally assumed to remain unchanged. The general process of performing a study on the impacts of projected global warming on the physical and human environments involves three main steps: develop or specify a scenario for global warming for the study area; develop or specify an impact model for the activity in question; and apply the scenario to the impact model. Problems include defining a baseline, resolution of the scenarios, scenario data for regional-scale features, combination of model output with station data, and validation of impact models using archived climate data as inputs. A review of scenario application procedures indicates that four general approaches have been used: the study area baseline is combined with the scenario anomaly of the nearest center of the grid square; the scenario anomaly field is objectively interpreted and combined with the baseline value; the baseline field is objectively interpreted so that data are produced for the same points as the scenario anomaly field; and the baseline and several scenario's anomaly fields are interpolated and combined into one scenario using dynamical/empirical reasoning. 48 refs., 1 fig

  14. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  15. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Nicole [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  17. Gender and citation impact in management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which a gender gap exists in the citation rates of management researchers. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 26,783 publications and 65,436 authorships, we illuminate possible differences in women’s and men’s average citation impact per paper, adjusting......% most cited in their field. Yet given the sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the data, these variations should not be overgeneralized. In the large picture, differences in citation rates appear to be a negligible factor in the reproduction of gender inequalities in management research....

  18. General Impact Of A Single Market - Albania Goes Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Pano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods persons services and capital is ensured remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union goes beyond the Cloud computing IoT and Big Data that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided on-line will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform necessarily digital can incorporate the banking industrial education investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development digitally educated people collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline yet above and beyond the brainstorming approach.

  19. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cardona, R.; Cobas Aranda, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  20. Does health intervention research have real world policy and practice impacts: testing a new impact assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gillian; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the importance of research having demonstrable public benefit. Measurements of the impacts of research are therefore needed. We applied a modified impact assessment process that builds on best practice to 5 years (2003-2007) of intervention research funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council to determine if these studies had post-research real-world policy and practice impacts. We used a mixed method sequential methodology whereby chief investigators of eligible intervention studies who completed two surveys and an interview were included in our final sample (n = 50), on which we conducted post-research impact assessments. Data from the surveys and interviews were triangulated with additional information obtained from documentary analysis to develop comprehensive case studies. These case studies were then summarized and the reported impacts were scored by an expert panel using criteria for four impact dimensions: corroboration; attribution, reach, and importance. Nineteen (38%) of the cases in our final sample were found to have had policy and practice impacts, with an even distribution of high, medium, and low impact scores. While the tool facilitated a rigorous and explicit criterion-based assessment of post-research impacts, it was not always possible to obtain evidence using documentary analysis to corroborate the impacts reported in chief investigator interviews. While policy and practice is ideally informed by reviews of evidence, some intervention research can and does have real world impacts that can be attributed to single studies. We recommend impact assessments apply explicit criteria to consider the corroboration, attribution, reach, and importance of reported impacts on policy and practice. Impact assessments should also allow sufficient time between impact data collection and completion of the original research and include mechanisms to obtain end-user input to corroborate claims and reduce biases

  1. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  2. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  3. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  4. Research on the innovative hybrid impact hydroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lihui; Wang, Shaohua; Yang, Chunlei

    2013-12-01

    The innovative hybrid impact hydro-forming (IHF) technology is a kind of high strain rate forming technique which can be used for forming complex parts with small features, such as convex tables, bars etc. The present work investigates IHF using a numerical /experimental approach. In this paper, the theory of IHF is presented and finite element simulation was carried out by using MSC. The pressure distribution changes in the depth direction, but not in the width direction. However, the pressure is uniform everywhere in traditional hydro-forming. Using this shock wave loading conditions, forming experiments were carried out. Punching occurred as a result of combined tensile and shear stress effects. Furthermore, results show that using IHF technology, the design constraint to make precise die may be considerably reduced. The need to accurately control punch-die clearance may also be eliminated. Therefore, the research is very useful for forming complicated products.

  5. Clinical impact and value of workstation single sign-on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A; Crouch, John F; Gibson, Lynn A; Conklin, George S; Webster, S Luke; Gillean, John A

    2017-05-01

    CHRISTUS Health began implementation of computer workstation single sign-on (SSO) in 2015. SSO technology utilizes a badge reader placed at each workstation where clinicians swipe or "tap" their identification badges. To assess the impact of SSO implementation in reducing clinician time logging in to various clinical software programs, and in financial savings from migrating to a thin client that enabled replacement of traditional hard drive computer workstations. Following implementation of SSO, a total of 65,202 logins were sampled systematically during a 7day period among 2256 active clinical end users for time saved in 6 facilities when compared to pre-implementation. Dollar values were assigned to the time saved by 3 groups of clinical end users: physicians, nurses and ancillary service providers. The reduction of total clinician login time over the 7day period showed a net gain of 168.3h per week of clinician time - 28.1h (2.3 shifts) per facility per week. Annualized, 1461.2h of mixed physician and nursing time is liberated per facility per annum (121.8 shifts of 12h per year). The annual dollar cost savings of this reduction of time expended logging in is $92,146 per hospital per annum and $1,658,745 per annum in the first phase implementation of 18 hospitals. Computer hardware equipment savings due to desktop virtualization increases annual savings to $2,333,745. Qualitative value contributions to clinician satisfaction, reduction in staff turnover, facilitation of adoption of EHR applications, and other benefits of SSO are discussed. SSO had a positive impact on clinician efficiency and productivity in the 6 hospitals evaluated, and is an effective and cost-effective method to liberate clinician time from repetitive and time consuming logins to clinical software applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Create positive contraceptive images for strongest impact in single lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Health educators attempting to deliver contraceptive information to adolescents in the classroom must seek ways to make a major impact in a very short period of time. A Planned Parenthood professional from New Jersey has developed a single-shot birth control lesson that, rather than presenting the pros and cons of various contraceptive methods, has teenagers identify themselves as at high, low, or no risk of pregnancy. Students estimate the number of classmates who are in each category and then assess whether they personally are at risk of an unintended pregnancy. In general, teens overestimate the number of classmates who are sexually active. This approach seems to make the ensuing discussion of contraceptive methods more meaningful. This discussion presents the condom and foam, the sponge, and visiting a family planning clinic. After this 40 minute presentation, fewer adolescents report being afraid of contraceptive side effects; they also have more knowledge about the efficacy and availability of different methods. A lesson in preparation is centered around a videotape entitled "Swept Away is Not Okay." It shows a teen couple going to a family planning clinic before they ever have intercourse. This strategy of encouraging adolescents to seek contraception before sexual involvement begins is considered more realistic than pressuring teens to abstain from sex. School officials and teachers have been receptive to this educational approach, viewing it as presenting important public health information.

  7. The Impact of Single-Sided Deafness upon Music Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sarah; Hough, Elizabeth A; Crundwell, Gemma; Knappett, Rachel; Smith, Mark; Baguley, David M

    2017-05-01

    Many of the world's population have hearing loss in one ear; current statistics indicate that up to 10% of the population may be affected. Although the detrimental impact of bilateral hearing loss, hearing aids, and cochlear implants upon music appreciation is well recognized, studies on the influence of single-sided deafness (SSD) are sparse. We sought to investigate whether a single-sided hearing loss can cause problems with music appreciation, despite normal hearing in the other ear. A tailored questionnaire was used to investigate music appreciation for those with SSD. We performed a retrospective survey of a population of 51 adults from a University Hospital Audiology Department SSD clinic. SSD was predominantly adult-onset sensorineural hearing loss, caused by a variety of etiologies. Analyses were performed to assess for statistical differences between groups, for example, comparing music appreciation before and after the onset of SSD, or before and after receiving hearing aid(s). Results demonstrated that a proportion of the population experienced significant changes to the way music sounded; music was found to sound more unnatural (75%), unpleasant (71%), and indistinct (81%) than before hearing loss. Music was reported to lack the perceptual qualities of stereo sound, and to be confounded by distortion effects and tinnitus. Such changes manifested in an altered music appreciation, with 44% of participants listening to music less often, 71% of participants enjoying music less, and 46% of participants reporting that music played a lesser role in their lives than pre-SSD. Negative effects surrounding social occasions with music were revealed, along with a strong preference for limiting background music. Hearing aids were not found to significantly ameliorate these effects. Results could be explained in part through considerations of psychoacoustic changes intrinsic to an asymmetric hearing loss and impaired auditory scene analysis. Given the prevalence of

  8. A Research Project on Successful Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Studies variables associated with successful single-parent families. Single parents volunteered to share their positive family experiences. Information was sought on ages of family members and length of single-parent family status, education level and income, relations with absent parent, and relations with children. A hypothesis and counseling…

  9. Citation Impact of Collaboration in Radiology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Parikh, Ujas; Duszak, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Team science involving multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration is increasingly recognized as a means of strengthening the quality of scientific research. The aim of this study was to assess associations between various forms of collaboration and the citation impact of published radiology research. In 2010, 876 original research articles published in Academic Radiology, the American Journal of Roentgenology, JACR, and Radiology were identified with at least one radiology-affiliated author. All articles were manually reviewed to extract features related to all authors' disciplines and institutions. Citations to these articles through September 2016 were extracted from Thomson Reuters Web of Science. Subsequent journal article citation counts were significantly higher (P < .05) for original research articles with at least seven versus six or fewer authors (26.2 ± 30.8 versus 20.3 ± 23.1, respectively), with authors from multiple countries versus from a single country (32.3 ± 39.2 versus 22.0 ± 25.0, respectively), with rather than without a nonuniversity collaborator (28.7 ± 38.6 versus 22.4 ± 24.9, respectively), and with rather than without a nonclinical collaborator (26.5 ± 33.1 versus 21.9 ± 24.4, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, the strongest independent predictors of the number of citations were authors from multiple countries (β = 9.14, P = .002), a nonuniversity collaborator (β = 4.80, P = .082), and at least seven authors (β = 4.11, P = .038). With respect to subsequent journal article citations, various forms of collaboration are associated with greater scholarly impact of published radiology research. To enhance the relevance of their research, radiology investigators are encouraged to pursue collaboration across traditional disciplinary, institutional, and geographic boundaries. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  11. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  12. Impacts of single and recurrent wildfires on topsoil moisture regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Oscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, Mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The increasing fire recurrence on forest in the Mediterranean basin is well-established by future climate scenarios due to land use changes and climate predictions. By this, shifts on mature pine woodlands to shrub rangelands are of major importance on forest ecosystems buffer functions, since historical patterns of established vegetation help to recover from fire disturbances. This fact, together with the predicted expansion of the drought periods, will affect feedback processes of vegetation patterns since water availability on these seasons are driven by post-fire local soil properties. Although fire impacts of soil properties and water availability has been widely studied using the fire severity as the main factor, little research is developed on post-fire soil moisture patterns, including the fire recurrence as a key explanatory variable. The following research investigated, in pine woodlands of north central Portugal, the short-term consequences (one year after a fire) of wildfire recurrence on the surface soil moisture content (SMC) and on effective soil water (SWEFF, parameter that includes actual daily soil moisture, soil field capacity-FC and permanent wilting point-PWP). The study set-up includes analyses at two fire recurrence scenarios (1x- and 4x-burnt since 1975), at a patch level (shrub patch/interpatch) and at two soil depths (2.5 and 7.5 cm) in a nested approach. Understanding how fire recurrence affects water in soil over space and time is the main goal of this research. The use of soil moisture sensors in a nested approach, the rainfall features and analyses on basic soil properties as soil organic matter, texture, bulk density, pF curves, soil water repellency and soil surface components will establish which factors has the largest role in controlling soil moisture behavior. Main results displayed, in a seasonal and yearly basis, no differences on SMC as increasing fire recurrence (1x- vs 4x-burnt) neither between patch/interpatch microsites at

  13. Measuring research impact in medical research institutes: a qualitative study of the attitudes and opinions of Australian medical research institutes towards research impact assessment frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Simon; Reeves, Penny; Ramanathan, Shanthi; Attia, John; Nilsson, Michael; Searles, Andrew

    2018-03-16

    The question of how to measure, assess and optimise the returns from investment in health and medical research (HMR) is a highly policy-relevant issue. Research Impact Assessment Frameworks (RIAFs) provide a conceptual measurement framework to assess the impact from HMR. The aims of this study were (1) to elicit the views of Medical Research Institutes (MRIs) regarding objectives, definitions, methods, barriers, potential scope and attitudes towards RIAFs, and (2) to investigate whether an assessment framework should represent a retrospective reflection of research impact or a prospective approach integrated into the research process. The wider objective was to inform the development of a draft RIAF for Australia's MRIs. Purposive sampling to derive a heterogeneous sample of Australian MRIs was used alongside semi-structured interviews with senior executives responsible for research translation or senior researchers affected by research impact initiatives. Thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions using the framework approach was then performed. Interviews were conducted with senior representatives from 15 MRIs. Participants understood the need for greater research translation/impact, but varied in their comprehension and implementation of RIAFs. Common concerns included the time lag to the generation of societal impacts from basic or discovery science, and whether impact reflected a narrow commercialisation agenda. Broad support emerged for the use of metrics, case study and economic methods. Support was also provided for the rationale of both standardised and customised metrics. Engendering cultural change in the approach to research translation was acknowledged as both a barrier to greater impact and a critical objective for the assessment process. Participants perceived that the existing research environment incentivised the generation of academic publications and track records, and often conflicted with the generation of wider impacts. The potential to

  14. [Current situation of clinical research on impacted premolars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran-Ran; Tian, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Teeth impaction is a common developmental malformation in oral diseases. Impacted teeth are usually the canines, third molar, central incisors, premolars, and second molars. The prevalence of impaction of maxillary canines and mandibular wisdom teeth is higher than that of other teeth. Most recent studies have focused on the canines and third molars, but research on impacted premolars is limited. In clinical practice, the majority of orthodontic patients require premolar extraction. Thus, impacted premolars play important roles in orthodontic design and prognosis. This article provides an overview of recent research on impacted premolars and summarizes epidemiological features, localizations, and treatments, with the aim of guiding practitioners on orthodontic design and therapy.

  15. Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Dianne S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the impact of combined work/family responsibilities on single-parent employees. Results indicated that parent employees, but particularly single female parents, were at risk for high job-family role strain and reduced levels of well-being. In spite of increased strain, however, single parents exhibited high levels of job satisfaction and…

  16. Measuring the Impact of Research: Lessons from the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Impactful academic research plays a stellar role in society, pressing to ask the question of how one measures the impact created by different areas of academic research. Measuring the societal, cultural, economic and scientific impact of research is currently the priority of the National Science Foundation, European Commission and several research funding agencies. The recently concluded United Kingdom's national research quality exercise, the Research Excellence Framework (REF 2014, which piloted impact assessment as part of the overall evaluation offers a lens to view how impact of research in different disciplines can be measured. Overall research quality was assessed through quality of outputs, 'impact' and research environment. We performed two studies using the REF 2014 as a case study. The first study on 363 Impact Case Studies (ICSs submitted in 5 research areas (UoAs reveals that, in general, the impact scores were constructed upon a combination of factors i.e. quantity of quartile-one (Q1 publications, quantity and value of grants/income, number of researchers stated in the ICSs, spin-offs created, discoveries/patents and presentation of esteem data, informing researchers/ academics of the factors to consider in order to achieve a better impact score in research impact assessments. However, there were differences among disciplines in terms of the role played by the factors in achieving their overall scores for the ICSs. The outcome of this study is thus a set of impact indicators, and their relationship with the overall score of impact of research in different disciplines as determined in REF2014, which would in the first instance provide some answers to impact measures that would be useful for researchers in different disciplines. The second study extracts the general themes of impact reported by universities by performing a word frequency analysis in all the ICSs submitted in the five chosen research areas, which were substantially

  17. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  18. Societal impact metrics for non-patentable research in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.; Isett, K.; Melkers, J.; Song, L.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-07-01

    Indicators of research impact tend to revolve around patents, licenses and startups. However, much university research is non-patentable and therefore doesn’t register in those metrics. That does not mean such research lacks impact, just that it follows different pathways to use in society. Without the visibility of patents, license income and jobs created in startups, society risks ignoring or discounting the societal impact of such research and therefore of undervaluing the research itself. In order to make visible the importance of research advances underpinning broader societal advance, in this project we explore the possibility of developing metrics of research impact for research whose results are relevant to professional practice. (Author)

  19. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  20. Economy's Impact on Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The current economic environment has impacted American families and the schools their children attend. Families are dealing with joblessness, increased poverty and hunger, less access to medical care, increased mental health issues, and greater instability in the family unit. Schools work with more and more students from families dealing with…

  1. The Impact of "ED" on Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes, structure, and component parts of the newly formed Department of Education (ED) organizations from which educational research programs will be administered are discussed. As the climate surrounding ED changes, opportunities to take advantage of the elevated status of research will be presented. (Author/RL)

  2. Editorial: Operational Research – Making an Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belton, Valerie; Bedford, Tim; Pisinger, David

    2018-01-01

    The origins of Operational Research are well known. OR developed – in particular in the UK - in the early 1940s as an area in which science was applied and new research inspired by real-world challenges, primarily in military analysis and in industrial production. As OR developed, a community...

  3. Social Impact Open Repository (SIOR). Transforming the peripheral space of social impact of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanpere, M.; Samano, E.; Gomez, A.

    2016-07-01

    The EC FP7 project “IMPACT-EV, Evaluating the impact and outcomes of EU SSH research” (2014-2017) aims at developing a permanent system of selection, monitoring and evaluation of the various impacts of Social Sciences and the Humanities research, with a very special attention to the social impact of research. The Work Package entitled “Identifying social impact of SSH research projects” has the main aim of analysing the social impact of SSH research and the factors that have contributed to obtain or not this impact, in order to create indicators to identify and evaluate the social impact of the SSH research ex-ante and ex-post. (Author)

  4. 77 FR 55479 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research and Analysis on Impact of CMS Programs on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ..., Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research and Analysis on Impact of CMS Programs on the Indian Health Care System AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Single Source Award. SUMMARY: This notice supports expansion of research on the impact of CMS programs on the Indian health...

  5. Making an Impact: New Directions for Arts and Humanities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The severity of the global economic crisis has put the spotlight firmly on measuring academic and research performance and productivity and assessing its contribution, value, impact and benefit. While, traditionally, research output and impact were measured by peer-publications and citations, there is increased emphasis on a "market-driven…

  6. Author Impact Metrics in Communication Sciences and Disorder Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Faucette, Sarah P.; Thomas, William Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to examine author-level impact metrics for faculty in the communication sciences and disorder research field across a variety of databases. Method: Author-level impact metrics were collected for faculty from 257 accredited universities in the United States and Canada. Three databases (i.e., Google Scholar, ResearchGate,…

  7. International gastroenterology research : subject areas, impact, and funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewison, G; Grant, J; Jansen, P

    Aims - To examine the volume and potential impact of gastroenterology research outputs from 1985 to 1998 from 14 developed countries; the overlap with research in cancer, infectious diseases, and genetics; and the funding sources for this research. To determine if countries' research outputs

  8. Research status of large mode area single polarization active fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Bin-hua; Cheng, Wei-feng; Gu, Shao-yi

    2018-03-01

    As high power fiber laser used more and more widely, to increase the output power of fiber laser and beam quality improvement have become an important goal for the development of high power fiber lasers. The use of large mode fiber is the most direct and effective way to solve the nonlinear effect and fiber damage in the fiber laser power lifting process. In order to reduce the effect of polarization of the fiber laser system, the study found that when introduces a birefringence in the single-mode fiber, the polarization state changes caused by the birefringence is far greater than the random polarization state changes, then the external disturbance is completely submerged, finally the polarization can be controlled and stabilized. Through the fine design of the fiber structure, if the birefringence is high enough to achieve the separation of the two polarization states, the fiber will have a different cut-off mechanism to eliminate polarization which is not need, which will realize single mode single polarization transmission in a band. In this paper, different types of single polarization fiber design are presented and the application of these fibers are also discussed.

  9. Researchers propose single grade rule for evaluating hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Mitchell; Marshall White; Philip Araman; Peter Hamner

    2008-01-01

    In "price taker" markets, successful businesses are the low cost producers, and pallet manufacturers are no exception. The single largest cost component of pallet manufacturing is raw material costs. Cants and lumber typically account for over 60% of operating costs. In the last three decades, cants have replaced lumber as the primary raw...

  10. Revisiting Single Case Studies in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Jakobsen, Michael

    strategies when navigating a multinational organization? To answer this question we employ a phenomenological approach as a way of exploring the relationship between organizational changes and employers’ response towards them. We argue that single case studies provides us with the capability of providing...

  11. Impact of research investment on scientific productivity of junior researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Bianco, Daniela; Dao, Dyda; Ghert, Michelle; Andruszkiewicz, Nicole; Sussman, Jonathan; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    There is a demand for providing evidence on the effectiveness of research investments on the promotion of novice researchers' scientific productivity and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. We used a mixed method approach to evaluate the funding effect of the New Investigator Fund (NIF) by comparing scientific productivity between award recipients and non-recipients. We reviewed NIF grant applications submitted from 2004 to 2013. Scientific productivity was assessed by confirming the publication of the NIF-submitted application. Online databases were searched, independently and in duplicate, to locate the publications. Applicants' perceptions and experiences were collected through a short survey and categorized into specified themes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of 296 applicants, 163 (55 %) were awarded. Gender, affiliation, and field of expertise did not affect funding decisions. More physicians with graduate education (32.0 %) and applicants with a doctorate degree (21.5 %) were awarded than applicants without postgraduate education (9.8 %). Basic science research (28.8 %), randomized controlled trials (24.5 %), and feasibility/pilot trials (13.3 %) were awarded more than observational designs (p   scientific productivity and professional growth of novice investigators and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. Further efforts are recommended to enhance the support of small grant funding programs.

  12. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  13. Dynamic material behavior determination using single fiber impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heru Utomo, B.D.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of fiber materials are used as input data for amongst others impact simulations on fiber based structures to predict their behavior. Accurate predictions for such materials are still not possible, because the mechanical properties are usually determined (quasi-)statically or

  14. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report discusses the impact from university-based science shops on curricula and research. Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. This impact has been investigated...... through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  15. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  16. Single ionization of Ne, Ar and Kr by proton impact: Single differential distributions in energy and angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S [CONICET and Dto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET and Universidad de Buenos Aires C1428EGA (Argentina); Olson, R E, E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.a [Physics Department, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present a theoretical study of singly differential cross sections in energy and angle for the single ionization of neon, argon and krypton by proton impact. Theoretical results obtained by means of the Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model are compared to those provided by the First Born Approximation (FBA) and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method as well as to experimental data from several laboratories. We note in particular for argon, that the CDW-EIS model does not reproduce the experimental data as accurately as expected, while the CTMC instead is in very good agreement.

  17. Single ionization of diatomic molecules by bare ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular three-Coulomb wave model (M3CW) has been extensively used to study the double-differential ionization cross sections (DDCS) of diatomic molecules by the impact of bare ions at intermediate and high energies. In this model, the distortion of the initial channel by the incoming projectile is also included. The present DDCS results are found to be in good accord both with the experiment of Baran et al 2008 as well as with other theory

  18. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  19. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  20. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health resea...

  1. The impact of ordinate scaling on the visual analysis of single-case data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H; Radley, Keith C

    2017-08-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method for detecting the presence of treatment effects in graphically displayed single-case data and it is often referred to as the "gold standard." Although researchers have developed standards for the application of visual analysis (e.g., Horner et al., 2005), over- and underestimation of effect size magnitude is not uncommon among analysts. Several characteristics have been identified as potential contributors to these errors; however, researchers have largely focused on characteristics of the data itself (e.g., autocorrelation), paying less attention to characteristics of the graphic display which are largely in control of the analyst (e.g., ordinate scaling). The current study investigated the impact that differences in ordinate scaling, a graphic display characteristic, had on experts' accuracy in judgments regarding the magnitude of effect present in single-case percentage data. 32 participants were asked to evaluate eight ABAB data sets (2 each presenting null, small, moderate, and large effects) along with three iterations of each (32 graphs in total) in which only the ordinate scale was manipulated. Results suggest that raters are less accurate in their detection of treatment effects as the ordinate scale is constricted. Additionally, raters were more likely to overestimate the size of a treatment effect when the ordinate scale was constricted. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research highlights: impacts of microplastics on plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vivian S

    2016-02-01

    Each year, millions of metric tons of the plastic produced for food packaging, personal care products, fishing gear, and other human activities end up in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The breakdown of these primary plastics in the environment results in microplastics, small fragments of plastic typically less than 1-5 mm in size. These synthetic particles have been detected in all of the world's oceans and also in many freshwater systems, accumulating in sediment, on shorelines, suspended in surface waters, and being ingested by plankton, fish, birds, and marine mammals. While the occurrence of plastics in surface waters has been surveyed in a number of studies, the impacts of microplastics on marine organisms are still being elucidated. This highlight features three recent publications that explore the interactions of microplastics with planktonic organisms to clarify the effects of these pollutants on some of the ocean's smallest and most important inhabitants.

  3. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacting Society through Engineering Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches...... to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit....

  5. Funds Utilization and its Impact on Research Institute Libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess funds utilization and it impact on research institute libraries in Kaduna State. Twelve research institutes in Kaduna State with the exception of one which did not have a library were used for the study. The survey research design was adopted for the study, and questionnaire was used as ...

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF SWEDISH RESEARCH ON IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLOTTA FAITH-ELL

    2015-01-01

    This statement aims at giving an overview of the research on impact assessment in Sweden. It takes a point of departure at the introduction of impact assessment in 1991 describing the Swedish research until today. Since the introduction of EIA in the Swedish legislation in the 1990s, a large number of PhD dissertations have been dealing with various aspects of impact assessment. An estimation based on the literature search is that about 20 PhD theses, in which the core of the research is rela...

  7. Impact of Single-sex Instruction on Student Motivation to Learn Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kissau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo increase male motivation to learn additional languages studies have suggested teaching males in single-sex second and foreign language classes (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Despite the reported benefits of this unique arrangement, a review of literature found no related research conducted in Canada or the United States. To address this lack of research, a study was conducted in the spring of 2008 to investigate the impact of single-sex instruction on student motivation to learn Spanish. Using Gardner's model of second language motivation (1985, 57 high-school students studying Spanish in either single-sex or coeducational classes completed a pre and post questionnaire to gauge their motivation to learn the language. Follow-up interviews were also conducted with both students and teachers. Results indicated that while both sexes enjoyed some educational advantages from the single-sex environment, the benefits appeared to be greater for the males than the females.RésuméAfin d'accroître la motivation des garçons pour l'apprentissage des langues, certaines études ont suggéré d'enseigner les langues secondes ou étrangères à des classes de garçons exclusivement (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Malgré le bénéfice confirmé d'un tel contexte, il n'existe aucune recherche similaire connue sur ce sujet au Canada ou aux États Unis. Pour remédier à cette lacune, on a conduit au printemps 2008 une étude portant sur l'impact de l'enseignement non mixte sur la motivation des élèves à apprendre l'espagnol. Selon le modèle de Gardner quant à la motivation dans l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde (1985, 57 élèves au niveau secondaire apprenant l'espagnol dans des classes mixtes et non mixtes ont rempli avant et après le cours, des questionnaires destinés à mesurer leur motivation. Le suivi a été assuré par le biais d' entrevues avec élèves et professeurs. Les résultats montrent que si les élèves des

  8. Dan Johnson's impact on hearing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotland, Lawrence I.

    2003-04-01

    Daniel L. Johnson is well known for his many technical contributions to noise research. Throughout a long and distinguished career at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dan published the results of several significant experiments, including his landmark experiments on asymptotic threshold shift and exposure to impulse noise. His work in the area of noise exposure laid much of the groundwork for a greater understanding of the physiologic response to hazardous noise, much of which has since been incorporated in national and international standards. Dan is highly regarded for his tireless work on technical and advisory committees in noise, and most recently, ototoxicity. Throughout his career, Dan has adhered to a self-imposed standard of intellectual honesty and discovery. Dan's most recent endeavor, the development of a personal noise dosimeter designed for self-monitoring by the employee, is characteristic of his creativity and energy. Perhaps less well known are his contributions over the years to the success of his younger colleagues. He has accomplished this in an unselfish and egalitarian manner, oftentimes challenging and even contradicting his own research. The focus of this talk will elaborate on these facets of Dan's professional contributions.

  9. Extending Impact Analysis in Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    of this phenomenon, and falls short of investigating the impacts that these dimensions have on each other. Drawing on a revised framework for classifying existing social media research foci in the categories of management, context, user behavior, user characteristics, platform properties, and effects, we present......The use of social media by governments is a complex phenomenon that touches upon multiple dimensions, and that involves a wide array of relationships between these dimensions. Existing empirical research on government social media, however, is still mostly focusing on describing isolated aspects...... five empirical cases to illustrate impacts between dimensions of government social media. The empirical findings from the cases extend impact analysis beyond the existing foci, and enable us to propose a research agenda for future research on impacts in government social media....

  10. The research impact of school psychology faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W; Chan-Park, Christina Y

    2015-06-01

    Hirsch's (2005) h index has become one of the most popular indicators of research productivity for higher education faculty. However, the h index varies across academic disciplines so empirically established norms for each discipline are necessary. To that end, the current study collected h index values from Scopus and Google Scholar databases for 401 tenure-track faculty members from 109 school psychology training programs. Male faculty tended to be more senior than female faculty and a greater proportion of the male faculty held professorial rank. However, female faculty members outnumbered males at the assistant and associate professor ranks. Although strongly correlated (rho=.84), h index values from Google Scholar were higher than those from Scopus. h index distributions were positively skewed with many faculty having low values and a few faculty having high values. Faculty in doctoral training programs exhibited significantly larger h index values than faculty in specialist training programs and there were univariate differences in h index values across academic rank and sex, but sex differences were not significant after taking seniority into account. It was recommended that the h index be integrated with peer review and diverse other indicators when considering individual merit. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Possible impacts of sequestration on federal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal research and development (R&D) activities could be reduced by up to $57.5 billion, or 8.4%, through 2017 because of automatic reductions in U.S. federal funding, referred to as sequestration, that are set to begin in January 2013 under the 2011 Budget Control Act. That is according to a 27 September analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). If defense R&D is pulled from the equation, sequestration could cut nondefense R&D by $50.8 billion, or 17.2% through that same time period, according to AAAS. Under an equal allocation scenario, the Department of Energy could lose $4.6 billion for R&D over that time period, the National Science Foundation could lose $2.1 billion for R&D, and NASA could lose $3.5 billion, according to the analysis, which also notes that states could be hit hard by decreased federal R&D spending. Congressional leaders currently are looking into how to avoid sequestration. For more information, see http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2012/0928sequester.shtml.

  12. Measuring the impact of methodological research: a framework and methods to identify evidence of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Vale, Claire L; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Jinks, Rachel; Tierney, Jayne F

    2014-11-27

    Providing evidence of impact highlights the benefits of medical research to society. Such evidence is increasingly requested by research funders and commonly relies on citation analysis. However, other indicators may be more informative. Although frameworks to demonstrate the impact of clinical research have been reported, no complementary framework exists for methodological research. Therefore, we assessed the impact of methodological research projects conducted or completed between 2009 and 2012 at the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit Hub for Trials Methodology Research Hub, with a view to developing an appropriate framework. Various approaches to the collection of data on research impact were employed. Citation rates were obtained using Web of Science (http://www.webofknowledge.com/) and analyzed descriptively. Semistructured interviews were conducted to obtain information on the rates of different types of research output that indicated impact for each project. Results were then pooled across all projects. Finally, email queries pertaining to methodology projects were collected retrospectively and their content analyzed. Simple citation analysis established the citation rates per year since publication for 74 methodological publications; however, further detailed analysis revealed more about the potential influence of these citations. Interviews that spanned 20 individual research projects demonstrated a variety of types of impact not otherwise collated, for example, applications and further developments of the research; release of software and provision of guidance materials to facilitate uptake; formation of new collaborations and broad dissemination. Finally, 194 email queries relating to 6 methodological projects were received from 170 individuals across 23 countries. They provided further evidence that the methodologies were impacting on research and research practice, both nationally and internationally. We have used the information

  13. Impact damage response of natural stitched single lap-joint in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemnejad, H.; Argentiero, Y.; Tez, T.A.; Barrington, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • To study the impact resistance of single lap-joints in composite structures. • To improve the impact resistance of stitched single lap joints using natural Flax yarn. • To investigate the effect of stitching on the damage process of composite materials. • To develop FE techniques to model the impact process of composite structures using LSDYNA. - Abstract: In this paper the damage behaviour of natural stitched composite single lap-joints are investigated under low velocity impact loading conditions. For this study, the laminated hybrid composite beams were pinned using Flax yarns before curing process. The Charpy impact test was chosen to study the energy absorbing capability of single lap composite joints. Composite beams were fabricated from combination of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites. It was shown that composite beams which are stitched through the thickness are able to absorb more energy in comparison with adhesive bonded composite joints in the hybrid composite beams. The Charpy impact test of stitched composite single lap joint was also simulated by finite element analysis using software LS-DYNA and the results verified with relevant experimental data

  14. Impact of Antecedent Factors on Collaborative Technologies Usage among Academic Researchers in Malaysian Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Daud, Norzaidi; Zakaria, Halimi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on collaborative technologies usage among academic researchers in Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Data analysis was conducted on data collected from 156 academic researchers from five Malaysian research universities. This study…

  15. Using Data Collection Apps and Single-Case Designs to Research Transformative Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.; Greenleaf, Arie; Hoggan, Chad

    2017-01-01

    To overcome situational hurdles when researching transformative learning in adults, we outline a research approach using single-case research designs and smartphone data collection apps. This approach allows researchers to better understand learners' current lived experiences and determine the effects of transformative learning interventions on…

  16. Email solicitation for scholarly work--a single researcher's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Justine; Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Publishing is important for career progression. The traditional journal model results in subscribers bearing publication costs. The eagerness with which researchers seek journals for the publishing of their work, along with the internet, has resulted in the creation of a new model called open access (OA). Author/s or their institution/s pay an actual publication fee. This has in turn resulted in the creation of questionable journals which charge steep publishing fees. Emails soliciting publication to one of the authors (VG) were collected for the month of March 2015. Information collected included costs of OA publishing, and whether or not this information was readily available. The appropriateness of said solicitations was also assessed with regard to topics with which the targeted author was familiar. There was a total of 44 solicitations: 3 were duplicates. Out of 41 solicitations, 20 (49%) were appropriate. The open access fee was readily available in 27 out of 41 solicitations (66%). The open access fee averaged $475, ranging from $25 to $1500. The only journal which provided true OA was Medical Principles and Practice, with no fees charged whatsoever. Potential authors should carefully investigate OA journals prior to choosing journals wherein to submit their work.

  17. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  18. Impact of externally funded projects on development of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of externally funded projects on development of research capability of national agricultural research system. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

  20. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  1. Research Managers at Jamaica's National University Are Strategically Deploying a Modest Research Development Fund in Support of Impactful Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Paul W.; Henry, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight, using examples, how the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech, Jamaica) is strategically using a modest internal research development fund, which is managed by the research managers in its research and innovation management office, to support impactful research projects. Critical reflection and the…

  2. Single and multiple ionization of noble gas atoms by H0 impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, L.; Gulyas, L.; Herczku, P.; Kovacs, S.T.S.; Koever, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The understanding of the mechanisms of collisions between energetic charged particles and neutral atoms is of fundamental significance, and it has large importance in many research fields (plasma physics, astrophysics, materials science, etc.), as well as in number of practical applications. In the present work we measured total direct ionization and electron loss cross sections for the collisions of H 0 atoms with noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) in the energy range 75-300 keV. The experiment was carried out at the 1.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Atomki by coincident detection of the recoil target ions and the charge-state analyzed scattered projectiles. With this study we wished to obtain information about the role played by the electron of the H 0 projectile in the process of the single and multiple vacancy production induced by the collision. For this purpose we repeated the measurements also with proton projectile under the same experimental conditions. For calibration of the measuring system and normalization of our data we used the cross section values of Ref. [1]. The experimental results were analysed with using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. CTMC describes well the experimental data for both projectiles for the single vacancy creation, however we observed increasing deviation between the theory and experiment with increasing number of the created vacancies, as well as with decreasing atomic number of the target atoms. Fig. 1 shows our results obtained for the single, double and triple ionization (q = 1, 2, 3) of Kr at H 0 impact for the two cases when the outgoing projectile is H 0 (a) and H + (b), i.e., for pure ionization of the target, and ionization of the target with simultaneous electron loss of the projectile. The curves in the figure were obtained by two versions of the three-body CTMC theory: a conventional model (dashed curves); and a model taking partially account of the many

  3. Research Impact Assessment in Agriculture--A Review of Approaches and Impact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Helming, Katharina; Ferretti, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Research has a role to play in society's endeavour for sustainable development. This is particularly true for agricultural research, since agriculture is at the nexus between numerous sustainable development goals. Yet, generally accepted methods for linking research outcomes to sustainability impacts are missing. We conducted a review of…

  4. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  5. Single quantum dot tracking reveals the impact of nanoparticle surface on intracellular state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Mohammad U; Ma, Liang; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M

    2018-05-08

    Inefficient delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to intracellular targets is a major bottleneck in drug delivery, genetic engineering, and molecular imaging. Here we apply live-cell single-quantum-dot imaging and tracking to analyze and classify nanoparticle states after intracellular delivery. By merging trajectory diffusion parameters with brightness measurements, multidimensional analysis reveals distinct and heterogeneous populations that are indistinguishable using single parameters alone. We derive new quantitative metrics of particle loading, cluster distribution, and vesicular release in single cells, and evaluate intracellular nanoparticles with diverse surfaces following osmotic delivery. Surface properties have a major impact on cell uptake, but little impact on the absolute cytoplasmic numbers. A key outcome is that stable zwitterionic surfaces yield uniform cytosolic behavior, ideal for imaging agents. We anticipate that this combination of quantum dots and single-particle tracking can be widely applied to design and optimize next-generation imaging probes, nanoparticle therapeutics, and biologics.

  6. EUROPEAN FUNDING - IMPACT ON RESEARCH CAPACITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kotarski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited national budgetary resources for R&D in period from 2007 to 2013 imposed a need for Croatian researchers to apply for European research grants. A challenge for effective absorption of European Structural and Investment Funds in the period 2014 to 2020, highlight a need to assess the impact of this external funding on research capacity in Croatia in 2007-2013 period. Qualitative interviews with grant recipients from Ruder Boskovic Institute revealed intangible achievements in terms of research career, enhanced interaction and knowledge transfer to business community, improved research management competences and possibilities for collaboration with internationally recognized research teams. Similar results from studies carried out in other countries indicates the importance of intangible achievements of research grants, which are becoming more and more relevant in the context of public policies (networking, cooperation, strategic planning, knowledge management. The use of EU funds is an extremely complex process which requires a change of approach to the use of public funds and the introduction of the principle of transparency of procedures for all stakeholders in the process, equal access to information and sound financial management. Weaknesses of the Croatian scientific system and absence of will to support excellent research through competitive funding present real threats to successful participation of Croatian researchers in the European framework programs and other external research funding programs. Findings of the study provide valuable insight for national authorities in terms of effective management of national research and innovation programs while maximizing the potential impact of EU funds allocated.

  7. Allied health research positions: a qualitative evaluation of their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health

  8. Moral Development in Single-Sex Schools: A Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Madonna M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the research studies on single-sex schools conducted in the last decade. It concludes that there is empirical support to the hypothesis that single-sex schools may be advantageous for both boys and girls in terms of promoting academic achievement with a greater degree of order and control in the classroom and…

  9. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  10. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    Full Text Available Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005 introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well. As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx

  11. Study on the fragmentation of granite due to the impact of single particle and double particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Impact Drilling (PID is a novel method to improve the rate of penetration (ROP. In order to further improve the performance of PID, an investigation into the effect of single and double particles: (1 diameter; (2 initial velocity; (3 distance; and (4 angle of incidence was undertaken to investigate their effects on broken volume and penetration depth into hard brittle rock. For this purpose, the laboratory experiment of single particle impact rock was employed. Meanwhile, based on the LS-DYNA, a new finite element (FE simulation of the PID, including single and double particles impact rock, has been presented. The 3-dimensional (3D, aix-symmetric, dynamic-explicit, Lagrangian model has been considered in this simulation. And the Elastic and Holmquist Johnson Cook (HJC material behaviors have been used for particles and rocks, respectively. The FE simulation results of single particle impacting rock are good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, in this article the optimal impact parameters, including diameter, initial velocity, distance and the angle of incidence, are obtained in PID.

  12. Impact of a single drop on the same liquid: formation, growth and disintegration of jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, G. Gilou; Deegan, Robert

    2015-11-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on on the same liquid. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates a jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are bifurcations in the multiplicity of jets. First, we study the formation, growth and disintegration of jets following the impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory. We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. We also use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the bifurcation from a single jet into two jets. Using high speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet.

  13. The Impact of Mutual Recognition: Inbuilt Limits and Domestic Responses to the Single Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S.

    2002-01-01

    What have been the consequences of integrating the single market via mutual recognition? Did competitive deregulation result? Or were its implications less significant than expected? In this paper I analyse two previously highly regulated service sectors, insurance and road haulage, and study the impact of European policies in Germany and France. I find that the Council instituted mutual recognition in a restrictive way. This limits its impact on member states, which is moreover mediated by n...

  14. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Impact Report, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Since its inception in 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program has become an important research modality in the Department’s portfolio, enabling high impact research that addresses key scientific challenges for energy technologies. Funded by the Office of Science’s Basic Energy Sciences program, the EFRCs are located across the United States and are led by universities, national laboratories, and private research institutions. These multi-investigator, multidisciplinary centers bring together world-class teams of researchers, often from multiple institutions, to tackle the toughest scientific challenges preventing advances in energy technologies. The EFRCs’ fundamental scientific advances are having a significant impact that is being translated to industry. In 2009 five-year awards were made to 46 EFRCs, including 16 that were fully funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). An open recompetition of the program in 2014 resulted in fouryear awards to 32 centers, 22 of which are renewals of existing EFRCs and 10 of which are new EFRCs. In 2016, DOE added four new centers to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department’s environmental management and nuclear cleanup mission, bringing the total number of active EFRCs to 36. The impact reports in this document describe some of the many scientific accomplishments and greater impacts of the class of 2009 – 2018 EFRCs and early outcomes from a few of the class of 2014 – 2018 EFRCs.

  15. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  16. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  17. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  18. Team Structure and Scientific Impact of "Big Science" Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn; Jeppesen, Jacob

    This paper summarizes preliminary results from a project studying how the organizational and cognitive features of research carried out in a Large Scale Research Facility (LSRF) affect scientific impact. The study is based on exhaustive bibliometric mapping of the scientific publications...... of the Neutron Science Department of Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 2006-2009. Given the collaborative nature of research carried out at LSRFs, it is important to understand how its organization affects scientific impact. Diversity of teams along the institutional and cognitive dimensions affects both...... opportunities for combination of knowledge and coordination costs. The way specific collaborative configurations strike this trade-offs between these opportunities and costs have notable effects on research performance. The findings of the paper show that i.) scientists combining affiliations to both...

  19. Evaluating research impact: the development of a ‘RESEARCH for IMPACT’ TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Tsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the development of a ‘Research for Impact’ Tool against a background of concerns about the over-researching of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s issues without demonstrable benefits.Material and Methods: A combination of literature reviews, workshops with researchers and reflections by project team members and partners using participatory snowball techniques.Results: Assessing research impact is difficult, akin to so-called ‘wicked problem’, but not impossible. Heuristic and collaborative approach to research that takes in the expectations of research users, those being researched and the funders of research offers a pragmatic solution to evaluating research impact. The proposed ‘Research for Impact’ Tool is based on the understanding that the value of research is to create evidence and/or products to support smarter decisions so as to improve the human condition.Research is of limited value unless the evidence produced is used to inform smarter decisions. A practical way of approaching research impact is therefore to start with the decisions confronting decision makers whether they are government policymakers, professional practitioners or households and the extent to which the research supports smarter decisions and the knock-on consequences of such smart decisions. Embedded at each step in the impact planning, monitoring and evaluation process is the need for Indigenous leadership and participation, capacity enhancement and collaborative partnerships and participatory learning by doing approaches across partners.Discussion: The tool is designed in the context of Indigenous research but the basic idea that the way to assess research impact is to start upfront by defining the users’ of research and their information needs, the decisions confronting them and the extent to which research informs smarter decisions is equally applicable to research in other settings, both applied and

  20. Citation analysis may severely underestimate the impact of clinical research as compared to basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Klautz, Robert J M; Peul, Wilco C

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis has become an important tool for research performance assessment in the medical sciences. However, different areas of medical research may have considerably different citation practices, even within the same medical field. Because of this, it is unclear to what extent citation-based bibliometric indicators allow for valid comparisons between research units active in different areas of medical research. A visualization methodology is introduced that reveals differences in citation practices between medical research areas. The methodology extracts terms from the titles and abstracts of a large collection of publications and uses these terms to visualize the structure of a medical field and to indicate how research areas within this field differ from each other in their average citation impact. Visualizations are provided for 32 medical fields, defined based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database. The analysis focuses on three fields: Cardiac & cardiovascular systems, Clinical neurology, and Surgery. In each of these fields, there turn out to be large differences in citation practices between research areas. Low-impact research areas tend to focus on clinical intervention research, while high-impact research areas are often more oriented on basic and diagnostic research. Popular bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the impact factor, do not correct for differences in citation practices between medical fields. These indicators therefore cannot be used to make accurate between-field comparisons. More sophisticated bibliometric indicators do correct for field differences but still fail to take into account within-field heterogeneity in citation practices. As a consequence, the citation impact of clinical intervention research may be substantially underestimated in comparison with basic and diagnostic research.

  1. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  2. What research impacts do Australian primary health care researchers expect and achieve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Richard L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding for research is under pressure to be accountable in terms of benefits and translation of research findings into practice and policy. Primary health care research has considerable potential to improve health care in a wide range of settings, but little is known about the extent to which these impacts actually occur. This study examines the impact of individual primary health care research projects on policy and practice from the perspective of Chief Investigators (CIs. Methods The project used an online survey adapted from the Buxton and Hanney Payback Framework to collect information about the impacts that CIs expected and achieved from primary health care research projects funded by Australian national competitive grants. Results and Discussion Chief Investigators (CIs provided information about seventeen completed projects. While no CI expected their project to have an impact in every domain of the framework used in the survey, 76% achieved at least half the impacts they expected. Sixteen projects had published and/or presented their work, 10 projects included 11 doctorate awards in their research capacity domain. All CIs expected their research to lead to further research opportunities with 11 achieving this. Ten CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for policy making but only four reported their research had influenced policy making. However 11 CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for organizational decision making and eight reported their research had influenced organizational decision making. Conclusion CIs reported that nationally funded primary health care research projects made an impact on knowledge production, staff development and further research, areas within the realm of influence of the research team and within the scope of awareness of the CIs. Some also made an impact on policy and organizational decision-making, and on localized clinical practice and service

  3. Tide or Tsunami? The Impact of Metrics on Scholarly Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly resorting to the use of journal metrics such as impact factors and ranking lists in appraisal and promotion processes, and are starting to set quantitative "performance expectations" which make use of such journal-based metrics. The widespread use and misuse of research metrics is leading to…

  4. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  5. The Impact of Psychotherapeutic Reiki on Anxiety and Mindfulness: A Single-Case Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lindsay C.

    2016-01-01

    Reiki healing is one of several complementary and integrative therapies becoming increasingly prevalent in mental health counseling. It has been identified in the medical field for its usefulness in treating anxiety, depression, distress, and pain but has rarely been studied for its counseling impact on client wellness. I conducted single-case…

  6. FIREX-Related Biomass Burning Research Using ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The scientific focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the mass loadings, chemical compositions, and optical properties of biomass burning particulate emissions generated in the laboratory from Western U.S. fuels using a similar instrument suite to the one deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study (Kleinman and Sedlacek, 2013). We deployed the single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to make measurements of biomass burning refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings and size distributions to correlate with non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM; i.e., HR-AMS) and rBC (SP-AMS) measurements as a function of photo-oxidation processes in an environmental chamber. With these measurements, we will address the following scientific questions: 1. What are the emission indices (g/kg fuel) of rBC from various wildland fuels from the Pacific Northwest (i.e., relevant to BBOP analysis) as a function of combustion conditions and simulated atmospheric processing in an environmental chamber? 2. What are the optical properties (e.g., mass-specific absorption cross-section [MAC], single-scattering albedo [SSA], and absorption Angstrom exponent [AAE)] of rBC emitted from various wildland fuels and how are they impacted by atmospheric processing? 3. How does the mixing state of rBC in biomass-burning plumes relate to the optical properties? 4. How does the emitted rBC affect radiative forcing?

  7. The Impact of Tax Incentives on Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.

  8. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Research Based Science Education: An Exemplary Program for Broader Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Broader impacts are most effective when standing on the shoulders of successful programs. The Research Based Science Education (RBSE) program was such a successful program and played a major role in activating effective opportunities beyond the scope of its program. NSF funded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) to oversee the project from 1996-2008. RBSE provided primarily high school teachers with on-site astronomy research experiences and their students with astronomy research projects that their teachers could explain with confidence. The goal of most student research projects is to inspire and motivate students to go into STEM fields. The authors of the original NSF proposal felt that for students to do research in the classroom, a foundational research experience for teachers must first be provided. The key components of the program consisted of 16 teachers/year on average; a 15-week distance learning course covering astronomy content, research, mentoring and leadership skills; a subsequent 10-day summer workshop with half the time on Kitt Peak on research-class telescopes; results presented on the 9th day; research brought back to the classroom; more on-site observing opportunities for students and teachers; data placed on-line to reach a wider audience; opportunities to submit research articles to the project's refereed journal; and travel for teachers (and the 3 teachers they each mentored) to a professional meeting. In 2004, leveraging on the well-established RBSE program, the NOAO/NASA Spitzer Space Telescope Research began. Between 2005 and 2008, metrics included 32 teachers (mostly from RBSE), 10 scientists, 15 Spitzer Director Discretionary proposals, 31 AAS presentations and many Intel ISEF winners. Under new funding in 2009, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program was born with similar goals and thankfully still runs today. Broader impacts, lessons learned and ideas for future projects will be discussed in this presentation.

  10. The impact of single and shared rooms on family-centred care in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Penny; Northcott, Andy

    2017-06-01

    To explore whether and how spatial aspects of children's hospital wards (single and shared rooms) impact upon family-centred care. Family-centred care has been widely adopted in paediatric hospitals internationally. Recent hospital building programmes in many countries have prioritised the provision of single rooms over shared rooms. Limited attention has, however, been paid to the potential impact of spatial aspects of paediatric wards on family-centred care. Qualitative, ethnographic. Phase 1; observation within four wards of a specialist children's hospital. Phase 2; interviews with 17 children aged 5-16 years and 60 parents/carers. Sixty nursing and support staff also took part in interviews and focus group discussions. All data were subjected to thematic analysis. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: 'role expectations' and 'family-nurse interactions'. The latter theme comprised three subthemes: 'family support needs', 'monitoring children's well-being' and 'survey-assess-interact within spatial contexts'. Spatial configurations within hospital wards significantly impacted upon the relationships and interactions between children, parents and nurses, which played out differently in single and shared rooms. Increasing the provision of single rooms within wards is therefore likely to directly affect how family-centred care manifests in practice. Nurses need to be sensitive to the impact of spatial characteristics, and particularly of single and shared rooms, on families' experiences of children's hospital wards. Nurses' contribution to and experience of family-centred care can be expected to change significantly when spatial characteristics of wards change and, as is currently the vogue, hospitals maximise the provision of single rather than shared rooms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Iterative Use of Single Case Research Designs to Advance the Science of EI/ECSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Decker, Jessica; Germansky, Sara E.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research in early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is focused on identifying effective practices related to positive outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. Individual responses to evidence-based practices are often variable, and non-responders are common. Single case research (SCR) might be…

  12. Publishing Single-Case Research Design Studies That Do Not Demonstrate Experimental Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Travers, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Demonstration of experimental control is considered a hallmark of high-quality single-case research design (SCRD). Studies that fail to demonstrate experimental control may not be published because researchers are unwilling to submit these papers for publication and journals are unlikely to publish negative results (i.e., the file drawer effect).…

  13. Single Sex Mathematics Classes: A Critical Analysis of the Impact at a Secondary School

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Angelique; Pugalee, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Single sex classes have recently been emphasized as an effective way to promote mathematics learning. Despite their popularity, the research on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed underscoring the need for additional research and discussion. This research is set in one of the twenty-five largest public school systems in the United States, where schools have recently been allowed to begin instructional initiatives with same sex classes in mathematics. Preliminary data on the effecti...

  14. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  15. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Steve [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Merrill, Stephen [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  16. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    results are shared with relevant stakeholders for feedback and validation. After inconsistencies are clarified or described, the results are shared with stakeholders for learning, improvement and accountability purposes. Conclusion Contribution Mapping provides an interesting alternative to existing methods that aim to assess research impact. The method is expected to be useful for research monitoring, single case studies, comparing multiple cases and indicating how research can better be employed to contribute to better action for health. PMID:22748169

  17. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  18. Measuring research impact: a large cancer research funding programme in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Sargent, Nicole; Wesselingh, Steve; Size, Lincoln; Donovan, Claire; Miller, Caroline L

    2018-05-09

    Measuring research impact is of critical interest to philanthropic and government funding agencies interested in ensuring that the research they fund is both scientifically excellent and has meaningful impact into health and other outcomes. The Beat Cancer Project (BCP) is a AUD $34 m cancer research funding scheme that commenced in 2011. It was initiated by an Australian charity (Cancer Council SA), and supported by the South Australian Government and the state's major universities. This study applied Buxton and Hanney's Payback Framework to assess research impact generated from the BCP after 3 years of funding. Data sources were an audit of peer-reviewed publications from January 2011 to September 2014 from Web of Knowledge and a self-report survey of investigators awarded BCP research funding during its first 3 years of implementation (2011-2013). Of the 104 surveys, 92 (88%) were completed. The BCP performed well across all five categories of the Payback Framework. In terms of knowledge production, 1257 peer-reviewed publications were generated and the mean impact factor of publishing journals increased annually. There were many benefits to future research with 21 respondents (23%) reporting career advancement, and 110 higher degrees obtained or expected (including 84 PhDs). Overall, 52% of funded projects generated tools for future research. The funded research attracted substantial further income yielding a very high rate of leverage. For every AUD $1 that the cancer charity invested, the BCP gained an additional AUD $6.06. Five projects (5%) had informed policy and 5 (5%) informed product development, with an additional 31 (34%) and 35 (38%) projects, respectively, anticipating doing so. In terms of health and sector and broader economic benefits, 8 (9%) projects had influenced practice or behaviour of health staff and 32 (34%) would reportedly to do so in the future. Research impact was a priority of charity and government funders and led to a deliberate

  19. Single-photon sources for quantum technologies - Results of the joint research project SIQUTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kück, S.; López, M.; Rodiek, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this presentation, the results of the joint research project “Single-Photon Sources for Quantum Technologies” (SIQUTE) [1] will be presented. The focus will be on the development of absolutely characterized single-photon sources, on the realization of an efficient waveguide-based single-photon......-photon source at the telecom wavelengths of 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm, on the implementation of the quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy and on the development of a detector for very low photon fluxes...

  20. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  1. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    Science shops are mediating agencies at universities that give citizens and citizen groups access to the resources of the university through co-operation with students and researchers. Science shops have three aims: to support citizens and citizen groups in their efforts getting influence...... to the impact of science shops on universities and on society are discussed. A typology for the different types of knowledge requested by citizens and citizen groups through science shops is presented (documentation, knowledge building, development of new perspectives). As important aspects of the potentials......, prerequisites and limits to the impact of science shops are discussed the networking between the science shop and the researchers and teachers and with the citizens and other external actors, and the content and the structure of the curricula at the university....

  2. Research on environmental impacts of nuclear power and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1994-01-01

    The future needs of nuclear energy research in Finland have been recently reviewed by an expert group. Concerning the research on environmental impacts and emergency preparedness, the group recommended the establishment of a common coordination group for the different projects in this field. The main objectives in this field include efficient accident management and mitigation of off-site consequences with appropriate countermeasures and more reliable real time prediction tools for atmospheric dispersion and radiation dose evaluations as well as efficient and fast real time surveillance and measurement systems. (orig.)

  3. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. A review of uncertainty research in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Wanda; Noble, Bram; Gunn, Jill; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines uncertainty research in Impact Assessment (IA) and the focus of attention of the IA scholarly literature. We do so by first exploring ‘outside’ the IA literature, identifying three main themes of uncertainty research, and then apply these themes to examine the focus of scholarly research on uncertainty ‘inside’ IA. Based on a search of the database Scopus, we identified 134 journal papers published between 1970 and 2013 that address uncertainty in IA, 75% of which were published since 2005. We found that 90% of IA research addressing uncertainty focused on uncertainty in the practice of IA, including uncertainty in impact predictions, models and managing environmental impacts. Notwithstanding early guidance on uncertainty treatment in IA from the 1980s, we found no common, underlying conceptual framework that was guiding research on uncertainty in IA practice. Considerably less attention, only 9% of papers, focused on uncertainty communication, disclosure and decision-making under uncertain conditions, the majority of which focused on the need to disclose uncertainties as opposed to providing guidance on how to do so and effectively use that information to inform decisions. Finally, research focused on theory building for explaining human behavior with respect to uncertainty avoidance constituted only 1% of the IA published literature. We suggest the need for further conceptual framework development for researchers focused on identifying and addressing uncertainty in IA practice; the need for guidance on how best to communicate uncertainties in practice, versus criticizing practitioners for not doing so; research that explores how best to interpret and use disclosures about uncertainty when making decisions about project approvals, and the implications of doing so; and academic theory building and exploring the utility of existing theories to better understand and explain uncertainty avoidance behavior in IA. - Highlights: • We

  5. A review of uncertainty research in impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Wanda, E-mail: wanda.leung@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 (Canada); Noble, Bram, E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 (Canada); Gunn, Jill, E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 (Canada); Jaeger, Jochen A.G., E-mail: jochen.jaeger@concordia.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve W., Suite 1255, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Loyola Sustainability Research Centre, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke W., AD-502, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper examines uncertainty research in Impact Assessment (IA) and the focus of attention of the IA scholarly literature. We do so by first exploring ‘outside’ the IA literature, identifying three main themes of uncertainty research, and then apply these themes to examine the focus of scholarly research on uncertainty ‘inside’ IA. Based on a search of the database Scopus, we identified 134 journal papers published between 1970 and 2013 that address uncertainty in IA, 75% of which were published since 2005. We found that 90% of IA research addressing uncertainty focused on uncertainty in the practice of IA, including uncertainty in impact predictions, models and managing environmental impacts. Notwithstanding early guidance on uncertainty treatment in IA from the 1980s, we found no common, underlying conceptual framework that was guiding research on uncertainty in IA practice. Considerably less attention, only 9% of papers, focused on uncertainty communication, disclosure and decision-making under uncertain conditions, the majority of which focused on the need to disclose uncertainties as opposed to providing guidance on how to do so and effectively use that information to inform decisions. Finally, research focused on theory building for explaining human behavior with respect to uncertainty avoidance constituted only 1% of the IA published literature. We suggest the need for further conceptual framework development for researchers focused on identifying and addressing uncertainty in IA practice; the need for guidance on how best to communicate uncertainties in practice, versus criticizing practitioners for not doing so; research that explores how best to interpret and use disclosures about uncertainty when making decisions about project approvals, and the implications of doing so; and academic theory building and exploring the utility of existing theories to better understand and explain uncertainty avoidance behavior in IA. - Highlights: • We

  6. Improving Broader Impacts through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has designed and implemented successful Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs enabling teachers to work directly with polar scientists in the field and bring their experience back to their classrooms and communities. The PolarTREC TRE model, administered during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), is most effective, exhibiting far-reaching broader impacts when ideas are shared, each partners’ expertise is respected, and both work toward the common goal of delivering high-quality information. Between 2004 and 2009, ARCUS has selected, trained, and supported 77 teachers on polar teacher research experiences. Although a limited number of teachers are able to participate in a field experience, selected teachers have expertise in translating research approaches and results into widely shared learning tools and programs. Between 2007-2009, PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as a result of their experience. Selected teachers are usually well connected within their schools, communities, and professions, bringing the science to numerous followers during their expedition. Live events with teachers and researchers in the field have attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. The PolarTREC TRE Model includes numerous methods to support outreach activities while teachers and researchers are in the field. These include web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events—all easily replicable activities with the potential to affect large numbers of people. In addition, the TRE experience continues to produce broader impacts far into the future of the teacher and researcher’s careers through ongoing communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through activities including classroom visits, joint proposal development, and much more

  7. The impact of qualitative research on gynaecologic oncology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Jeffrey Andrew; Abitbol, Jeremie; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter Henri; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-02-01

    Inherent in the care provided to patients with cancer is an important psychosocial element which has been explored scientifically through qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research in gynaecologic oncology and to measure its integration in gynaecologic oncology practice guidelines. We searched Medline, CINHAL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 20 years on the three most prevalent gynaecologic cancers: endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. National and international practice guidelines on management of gynaecologic cancers were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse website, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada website, and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in these guidelines. One hundred thirteen qualitative research papers on gynaecologic cancers were identified focusing on psychological impacts, social dynamics, and doctor-patient interactions during cancer treatment and recovery. Among the 15 national and international clinical practice guidelines identified on management of gynaecologic cancer, there were a total of 2272 references, and of these only three references citing qualitative research were identified (0.1%) in only one of the 15 practice guidelines. Although qualitative research is being carried out in gynaecologic oncology, its integration into clinical practice guidelines is essentially absent. Efforts to narrow the gap between qualitative research and clinical practice are essential in ensuring a comprehensive approach to the treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer.

  8. A Framework for the Assessment of Research and Its Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Daraio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a holistic framework for the development of models for the assessment of research activities and their impacts. It distinguishes three dimensions, including in an original way, data as a main dimension, together with theory and methodology. Each dimension of the framework is further characterized by three main building blocks: education, research, and innovation (theory; efficiency, effectiveness, and impact (methodology; and availability, interoperability, and “unit-free” property (data. The different dimensions and their nine constituent building blocks are attributes of an overarching concept, denoted as “quality.” Three additional quality attributes are identified as implementation factors (tailorability, transparency, and openness and three “enabling” conditions (convergence, mixed methods, and knowledge infrastructures complete the framework. A framework is required to develop models of metrics. Models of metrics are necessary to assess the meaning, validity, and robustness of metrics. The proposed framework can be a useful reference for the development of the ethics of research evaluation. It can act as a common denominator for different analytical levels and relevant aspects and is able to embrace many different and heterogeneous streams of literature. Directions for future research are provided.

  9. Academic Libraries’ Role in Improving Institutions Research Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Tamarkin, Molly; Vijayakumar, J.K.; Baessa, Mohamed A.; Grenz, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    In the changing landscape of scientific research and scholarly communication, importance of “quality in research”, “reviewed research” and “reviewed publications” in qualifying for the ratings and rankings are widely discussed. While publishing the research pieces in peer-reviewed and highly ranked journals are increasingly important, there are different methods and tools to be in place at Institutional level to increase researchers’ profile and the ranking of the institutions. As a young research based university created in 2009, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) focuses on the bibliometrics and altemetrics tools, author affiliations, author naming and plug-ins to different search engines, research evaluation systems as well as to research repositories. The University has launched an institutional repository in September 2012 as a home for the intellectual outputs of KAUST researchers, and then adopted the first institutional open access mandate in the Arab region effective June 31, 2014. Integration with ORCID became a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher’s scientific contributions systematically. We will present the inclusion and creation of ORCID identifiers in the existing systems as an institutional member to ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools with Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will also present our experiences in awareness programs, trainings, outreach, implementation of systems and tools like PlumX, as well as our approach in improving the research impact and profiling our Institution’s research to the world.

  10. Academic Libraries’ Role in Improving Institutions Research Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Tamarkin, Molly

    2015-11-11

    In the changing landscape of scientific research and scholarly communication, importance of “quality in research”, “reviewed research” and “reviewed publications” in qualifying for the ratings and rankings are widely discussed. While publishing the research pieces in peer-reviewed and highly ranked journals are increasingly important, there are different methods and tools to be in place at Institutional level to increase researchers’ profile and the ranking of the institutions. As a young research based university created in 2009, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) focuses on the bibliometrics and altemetrics tools, author affiliations, author naming and plug-ins to different search engines, research evaluation systems as well as to research repositories. The University has launched an institutional repository in September 2012 as a home for the intellectual outputs of KAUST researchers, and then adopted the first institutional open access mandate in the Arab region effective June 31, 2014. Integration with ORCID became a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher’s scientific contributions systematically. We will present the inclusion and creation of ORCID identifiers in the existing systems as an institutional member to ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools with Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will also present our experiences in awareness programs, trainings, outreach, implementation of systems and tools like PlumX, as well as our approach in improving the research impact and profiling our Institution’s research to the world.

  11. Publication Trends and Citation Impact of Tribology Research in India: A Scientometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran, P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes India's contribution to world tribology research during the period 2001-2012 based on SCOPUS records. India's global publication share, annual output, and its citation impact of Indian contribution, partner countries, leading contributors, leading institutes, and highly cited papers were analyzed. Additionally, a cloud technique is used to map frequently used single words in titles. It is observed that India ranks in the $7^{th}$ position with a global publication share of 3.83% and an annual average growth rate of 25.58% during the period 2001-2012. The citation impact of India's contribution is 6.05 which decreased from 12.74 during 2001-2006 to 4.62 during 2007-2012. 17.4% of India's total research output was published with international collaboration.

  12. Head impact exposure measured in a single youth football team during practice drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Kane, Joeline M; Espeland, Mark A; Miller, Logan E; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Urban, Jillian E

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts in practice drills within a youth football team to determine how head impact exposure varies among different types of drills. METHODS On-field head impact data were collected from athletes participating in a youth football team for a single season. Each athlete wore a helmet instrumented with a Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System head acceleration measurement device during all preseason, regular season, and playoff practices. Video was recorded for all practices, and video analysis was performed to verify head impacts and assign each head impact to a specific drill. Eleven drills were identified: dummy/sled tackling, install, special teams, Oklahoma, one-on-one, open-field tackling, passing, position skill work, multiplayer tackle, scrimmage, and tackling drill stations. Generalized linear models were fitted to log-transformed data, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and impact rates. RESULTS A total of 2125 impacts were measured during 30 contact practices in 9 athletes (mean age 11.1 ± 0.6 years, mean mass 44.9 ± 4.1 kg). Open-field tackling had the highest median and 95th percentile linear accelerations (24.7 g and 97.8 g, respectively) and resulted in significantly higher mean head accelerations than several other drills. The multiplayer tackle drill resulted in the highest head impact frequency, with an average of 0.59 impacts per minute per athlete, but the lowest 95th percentile linear accelerations of all drills. The front of the head was the most common impact location for all drills except dummy/sled tackling. CONCLUSIONS Head impact exposure varies significantly in youth football practice drills, with several drills exposing athletes to high-magnitude and/or high-frequency head impacts. These data suggest that further study of practice drills is an important step in developing evidence-based recommendations for modifying or eliminating

  13. The Impact of the First Birth: Married and Single Women Preferring Childlessness, One Child, or Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of an examination of the impact of a first child on three groups of women: voluntarily childless wives and single women wanting to remain childless; mothers of one child by choice and single women who want an only child; and two-child mothers and single women who want to have two children. (Author/BL)

  14. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  15. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  16. A Starting Point for Fluorescence-Based Single-Molecule Measurements in Biomolecular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gust

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence techniques are ideally suited to provide information about the structure-function-dynamics relationship of a biomolecule as static and dynamic heterogeneity can be easily detected. However, what type of single-molecule fluorescence technique is suited for which kind of biological question and what are the obstacles on the way to a successful single-molecule microscopy experiment? In this review, we provide practical insights into fluorescence-based single-molecule experiments aiming for scientists who wish to take their experiments to the single-molecule level. We especially focus on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments as these are a widely employed tool for the investigation of biomolecular mechanisms. We will guide the reader through the most critical steps that determine the success and quality of diffusion-based confocal and immobilization-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We discuss the specific chemical and photophysical requirements that make fluorescent dyes suitable for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Most importantly, we review recently emerged photoprotection systems as well as passivation and immobilization strategies that enable the observation of fluorescently labeled molecules under biocompatible conditions. Moreover, we discuss how the optical single-molecule toolkit has been extended in recent years to capture the physiological complexity of a cell making it even more relevant for biological research.

  17. Continuing Education Workshops in Bioinformatics Positively Impact Research and Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazas, Michelle D; Ouellette, B F Francis

    2016-06-01

    Bioinformatics.ca has been hosting continuing education programs in introductory and advanced bioinformatics topics in Canada since 1999 and has trained more than 2,000 participants to date. These workshops have been adapted over the years to keep pace with advances in both science and technology as well as the changing landscape in available learning modalities and the bioinformatics training needs of our audience. Post-workshop surveys have been a mandatory component of each workshop and are used to ensure appropriate adjustments are made to workshops to maximize learning. However, neither bioinformatics.ca nor others offering similar training programs have explored the long-term impact of bioinformatics continuing education training. Bioinformatics.ca recently initiated a look back on the impact its workshops have had on the career trajectories, research outcomes, publications, and collaborations of its participants. Using an anonymous online survey, bioinformatics.ca analyzed responses from those surveyed and discovered its workshops have had a positive impact on collaborations, research, publications, and career progression.

  18. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  19. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  20. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  1. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  2. No Randomization? No Problem: Experimental Control and Random Assignment in Single Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Randomization of large number of participants to different treatment groups is often not a feasible or preferable way to answer questions of immediate interest to professional practice. Single case designs (SCDs) are a class of research designs that are experimental in nature but require only a few participants, all of whom receive the…

  3. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Measuring Research Impact in an Open Access Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scholze

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on electronic publication impact as a limited, but rather well defined sub-field of research impact. With Open Access, a much bigger corpus of data has become available for statistical analysis. Publication impact can be measured by author- or reader-generated data. Author-generated data would be citations. Reader-generated data would be usage. Usage data can be collected through webserver or linkresolver logs. It has to be normalized in order to be shared and analysed meaningfully. The paper presents current initiatives and projects aiming to provide a suitable infrastructure, including publisher data (COUNTER/SUSHI and data collected from Open Access repositories (using OAI-PMH and OpenURL ContextObjects. Citation and usage data can be analyzed quantitatively or structurally. These new metrics can enhance or complement existing metrics like the Journal Impact Factor (JIF. Services like decision support systems for collection management or recommender systems can also be built on this metrics.

  5. Environmental Impacts from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Made with Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ilke; Mason, Brooke E; Phillips, Adam B; Heben, Michael J; Apul, Defne

    2017-04-18

    An ex-ante life cycle inventory was developed for single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) PV cells, including a laboratory-made 1% efficient device and an aspirational 28% efficient four-cell tandem device. The environmental impact of unit energy generation from the mono-Si PV technology was used as a reference point. Compared to monocrystalline Si (mono-Si), the environmental impacts from 1% SWCNT was ∼18 times higher due mainly to the short lifetime of three years. However, even with the same short lifetime, the 28% cell had lower environmental impacts than mono-Si. The effects of lifetime and efficiency on the environmental impacts were further examined. This analysis showed that if the SWCNT device efficiency had the same value as the best efficiency of the material under comparison, to match the total normalized impacts of the mono- and poly-Si, CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si devices, the SWCNT devices would need a lifetime of 2.8, 3.5, 5.3, 5.1, and 10.8 years, respectively. It was also found that if the SWCNT PV has an efficiency of 4.5% or higher, its energy payback time would be lower than other existing and emerging PV technologies. The major impacts of SWCNT PV came from the cell's materials synthesis.

  6. SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor William Moerner

    2010-07-09

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in

  7. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  8. Impact factor evolution of nursing research journals: 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Macarena C; Guerrero-Martín, Jorge; González-Morales, Borja; Pérez-Civantos, Demetrio V; Carreto-Lemus, Maria A; Durán-Gómez, Noelia

    The use of bibliometric indicators (impact factor [IF], impact index, h-index, etc.) is now believed to be a fundamental measure of the quality of scientific research output. In this context, the presence of scientific nursing journals in international databases and the factors influencing their impact ratings is being widely analyzed. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of scientific nursing journals in international databases and track the changes in their IF. A secondary analysis was carried out on data for the years 2009 to 2014 held in the JCR database (subject category: nursing). Additionally, the presence of scientific nursing journals in Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and SJR was analyzed. During the period studied, the number of journals indexed in the JCR under the nursing subject category increased from 70 in 2009 (mean IF: 0.99, standard deviation: 0.53) to 115 in 2014 (mean IF: 1.04, standard deviation: 0.42), of which only 70 were listed for the full six years. Although mean IF showed an upward trend throughout this time, no statistically significant differences were found in the variations to this figure. Although IF and other bibliometric indicators have their limitations, it is nonetheless true that bibliometry is now the most widely used tool for evaluating scientific output in all disciplines, including nursing, highlighting the importance of being familiar with how they are calculated and their significance when deciding the journal or journals in which to publish the results of our research. That said, it is also necessary to consider other possible alternative ways of assessing the quality and impact of scientific contributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single cell biology beyond the era of antibodies: relevance, challenges, and promises in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Parvin; Maliekal, Tessy Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Research of the past two decades has proved the relevance of single cell biology in basic research and translational medicine. Successful detection and isolation of specific subsets is the key to understand their functional heterogeneity. Antibodies are conventionally used for this purpose, but their relevance in certain contexts is limited. In this review, we discuss some of these contexts, posing bottle neck for different fields of biology including biomedical research. With the advancement of chemistry, several methods have been introduced to overcome these problems. Even though microfluidics and microraft array are newer techniques exploited for single cell biology, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) remains the gold standard technique for isolation of cells for many biomedical applications, like stem cell therapy. Here, we present a comprehensive and comparative account of some of the probes that are useful in FACS. Further, we illustrate how these techniques could be applied in biomedical research. It is postulated that intracellular molecular markers like nucleostemin (GNL3), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and HIRA can be used for improving the outcome of cardiac as well as bone regeneration. Another field that could utilize intracellular markers is diagnostics, and we propose the use of specific peptide nucleic acid probes (PNPs) against certain miRNAs for cancer surgical margin prediction. The newer techniques for single cell biology, based on intracellular molecules, will immensely enhance the repertoire of possible markers for the isolation of cell types useful in biomedical research.

  10. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  11. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  12. Climate Change and Impacts Research Experiences for Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peteet, D. M.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Moshary, F.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Howard, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Johnson, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and impacts research for undergraduate urban students is the focus of the Center for Global Climate Research (CGCR). We describe student research and significant results obtained during the Summer 2011. The NSF REU site, is a collaboration between the City University of New York (CUNY) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The research teams are mentored by NASA scientists and CUNY faculty. Student projects include: Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin; Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth and Angstrom Exponent Retrieved by AERONET, MISR, and MODIS Measurements; White Roofs to the Rescue: Combating the Urban Heat Island Effect; Tropospheric Ozone Investigations in New York City; Carbon Sequestration with Climate Change in Alaskan Peatlands; Validating Regional Climate Models for Western Sub-Sahara Africa; Bio-Remediation of Toxic Waste Sites: Mineral Characteristics of Cyanide-Treated Mining Waste; Assessment of an Ocean Mixing Parameterization for Climate Studies; Comparative Wind Speed through Doppler Sounding with Pulsed Infrared LIDAR; and Satellite Telemetry and Communications. The CGCR also partners with the New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) at GISS. The center is supported by NSF ATM-0851932 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA).

  13. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor.

  14. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren; Kim, Sok Chul

    2014-01-01

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor

  15. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Hsiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (noninvariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  17. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H C

    2018-01-01

    Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  18. Doubly differential single and multiple ionization of krypton by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, O. G. de; Gavin, J.; DuBois, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    Differential measurements for single and multiple ionization of Kr by 240 and 500 eV electron impact are presented. Using a pulsed extraction field, Kr + , Kr 2+ , and Kr 3+ ions were measured in coincidence with scattered electrons for energy losses up to 120 eV and scattering angles between 16 degree sign and 90 degree sign . Scaling properties of the doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) are investigated as a function of energy loss, scattering angle, and momentum transfer. It is shown that scaling the DDCS as outlined by Kim and Inokuti and plotting them versus a parameter consisting of the momentum transfer divided by the square root of the impact energy times 1-cos(θ), where θ is the scattering angle, yielded similar curves, but with different magnitudes, for single and multiple ionization. Normalizing these curves together produced two universal curves, one appropriate for single and multiple electron emission at larger scattering angles (θ≥30 degree sign ) and one appropriate for small scattering angles (θ<30 degree sign )

  19. Assessing the impact of defining a global priority research agenda to address HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Matteelli, Alberto; Chiesa, Valentina; Cella, Paola; Ferrari, Antonio; Pezzetti, Federica; Signorelli, Carlo; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2016-11-01

    In 2010, the WHO issued 77 priority research questions (PRQs) to address HIV-associated TB. Objective of the this study was to assess the impact of defining the research agenda in stimulating and directing research around priority research questions. We used number and type of scientific publications as a proxy to quantitatively assess the impact of research agenda setting. We conducted 77 single systematic reviews - one for every PRQ - building 77 different search strategies using PRQs' keywords. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the quantity and quality of research produced over time and accounting for selected covariates. In 2009-2015, PRQs were addressed by 1631 publications (median: 11 studies published per PRQ, range 1-96). The most published area was 'Intensified TB case finding' (median: 23 studies/PRQ, range: 2-74). The majority (62.1%, n = 1013) were published as original studies, and more than half (58%, n = 585) were conducted in the African region. Original studies' publication increased over the study period (P trend = <0.001). They focused more on the 'Intensified TB case finding' (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-2.93) and 'Drug-resistant TB and HIV infection' (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.47-3.06) areas than non-original studies. Original studies were published in journals of lower impact factor and received a smaller number of citations than non-original studies (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69). The generation of evidence to address PRQs has increased over time particularly in selected fields. Setting a priority research agenda for HIV-associated TB might have positively influenced the direction and the conduct of research and contributed to the global response to such a major threat to health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Health impacts and research ethics in female trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, S R; Aro, R A; Sapkota, K

    2011-04-01

    Female trafficking is a social and public health problem, associated with physical and sexual abuse, psychological trauma, injuries from violence, sexually transmitted infections, adverse reproductive outcomes and substance misuse. It faces several challenges ranging from the hidden nature of the problem to ethical and human rights issues. The objectives of this paper are to analyze health impact of trafficking; ethical and research issues and anti-trafficking strategies in the Nepalese context. We collected published and unpublished data assessing the public health, ethical burden and research needs from different sources. Trafficked female involved in sex-industry that face grave situation as depicted and it might a reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases. Ethical issues related to survey of assessing the burden are difficult to carry out. The best ways to prevent and control these problems are to enhance anti- trafficking laws and raise awareness, empower and mobilize females and establish organizational capacity.

  1. Impact of proposed research reactor standards on reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringle, J C; Johnson, A G; Anderson, T V [Oregon State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    A Standards Committee on Operation of Research Reactors, (ANS-15), sponsored by the American Nuclear Society, was organized in June 1971. Its purpose is to develop, prepare, and maintain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training. Of the 15 original members, six were directly associated with operating TRIGA facilities. This committee developed a standard for the Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors (ANS-15.1), the revised draft of which was submitted to ANSI for review in May of 1973. The Committee then identified 10 other critical areas for standards development. Nine of these, along with ANS-15.1, are of direct interest to TRIGA owners and operators. The Committee was divided into subcommittees to work on these areas. These nine areas involve proposed standards for research reactors concerning: 1. Records and Reports (ANS-15.3) 2. Selection and Training of Personnel (ANS-15.4) 3. Effluent Monitoring (ANS-15.5) 4. Review of Experiments (ANS-15.6) 5. Siting (ANS-15.7) 6. Quality Assurance Program Guidance and Requirements (ANS-15.8) 7. Restrictions on Radioactive Effluents (ANS-15.9) 8. Decommissioning (ANS-15.10) 9. Radiological Control and Safety (ANS-15.11). The present status of each of these standards will be presented, along with their potential impact on TRIGA reactor operation. (author)

  2. Impact of proposed research reactor standards on reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringle, J.C.; Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.

    1974-01-01

    A Standards Committee on Operation of Research Reactors, (ANS-15), sponsored by the American Nuclear Society, was organized in June 1971. Its purpose is to develop, prepare, and maintain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training. Of the 15 original members, six were directly associated with operating TRIGA facilities. This committee developed a standard for the Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors (ANS-15.1), the revised draft of which was submitted to ANSI for review in May of 1973. The Committee then identified 10 other critical areas for standards development. Nine of these, along with ANS-15.1, are of direct interest to TRIGA owners and operators. The Committee was divided into subcommittees to work on these areas. These nine areas involve proposed standards for research reactors concerning: 1. Records and Reports (ANS-15.3) 2. Selection and Training of Personnel (ANS-15.4) 3. Effluent Monitoring (ANS-15.5) 4. Review of Experiments (ANS-15.6) 5. Siting (ANS-15.7) 6. Quality Assurance Program Guidance and Requirements (ANS-15.8) 7. Restrictions on Radioactive Effluents (ANS-15.9) 8. Decommissioning (ANS-15.10) 9. Radiological Control and Safety (ANS-15.11). The present status of each of these standards will be presented, along with their potential impact on TRIGA reactor operation. (author)

  3. Single, Divorced, or Separated? Factors That Impact the Lives of Women Who Are Heads of Household in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvarado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of a conjugal relationship has both a positive and negative impact on the lives of immediate family members. Although for many women terminating marriage may signal freedom from an oppressive, even violent conjugal relationship, it is undeniable that this separation also results in strong social pressure and discrimination in certain contexts, a situation which limits the woman’s freedom of action in and outside of the home. The purpose of this descriptive, phenomenological study is to explore the experiences of 15 Peruvian, urban-based mothers, all of whom made the decision to exchange marriage for single parenthood within the confines of a strong patriarchal system. The study follows the actions of the women as they seek to overcome obstacles related to parenting and the management of their respective households. Three emerging themes are identified in this study: (a the development of the woman’s relationship as wife and mother, (b impact of the separation/divorce on the maternal role, and (c experiences in the single parent household. Implications for social research studies and practice are discussed.

  4. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  5. Research on single-chip microcomputer controlled rotating magnetic field mineralization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Qi, Yulin; Yang, Junxiao; Li, Na

    2017-08-01

    As one of the method of selecting ore, the magnetic separation method has the advantages of stable operation, simple process flow, high beneficiation efficiency and no chemical environment pollution. But the existing magnetic separator are more mechanical, the operation is not flexible, and can not change the magnetic field parameters according to the precision of the ore needed. Based on the existing magnetic separator is mechanical, the rotating magnetic field can be used for single chip microcomputer control as the research object, design and trial a rotating magnetic field processing prototype, and through the single-chip PWM pulse output to control the rotation of the magnetic field strength and rotating magnetic field speed. This method of using pure software to generate PWM pulse to control rotary magnetic field beneficiation, with higher flexibility, accuracy and lower cost, can give full play to the performance of single-chip.

  6. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  7. The Research of Stakeholder Power Impact on Project Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Biskupek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The article show summarized information about stakeholders and their role in project implementation based on literature review. The second part of the article is dedicated for the research about stakeholder influence on project implementation. The only condition to participate in the survey was managing projects. Although the respondents are employed in the area of south Poland, they implement projects all over Poland. The research tool was a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to the respondents. 90 project managers from the area of south Poland were invited to join the project, and 62 people sent back a completed questionnaire. Methodology/methods: The research was done by a questionnaire with twenty two question, which was divided into three parts. The first part was the imprint, which consisted of three questions. The second part consisted of two questions, which concerned the way of defining the word “stakeholder”. The third part concerned the topic of the research and consisted of seventeen questions. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is presenting the results of the research which was done, to show the research results of project stakeholder influence on the project implementation. Findings: The results received from the survey in the process of analysis and interpretation allow to put forward a thesis that stakeholders as a whole group are significant for the implementation of the whole project. Their impact is so important that it is possible to tell that they decide also about the project success or failure. Conclusions: The respondents show that stakeholders affect every area in large extent or very big extent. The fact has been proved in table 1 which shows the most frequently chosen answers by responders. However, by conducted analysis by the standard deviation it is possible to see a large dispersion of the results.

  8. Fulfilling the law of a single independent variable and improving the result of mathematical educational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardimin, H.; Arcana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Many types of research in the field of mathematics education apply the Quasi-Experimental method and statistical analysis use t-test. Quasi-experiment has a weakness that is difficult to fulfil “the law of a single independent variable”. T-test also has a weakness that is a generalization of the conclusions obtained is less powerful. This research aimed to find ways to reduce the weaknesses of the Quasi-experimental method and improved the generalization of the research results. The method applied in the research was a non-interactive qualitative method, and the type was concept analysis. Concepts analysed are the concept of statistics, research methods of education, and research reports. The result represented a way to overcome the weaknesses of quasi-Experiments and T-test. In addition, the way was to apply a combination of Factorial Design and Balanced Design, which the authors refer to as Factorial-Balanced Design. The advantages of this design are: (1) almost fulfilling “the low of single independent variable” so no need to test the similarity of the academic ability, (2) the sample size of the experimental group and the control group became larger and equal; so it becomes robust to deal with violations of the assumptions of the ANOVA test.

  9. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  10. Single and double ionization of helium by high-energy photon impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Production of singly and doubly charged helium ions by impact of keV photons is studied. The ratio R ph = σ ph ++ /σ ph + for photoabsorption is calculated in the photon-energy range 2--18 keV using correlated initial- and final- state wave functions. Extrapolation towards symptotic photon energies yields R ph (ω → ∞) = 1.66% in agreement with previous predictions. Ionization due to Compton scattering, which becomes comparable to photoabsorption above ω ∼ 3 keV, is discussed

  11. Differential cross sections for single ionization of H2 by 75keV proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, U; Schulz, M; Madison, D H

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) and doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of H 2 by 75 keV proton impact using the molecular 3 body distorted wave Eikonal initial state (M3DW-EIS) approach. Previously published measured DDCS-P (differential in the projectile scattering angle and integrated over the ejected electron angles) found pronounced structures at relatively large angles which were interpreted as an interference resulting from the two-centered potential of the molecule.

  12. Research Output of the Pakistani Library and Information Science Authors: A Bibliometric Evaluation of Their Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Mumtaz Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 601 cited papers of Pakistani LIS researchers with the purpose to examine the individual performance of these Library and Information Science (LIS researchers in terms of their research output and its impact on the LIS (national/international literature by using various bibliometric indicators. A list of 139 authors was compiled with the help of the Library, Information Science, and Technology Abstracts (LISTA and some other sources. Data were collected from Google Scholar and SPSS version 20 was utilized in order to identify the relationship between self-citations and various performance indices of the authors. The average citations received per paper vary from 1.80 to 10.08. About half of the papers were single-authored whereas less than one-fifth were by three or more authors. The authors who worked in collaboration produced more papers and received more citations. The h-index, g-index, hI-index, hI-norm, and e-index were used to determine the rank for each author. The intra-group citations grid revealed the volume of self-citations and a small group who cite each other more due to close academic and social relationships. The correlations between self-citations and the impact indices used revealed significant differences. Findings are useful for concerned institutions regarding award, promotions, etc. Further, future research should seriously consider the self-citations and social networking of authors while examining their citations-based research performance.

  13. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Single molecule approaches to biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Julio M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Single molecule techniques are rapidly occupying a central role in biological research at all levels. This transition was made possible by the availability and dissemination of robust techniques that use fluorescence and force probes to track the conformation of molecules one at a time, in vitro as well as in live cells. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are studied. These novel techniques provide previously unobtainable data on fundamental biochemical processes that are essential for all forms of life. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of the molecular systems that underpin the functioning of living cells. Hence, our conference seeks to disseminate the implementation and use of single molecule techniques in the pursuit of new biological knowledge. Topics covered include: Molecular Motors on the Move; Origin And Fate Of Proteins; Physical Principles Of Life; Molecules and Super-resolution Microscopy; Nanoswitches In Action; Active Motion Or Random Diffusion?; Building Blocks Of Living Cells; From Molecular Mechanics To Physiology; Tug-of-war: Force Spectroscopy Of Single Proteins.

  14. Half a century of progress in research on terrestrial impact structures: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, G. J. H.

    2009-02-01

    The author, who investigated the Wolfe Creek, Australia, in 1962 and edited two Benchmark Sets of Readings on Meteorite Craters and possible Astroblemes in 1977 and 1979, reviews the state of knowledge at the present time. The text is concerned with terrestrial impact structures, geological features, without any consideration of extraterrestrial analogues. A handful of definitive publications are drawn on to present the story of terrestrial impact in a single article. The text covers historical aspects (briefly); the effect of target variations; the paucity of human observation of such large-scale events; distinction from volcanic (endogenous) structures; modification by geological processes; the transience of the crater initially formed on the target, and its subsequent modifications; the global geographic distribution of the 174 structures now listed (of which a number are dubious attributions); their distribution in geological time (many ages being known only known to wide limits, maximum or minimum values); their size distribution; calculations of impact frequencies; shock effects; processes on impact; the stages of formation; impact into shallow marine and deep sea targets; impacts on ice (about which little is known); and finally the input of impact into biotic extinctions. In this last lengthy section, the summaries of the conclusions of scientists researching impact on Earth and palaeontologists researching biotic impact are set side by side. It is concluded that, if the recent foraminiferal evidence obtained by Gerta Keller and associates is taken at its face value, the case of impact as a sole agent in extinction is non-existent: biotic extinction is clearly a complex process involving a number of causes, in some cases it was staggered in time, and different sets of organisms responded quite differently and surprisingly, even in the same extinction event. Extraterrestrial impact may have been one of the causes in some cases, but it may have been regional

  15. Experimental researches on the single-bubble rising behavior in the water excited by oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiejin; Zhong Minghuang; Wang Ke; Zeng Xixiang; Lin Yongcheng; WATANABE Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    This study try to carry out experiments to research the bubble rising behavior in the water excited by oscillation and focus on its dynamics characteristics under the oscillation condition with different oscillation frequencies and amplitudes, and get the relationship between bubble's characteristic parameter, such as the bubble shape, rising velocity, etc, and the influence parameters of time, oscillation frequencies, amplitudes, etc. The rising rule of the single bubble in the water excited by oscillation has been concluded. (authors)

  16. Science Serving the Nation: The Impact of Basic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-01-01

    Impacts: The BES program supports basic research that underpins a broad range of energy technologies. Research in materials sciences and engineering leads to the development of materials that improve the efficiency, economy, environmental acceptability, and safety of energy generation, conversion, transmission, storage, and use. For example, advances in superconductivity have been introduced commercially in a number of demonstration projects around the country. Improvements in alloy design for high temperature applications are used in commercial furnaces and in green technologies such as lead-free solder. Research in chemistry has led to advances such as efficient combustion systems with reduced emissions of pollutants; new solar photoconversion processes; improved catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals; and better separations and analytical methods for applications in energy processes, environmental remediation, and waste management. Research in geosciences results in advanced monitoring and measurement techniques for reservoir definition and an understanding of the fluid dynamics of complex fluids through porous and fractured subsurface rock. Research in the molecular and biochemical nature of photosynthesis aids the development of solar photo-energy conversion. The BES program also plays a major role in enabling the nanoscale revolution. The importance of nanoscience to future energy technologies is clearly reflected by the fact that all of the elementary steps of energy conversion (e.g., charge transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place on the nanoscale. The development of new nanoscale materials, as well as the methods to characterize, manipulate, and assemble them, create an entirely new paradigm for developing new and revolutionary energy technologies.

  17. Changing the Translational Research Landscape: A Review of the Impacts of Biomedical Research Units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Soper, Bryony; Ismail, Sharif; Reding, Anais; Ling, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a review of the Biomedical Research Units (BRU) scheme, undertaken for the Department of Health. This review was a perceptions audit of senior executives involved in the scheme, and explored what impact they felt the scheme is having on the translational research landscape. More specifically, we investigated whether and how institutional relationships between NHS and academic partners, industry and other health research system players are changing because of the scheme; how the scheme is helping build critical mass in specific priority disease areas; and the effects of any changes on efforts to deliver the broader goals set out in Best Research for Best Health. The views presented are those of study informants only. The information obtained through our interviews suggests that the BRU scheme is significantly helping shape the health research system to pursue translational research and innovation, with the clear goal of realising patient benefit. The BRUs are already contributing to observable changes in institutional relationships between the NHS and academic partners: trusts and medical schools are collaborating more closely than in the past, have signed up to the same vision of translational research from bench to bedside, and are managing and governing targeted research resources more professionally and transparently than in the past. There is also a stronger emphasis on engaging industry and more strategic thinking about strengthening regional and national collaboration with other hospital trusts, PCTs, research organisations, networks and development agencies. The scheme is also transforming capacity building in the health research system. This includes (i) developing and modernising facilities and equipment for translation; (ii) building a critical mass of human resources through recruitment and training, as well as improving retention of existing expertise; and (iii) helping ensure a steady flow of funds needed to sustain research

  18. Training Impact on Novice and Experienced Research Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Prikhidko, Alena; Swords, Stephanie; Sonstein, Stephen; Kolb, H Robert

    2017-12-01

    Competency-based training and professional development is critical to the clinical research enterprise. Understanding research coordinators' perspectives is important for establishing a common core curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe participants' perspectives regarding the impact of online and classroom training sessions. 27 participants among three institutions, completed a two-day classroom training session. 10 novice and seven experienced research coordinators participated in focus group interviews. Grounded theory revealed similarities in novice and experienced coordinator themes including Identifying Preferences for Instruction and Changing Self Perceptions. Differences, seen in experienced participants, focused on personal change, in the theme of Re-Assessing Skills. Infrastructure and cultural issues were evident in their theme, Promoting Leadership and Advocacy. Novice participants recommended ways to improve training via their theme of Making Programmatic Improvements. Participants reported a clear preference for classroom learning. Training played an influential role in changing participants' self-perceptions by validating their experiences. The findings provided guidance for developing a standardized curriculum. Training must be carefully tailored to the needs of participants while considering audience needs based on work experience, how technology can be used and offering content that is most urgently needed.

  19. A new method for testing pile by single-impact energy and P-S curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Yong; Duan, Yong-Kang; Wang, Bin; Hu, Yi-Li; Yang, Run-Hai; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Jin-Ming

    2004-11-01

    By studying the pile-formula and stress-wave methods ( e.g., CASE method), the authors propose a new method for testing piles using the single-impact energy and P-S curves. The vibration and wave figures are recorded, and the dynamic and static displacements are measured by different transducers near the top of piles when the pile is impacted by a heavy hammer or micro-rocket. By observing the transformation coefficient of driving energy (total energy), the consumed energy of wave motion and vibration and so on, the vertical bearing capacity for single pile is measured and calculated. Then, using the vibration wave diagram, the dynamic relation curves between the force ( P) and the displacement ( S) is calculated and the yield points are determined. Using the static-loading test, the dynamic results are checked and the relative constants of dynamic-static P-S curves are determined. Then the subsidence quantity corresponding to the bearing capacity is determined. Moreover, the shaped quality of the pile body can be judged from the formation of P-S curves.

  20. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  1. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  2. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  3. European Commission research on aircraft impacts in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanatidis, G T; Angeletti, G [European Commission (CEC), Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Aircraft engines release in the troposphere and lower stratosphere a number of chemical compounds (NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, hydrocarbons, sulphur, soot, etc.) which could potentially affect the ozone layer and the climate through chemical, dynamical and radiative changes. The global amount of gases and particles emitted by current subsonic and projected supersonic aircraft fleets can be estimated, but significant uncertainties remain about the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere. The European efforts concerning these potential atmospheric impacts of aircraft emissions are conducted by the Environment and Climate Research Programme of the European Commission (EC) as well as by national programmes of the Member States of the European Union (EU). The European research activities in this field, are described, divided for practical reasons in two periods. The first includes activities supported under the 3. Framework Programme for R and D activities which covered the period from 1992 up to 1996, while the second period has started in early 1996 and is supported under the 4. Framework Programme. (R.P.) 6 refs.

  4. European Commission research on aircraft impacts in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanatidis, G.T.; Angeletti, G. [European Commission (CEC), Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft engines release in the troposphere and lower stratosphere a number of chemical compounds (NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, hydrocarbons, sulphur, soot, etc.) which could potentially affect the ozone layer and the climate through chemical, dynamical and radiative changes. The global amount of gases and particles emitted by current subsonic and projected supersonic aircraft fleets can be estimated, but significant uncertainties remain about the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere. The European efforts concerning these potential atmospheric impacts of aircraft emissions are conducted by the Environment and Climate Research Programme of the European Commission (EC) as well as by national programmes of the Member States of the European Union (EU). The European research activities in this field, are described, divided for practical reasons in two periods. The first includes activities supported under the 3. Framework Programme for R and D activities which covered the period from 1992 up to 1996, while the second period has started in early 1996 and is supported under the 4. Framework Programme. (R.P.) 6 refs.

  5. Model Building of Photovoltaic Array with MPPT Function and Research on Single Phase Grid Connected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengzhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continued development of solar photovoltaic technology, research on distributed grid connected photovoltaic system has become a research focus in the field of photovoltaic grid power plant and the computer simulation technology is an effective technology means in the study. On the basis of the photovoltaic array output characteristic equation, the photovoltaic array maximum power control simulation model based on M function is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation model of single phase grid connected photovoltaic array is proposed. It overcomes the shortcomings of the process of building the model of the PV array by using Simulink component library and provides the basic guarantee for the realization of system simulation, guiding theory research and system design.

  6. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  7. The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-03-28

    To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Australian researchers (n=215). Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families.

  8. Importance of polarization effects in electron impact single ionization of argon atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K.K. [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India)

    2009-12-15

    We report the results of our calculations of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for electron impact single ionization (i.e. (e, 2e) processes) from the 3s shell of argon using a modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism by including correlation-polarization potential, which accounts for both correlation and polarization effects. We observe that DWBA formalism including polarization potential is able to reproduce most of the trends of experimental data and hence provide a future direction for further investigation of ionization process from the 3s shell of argon. We also compare our results with the available theoretical and experimental results. The present calculations significantly improve the agreement with the experimental results but still there are certain discrepancies, which is a matter of further investigation.

  9. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  10. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  11. Electron capture to the continuum manifestation in fully differential cross sections for ion impact single ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    We present theoretical calculations of single ionization of He atoms by protons and multiply charged ions. The kinematical conditions are deliberately chosen in such a way that the ejected electron velocity matches the projectile impact velocity. The computed fully differential cross sections (FDCS) in the scattering plane using the continuum-distorted wave-eikonal initial state show a distinct peaked structure for a polar electron emission angle θ k = 0°. This element is absent when a first order theory is employed. Consequently, we can argue that this peak is a clear manifestation of a three-body effect, not observed before in FDCS. We discuss a possible interpretation of this new feature.

  12. Differential cross sections for single ionization of H2 by 75-keV proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, U.; Schulz, M.; Madison, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated triply differential cross sections (TDCS) and doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of H 2 by 75-keV proton impact using the molecular three-body distorted-wave-eikonal initial-state (M3DW-EIS) approach. Previously published measured DDCS (differential in the projectile scattering angle and integrated over the ejected electron angles) found pronounced structures at relatively large angles that were interpreted as an interference resulting from the two-centered potential of the molecule. Theory treating H 2 as atomic H multiplied by a molecular interference factor only predicts the observed structure when assumptions are made about the molecular orientation. Here we apply the M3DW-EIS method, which does not rely on such an ad hoc approach, but rather treats the interference from first principles.

  13. Impact Through Outreach and Education with Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, A.; Barrosa, M.; Miller, S.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2005, Europlanet has provided a framework to bring together Europe's fragmented planetary science community. The project has evolved through a number of phases into a self-sustaining membership organization. Now, Europlanet is launching a new Research Infrastructure (RI) funded through the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme that, for the next four years, will provide support, services, access to facilities, new research tools and a virtual planetary observatory. Europlanet 2020 RI's Impact Through Outreach and Education (IOE) activities aim to ensure that the work of Europlanet and the community it supports is known, understood and used by stakeholders, and that their inputs are taken into account by the project. We will engage citizens, policy makers and potential industrial partners across Europe with planetary science and the opportunities that it provides for innovation, inspiration and job creation. We will reach out to educators and students, both directly and through partner networks, to provide an interactive showcase of Europlanet's activities e.g through live link-ups with scientists participating in planetary analogue field trips, educational video "shorts" and through using real planetary data from the virtual observatory in comparative planetology educational activities. We will support outreach providers within the planetary science community (e.g. schools liaison officers, press officers, social media managers and scientists active in communicating their work) through meetings and best practice workshops, communication training sessions, an annual prize for public engagement and a seed-funding scheme for outreach activities. We will use traditional and social media channels to communicate newsworthy results and activities to diverse audiences not just in Europe but also around the globe.

  14. Impact of Participatory Health Research: A Test of the Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Oetzel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A key challenge in evaluating the impact of community-based participatory research (CBPR is identifying what mechanisms and pathways are critical for health equity outcomes. Our purpose is to provide an empirical test of the CBPR conceptual model to address this challenge. Methods. A three-stage quantitative survey was completed: (1 294 US CBPR projects with US federal funding were identified; (2 200 principal investigators completed a questionnaire about project-level details; and (3 450 community or academic partners and principal investigators completed a questionnaire about perceived contextual, process, and outcome variables. Seven in-depth qualitative case studies were conducted to explore elements of the model not captured in the survey; one is presented due to space limitations. Results. We demonstrated support for multiple mechanisms illustrated by the conceptual model using a latent structural equation model. Significant pathways were identified, showing the positive association of context with partnership structures and dynamics. Partnership structures and dynamics showed similar associations with partnership synergy and community involvement in research; both of these had positive associations with intermediate community changes and distal health outcomes. The case study complemented and extended understandings of the mechanisms of how partnerships can improve community conditions. Conclusions. The CBPR conceptual model is well suited to explain key relational and structural pathways for impact on health equity outcomes.

  15. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials......, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay...... sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable...

  16. The Impact of Single Amino Acids on Growth and Volatile Aroma Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fairbairn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly influence fermentation kinetics and the production of volatile compounds important for wine aroma. Amino acids are the most important nitrogen source and have been classified based on how well they support growth. This study evaluated the effect of single amino acids on growth kinetics and major volatile production of two phenotypically different commercial wine yeast strains in synthetic grape must. Four growth parameters, lag phase, maximum growth rate, total biomass formation and time to complete fermentation were evaluated. In contrast with previous findings, in fermentative conditions, phenylalanine and valine supported growth well and asparagine supported it poorly. The four parameters showed good correlations for most amino acid treatments, with some notable exceptions. Single amino acid treatments resulted in the predictable production of aromatic compounds, with a linear correlation between amino acid concentration and the concentration of aromatic compounds that are directly derived from these amino acids. With the increased complexity of nitrogen sources, linear correlations were lost and aroma production became unpredictable. However, even in complex medium minor changes in amino acid concentration continued to directly impact the formation of aromatic compounds, suggesting that the relative concentration of individual amino acids remains a predictor of aromatic outputs, independently of the complexity of metabolic interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism and between amino acid degradation and utilization pathways.

  17. Each cell counts: Hematopoiesis and immunity research in the era of single cell genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Elefant, Naama; Amit, Ido

    2015-02-01

    Hematopoiesis and immunity are mediated through complex interactions between multiple cell types and states. This complexity is currently addressed following a reductionist approach of characterizing cell types by a small number of cell surface molecular features and gross functions. While the introduction of global transcriptional profiling technologies enabled a more comprehensive view, heterogeneity within sampled populations remained unaddressed, obscuring the true picture of hematopoiesis and immune system function. A critical mass of technological advances in molecular biology and genomics has enabled genome-wide measurements of single cells - the fundamental unit of immunity. These new advances are expected to boost detection of less frequent cell types and fuzzy intermediate cell states, greatly expanding the resolution of current available classifications. This new era of single-cell genomics in immunology research holds great promise for further understanding of the mechanisms and circuits regulating hematopoiesis and immunity in both health and disease. In the near future, the accuracy of single-cell genomics will ultimately enable precise diagnostics and treatment of multiple hematopoietic and immune related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete momentum balance for single ionization of helium by fast ion impact: I. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Kollmus, H.; Unverzagt, M.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E.

    1997-02-01

    The collision dynamics of He single ionization by 3.6 MeV/u Se 28+ impact was explored using the GSI-reaction microscope, a high resolution integrated multi electron - recoil-ion momentum spectrometer. The complete three particle final state momentum distribution (9 cartesian components p i ) was imaged with a resolution of Δp i ∼ ±0.1 a.u. by measuring the three momentum components of the emitted electron and the recoiling target-ion in coincidence. The projectile energy loss has been determined on a level of ΔE p /E p ∼ 10 -7 and projectile scattering angles as small as Δθ ∼ 10 -7 rad became accessible. The experimental data which are compared with results of classical trajectory Monte-Carlo (CTMC) calculations reveal an unprecedented insight into the details of the electron emission and the collision dynamics for ionization of helium by fast heavy-ion impact. (orig.)

  19. Complete momentum balance for single ionization of helium by fast ion impact: I. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshammer, R.; Kollmus, H.; Unverzagt, M.; Schmidt-Boecking, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Ullrich, J.; Schmitt, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-02-01

    The collision dynamics of He single ionization by 3.6 MeV/u Se{sup 28+} impact was explored using the GSI-reaction microscope, a high resolution integrated multi electron - recoil-ion momentum spectrometer. The complete three particle final state momentum distribution (9 cartesian components p{sub i}) was imaged with a resolution of {Delta}p{sub i} {approx} {+-}0.1 a.u. by measuring the three momentum components of the emitted electron and the recoiling target-ion in coincidence. The projectile energy loss has been determined on a level of {Delta}E{sub p}/E{sub p} {approx} 10{sup -7} and projectile scattering angles as small as {Delta}{theta} {approx} 10{sup -7}rad became accessible. The experimental data which are compared with results of classical trajectory Monte-Carlo (CTMC) calculations reveal an unprecedented insight into the details of the electron emission and the collision dynamics for ionization of helium by fast heavy-ion impact. (orig.)

  20. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the Impact of Chemistry Education Research Articles from 2007 through 2013 by Citation Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as…

  2. Impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the embryo: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Moustafa AE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa,1–4 Etienne Mfoumou,5 Dacian E Roman,3 Vahe Nerguizian,6 Anas Alazzam,7 Ion Stiharu,3 Amber Yasmeen8 1College of Medicine & Biomedical Research Centre, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Oncology Department, McGill University, 3Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Syrian Research Cancer Centre of the Syrian Society against Cancer, Aleppo, Syria; 5Nova Scotia Community College, Dartmouth, NS, 6École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE; 8Segal Cancer Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research of the Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered one of the most interesting materials in the 21st century due to their unique physiochemical characteristics and applicability to various industrial products and medical applications. However, in the last few years, questions have been raised regarding the potential toxicity of CNTs to humans and the environment; it is believed that the physiochemical characteristics of these materials are key determinants of CNT interaction with living cells and hence determine their toxicity in humans and other organisms as well as their embryos. Thus, several recent studies, including ours, pointed out that CNTs have cytotoxic effects on human and animal cells, which occur via the alteration of key regulator genes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival, cell–cell adhesion, and angiogenesis. Meanwhile, few investigations revealed that CNTs could also be harmful to the normal development of the embryo. In this review, we will discuss the toxic role of single-walled CNTs in the embryo, which was recently explored by several groups including ours. Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotubes, embryo, toxicity

  3. The Impact of "Coat Protein-Mediated Virus Resistance" in Applied Plant Pathology and Basic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, John A; Falk, Bryce W

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production. The typical review article on this topic has focused on only basic or only applied research results stemming from this seminal discovery. This can make it difficult for the reader to appreciate the full impact of research on transgenic virus resistance, and the contributions from fundamental research that led to translational applications of this technology. In this review, we take a global view of this topic highlighting the significant changes to both basic and applied plant pathology research and commercial food production that have accumulated in the last 30 plus years. We present these milestones in the historical context of some of the scientific, economic, and environmental drivers for developing specific VR crops. The intent of this review is to provide a single document that adequately records the significant accomplishments of researchers in both basic and applied plant pathology research on this topic and how they relate to each other. We hope this review therefore serves as both an instructional tool for students new to the topic, as well as a source of conversation and discussion for how the technology of engineered virus resistance could be applied in the future.

  4. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  5. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Methods and analysis Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact—Payback, economic assessment and narratives—will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT’s performance. Ethics and dissemination This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle’s Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017–0026). The results from the study will be presented in several

  6. Experimental research on safety impacts of the inside shoulder based on driving simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Ding, Han; Wu, Yiping; Ma, Jianming; Zhong, Liande

    2015-03-01

    Statistical data shows that single-vehicle crashes account for half of all traffic crashes on expressways in China, and previous research has indicated that main contributing factors were related to whether and how the inside shoulder was paved. The inside shoulder provides space for drivers to make evasive maneuvers and accommodate driver errors. However, lower-cost construction solutions in China have resulted in the design of numerous urban expressway segments that lack inside shoulders. This paper has two objectives. The first is to reveal the safety impacts of inside shoulders on urban expressways by driving simulator experiment. The second objective is to propose optimal range and recommended value of inside shoulder width for designing inside shoulders of urban expressways. The empirical data, including subjects' eye movement data, heart rate (HR) and the lateral position of vehicles, were collected in a driving simulator. The data were analyzed to evaluate the safety impacts of the inside shoulder. The results have revealed that the inside shoulder has an impact on drivers' visual perception, behaviors, and psychology; in particular, it has a significant effect on vehicle operations. In addition, this paper recommends the desired and optimal inside shoulder widths for eight-lane, two-way divided expressways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  8. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  9. Do single-use medical devices containing biopolymers reduce the environmental impacts of surgical procedures compared with their plastic equivalents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Scott R; Hottle, Troy A; Hobbs, Shakira R; Thiel, Cassandra L; Campion, Nicole; Bilec, Melissa M; Landis, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background While petroleum-based plastics are extensively used in health care, recent developments in biopolymer manufacturing have created new opportunities for increased integration of biopolymers into medical products, devices and services. This study compared the environmental impacts of single-use disposable devices with increased biopolymer content versus typically manufactured devices in hysterectomy. Methods A comparative life cycle assessment of single-use disposable medical products containing plastic(s) versus the same single-use medical devices with biopolymers substituted for plastic(s) at Magee-Women's Hospital (Magee) in Pittsburgh, PA and the products used in four types of hysterectomies that contained plastics potentially suitable for biopolymer substitution. Magee is a 360-bed teaching hospital, which performs approximately 1400 hysterectomies annually. Results There are life cycle environmental impact tradeoffs when substituting biopolymers for petroplastics in procedures such as hysterectomies. The substitution of biopolymers for petroleum-based plastics increased smog-related impacts by approximately 900% for laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomies, and increased ozone depletion-related impacts by approximately 125% for laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomies. Conversely, biopolymers reduced life cycle human health impacts, acidification and cumulative energy demand for the four hysterectomy procedures. The integration of biopolymers into medical products is correlated with reductions in carcinogenic impacts, non-carcinogenic impacts and respiratory effects. However, the significant agricultural inputs associated with manufacturing biopolymers exacerbate environmental impacts of products and devices made using biopolymers. Conclusions The integration of biopolymers into medical products is correlated with reductions in carcinogenic impacts, non-carcinogenic impacts and respiratory effects; however, the significant agricultural inputs associated

  10. Research assessments by synchronic and diachronic citation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Synchronic and diachronic indicators are used to measure the impact of a set of publications from Carlos III University of Madrid (UC3M), in order to verify if UC3M papers contribute to enhancing the impact and visibility of the journals in which they were published. Both Diachronic Journal Imp...

  11. The impact of base stacking on the conformations and electrostatics of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Alex; Meisburger, Steve P; Andresen, Kurt; Pollack, Lois

    2017-04-20

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are employed to determine the composition of the ion atmosphere at physiological ionic strength. Applying this combined approach to poly dA and poly dT, we find that the global properties of these sequences are very similar, despite having vastly different propensities for single-stranded helical stacking. These results suggest that a relatively simple mechanism for the binding of ssDNA to non-specific SSBs may be at play, which explains the disparity in binding affinities observed for these systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Teachers as Researchers: A Discovery of Their Emerging Role and Impact through a School-University Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ken Chi Kin; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Tavares, Nicole; Lee, Celina Wing Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the impact of the role of teacher-researchers on in-service teachers' professional development, as well as the reasons behind the lack of a teacher-as-researcher ethos in schools. In the study, teachers from four Hong Kong primary schools participated in a school-university collaborative research project that promotes…

  13. Evaluating the Non-Academic Impact of Academic Research: Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of academic research plays a significant role in government efforts to steer public universities. The scope of such evaluation is now being extended to include the "relevance" or "impact" of academic research outside the academy. We address how evaluation of non-academic research impact can promote more such impact…

  14. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  15. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and Clinical Research SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2... approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the...

  16. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  17. Electron impact ionization of B-like ion N2+. Resonance enhancement of the single-channel cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohe; Qian Xingzhong; Pan Soufu

    1998-01-01

    The electron impact ionization cross sections of B-like ion N 2+ are calculated in the Coulomb-Born no exchange approximation by using R-matrix method, and the single differential cross section is given. The calculated results exhibit the Rydberg series of resonances. The resonance enhancement of the single-channel cross section is significantly greater than direct ionization cross section. It is agreement with that of Chidichimo

  18. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of a single cylinder research engine working with biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovanu Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to present the results of the CFD simulation of a DI single cylinder engine using diesel, biodiesel, or different mixture proportions of diesel and biodiesel and compare the results to a test bed measurement in the same functioning point. The engine used for verifying the results of the simulation is a single cylinder research engine from AVL with an open ECU, so that the injection timings and quantities can be controlled and analyzed. In Romania, until the year 2020 all the fuel stations are obliged to have mixtures of at least 10% biodiesel in diesel [14]. The main advantages using mixtures of biofuels in diesel are: the fact that biodiesel is not harmful to the environment; in order to use biodiesel in your engine no modifications are required; the price of biodiesel is smaller than diesel and also if we compare biodiesel production to the classic petroleum based diesel production, it is more energy efficient; biodiesel assures more lubrication to the engine so the life of the engine is increased; biodiesel is a sustainable fuel; using biodiesel helps maintain the environment and it keeps the people more healthy [1-3].

  19. A practical theoretical formalism for atomic multielectron processes: direct multiple ionization by a single auger decay or by impact of a single electron or photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-04-01

    Multiple electron processes occur widely in atoms, molecules, clusters, and condensed matters when they are interacting with energetic particles or intense laser fields. Direct multielectron processes (DMEP) are the most complicated among the general multiple electron processes and are the most difficult to describe theoretically. In this work, a unified and accurate theoretical formalism is proposed on the DMEP of atoms including the multiple auger decay and multiple ionization by an impact of a single electron or a single photon based on the atomic collision theory described by a correlated many-body Green's function. Such a practical treatment is made possible by taking consideration of the different coherence features of the atoms (matter waves) in the initial and final states. We first explain how the coherence characteristics of the ejected continuum electrons is largely destructed, by taking the electron impact direct double ionization process as an example. The direct double ionization process is completely different from the single ionization where the complete interference can be maintained. The detailed expressions are obtained for the energy correlations among the continuum electrons and energy resolved differential and integral cross sections according to the separation of knock-out (KO) and shake-off (SO) mechanisms for the electron impact direct double ionization, direct double and triple auger decay, and double and triple photoionization (TPI) processes. Extension to higher order DMEP than triple ionization is straight forward by adding contributions of the following KO and SO processes. The approach is applied to investigate the electron impact double ionization processes of C+, N+, and O+, the direct double and triple auger decay of the K-shell excited states of C+ 1s2{s}22{p}2{}2D and {}2P, and the double and TPI of lithium. Comparisons with the experimental and other theoretical investigations wherever available in the literature show that our

  20. Original Research Does an educational workshop have an impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of multimedia (including videos and the Internet)18 may also ... therefore to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on caregivers' knowledge about cerebral palsy. ..... promiscuity, and bad omens, among others.13,26,27 In this.

  1. The Impact of Agricultural Research on Poverty and Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved technologies induce productivity growth that generates pro-poor improvement processes. However, .... complexities of the relationships between agricultural technology ... growth and GDP growth have impacts on inequality, poverty ...

  2. Numerical analysis of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray: a new adhesion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profizi, P.; Combescure, A.; Ogawa, K.

    2016-03-01

    A new adhesion model for numerical simulation of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray is introduced. As in other studies, cohesive forces are put between the particle and substrate to account for adhesion. In this study however, the forces are put only when a local physical criterion is met. The physical phenomenon most often attributed to Cold Spray adhesion is a shear stress instability. The Johnson-Cook material law is used with a shear damage softening law to enable strong localization at the interface without the need for an extremely fine mesh. This localization is then detected as a drop in local yield stress value by the algorithm, which then implements a local cohesive force. The evolution of this cohesive force is defined by an energy dissipative cohesive model, using a surface adhesion energy as a material parameter. Each cohesive link is broken once all its associated surface energy is dissipated. A criterion on the damage value is also used to break a cohesive bond prematurely, to account for the effect of erosion at higher speeds. This model is found to reproduce the Cold Spray-like adhesion behavior with observed critical and maximum speeds.

  3. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix J.; Vogelsang, Jan, E-mail: jan.vogelsang@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Lupton, John M. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-06-27

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the opposite: the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The results are of interest to developing a microscopic understanding of the intrinsic charge-exciton quenching interaction in devices.

  4. Two-particle versus three-particle interactions in single ionization of helium by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Moshammer, R; Fischer, D; Ullrich, J

    2004-01-01

    We have performed kinematically complete experiments on single ionization of He by 100 MeV amu -1 C 6+ and 3.6 MeV amu -1 Au 24,53+ impact. By analysing doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) as a function of the momenta of all two-particle sub-systems we studied the importance of two-particle interactions. Furthermore, presenting the squared momenta of all three collision fragments simultaneously in a Dalitz plot, we evaluated the role of three-particle interactions. Finally, both for the DDCS and the Dalitz plots the corresponding correlation function was analysed. While the absolute cross sections confirm that ionization predominantly leads to a momentum exchange between the electron and the recoil-ion, the correlation function reveals strong correlations between the particles of any two-particle sub-system. Three-particle correlations, which are not accounted for by perturbative calculations, are quite significant as well, at least for certain kinematic conditions

  5. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Sockalingam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.

  6. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Academic Social Networking Sites: Improves Research Visibility and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2017-01-01

    Researchers needs to remove many traditional obstacles to disseminate and outreach their research outputs. Academic social networking allows you to connect with other researchers in your field, share your publications, and get feedback on your non-peer-reviewed work. The academic social networking, making your work more widely discoverable and easily available. The two best known academic social networking are ResearchGate and Academia.edu. These sites offer an instant technique to monitor wh...

  8. Measuring and improving the societal impact of health care research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.; Muscat, N.A.; Keskimäki, I.; Lindahl, A.K.; Pfaff, H.; Wismar, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Health care research is increasingly being evaluated in terms of its contribution to new market products and services, among other factors, in the European Union’s new Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon 2020. However, discoveries in health care research often are not marketable

  9. Study of the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    A partnership between the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre (CETC) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and the Canadian coal and steel industries, the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) which conducts research and development activities with its partners. This document summarizes the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program administered by the CCRA. More than 25 research programs have been undertaken by the CCRA since it was established in 1964. The activities dealt with specific technical challenges which the Canadian coal industry faced with regard to the production and marketing of metallurgical coal, as well as the uses of coal and alternative fuels such as natural gas to make coke used in blast furnaces. The report detailed the scope of CETC's energy for high temperature processes, then addressed program resources and study methodology. Three categories of impacts were discussed: general-level impacts, economic and environmental impacts, and quantitative estimates of economic impacts. The attribution of impacts was examined and future directions were examined in the last section of the report. It was determined that CETC participation in the research program is still required, due to the fact that it is Canada's only technical support available to the Canadian coking coal industry. The survival of Canadian coal producers owes something to the economic impacts derived from the CCRA under the current decreasing metallurgical coal prices conditions. 2 tabs

  10. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  11. Stability of infants' preference for prosocial others: Implications for research based on single-choice paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighbor, Tyler; Kohn, Carolynn; Normand, Matthew; Schlinger, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Some research suggests infants display a tendency to judge others' prosocial behavior, and in particular, that infants show a strong preference for prosocial others. For example, data from one frequently cited and well-publicized study showed that, after watching a puppet show with three puppets, 74% of infants chose the puppet that "helped" rather than the puppet that "hindered" a third puppet from attaining its goal. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate these methods and extend them by including a within-subject measure of infant puppet choice across repeated trials to assess the stability of infants' choice. In the current study, 20 infants viewed a puppet show and chose between two puppets (i.e., helper or hinderer) immediately following the puppet show. Although results were similar to previously published work on the first-choice trial (65% of infants chose the helper puppet on the first trial), infants did not consistently choose the helper across trials; several infants demonstrated a side preference, with 9 infants almost exclusively choosing puppets presented on the right or left side. The current investigation addressed limitations of previous research by including a between-subjects (replication) as well as a within-subjects (extension) repeated measure of choice that allowed for the examination of the stability of the choice measure. Our results, particularly in light of other failed replications, raise questions regarding the robustness of infants' preference for prosocial others and the reliability and validity of the single-choice paradigm.

  12. Appendix E: Research papers. Use of remote sensing in landscape stratification for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, J. A.; Heimbuch, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A refinement to the matrix approach to environmental impact assessment is to use landscape units in place of separate environmental elements in the analysis. Landscape units can be delineated by integrating remotely sensed data and available single-factor data. A remote sensing approach to landscape stratification is described and the conditions under which it is superior to other approaches that require single-factor maps are indicated. Flowcharts show the steps necessary to develop classification criteria, delineate units and a map legend, and use the landscape units in impact assessment. Application of the approach to assessing impacts of a transmission line in Montana is presented to illustrate the method.

  13. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of NP size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 nm and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. PMID:26894759

  15. The Impact of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, Alicia M; Eyler, Amy A; Valko, Cheryl; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Schmid, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Lack of physical activity is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. The Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN) is a thematic network established in 2004 to identify determinants, implementation, and outcomes of policies that are effective in increasing physical activity. The purpose of this study is to describe the products of PAPRN and make recommendations for future research and best practices. A mixed methods approach was used to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data on the network. First, in 2014, PAPRN's dissemination products from 2004 to 2014 were extracted and reviewed, including 57 publications and 56 presentations. Next, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 key network participants from 17 locations around the U.S. The transcripts were transcribed and coded. The results of the interviews indicated that the research network addressed several components of its mission, including the identification of physical activity policies, determinants of these policies, and the process of policy implementation. However, research focusing on physical activity policy outcomes was limited. Best practices included collaboration between researchers and practitioners and involvement of practitioners in research design, data collection, and dissemination of results. PAPRN is an example of a productive research network and has contributed to both the process and content of physical activity policy research over the past decade. Future research should emphasize physical activity policy outcomes. Additionally, increased partnerships with practitioners for collaborative, cross-sectoral physical activity policy research should be developed. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Support for biomedical research and its impact on radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, D G; Hendee, W R

    1994-12-01

    Research in medical imaging has experienced substantial growth during the past decade. Still, research is a small fraction of the budget of the typical academic radiology program. Few radiology faculty participate in hypothesis-driven research projects. Funding of research will be more difficult to secure in the future, since clinical subsidies will diminish or disappear, support from industry is decreasing, and funds from private foundations and philanthropists are not likely to increase. Support from the NIH will probably remain about level in constant dollars. In response to these constraints, radiology will have to be both more creative and more opportunistic to tap the limited remaining resources of research support. An excellent compilation of some major resources was recently published by Williams and Holden (9). Efforts of the Conjoint Committee will continue to be critical for continuing support of the LDRR, encouraging the allocation of intramural and extramural resources of the NCI to medical imaging, guiding the development of the American Academy of Radiologic Research, providing research training opportunities for physicians and scientists in radiology, and leading the research effort in medical imaging in general (10). Within individual institutions and departments, imaging research must continue to be acknowledged as a priority despite increasing pressures to generate clinical revenue. Enhanced efforts are warranted to nurture the research interests of younger faculty and selected residents and fellows, including pairing them with research mentors and providing them with opportunities to develop skills in areas such as research design, statistical analysis, and evaluative techniques. The long-term well-being of radiology and its important contributions to patient care are dependent on its continued investment in research and development.

  17. Single Case Method in Psychology: How to Improve as a Possible Methodology in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of Single-Sex Schools on Seventh Grade Math and Reading Tasks Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Redwood, Tarawa F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant mean difference in math and reading student performance by types of schools. The types of schools were identified as all-male and all-female public middle schools. Specifically, this study examined the impact of public single-sex schools on the mathematics and…

  19. The Impact of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on Participation and Achievement in Science: A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damian; Gallagher, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of government science education policy through the uptake of science A level subjects and patterns of attainment among boys and girls. Whereas recent evidence from Britain has been popularly interpreted as showing the educational advantage of single-sex schooling, the evidence of this study suggests that pupils are more likely…

  20. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk...

  1. Using Publication Metrics to Highlight Academic Productivity and Research Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Cone, David C.; Sarli, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of widely available measures of academic productivity and impact using publication data and highlights uses of these metrics for various purposes. Metrics based on publication data include measures such as number of publications, number of citations, the journal impact factor score, and the h-index, as well as emerging metrics based on document-level metrics. Publication metrics can be used for a variety of purposes for tenure and promotion, grant applications and renewal reports, benchmarking, recruiting efforts, and administrative purposes for departmental or university performance reports. The authors also highlight practical applications of measuring and reporting academic productivity and impact to emphasize and promote individual investigators, grant applications, or department output. PMID:25308141

  2. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  3. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  4. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-12-04

    There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact-Payback, economic assessment and narratives-will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT's performance. This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle's Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017-0026). The results from the study will be presented in several peer-reviewed publications, through conference presentations and via

  5. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A meta-analysis of single case research studies on aided augmentative and alternative communication systems with individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L; Heath, Amy K; Parker, Richard I; Rispoli, Mandy J; Duran, Jaime B

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of aided AAC with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed via an effect size measure, the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD). Three research questions were investigated concerning the overall impact of AAC interventions on targeted behavioral outcomes, effects of AAC interventions on individual targeted behavioral outcomes, and effects of three types of AAC interventions. Results indicated that, overall, aided AAC interventions had large effects on targeted behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. AAC interventions had positive effects on all of the targeted behavioral outcome; however, effects were greater for communication skills than other categories of skills. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System and speech-generating devices were larger than those for other picture-based systems, though picture-based systems did have small effects.

  7. 75 FR 62838 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on Behalf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Source Expansion Supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on Behalf of Hunter College School of... single-source program expansion supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on behalf of Hunter College... removal, of the relative's options to become a placement resource for the child. The supplemental funding...

  8. Effects of Singapore's Model Method on Elementary Student Problem Solving Performance: Single Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…

  9. Measuring Impact of EPAs Computational Toxicology Research (BOSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Toxicology (CompTox) research at the EPA was initiated in 2005. Since 2005, CompTox research efforts have made tremendous advances in developing new approaches to evaluate thousands of chemicals for potential health effects. The purpose of this case study is to trac...

  10. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  11. The international impact of Education research done and published ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research that was cited most often in international journals dealt with research methodology, creativity and entrepreneurship education, beliefs and perception studies, and language-in-education in South Africa. In conclusion, a number of recommendations are made for raising the international profile of Education ...

  12. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on original international research by a cross-European social science team, this book makes an important contribution to the discussion about the future of arts and humanities research. It explores the responses of these fields to the growing range of questions being asked about the value,

  13. The impact of white matter fiber orientation in single-acquisition quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancione, Marta; Tosetti, Michela; Donatelli, Graziella; Cosottini, Mirco; Costagli, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the impact of tissue structural orientation on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reliability, and to provide a criterion to identify voxels in which measures of magnetic susceptibility (χ) are most affected by spatial orientation effects. Four healthy volunteers underwent 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multi-echo, gradient-echo sequences were used to obtain quantitative maps of frequency shift (FS) and χ. Information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between tissue orientation and FS measures and QSM. After sorting voxels on the basis of their fractional anisotropy (FA), the variations in FS and χ values over tissue orientation were measured. Using a K-means clustering algorithm, voxels were separated into two groups depending on the variability of measures within each FA interval. The consistency of FS and QSM values, observed at low FA, was disrupted for FA > 0.6. The standard deviation of χ measured at high FA (0.0103 ppm) was nearly five times that at low FA (0.0022 ppm). This result was consistent through data across different head positions and for different brain regions considered separately, which confirmed that such behavior does not depend on structures with different bulk susceptibility oriented along particular angles. The reliability of single-orientation QSM anticorrelates with local FA. QSM provides replicable values with little variability in brain regions with FA < 0.6, but QSM should be interpreted cautiously in major and coherent fiber bundles, which are strongly affected by structural anisotropy and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Quantifying the Impact of Single Bit Flips on Floating Point Arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, James J [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL; Webster, Clayton G [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    In high-end computing, the collective surface area, smaller fabrication sizes, and increasing density of components have led to an increase in the number of observed bit flips. If mechanisms are not in place to detect them, such flips produce silent errors, i.e. the code returns a result that deviates from the desired solution by more than the allowed tolerance and the discrepancy cannot be distinguished from the standard numerical error associated with the algorithm. These phenomena are believed to occur more frequently in DRAM, but logic gates, arithmetic units, and other circuits are also susceptible to bit flips. Previous work has focused on algorithmic techniques for detecting and correcting bit flips in specific data structures, however, they suffer from lack of generality and often times cannot be implemented in heterogeneous computing environment. Our work takes a novel approach to this problem. We focus on quantifying the impact of a single bit flip on specific floating-point operations. We analyze the error induced by flipping specific bits in the most widely used IEEE floating-point representation in an architecture-agnostic manner, i.e., without requiring proprietary information such as bit flip rates and the vendor-specific circuit designs. We initially study dot products of vectors and demonstrate that not all bit flips create a large error and, more importantly, expected value of the relative magnitude of the error is very sensitive on the bit pattern of the binary representation of the exponent, which strongly depends on scaling. Our results are derived analytically and then verified experimentally with Monte Carlo sampling of random vectors. Furthermore, we consider the natural resilience properties of solvers based on the fixed point iteration and we demonstrate how the resilience of the Jacobi method for linear equations can be significantly improved by rescaling the associated matrix.

  15. Research Training, Institutional Support, and Self-Efficacy: Their Impact on Research Activity of Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Lynch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While the expectations for social work practitioners to do research have increased, their involvement is still limited. We know little about what factors influence involvement in research. The present study proposes a theoretical model that hypothesizes research training and institutional support for research as the exogenous variables, research self-efficacy as an intervening variable, and research activity as the endogenous variable. The study tests the model using data collected from a random sample of social workers. To a large degree the data support the model. Research self-efficacy has a significant effect on research activity. It is also an important mediating variable for the effect of institutional support on research activity. Although institutional support for research has no direct effect, it has an indirect effect via self-efficacy on research activity. However, research training has no effect on research activity and self-efficacy in research. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. The Impact of Temperatures on the Stability of Rocks Surrounding a Single Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Ning; Dai, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Research on the influence of temperature and the accompanying stress on the stability of the rocks surrounding an underground tunnel has become ever more important. This paper constructs a geometric model of a single-fracture tunnel by combining a high-temperature underground tunnel as the object of study with an example that uses a high-temperature tunnel segment in the water diversion tunnel of a hydropower station in Xinjiang. Based on the relevant theoretical analysis, with the consideration of different working conditions, a numerical experimental analysis was conducted to determine the two-dimensional transient temperature field distribution of the tunnel rock mass by using a numerical analysis software. The experimental data was consistent with the measured data. The calculated results show the following: a. when the temperature difference is greater, the stress concentration is higher near the fracture of the surrounding rock; b. the degree of the stress concentration in the crack tip region is not positively correlated to the distance, and there is a sensitive region where the stress varies.

  17. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  18. The Behavioral Science of Eating : Encouraging Boundary Research That Has Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary research can be risky, but it can also move academic disciplines into wider areas of influence. Fittingly, this new journal’s mission is to expand the boundaries of consumer behavior and to deepen its impact. Each issue focuses on having an impact both in consumer research and beyond. In

  19. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  20. American Legal Realism: Research Programme and Policy Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s  work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th century in helping to develop and implement the New Deal policy vis-à-vis its scientific work?After outlining some characteristics of American Legal Realism and Lakatos’s concept, the author studies LR from this perspective and concludes that LR can at the maximum be seen as a research programme of a very rudimentary nature with largely only a focus on procedures/methods. Despite this conclusion, LR has been important in stimulating questions in which social science research and law came together. Next, the professor-realist-relationship that helped President Roosevelt to have his New Deal developed and implemented is also discussed. A downside of this ‘professor-realist-advisor-partnership’ may have been that a LR scientific research programme has not been developed. Given the increased visibility of New Legal Realism, the paper finally stresses the relevance of working with scientific research programmes and the importance of being on the alert when linking research to (legal policies.

  1. The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: The relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the author derives expressions for the ratio of double to single ionization of helium from its ground state, by both single photons, and charged particle impact. He shows that in the limit of large reduced incident energy T of a charged particle, that the ratio of the double to single ionization cross sections at some energy transfer ΔE is equal to the ratio of photoionization cross sections for a photon of energy hν = ΔE, independent of T. He then goes on to find a relationship for this ionization ratio which is not restricted to some specific energy transfer, and shows that the double to single ionization cross section ratio approaches an asymtotic limit for large enough T

  2. Understanding societal impact through productive interactions: ICT research as a case

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan de Jong; Katharine Barker; Deborah Cox; Thordis Sveinsdottir; Peter Van den Besselaar

    2014-01-01

    Universities are increasingly expected to fulfill a third mission in addition to those of research and education. Universities must demonstrate engagement with society through the application and exploitation of knowledge. As societal impact of research is uncertain, long term and always dependent on other factors, we argue here that evaluation should focus on the conditions under which societal impact is generated rather than on the impact itself. Here we focus on a specific set of those con...

  3. A Research on the Impact of Internet Use in American Elementary School Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-Hsiung Hou

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of Internet use in American elementary school libraries operations and to find the best way for use Internet tools in elementary school libraries operations. This study may offer important information about the impact of Internet usage for elementary school library s operations. The research question was: Is the Internet usage having significant impact for organizational operations in the American elementary school libraries? This study e...

  4. Does Indigenous health research have impact? A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Mccalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; Lui, Felecia Watkin

    2017-03-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (hereafter respectfully Indigenous Australians) claim that they have been over-researched without corresponding research benefit. This claim raises two questions. The first, which has been covered to some extent in the literature, is about what type(s) of research are likely to achieve benefits for Indigenous people. The second is how researchers report the impact of their research for Indigenous people. This systematic review of Indigenous health reviews addresses the second enquiry. Fourteen electronic databases were systematically searched for Indigenous health reviews which met eligibility criteria. Two reviewers assessed their characteristics and methodological rigour using an a priori protocol. Three research hypotheses were stated and tested: (1) reviews address Indigenous health priority needs; (2) reviews adopt best practice guidelines on research conduct and reporting in respect to methodological transparency and rigour, as well as acceptability and appropriateness of research implementation to Indigenous people; and (3) reviews explicitly report the incremental impacts of the included studies and translation of research. We argue that if review authors explicitly address each of these three hypotheses, then the impact of research for Indigenous peoples' health would be explicated. Seventy-six reviews were included; comprising 55 journal articles and 21 Australian Government commissioned evidence review reports. While reviews are gaining prominence and recognition in Indigenous health research and increasing in number, breadth and complexity, there is little reporting of the impact of health research for Indigenous people. This finding raises questions about the relevance of these reviews for Indigenous people, their impact on policy and practice and how reviews have been commissioned, reported and evaluated. The findings of our study serve two main purposes. First, we have identified knowledge and

  5. Water Landing Impact of Recovery Space Capsule: A Research Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Eiichiro; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Tanno, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu

    2014-01-01

    For the design of a manned or cargo space capsule, it is important to precisely estimate the Earth landing loads to the crew or cargo, and to limit the loads to within a permissible range. Water landing simulations and scale-model water landing tests with varying conditions for descending velocity, pitch angle, and horizontal velocity during splashdown were conducted to estimate the magnitude of water impact on the recovery space capsule. This paper describes the results of the simulation and...

  6. Research report 24 single-family dwellings from the fifties; Onderzoekrapport 24 eengezinswoningen jaren '50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    This analysis is part of a coordinated series of studies for different residential building complexes of different corporations. This research report concerns the quick scan to decide on investments for the improvement of three single-family houses complexes, which were built in 1959. Based on four financial scenarios a framework is set up by means of which an integrated investment assessment can be made. In the study, scores are given for improving energy efficiency, reducing emission, quality of the construction, technical quality, urban and architectural quality, indoor environment, social aspects, etc. [Dutch] Deze analyse is onderdeel van een gecoordineerde serie onderzoeken voor verschillende complexen van verschillende corporaties. Dit onderzoeksrapport betreft de quickscan voor de investeringsafweging voor de verbetering van een drietal complexen van het type eengezinswoningen eind jaren vijftig. Op basis van vier financieel onderbouwde scenario's wordt het kader geschetst waarmee een integrale investeringsafweging kan worden gemaakt. In het onderzoek worden waarderingen gegeven voor de verbetering van de aspecten energiezuinigheid, uitstoot), bouwtechnisch kwaliteit, markttechnische kwaliteit, stedenbouwkundige en architectonische kwaliteit, binnenklimaat, sociale aspecten, etc.

  7. Research of Medical Expenditure among Inpatients with Unstable Angina Pectoris in a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Pan, Qi; Chen, Tong; Wei, Liang-Yu; Xuan, Yong; Wang, Qin; Li, Chao; Song, Jing-Chen

    2017-07-05

    With the rising incidence as well as the medical expenditure among patients with unstable angina pectoris, the research aimed to investigate the inpatient medical expenditure through the combination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) among patients with unstable angina pectoris in a Grade A tertiary hospital to conduct the referential standards of medical costs for the diagnosis. Single-factor analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression method were used to investigate 3933 cases between 2014 and 2016 in Beijing Hospital (China) whose main diagnosis was defined as unstable angina pectoris to determine the main factors influencing the inpatient medical expenditure, and decision tree method was adopted to establish the model of DRGs grouping combinations. The major influential factors of inpatient medical expenditure included age, operative method, therapeutic effects as well as comorbidity and complications (CCs) of the disease, and the 3933 cases were divided into ten DRGs by four factors: age, CCs, therapeutic effects, and the type of surgery with corresponding inpatient medical expenditure standards setup. Data of nonparametric test on medical costs among different groups were all significant (P angina pectoris is conducive in standardizing the diagnosis and treatment behaviors of the hospital and reducing economic burdens among patients.

  8. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  9. A single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC algorithm for impact localization on complex composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Qiu, Lei; Zhong, Yongteng

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of composite materials on aircraft structures has attracted much attention for impact monitoring as a kind of structural health monitoring (SHM) method. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-based monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, for applications on real complex structures, some challenges still exist. The impact-induced elastic waves usually exhibit a wide-band performance, giving rise to the difficulty in obtaining the phase velocity directly. In addition, composite structures usually have obvious anisotropy, and the complex structural style of real aircrafts further enhances this performance, which greatly reduces the localization precision of the MUSIC-based method. To improve the MUSIC-based impact monitoring method, this paper first analyzes and demonstrates the influence of measurement precision of the phase velocity on the localization results of the MUSIC impact localization method. In order to improve the accuracy of the phase velocity measurement, a single frequency component extraction method is presented. Additionally, a single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC (SFCBR-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed to reduce the localization error caused by the anisotropy of the complex composite structure. The proposed method is verified on a real composite aircraft wing box, which has T-stiffeners and screw holes. Three typical categories of 41 impacts are monitored. Experimental results show that the SFCBR-MUSIC algorithm can localize impact on complex composite structures with an obviously improved accuracy. (paper)

  10. Global Impact | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Laboratory activities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, E

  11. Impact of research on policy and practice | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... ... food and water, worsening migration pressures and possibly increasing the ... as 'a chaos of purposes and accidents', I prefer to use the terms complex, ... poverty in Uganda found that only 2 of 25 were researchable issues.

  12. Research Shows Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at EPA and colleagues at NC State University, the University of Sydney and the University of Tasmania are advancing the science of understanding the public health burden associated with wildland fires.

  13. Research on a Sudden Explosion and its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maosheng; Ma, Hui; Ni, Qingwei

    2017-12-01

    A sudden blast was chosen as the studied topic. Also, one computer based virtual experimentation was used to estimate the dimensional impact of initial pollutant plume from blasts. Self-made method using Mathcad code was used to generate the output for the period of the first tenth of a second (1deci-second) to 1minute (60s) of the blast at the point source. It also depicted long-range air pollution travel within the first 1 to 10 minutes. In the case study, it assumed an average directional diffusivity of 1720 m2s-1 which is about 25 per cent of the average generated speed of common explosives. The newly developed model revealed a plume cloud impact of 6.8×107µgm-3 in the first 1millisecond (0.01s) which decayed suddenly to a value of 1.7×107µgm-3 in the first 1decisecond (0.1s). The impact concentration at the point source by the end of the first second (1.0s) was 3.2×105µgm-3 which implied a 99.5% sudden decay when compared to 0.01s concentration value at the emission point source. Computerized experiments observed that air pollutants release from explosives/blasts were dispersed into the atmosphere in the first few seconds by forceful injection instead of by gradual dispersion as is the case with normal air pollutants plume releases.

  14. The potential impact of gender stereotypes for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C

    1996-11-01

    The move towards evidence-based health care has meant an increasing pressure on paramedical professionals to become more research aware and research active. However, despite various initiatives designed to encourage research, there remains within nursing a notable paucity of relevant published research. While numerous explanations have been put forward in an attempt to account for this shortfall, they have tended to focus on structural/organizational barriers rather than difficulties located at the individual level. However, Hicks, in studies of midwives and nurse managers suggests that one critical perspective may be the stereotypes and assumptions associated with the nursing profession, these being so diametrically opposed to the core skills required of researchers that they operate as a natural deterrent to research activities of any sort. Embedded within this theory is the notion of gender roles, which are archetypally feminine for nursing yet archetypally masculine for research. However, Hicks' studies, which were both variants of Asch's Central Trait Theory, focused on women both as the hypothetical subject of the exercise involved and as participants. If research is bound up with gender attributions in the way she suggests, it would be necessary to ask if this is still relevant when the gender of the hypothetical figure at the centre of the study is changed. To this end, the present study was conducted which, apart from the modification just highlighted, was a replication of Hicks' earlier studies. In brief, two groups of participants rated a hypothetical male candidate for a nursing post along 15 bipolar dimensions. The candidate had been described by his referee using six adjectives, of which five were identical for each group. However, the final phrase used to describe the first group's candidate was "good clinician' while for the second group it was "good researcher'. The ratings given by the two groups along the 15 dimensions were then compared. It was

  15. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of the surface roughness on the seismic signal generated by a single rock impact: insight from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Vincent; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity, with strong implication in terms of natural hazard monitoring. Indeed, as natural flows travel down the slope, they apply stresses on the ground, generating seismic waves in a wide frequency band. Our ultimate objective is to relate the granular flow properties to the generated signals that result from the different physical processes involved. We investigate here the more simple process: the impact of a single bead on a rough surface. Farin et al. [2015] have already shown theoretically and experimentally the existence of a link between the properties of an impacting bead (mass and velocity) on smooth surfaces, and the emitted signal (radiated elastic energy and mean frequency). This demonstrates that the single impactor properties can be deduced from the form of the emitted signal. We extend this work here by investigating the impact of single beads and gravels on rough and erodible surfaces. Experimentally, we drop glass and steel beads of diameters from 2 mm to 10 mm on a PMMA plate. The roughness of this last is obtained by gluing 3mm-diameter glass beads on one of its face. Free beads have been also added to get erodible beds. We track the dropped impactor motion, times between impacts and the generated acoustic waves using two fast cameras and 8 accelerometers. Cameras are used in addition to estimate the impactor rotation. We investigate the energy balance during the impact process, especially how the energy restitution varies as a function of the energy lost through acoustic waves. From these experiments, we clearly observe that even if more dissipative processes are involved (friction, grain reorganization, etc.), the single bead scaling laws obtained on smooth surfaces remain valid. A main result of this work is to quantify the fluctuations of the characteristic quantities such as the bounce angle, the

  17. Research on the Impact of Big Data on Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yaxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of big data development, a large amount of data will appear at logistics enterprises, especially in the aspect of logistics, such as transportation, warehousing, distribution and so on. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of big data, this paper studies the impact of big data on the logistics and its action mechanism, and gives reasonable suggestions. Through building logistics data center by using the big data technology, some hidden value information behind the data will be digged out, in which the logistics enterprises can benefit from it.

  18. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 8--A Field Study of Predicting Impact of Research and Development Projects in Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhorta, Man Mohanlal

    As part of Project IMPACT's effort to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a field study was conducted to identify and validate variables and their order of importance in predicting and evaluating impact of research and development (R&D) projects in vocational and technical education.…

  19. Information technology and behavioral medicine: impact on autism treatment & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Ron; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2004-01-01

    Families, clinicians and researchers involved with varying neurological disorders face amazing challenges to understand, treat, and assist the people they are serving. Autism brings unique challenges and serves as an important model for the application of important concepts in information technology and telemedicine. The rising incidence of autism with limited professional resources has led to more consideration for using information technology and related specialties to link families and professionals, and to implement strategies which implement information technology to improve the outcomes for individuals with autism and their families. These are reviewed in context of the unique health, education, and the research issues facing those dealing with autism.

  20. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  1. Reconciling Rigour and Impact by Collaborative Research Design: Study of Teacher Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Pantic, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new way of working collaboratively on the development of a methodology for studying teacher agency for social justice. Increasing emphasis of impact on change as a purpose of social research raises questions about appropriate research designs. Large scale quantitative research framed within externally set parameters has often been criticised for its limited potential for capturing the contexts and impacting change, while smaller, locally embedded, mostly qualitative i...

  2. Single Ih channels in pyramidal neuron dendrites: properties, distribution, and impact on action potential output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Hallermann, Stefan; Stuart, Greg J.

    2006-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability, yet its native single-channel properties in the brain are essentially unknown. Here we use variance-mean analysis to study the properties of single Ih channels in the apical dendrites of

  3. The Impact of Research and Technological Advances on Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Harald

    1981-01-01

    To arrive at a learning situation conducive to a scientific approach in dental school teaching of diagnosis, treatment, prescription, and judgment of prognosis, it is necessary to strengthen the scientific environment in dental schools, increase scientifically trained faculty, and guarantee student involvement in research. (MLW)

  4. Proven collaboration model for impact generating research with universities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, DF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available -optics, image processing and computer vision. This paper presents the research collaboration model with universities that has ensured the PRISM programme's success. It is shown that this collaboration model has resulted in a pipeline of highly-skilled people...

  5. Enabling spaces in education research: an agenda for impactful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An enabling schools research agenda could intentionally guide inquiry into that which supports education, where chronic poverty renders society as characteristically less equal. Keywords: barriers to education; buffers in education; egalitarian political philosophy; equality of opportunity; global South education; high risk ...

  6. RESEARCH Diagnosing Xpert MTB/RIF-negative TB: Impact and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Economics and Epidemiology Research O ce, Department of Internal ... have a positive culture result, accounting for only 10% of all TB ... information and patient follow-up systems, results may only reach ..... Raviglione M, Zumla A, Marais B, Horton R, Motsoaledi A. A sustainable agenda for tuberculosis control.

  7. Research and Policy in Education: Evidence, Ideology and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tells us that 90 per cent of education reforms are not properly evaluated. So it seems that governments have not lived up to their own ideals of evidence-informed policymaking. "Research and Policy in Education" argues that education policy is as often driven by political…

  8. the prospects, impacts, and research challenges of enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    36, No. 1, January 2017 268 research needs for enhanced CE production are recommended to serve .... uncatalyzed steam explosion (USE) and liquid hot water. (LHW). USE refers to .... produced is fed into a catalytic reactor where the gas is converted to ethanol .... innovative design of bioreactors for integrated processes.

  9. Theoretical Research Progress in High-Velocity/Hypervelocity Impact on Semi-Infinite Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhou Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the hypervelocity kinetic weapon and hypersonic cruise missiles research projects being carried out, the damage mechanism for high-velocity/hypervelocity projectile impact on semi-infinite targets has become the research keystone in impact dynamics. Theoretical research progress in high-velocity/hypervelocity impact on semi-infinite targets was reviewed in this paper. The evaluation methods for critical velocity of high-velocity and hypervelocity impact were summarized. The crater shape, crater scaling laws and empirical formulae, and simplified analysis models of crater parameters for spherical projectiles impact on semi-infinite targets were reviewed, so were the long rod penetration state differentiation, penetration depth calculation models for the semifluid, and deformed long rod projectiles. Finally, some research proposals were given for further study.

  10. U.S. dental students' attitudes toward research and science: impact of research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Shaina Devi; Wietecha, Mateusz S; Gullard, Angela; Peterson, Jon M B

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to provide a first nationwide assessment of dental students' attitudes toward the importance of research and its integration into the dental curriculum. For this purpose, the American Association for Dental Research National Student Research Group developed an online survey that was distributed to 89 percent of U.S. dental students in May 2012. The survey consisted of twenty-one Likert-type items divided into three groups: importance of research in dentistry, barriers to research involvement, and exposure to research in the dental curriculum. There were 733 responses (3.9 percent response rate), including students in all stages of education representing fifty-eight out of sixty-one dental schools. Age and race/ethnic distributions corresponded with U.S. dental school enrollees. Results showed that 63 percent of respondents had conducted research before matriculation, and of the 34 percent that participated in research during dental school, only 27 percent were newcomers. Respondents strongly agreed that scientific research enabled their progress in dentistry. Inadequate time in the curriculum was an obstacle they perceived to research involvement during dental school. Respondents agreed that dental curricula emphasize evidence-based practices but may be inadequately teaching biostatistics and research methodologies. Students with research experience tended to have stronger positive opinions about the importance of research in dental education. Efforts to foster research in schools have been well received by students, but several issues remain for enriching dental education through greater involvement of students in research.

  11. Experimental research on the stability of armour and secondary layer in a single layered Tetrapod breakwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical model tests were done on an armour of Tetrapods, placed in a single layer. The objective of the investigations was to study the stability of the secondary layer, and to see if the material of this secondary layer could be washed out through the single layer of Tetrapods. It was concluded

  12. Results of single borehole hydraulic tests in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. FY 2012 - FY 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2016-11-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 151 sections carried out at the -300 m Stage and the -500 m Stage of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory from FY 2012 to FY 2015. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical methods used are presented in this report. Furthermore, the previous results of the single borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the Regional Hydrogeological Study Project and the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project before FY 2012 are also summarized in this report. (author)

  13. Initial impact of integrated agricultural research for development in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Kato, Edward; Oduol, Judith; Pali, Pamela; Farrow, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional agricultural research approaches have generated research results with limited adoption rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recently, a new research approach – integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) was introduced in SSA. The IAR4D approach goes beyond the conventional research focus on agricultural production technologies, as it includes marketing and development activities. This paper analyses the impact of IAR4D in the East and Central African region using pa...

  14. Improve Research Visibility and Impact by Contributing to Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is a tool for collaboration, information sharing and knowledge/content management which anyone can edit. Wikipedia is widely used by students during the research process. So, due to Wikipedia popularity, contributing to Wikipedia website is one way of increasing citation score. In this workshop, I try to answer “Does including your papers as citations on Wikipedia increase the number of academic citations you get?” if yes, how?.

  15. [Exploring models for the assessment of the economic, social, political, and scientific impact of health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Angel, Beatriz; Agudelo-Calderón, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    Health research produces effects on the health of populations. This document approaches the frameworks and the models used by developed countries to assess the impact of health research through documentary analysis of research with the highest impact. With this, it was possible to identify two guiding axes of analysis: one having to do with focus, and the other having to do with emphasis. With these, the published models, their uses, their reach, and their origins are related. Our study brings awareness to the features they have and the areas in which Colombia could implement them. We found that the framework for evaluating health research known as the "payback model" is a model for monitoring research that tracks the process and research results with multidimensional categorization of the impacts of research.

  16. The impact of information technology on research in science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    There is little research on the impact of information technology (IT) on how research is carried out by scientists and engineers. This paper draws on other bodies of writings which indirectly shed light on this question. Included are: the role of calculation in research, scientific productivity, the philosophical underpinnings of science and technology, systems analysis, and the use of computer aided design in engineering. A model is developed which helps identify the types of impact that IT may have on social system and epistemological aspects of research. Factors are hypothesized which may explain why IT may have particular effects in any given research endeavor.

  17. Impact of Intragranular Substructure Parameters on the Forming Limit Diagrams of Single-Phase B.C.C. Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Franz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystalline model, accounting for intragranular microstructure development and evolution, is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion and applied to the numerical investigation of the impact of microstructural patterns on ductility of single-phase steels. The proposed multiscale model, taking into account essential microstructural aspects, such as initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, and softening mechanisms, allows us to emphasize the relationship between intragranular microstructure of B.C.C. steels and their ductility. A qualitative study in terms of forming limit diagrams for various dislocation networks, during monotonic loading tests, is conducted in order to analyze the impact of intragranular substructure parameters on the formability of single-phase B.C.C. steels.

  18. Summer research training for medical students: impact on research self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle L; Curran, Maureen C; Golshan, Shahrokh; Daly, Rebecca; Depp, Colin; Kelly, Carolyn; Jeste, Dilip V

    2013-12-01

    There is a well-documented shortage of physician researchers, and numerous training programs have been launched to facilitate development of new physician scientists. Short-term research training programs are the most practical form of research exposure for most medical students, and the summer between their first and second years of medical school is generally the longest period they can devote solely to research. The goal of short-term training programs is to whet the students' appetite for research and spark their interest in the field. Relatively little research has been done to test the effectiveness of short-term research training programs. In an effort to examine short-term effects of three different NIH-funded summer research training programs for medical students, we assessed the trainees' (N = 75) research self-efficacy prior to and after the programs using an 11-item scale. These hands-on training programs combined experiential, didactic, and mentoring elements. The students demonstrated a significant increase in their self-efficacy for research. Trainees' gender, ranking of their school, type of research, and specific content of research project did not predict improvement. Effect sizes for different types of items on the scale varied, with the largest gain seen in research methodology and communication of study findings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Carbon Footprint in Flexible Ureteroscopy: A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of Reusable and Single-Use Ureteroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Niall F; McGrath, Shannon; Quinlan, Mark; Jack, Gregory; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2018-03-01

    There are no comparative assessments on the environmental impact of endourologic instruments. We evaluated and compared the environmental impact of single-use flexible ureteroscopes with reusable flexible ureteroscopes. An analysis of the typical life cycle of the LithoVue™ (Boston Scientific) single-use digital flexible ureteroscope and Olympus Flexible Video Ureteroscope (URV-F) was performed. To measure the carbon footprint, data were obtained on manufacturing of single-use and reusable flexible ureteroscopes and from typical uses obtained with a reusable scope, including repairs, replacement instruments, and ultimate disposal of both ureteroscopes. The solid waste generated (kg) and energy consumed (kWh) during each case were quantified and converted into their equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (kg of CO 2 ) released. Flexible ureteroscopic raw materials composed of plastic (90%), steel (4%), electronics (4%), and rubber (2%). The manufacturing cost of a flexible ureteroscope was 11.49 kg of CO 2 per 1 kg of ureteroscope. The weight of the single-use LithoVue and URV-F flexible ureteroscope was 0.3 and 1 kg, respectively. The total carbon footprint of the lifecycle assessment of the LithoVue was 4.43 kg of CO 2 per endourologic case. The total carbon footprint of the lifecycle of the reusable ureteroscope was 4.47 kg of CO 2 per case. The environmental impacts of the reusable flexible ureteroscope and the single-use flexible ureteroscope are comparable. Urologists should be aware that the typical life cycle of urologic instruments is a concerning source of environmental emissions.

  20. The scholarly impact of doctoral research conducted in the field of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11819898

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 3, August 2015. 1. Art. # 1090, 13 ... international impact of research done in South Africa; the state of educational research in South Africa; problems .... has been, since the 1960s, a school of thought in ...... ing something new, in being creative and in getting research ...

  1. Reconciling Rigour and Impact by Collaborative Research Design: Study of Teacher Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new way of working collaboratively on the development of a methodology for studying teacher agency for social justice. Increasing emphasis of impact on change as a purpose of social research raises questions about appropriate research designs. Large-scale quantitative research framed within externally set parameters has…

  2. The Impact Agenda and Critical Social Research in Education: Hitting the Target but Missing the Spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Karen; Mazzoli Smith, Laura; Todd, Liz

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers whether the impact agenda that has developed over the last decade in UK universities is likely to help create the conditions in which critical educational research makes a more visible difference to society. The UK audit of university research quality (the research excellence framework (REF) now includes an assessment of…

  3. The Impact of the Protection of Human Subjects on Research. Working Paper No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    The author discusses the experimenter's responsibility for the protection of human subjects (such as the handicapped) in research and the impact of this responsibility on methods of doing research. Considered are the types of human rights that are most frequently in need of protection within a research setting (such as the right to privacy); the…

  4. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  5. The importance of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in Bavaria – local relevance and economic impact on single farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhler, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, holding a quarantine status in the European Union, was first discovered in 2007 in southern Bavaria. In the course of Diabrotica Research Program of Germany and the states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, an economic accompanying research is conducted at single farm level in Bavaria. This aims to evaluate different adaptation measures concerning the eradication and containment strategies economically. The focus of the analysis is mainly the crop rotation and the reduction of the proportion of maize at farm level. InVeKoS-data are analyzed, in order to assess the economic relevance of the pest in Bavaria in a better way. These enable detailed information on the development of maize production and cropping intensity. Subsequently research regions are defined with a high maize density, expecting enhanced damage from the beetle. In these selected areas single farms are selected. For considerations on single farm level, farms with different farm types are chosen by which adaptation measures are evaluated and realistic impact assessment could be made. For the evaluation of the economic impacts a whole-farm simulation has been used to include indirect effects of different adoption strategies. Additional, semi-structured interviews were conducted at selected farms in order to prove the results of the case study, obtain more information about the consequences on farm level and to evaluate the proposed cultivation alternatives for maize. A benefit-cost analysis and the comparative analysis of possible damage caused by the beetle and cost adjustments complete the study.

  6. Thinking Like Researchers: Action Research and Its Impact on Novice Teachers' Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janine; Clayton, Courtney; Broome, John

    2018-01-01

    This project investigated the effects of novice teachers' responses to an action research project conducting during the student-teaching semester. This study drew on a framework that considered the participants' process of research, practice of teaching, and identity as a researcher and utilized a qualitative, multiple case-study approach with an…

  7. Impact of co-investigators on pharmacy resident research publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranges PM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore influences of co-investigators on the successful publication of a pharmacy residency project. Methods: We analyzed published and non-published research presented at a regional pharmacy conference. Abstracts were matched 1:1 based on state and abstract year. We assessed university affiliation, number, degree, and H-Index of co-investigators on the abstract. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to identify variables associated with resident publication. Results: University-affiliated programs (p=0.015, highest H-Index of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.002, and positive H-Index (≥1 of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.017 were significant predictors of resident publication on univariate analyses. There were no differences in the number of co-investigators (p=0.051, projects with physician co-investigators (p=1.000, or projects with Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Master of Science (MS co-investigators (p=0.536 between published and non-published projects. Multivariate analysis found that the highest H-index of non-physician co-investigator remained significant as a predictor to resident publication (odds ratio (OR 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.01-1.17. Conclusions: The quality of co-investigators, as measured by an increasing H-Index, is associated with the successful publication of residency projects. More emphasis may need to be placed on resident research co-investigator selection and training to prepare pharmacy residents for research and scholarly activity.

  8. Meta- and statistical analysis of single-case intervention research data: quantitative gifts and a wish list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R; Levin, Joel R

    2014-04-01

    In this commentary, we add to the spirit of the articles appearing in the special series devoted to meta- and statistical analysis of single-case intervention-design data. Following a brief discussion of historical factors leading to our initial involvement in statistical analysis of such data, we discuss: (a) the value added by including statistical-analysis recommendations in the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for single-case intervention designs; (b) the importance of visual analysis in single-case intervention research, along with the distinctive role that could be played by single-case effect-size measures; and (c) the elevated internal validity and statistical-conclusion validity afforded by the incorporation of various forms of randomization into basic single-case design structures. For the future, we envision more widespread application of quantitative analyses, as critical adjuncts to visual analysis, in both primary single-case intervention research studies and literature reviews in the behavioral, educational, and health sciences. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on generation mechanism of single event transient current generated in the semiconductor using ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Single-event upset (SEU) is triggered when an amount of electric charges induced by energetic ion incidence exceeds a value known as a critical charge in a very short time period. Therefore, accurate evaluation of electric charge and understanding of basic mechanism of SEU are necessary for the improvement of SEU torrance of electronic devices. In this paper, the collected charges for the single event transient current induced on semiconductor by heavy ion microbeams, and application to use microbeam for single event studies are presented. (author)

  10. Impact of radiation research on clinical trials in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, P.; Van Ess, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present an outline review of the history of the formation of the cooperative group called International Clinical Trials in Radiation Oncology (ICTRO), and the following areas are briefly discussed together with some projections for the direction of clinical trials in radiation oncology into the 1990s:- radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and their combination, drug-radiation interactions, dose/time/fractionation, hyperthermia, biological response modifiers and radiolabelled antibodies, high LET, particularly neutron therapy, large field irradiation and interoperative irradiation, research studies on specific sites. (U.K.)

  11. Impact of fellowship training on research productivity in academic ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Lopez, Santiago A; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Langer, Paul D; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether scholarly impact of academic ophthalmologists, as measured using the h-index, is affected by fellowship training status and to further characterize differences in productivity among the various subspecialties and by departmental rank. A descriptive and correlational design was used. In total, 1440 academic ophthalmologists from 99 ophthalmology training programs were analyzed. The h-index data were obtained from the Scopus database. Faculty members were classified by academic rank and grouped into 10 categories based on fellowship training: anterior segment, corneal and external disease, glaucoma, uveitis and ocular immunology, vitreoretinal disease, ophthalmic plastic surgery, pediatric ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmic pathology, and "other." A one-way analysis of variance or Student t test using Microsoft Excel and "R" statistical software were used for comparison of continuous variables, with significance set at p productivity, as measured using the h-index, than non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists in this study (p productivity compared with those in other ophthalmology subspecialties (p productivity with increasing academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor (p productivity between fellowship-trained and non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists existed individually only at the level of Assistant Professor (p productivity increases with departmental academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed

  13. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2012-09-01

      Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement.   To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research.   Mixed methods including a two-round Delphi study with pre-specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow-up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self-selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed.   Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement.   This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  15. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  16. Visual impact in the digital press: a Spanish empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Francesc Fondevila Gascón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual resource (photography and video inclusion in digital journalism is obtaining importance in the multimedia area. The principal resources of digital press are multimedia, hypertext and interactivity. Multimedia is in an initial process of evolution. The objective of this research is to observe empirically the use of visual resources by the digital pure player press. These media try to take advantage of the new multimedia possibilities in the development and presentation of the contents. We have analyzed empirically video and photography inclusion in the multimedia framework (text, photography, video, audio, infograph and animation programs in four digital newspapers (Libertad Digital and El Plural, in Spanish, and Vilaweb.cat and e-Noticies, in Catalan analyzed according to journalistic genres.

  17. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  18. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  19. Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

    Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic well-being…

  20. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Design Research on Self-Regulatory Interventions for Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Valerie; Albeg, Loren; Tung, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of self-regulatory interventions on reading, writing, and math by conducting a meta-analysis of single-case design research. Self-regulatory interventions have promise as an effective approach that is both minimally invasive and involves minimal resources. Effects of the interventions were analyzed by…

  2. Evaluating research and impact: a bibliometric analysis of research by the NIH/NIAID HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Rosas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative bibliometrics uses advanced techniques to assess the impact of scholarly work in the context of other scientific work and usually compares the relative scientific contributions of research groups or institutions. Using publications from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID HIV/AIDS extramural clinical trials networks, we assessed the presence, performance, and impact of papers published in 2006-2008. Through this approach, we sought to expand traditional bibliometric analyses beyond citation counts to include normative comparisons across journals and fields, visualization of co-authorship across the networks, and assess the inclusion of publications in reviews and syntheses. Specifically, we examined the research output of the networks in terms of the a presence of papers in the scientific journal hierarchy ranked on the basis of journal influence measures, b performance of publications on traditional bibliometric measures, and c impact of publications in comparisons with similar publications worldwide, adjusted for journals and fields. We also examined collaboration and interdisciplinarity across the initiative, through network analysis and modeling of co-authorship patterns. Finally, we explored the uptake of network produced publications in research reviews and syntheses. Overall, the results suggest the networks are producing highly recognized work, engaging in extensive interdisciplinary collaborations, and having an impact across several areas of HIV-related science. The strengths and limitations of the approach for evaluation and monitoring research initiatives are discussed.

  3. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  4. Evaluation of dynamic message signs and their potential impact on traffic flow : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to understand the potential impact of DMS messages on traffic : flow and evaluate their accuracy, timeliness, relevance and usefulness. Additionally, Bluetooth : sensors were used to track and analyze the diversion ...

  5. Impact of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception: single and double dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Blue, Steven W; Erikson, David W; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2016-07-01

    To determine if differences exist in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception (LNG-EC) in obese and normal body mass index (BMI) users and test whether doubling the dose of LNG-EC in obese women increases total and free (active) LNG serum concentrations. Healthy, reproductive-age women with obese and normal BMIs received 1.5mg LNG orally (ECx1) and then in a subsequent menstrual cycle, the obese group also received 3mg LNG (ECx2). Dosing occurred during the follicular phase. Total and free LNG PK parameters were obtained via serum samples through an indwelling catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5h. The primary outcome was the difference in total and free LNG concentration maximum (Cmax) between ECx1 and ECx2 in the obese group. A total of 10 women enrolled and completed the study (normal BMI=5, median 22.8kg/m(2), range 20.8-23.7; obese BMI=5, 39.5kg/m(2), range 35.9-46.7). The total LNG Cmax for obese subjects following ECx1 (5.57±2.48ng/mL) was significantly lower than the level observed in normal BMI women (10.30±2.47, p=.027). Notably, ECx2 increased the Cmax significantly (10.52±2.76, p=.002); approximating the level in normal BMI subjects receiving ECx1. Free LNG Cmax followed a similar pattern. Obesity adversely impacts both the total and free Cmax levels of LNG EC and this likely explains its lack of efficacy in obese women. Doubling the dose appears to correct the obesity-related PK changes but additional research is needed to determine if this also improves EC effectiveness in obese women. This study demonstrates that obesity interferes with the pharmacokinetics of LNG EC, and that doubling the dose may be an effective strategy to improve its efficacy in obese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Selective Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Empirical Research: A Reply to Schlinger (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno

    2010-01-01

    In a recent article, Schlinger (2008) marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) by considering its impact on the field of behaviorism and research on verbal behavior. In the present article, we comment on Schlinger's conclusions regarding the impact of the book and highlight the extensions and…

  7. Understanding Societal Impact in Research and Technology Organisations using Productive Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Aad; Löwik, Sandor; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Research organisations receiving at least partly public funding are increasingly required to show their societal impact. Assessing societal impact is a complex task, because it involves very different aspects, is prone to bias from the assessor and even may be contradictory. Using the process and

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-26

    Aug 26, 2015 ... Epilepsy had negative impact on the lives of individuals with the condition; 40.8% had ... 55.3% of participants (or their families) considered epilepsy to be of spiritual/ .... marital status 75 (64.6%) were unmarried, divorced or single. A ..... Ogunlesi T, Ogundeyi M, Olowu A. Pattern of childhood .... Emotions.

  9. Single-impact calibrated electromagnetic tightening of long-life bolted joints in aviation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, V. A.; Bekhmet'ev, V. I.

    The general design and operation of a newly developed electromagnetic impact driver for the assembly of aviation structures is described. The electromagnetic impact driver makes it possible to considerably improve the precision of bolt torquing during the assembly. To test the performance of the new tool, M6 bolts of 16KhSN steel (tensile strength 120 +/- 10 kg/sq mm) were tightened by a manual torque wrench and by the electromagnetic impact driver. It is shown that the scatter of bolt elongation during the tightening by the impact driver is a factor of 3-5 less than in the case of manual torquing, which corresponds to a torque precision of 1.5-2 percent.

  10. National research council report and its impact on nuclear engineering education at the University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    A recent report by the National Research Council raised a number of important issues that will have an impact on nuclear engineering departments across the country. The report has been reviewed in the context of its relevance to the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of Michigan (UM), and some observations and conclusions have been drawn. This paper focuses on those portions of Ref. 1 concerning undergraduate and graduate curricula, research facilities and laboratories, faculty research interests, and funding for research and graduate student support because these topics have a direct impact on current and future directions for the department

  11. Caught between a rock and a hard place: An intrinsic single case study of nurse researchers' experiences of the presence of a nursing research culture in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2018-04-01

    To explore how nurse researchers in clinical positions experience the presence of a nursing research culture in clinical practice. Higher demands in the hospitals for increasing the quality of patient care engender a higher demand for the skills of health professionals and evidence-based practice. However, the utilisation of nursing research in clinical practice is still limited. Intrinsic single case study design underlined by a constructivist perspective. Data were produced through a focus group interview with seven nurse researchers employed in clinical practice in two university hospitals in Zealand, Denmark, to capture the intrinsic aspects of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical practice. A thematic analysis was conducted based on Braun and Clarke's theoretical guideline. "Caught between a rock and a hard place" was constructed as the main theme describing how nurse researchers in clinical positions experience the presence of a nursing research culture in clinical practice. The main theme was supported by three subthemes: Minimal academic tradition affects nursing research; Minimal recognition from physicians affects nursing research; and Moving towards a research culture. The nurse researchers in this study did not experience the presence of a nursing research culture in clinical practice, however; they called for more attention on removing barriers against research utilisation, promotion of applied research and interdisciplinary research collaboration, and passionate management support. The results of this case study show the pressure which nurse researchers employed in clinical practice are exposed to, and give examples on how to accommodate the further development of a nursing research culture in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of the Surgical Research Methodology Program on surgical residents' research profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The development impact of solar cookers: A review of solar cooking impact research in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentzel, Marlett; Pouris, Anastassios

    2007-01-01

    Solar cooking is often considered 'a solution looking for a problem'. Solar cookers have long been presented as an interesting solution to the world's problem of dwindling fuel wood sources and other environmental problems associated with wood fuel demand for cooking. However, recent GTZ field work in South Africa showed different benefits instead: the use of solar cookers resulted in appreciable fuel and time savings as well as increased energy security for households using commercial fuels. These observations are based on field tests in South Africa that started in 1996 to investigate the social acceptability of solar cookers and to facilitate local production and commercialisation of the technology. Impact studies and use rate studies have been carried out by a number of different organisations since the inception of the project and although commercialisation of the technology has not been achieved to its fullest potential, impact studies indicate that solar cookers have a positive development impact on households through fuel-, energy- and time savings. The article aims to summarise the findings of the various studies and present an overview of use rates and impact data. A variety of factors influence solar cooker use rates, which in turn determine impacts. Some factors are related to the user, some to the environment in which the cooker is used and some to the cooker itself. Ultimately, the data shows that on average, only 17% of solar cooker owners do not use their stoves after purchase and that active solar cooker users utilise their stoves on average for 31% of their cooking incidences. Since the majority of solar stove buyers actually use their stoves and obtain real benefits, this suggests that that solar cookers are indeed not a solution looking for a problem but a solution worth promoting

  14. Research on environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers current status of application of water-based fire extinguishing agents, the environmental and research considerations of the need for the study of toxicity research. This paper also offers systematic review of test methods of toxicity and environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents currently available, illustrate the main requirements and relevant test methods, and offer some research findings for future research considerations. The paper also offers limitations of current study.

  15. Methodology for value/impact assessment of nuclear regulatory research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for conducting a value/impact assessment of research programs has been developed to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an improved capability for allocating resources for confirmatory research. This report presents a seven-step evaluation process and applies it to selected units of research. The methodology is intended to provide insight into the technical merits of the programs, one dimension of the complex problem of resource allocation for confirmatory research

  16. Research Update: Molecular electronics: The single-molecule switch and transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sotthewes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected to macroscopic leads and how the transport properties of the molecule can be measured. Based on this knowledge we have realized two single-molecule devices: a molecular switch and a molecular transistor. The switch can be opened and closed at will by carefully adjusting the separation between the electrical contacts and the voltage drop across the contacts. This single-molecular switch operates in a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures all the way up to room temperature. Via mechanical gating, i.e., compressing or stretching of the octanethiol molecule, by varying the contact's interspace, we are able to systematically adjust the conductance of the electrode-octanethiol-electrode junction. This two-terminal single-molecule transistor is very robust, but the amplification factor is rather limited.

  17. Research on the Single Grit Scratching Process of Oxygen-Free Copper (OFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Single grit scratching is a basic form of material removal for many processes, such as grinding single point diamond turning and coating bonding performance tests. It has been widely used in the study of micro-scale and nano-scale material removal mechanisms. In this study, single grit linearly loading scratching tests were carried out on a scratching tester. A Rockwell indenter made of natural diamond was selected as the tool used, and the material of the workpiece was oxygen-free copper. Scratch topography was measured using a super-depth microscope to analyze the material deformation of the scratching process. A single grit scratching simulation has been developed by AdvantEdge™ to comprehensively study the material deformation of scratching processes. A material constitutive model and friction model were acquired using a quasi-static uniaxial compression experiment and a reciprocating friction test, respectively. These two models were used as the input models in the finite simulations. The simulated scratching forces aligned well with the experimental scratching forces, which verified the precision of the simulation model. Since only the scratching force could be obtained in the scratching experiment, the plastic strain, material flow, and residual stress of the scratching were further analyzed using simulations. The results showed that the plastic strain of the workpiece increased with the increase in scratching depth, and further analysis showed that the workpiece surface was distributed with residual compressive stress and the sub-surface was distributed with residual tensile stress in single grit scratching.

  18. Merging genomic and phenomic data for research and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shublaq, Nour W; Coveney, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Driven primarily by advances in genomics, pharmacogenomics and systems biology technologies, large amounts of genomic and phenomic data are today being collected on individuals worldwide. Integrative analysis, mining, and computer modeling of these data, facilitated by information technology, have led to the development of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. This transformative approach holds the potential inter alia to enable future general practitioners and physicians to prescribe the right drug to the right patient at the right dosage. For such patient-specific medicine to be adopted as standard clinical practice, publicly accumulated knowledge of genes, proteins, molecular functional annotations, and interactions need to be unified and with electronic health records including phenotypic information, most of which still reside as paper-based records in hospitals. We review the state-of-the-art in terms of electronic data capture and medical data standards. Some of these activities are drawn from research projects currently being performed within the European Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) initiative; all are being monitored by the VPH INBIOMEDvision Consortium. Various ethical, legal and societal issues linked with privacy will increasingly arise in the post-genomic era. This will require a closer interaction between the bioinformatics/systems biology and medical informatics/healthcare communities. Planning for how individuals will own their personal health records is urgently needed, as the cost of sequencing a whole human genome will soon be less than U.S. $100. We discuss some of the issues that will need to be addressed by society as a result of this revolution in healthcare.

  19. Distributed Research Center for Analysis of Regional Climatic Changes and Their Impacts on Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Okladnikov, I.; Gordov, E. P.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Presented is a collaborative project carrying out by joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and and their impacts on the environment over the Northern extratropical areas. In the framework of the project new approaches to "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) are being developed. It will be deployed on technical platforms of both institutions and applied in research of climate change and its consequences. Datasets available at NCEI and IMCES include multidimensional arrays of climatic, environmental, demographic, and socio-economic characteristics. The project is aimed at solving several major research and engineering tasks: 1) structure analysis of huge heterogeneous climate and environmental geospatial datasets used in the project, their preprocessing and unification; 2) development of a new distributed storage and processing model based on a "shared nothing" paradigm; 3) development of a dedicated database of metadata describing geospatial datasets used in the project; 4) development of a dedicated geoportal and a high-end graphical frontend providing intuitive user interface, internet-accessible online tools for analysis of geospatial data and web services for interoperability with other geoprocessing software packages. DRC will operate as a single access point to distributed archives of spatial data and online tools for their processing. Flexible modular computational engine running verified data processing routines will provide solid results of geospatial data analysis. "Cloud" data analysis and visualization approach will guarantee access to the DRC online tools and data from all over the world. Additionally, exporting of data

  20. Microbeam facility extension for single-cell irradiation experiments. Investigations about bystander effect and reactive oxygen species impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanot, M.; Khodja, H.; Daudin, L.; Hoarau, J.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B.

    2006-01-01

    The LPS microbeam facility is based on a KN3750 Van de Graaff accelerator devoted to microbeam analysis [1]. It is equipped with two horizontal microbeam lines used in various fields such as material science, geological science, nuclear material science and biology. Since two years, a single ion hit device is being developed at the LPS. The setup is dedicated to the study of ionizing radiation effects on living cells by performing single ion irradiation at controlled doses and locations. This study will complete current researches conducted on uranium chemical toxicity on renal an d osteoblastic cells. After ingestion, most uranium is excreted from the body within a few days except small fraction that is absorbed into the blood-stream (0.2 to 5%) and then deposit and preferentially in kidneys and bones, where it can remain for many years. Uranium is a heavy metal and a primarily alpha emitter. It can lead to bone cancer as a result of the ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive decay products. The study of the response to an exposure to alpha particles will permit to distinguish radiotoxicity and chemical toxicity of uranium bone cells with a special emphasis or the bystander effect at low dose.All the beam lines at the LPS nuclear microprobe are horizontal and under vacuum. A dedicated deflecting magnet was inserted in one of the two available beam lines of the facility. The ion beam is extracted to air using a 100 nm thick silicon nitride membrane, thin enough to induce negligible effects on the ions in terms of energy loss and spatial resolution. By this way, we believe that we minimize the experimental setup impact on the living cells easing the detection of low irradiation dose impact. The atmosphere around the samples is also important to guaranty low stressed cell culture conditions. A temperature, hygrometry and CO 2 controlled atmosphere device will be implanted in the future. The irradiation microbeam is produced using a fused silica capillary

  1. Mobile clusters of single board computers: an option for providing resources to student projects and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clusters usually consist of servers, workstations or personal computers as nodes. But especially for academic purposes like student projects or scientific projects, the cost for purchase and operation can be a challenge. Single board computers cannot compete with the performance or energy-efficiency of higher-value systems, but they are an option to build inexpensive cluster systems. Because of the compact design and modest energy consumption, it is possible to build clusters of single board computers in a way that they are mobile and can be easily transported by the users. This paper describes the construction of such a cluster, useful applications and the performance of the single nodes. Furthermore, the clusters' performance and energy-efficiency is analyzed by executing the High Performance Linpack benchmark with a different number of nodes and different proportion of the systems total main memory utilized.

  2. Research Experiences for Science Teachers: The Impact On Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies in science preparedness of United States high school students were recognized more than two decades ago, as were some of their underlying causes. Among the primary causes are the remoteness of the language, tools, and concepts of science from the daily experiences of teachers and students, and the long-standing national shortage of appropriately prepared science teachers. Secondary school science teachers are challenged each school year by constantly changing content, new technologies, and increasing demands for standards-based instruction. A major deficiency in the education of science teachers was their lack of experience with the practice of science, and with practicing scientists. Providing teachers with opportunities to gain hands-on experience with the tools and materials of science under the guidance and mentorship of leading scientists in an environment attuned to professional development, would have many beneficial effects. They would improve teachers' understanding of science and their ability to develop and lead inquiry- and standards-based science classes and laboratories. They would enable them to communicate the vitality and dynamism of science to their students and to other teachers. They would enhance their ability to motivate and guide students. From its inception, Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teacher's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students in New York City area schools. The program seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. Our ongoing program evaluation shows that following completion of the program, the teachers implement more inquiry-based classroom and laboratory exercises, increase utilization of Internet resources, motivate students to participate in after school science clubs and Intel-type science projects; and create opportunities for students to investigate an area of science in greater depth and for longer periods

  3. How and Why To Free All Refereed Research From Access- and Impact-Barriers Online, Now

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, S; Brody, T

    2001-01-01

    Researchers publish their findings in order to make an impact on research, not in order to sell their words. Access-tolls are barriers to research impact. Authors can now free their refereed research papers from all access tolls immediately by self-archiving them on-line in their own institution's Eprint Archives. Free eprints.org software creates Archives compliant with the Open Archives Initiative metadata-tagging Protocol OAI 1.0. These distributed institutional Archives are interoperable and can hence be harvested into global "virtual" archives, citation-linked and freely navigable by all. Self-archiving should enhance research productivity and impact as well as providing powerful new ways of monitoring and measuring it.

  4. Single ionization of helium by fast proton impact: Searching for projectile coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H; Waitz, M; Kim, H-K; Bauer, T; Laucke, A; Müller, Ch; Voigtsberger, J; Weller, M; Rist, J; Pahl, K; Honig, M; Pitzer, M; Zeller, S; Jahnke, T; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Chuluunbaatar, O; Bulychev, A A; Zaytsev, S A; Kouzakov, K A

    2015-01-01

    The fully differential cross section (FDCS) for single ionization p + He → p + e + He + at proton energy of 1 MeV is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The 3D angular electron distribution is presented. The role of electron-electron correlations both in a trial helium ground-state wave function and in the final helium state is inspected. (paper)

  5. The impact of metabolism on aging and cell size in single yeast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine how metabolism affects yeast aging in single yeast cells using a novel microfluidic device. We first review how cells are able to sense nutrients in their environment and then describe the use of the microfluidic dissection platform that greatly improves our

  6. Impact of single and repeated applications of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on tropical freshwater plankton communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of a single and a repeated application of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on zooplankton and phytoplankton communities in outdoor microcosms in Thailand. Treatment levels of 1 mu g L-1 were applied once or twice with a 2-week interval. Both treatments

  7. Impact of Group Support on Adjustment to Divorce by Single, Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a support group for single, custodial fathers (N=36) on measures of divorce adjustment, loneliness, and self-concept. Results indicated that men who attended the group meetings made more positive changes than those who did not attend and indicated a desire for support, sharing, and discussion. (JAC)

  8. Impact of Single-Case Pupil Descriptions on Student Teacher Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhm, Alexander; Schnöring, Annika; Hastall, Matthias R.

    2018-01-01

    Institutional and individual stigmatization are still major barriers for children with disabilities to access education. Teacher attitudes towards inclusive education play a crucial role in this regard, and are shaped by single-case descriptions from mass media or other sources. Building on exemplification theory and priming, two experiments with…

  9. Impact of single anaerobic exercise on delayed activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined. In both groups, a significant (P women (P work performed during the AN-EX and the power decrease. In the first hour after the single AN-EX, XO activity in the blood of women and men did not change, but after 24 hours of recovery, it was significantly higher compared to baseline levels in both sexes. Single AN-EX causes a smaller increase in XO activity in people with higher anaerobic performance.

  10. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  11. Research progress of non-human species radiological impact and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xiaoping; Zhu Hao; Mao Yawei; Zheng Wei; Du Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of radiological protection conception and the improvement of requirement about non-human species protection, much more attention has been paid gradually to biota radiation impact. Research and development of non-human species protection impact and its assessment at home and abroad are introduced, then RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA which are comparatively mature codes in the world are compared and analyzed, at last some suggestions about research and assessment work of non-human species radiological impact in the future in China are provided. (authors)

  12. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impacts of the Merowe High Dam in its vicinity and downstream, Atlantropa, a new ice age, and the increase in days with sunshine after the introduction of the high-chimney policy in the Rhein-Ruhr area, just to mention a few.

  13. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  14. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  15. Early Intervention for Children with Conduct Disorders: A Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen studies were analyzed that employed single-subject designs focusing on conduct disorders in preschoolers. Results indicated that reinforcement produced most positive outcomes, followed by punishment, timeout, and differential attention. Subject characteristics such as sex, handicapping condition, and target behavior typically bore little…

  16. Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Self-Management Interventions in Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study meta-analyzed 47 single-subject studies of behavioral self-management interventions that were published between 1971 and 2011. In addition to obtaining an overall measure of effect across all self-management studies (f = 0.93), analyses were conducted to assess whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by factors such as…

  17. Research on environmental impacts of tourism in China: progress and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linsheng; Deng, Jinyang; Song, Zengwen; Ding, Peiyi

    2011-11-01

    With the rapid development of tourism industry in China since 1980, the country has experienced an increasing use of its natural and cultural environment for tourism, resulting in tourism resources being adversely impacted in many tourism destinations. This paper described the research progress in tourism impacts on the environment in the context of China through a review of the growing literature in this field. Specifically, research on tourism impacts on the biophysical and socio-cultural environments, tourism carrying capacity, environmental quality assessment, and measures for the protection and management of tourism resources was reviewed. The review found that the majority of research was qualitative and descriptive in nature, and there was a lack of case studies and theoretical development. Future research should focus on the evaluation of environmental impacts, particularly those gradual cumulative impacts on the tourism environment; examination of the quantitative relationship between the impact and the level of tourism use for different activities; development of methods to estimate the carrying capacity; and understanding of positive impacts of tourism. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Impact Characteristics of Candidate Materials for Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Four fiber/resin systems were compared for resistance to damage and damage tolerance. One toughened epoxy and three toughened bismaleimide (BMI) resins were used., all with IM7 carbon fiber reinforcement. A statistical design of experiments technique was used to evaluate the effects of impact energy, specimen thickness and tup diameter on the damage area and residual compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Results showed that two of the BMI systems sustained relatively large damage areas yet had an excellent retention of CAI strength.

  19. Impact Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Single and Hybrid Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sallehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC mix that has been modified by adding treated recycled concrete aggregate (RCA and various types of fiber-reinforced systems. The effectiveness of these modifications in terms of energy absorption and impact resistance was evaluated and compared with that of the corresponding regular concrete, as well as with unmodified RAC specimens. Results clearly indicate that although modification of the RAC mix with treated RCA significantly enhances the impact resistance of RAC, further diversification with additional fiber, particularly those in hybrid form, can optimize the results.

  20. A Research on the Impact of Internet Use in American Elementary School Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiung Hou

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of Internet use in American elementary school libraries operations and to find the best way for use Internet tools in elementary school libraries operations. This study may offer important information about the impact of Internet usage for elementary school library s operations. The research question was: Is the Internet usage having significant impact for organizational operations in the American elementary school libraries? This study employed survey research to conduct the research process. Research participants were 50 administrators in 50 elementary school libraries; Texas, U.S.A. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the impact of Internet applied in the elementary school libraries. Results indicated that there was a significant impact of the Internet usage in American elementary school libraries operations. The author suggests that elementary school libraries organizational leaders need pay attention to the impact of Internet usage in their business and they also need plan how to utilize the Internet into their elementary school libraries in the future.

  1. ISRIA statement: ten-point guidelines for an effective process of research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Paula; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Grant, Jonathan; Graham, Kathryn E A; Boukhris, Omar F; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Balling, Gert V; Christensen, Rikke N; Pollitt, Alexandra; Taylor, Mark; Sued, Omar; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Chorzempa, Heidi

    2018-02-08

    As governments, funding agencies and research organisations worldwide seek to maximise both the financial and non-financial returns on investment in research, the way the research process is organised and funded is becoming increasingly under scrutiny. There are growing demands and aspirations to measure research impact (beyond academic publications), to understand how science works, and to optimise its societal and economic impact. In response, a multidisciplinary practice called research impact assessment is rapidly developing. Given that the practice is still in its formative stage, systematised recommendations or accepted standards for practitioners (such as funders and those responsible for managing research projects) across countries or disciplines to guide research impact assessment are not yet available.In this statement, we propose initial guidelines for a rigorous and effective process of research impact assessment applicable to all research disciplines and oriented towards practice. This statement systematises expert knowledge and practitioner experience from designing and delivering the International School on Research Impact Assessment (ISRIA). It brings together insights from over 450 experts and practitioners from 34 countries, who participated in the school during its 5-year run (from 2013 to 2017) and shares a set of core values from the school's learning programme. These insights are distilled into ten-point guidelines, which relate to (1) context, (2) purpose, (3) stakeholders' needs, (4) stakeholder engagement, (5) conceptual frameworks, (6) methods and data sources, (7) indicators and metrics, (8) ethics and conflicts of interest, (9) communication, and (10) community of practice.The guidelines can help practitioners improve and standardise the process of research impact assessment, but they are by no means exhaustive and require evaluation and continuous improvement. The prima facie effectiveness of the guidelines is based on the systematised

  2. Virtual Globes and Glacier Research: Integrating research, collaboration, logistics, data archival, and outreach into a single tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Globes are a paradigm shift in the way earth sciences are conducted. With these tools, nearly all aspects of earth science can be integrated from field science, to remote sensing, to remote collaborations, to logistical planning, to data archival/retrieval, to PDF paper retriebal, to education and outreach. Here we present an example of how VGs can be fully exploited for field sciences, using research at McCall Glacier, in Arctic Alaska.

  3. Care and economic impact of thyroid ultrasound examination at single visits to endocrinology clinics (the ETIEN 1 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    Routine thyroid ultrasound examination in a single medical appointment is rarely performed in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the care and economic impact of thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 2274 patients (mean age, 59±16 years; 83% females) performed at least one thyroid US in a single visit to an endocrinology clinic during 2013 and 2014. The number of endocrine acts with thyroid US, single endocrine and US acts without review, and the change in the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department and total thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department during the study period were assessed. In 2013 and 2014, 2558 endocrine acts with thyroid US were performed, of which 42.2% were single endocrine and US appointments without a second endocrine act, with estimated savings of €58,946.40. As compared to 2012, the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department decreased by 43.3% and 86.0% in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and total thyroid US performed by the radiology department decreased by 28.1% and 68.3% respectively, with estimated savings of €94,441.36. Thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment allows for decreasing the number of both second endocrine acts and thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department, thus reducing the number of unnecessary clinic visits and promoting considerable economic savings. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. "Broader impacts" or "responsible research and innovation"? A comparison of two criteria for funding research in science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael; Laas, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Our subject is how the experience of Americans with a certain funding criterion, "broader impacts" (and some similar criteria) may help in efforts to turn the European concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into a useful guide to funding Europe's scientific and technical research. We believe this comparison may also be as enlightening for Americans concerned with revising research policy. We have organized our report around René Von Schomberg's definition of RRI, since it seems both to cover what the European research group to which we belong is interested in and to be the only widely accepted definition of RRI. According to Von Schomberg, RRI: "… is a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)." While RRI seeks fundamental changes in the way research is conducted, Broader Impacts is more concerned with more peripheral aspects of research: widening participation of disadvantaged groups, recruiting the next generation of scientists, increasing the speed with which results are used, and so on. Nevertheless, an examination of the broadening of funding criteria over the last four decades suggests that National Science Foundation has been moving in the direction of RRI.

  5. Impact of acid and oxidative modifications, single or dual, of sorghum starch on biodegradable films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biduski, Bárbara; Silva, Francine Tavares da; Silva, Wyller Max da; Halal, Shanise Lisie de Mello El; Pinto, Vania Zanella; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid and oxidation modifications on sorghum starch, as well as the effect of dual modification of starch on the physical, morphological, mechanical, and barrier properties of biodegradable films. The acid modification was performed with 3% lactic acid and the oxidation was performed with 1.5% active chlorine. For dual modification, the acid modification was performed first, followed by oxidation under the same conditions as above. Both films of the oxidized starches, single and dual, had increased stiffness, providing a higher tensile strength and lower elongation when compared to films based on native and single acid modified starches. However, the dual modification increased the water vapor permeability of the films without changing their solubility. The increase in sorghum starch concentration in the filmogenic solution increased the thickness, water vapor permeability, and elongation of the films. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. What We Know about the Impacts of WebQuests: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbitt, Jason; Ophus, John

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the body of research investigating the impacts of the WebQuest instructional strategy on teaching and learning. The WebQuest instructional strategy is often praised as an inquiry-oriented activity, which effectively integrates technology into teaching and learning. The results of research suggest that while this strategy may…

  7. The Impact of a Funded Research Program on Music Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Donald A.; Luehrsen, Mary

    2010-01-01

    "Sounds of Learning: The Impact of Music Education" is a research program designed to allow researchers to examine the roles of music education in the lives of school-aged children to expand the understanding of music's role in a quality education. The NAMM Foundation, the sponsoring organization, has provided more than $1,000,000 to fund research…

  8. The Impact of a Qualitative Research Interview on Workers' Views of Their Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore whether qualitative research interviews impacted participants' views of their situations. Forty-five workers who reported handling well changes that affected their work were interviewed to explore their experiences of change, factors that helped and hindered their ability to handle change, and assess the…

  9. Social Impact of Participatory Health Research: Collaborative Non-Linear Processes of Knowledge Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A.; Cook, Tina; Rämgård, Margaretha; Kleba, Elisabeth; Harris, Janet; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Social impact, defined as an effect on society, culture, quality of life, community services, or public policy beyond academia, is widely considered as a relevant requirement for scientific research, especially in the field of health care. Traditionally, in health research, the process of knowledge transfer is rather linear and one-sided and has…

  10. Take It Personally: Incorporating Personality Traits as Input Covariates in College Impact Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Selznick, Benjamin S.; Lo, Marc A.; Vassallo, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of college impact research is to isolate the extent to which outcomes associated with college attendance are influenced by higher education experiences. As part of this process, researchers draw from theory and the literature base to identify variables that have been shown to influence both the higher education experience and the…

  11. Dramatic Impact of Action Research of Arts-Based Teaching on At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kenzy, Patty; Underwood, Lucy; Severson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study was presented at the American Educational Research Association 2012 conference in Vancouver, Canada. The study explored how action research of arts-based teaching (ABT) impacted at-risk students in three urban public schools in southern California, USA. ABT was defined as using arts, music, drama, and dance in teaching other subjects. A…

  12. Complex research of acoustic impact on gas-dust flow in vortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex research of acoustic impact on gas-dust flow in vortex-acoustic dispenser. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Introduction The processing of wastes from mining operations is usually related to the needs of related industries in raw materials. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. The impact of European research ethics legislation on UK radiology research activity: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Toms, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there is evidence of a reduction in radiology research activity in the UK following the implementation of the European research ethics legislation, which came in to force in 2001 and has been widely criticised as an impediment to research. Materials and methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed by searching PubMed for all first-author publications from UK departments of 'radiology' or 'medical imaging' between 1995 and 2007. Results were subcategorized into those papers published in the highest cited general radiology journals and by publication type: original research, reviews, and case reports. Results: From 1995 to 2007 the total number of publications rose by 6.5% from 137 to 146 with the increase occurring in non-general radiology journals. Original articles fell from 18 in 1995 to 12 in 2003, but then rose to 24 by 2007 (33% rise). This dip was paralleled by a fall and then recovery in case report publications. The most dramatic change has been in the number of review articles, which has increased more than eightfold from seven in 1995 to 65 in 2007 to become the most common form of publication. Conclusion: The overall number of original scientific articles, published by first-author UK radiologists, has increased slightly over the last 12 years despite a temporary fall associated with the introduction of new research ethics legislation.

  14. The Impact of Single Amino Acids on Growth and Volatile Aroma Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Fairbairn; Alexander McKinnon; Hannibal T. Musarurwa; António C. Ferreira; António C. Ferreira; Florian F. Bauer

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly influence fermentation kinetics and the production of volatile compounds important for wine aroma. Amino acids are the most important nitrogen source and have been classified based on how well they support growth. This study evaluated the effect of single amino acids on growth kinetics and major volatile production of two phenotypically different commercial wine yeast strains in synthetic grape must. Four growth p...

  15. Impact of Anchoring Groups on Ballistic Transport: Single Molecule vs Monolayer Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Tuning the transport properties of molecular junctions by chemically modifying the molecular structure is one of the key challenges for advancing the field of molecular electronics. In the present contribution, we investigate current–voltage characteristics of differently linked metal–molecule–metal systems that comprise either a single molecule or a molecular assembly. This is achieved by employing density functional theory in conjunction with a Green’s function approach. We show that the conductance of a molecular system with a specific anchoring group is fundamentally different depending on whether a single molecule or a continuous monolayer forms the junction. This is a consequence of collective electrostatic effects that arise from dipolar elements contained in the monolayer and from interfacial charge rearrangements. As a consequence of these collective effects, the “ideal” choice for an anchoring group is clearly different for monolayer and single molecule devices. A particularly striking effect is observed for pyridine-docked systems. These are subject to Fermi-level pinning at high molecular packing densities, causing an abrupt increase of the junction current already at small voltages. PMID:26401191

  16. The community impact of consolidating long-term inpatient care at a single state hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, N

    2000-06-01

    A community impact model was used to estimate how consolidation of all long-term inpatient care at one state mental hospital affected the town in which the hospital was located. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to measure objective and subjective impacts of the hospital's expanded role. Objective impacts included employment, retail sales, and use of local services such as police, welfare, and education. Subjective impacts included residents' perceptions of safety. Data were obtained from hospital records, service providers, merchants, residents, and persons living on the streets or in shelters. Overall, the policy had a positive net impact on the community, estimated at roughly $4 million during the 18 months after implementation. Nearly $1 million was a direct payment from the state in lieu of taxes for the property occupied by the hospital. The hospital's payments to businesses in the town increased 10 percent. The number of hospital employees increased by 61 percent, to 1,336. The number of local residents working in the hospital grew from 200 to 320, and the proportion of the hospital's annual payroll paid to local residents increased from 14 to 24 percent. Local service use did not increase, and no change was noted in the crime rate. More patients were discharged to other towns than were admitted from the host town. Eighty percent of the residents surveyed said the town had either improved or had not changed. The benefits brought by the consolidation are likely to be sustained in the long run if the state continues the current rate of payments to the community and the hospital continues its policy of discharging patients to the town where they resided before hospitalization.

  17. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  18. Experimental research on single phase convection heat transfer in micro-fin tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Zhu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in three micro-fin tubes with different fin height was conducted. At the same time, the efficiency of micro-fin tubes within the experimental scope was evaluated and the optimal working region was determined. Based on the experimental data in the optimal working region, correlations for predicting the heat transfer and flow resistance were also given by multiple regression method. The result indicates that the micro-fin tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow, and the increase of heat transfer coefficient is higher than the increase of flow resistance. The accuracy of the correlation is very high, of which the deviation from the experimental value is very small. (authors)

  19. Research on Kalman Filtering Algorithm for Deformation Information Series of Similar Single-Difference Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Wei-cai; XU Shao-quan

    2004-01-01

    Using similar single-difference methodology(SSDM) to solve the deformation values of the monitoring points, there is unstability of the deformation information series, at sometimes.In order to overcome this shortcoming, Kalman filtering algorithm for this series is established,and its correctness and validity are verified with the test data obtained on the movable platform in plane. The results show that Kalman filtering can improve the correctness, reliability and stability of the deformation information series.

  20. Impact of design research on industrial practice tools, technology, and training

    CERN Document Server

    Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Showcasing exemplars of how various aspects of design research were successfully transitioned into and influenced, design practice, this book features chapters written by eminent international researchers and practitioners from industry on the Impact of Design Research on Industrial Practice. Chapters written by internationally acclaimed researchers of design analyse the findings (guidelines, methods and tools), technologies/products and educational approaches that have been transferred as tools, technologies and people to transform industrial practice of engineering design, whilst the chapters that are written by industrial practitioners describe their experience of how various tools, technologies and training impacted design practice. The main benefit of this book, for educators, researchers and practitioners in (engineering) design, will be access to a comprehensive coverage of case studies of successful transfer of outcomes of design research into practice; as well as guidelines and platforms for successf...

  1. Using Twitter™ to drive research impact: A discussion of strategies, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Katy; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have always recognised the importance of disseminating the findings of their work, however, recently the need to proactively plan and drive the impact of those findings on the wider society has become a necessity. Firstly, this is because funders require evidence of return from investment and secondly and crucially because national research assessments are becoming powerful determinants of future funding. In research studies associated with nursing, impact needs to be demonstrated by showing the effect on a range of stakeholders including service users, patients, carers, the nursing workforce and commissioners. Engaging these groups is a well-known challenge influenced by lack of access to academic journals, lack of time to read long complex research papers and lack of opportunities to interact directly with the researchers. This needs to be addressed urgently to enable nursing research to increase the impact that it has on health delivery and the work of clinical practitioners. Social media is potentially a novel way of enabling research teams to both communicate about research as studies progress and to disseminate findings and research funders are increasingly using it to publicise information about research programmes and studies they fund. A search of the healthcare literature reveals that advice and guidance on the use of social media for research studies is not well understood or exploited by the research community. This paper, therefore, explores how using social networking platforms, notably Twitter™ offers potential new ways for communicating research findings, accessing diverse and traditionally hard-to-reach audiences, knowledge exchange at an exponential rate, and enabling new means of capturing and demonstrating research impact. The paper discusses approaches to initiate the setup of social networking platforms in research projects and considers the practical challenges of using Twitter™ in nursing and healthcare research. The

  2. Single-crystal neutron diffraction at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to: identify the future needs and opportunities for single-crystal neutron diffraction, and specify instrument requirements. important number of experiments. The conclusion of the workshop deliberation was that Australia has a diverse community of users of single-crystal neutron diffraction. A (quasi)-Laue image-plate diffractometer allows the fastest throughput by far, but would exclude an important number of experiments. Most of these could be covered by the additional possibility to locate the image-plate detector on a monochromatic beam. Therefore it was recommend both a white thermal beam and a monochromatic beam (λ= 1 to 2.4 Angstroms) for an image-plate detector. At little additional cost the existing 2TanA instrument could be located semi-permanently on the same monochromatic beam, thus offering three quite different types of single-crystal instruments. Small improvements could be made to the 2TanA instrument to cater for the remaining experiments not suited to an image-plate diffractometer: exchange of the Eulerian cradle for an automated tilt goniometer for extremely bulky sample environment (cryomagnets, large pressure cells), optional larger area detector, analyser crystal. It was recommended that an Instrument Advisory Team will be assembled, and will help in specifying, designing and commissioning the instrument

  3. Novel Forms of Research Governance and Their Possible Impact on the Future of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Gyöngyvér

    2015-01-01

    This article sets out to contribute to the current debate on the transformation of educational research with regard to global transitions and challenges. Nation-centred hierarchical organizations in Europe have increasingly failed to address emergent processes. And in contrast novel forms of governance have gained prevalence in controlling…

  4. Maximising the impact of qualitative research in feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials: guidance for researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Cathain, A.; Hoddinott, P.; Lewin, S.; Thomas, K.J.; Young, B.; Adamson, J.; Jansen, J.F.M.; Mills, N.; Moore, G.; Donovan, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full

  5. Evidence-based severity assessment: Impact of repeated versus single open-field testing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Carina; Siestrup, Sophie; Palme, Rupert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert; Richter, S Helene

    2018-01-15

    According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing, seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single testing on mouse welfare, using one of the most commonly used paradigms for behavioral phenotyping in behavioral neuroscience, the open-field test. In an independent groups design, laboratory mice (Mus musculus f. domestica) experienced either repeated, single, or no open-field testing - procedures that are assigned to different severity categories. Interestingly, testing experiences did not affect fecal corticosterone metabolites, body weights, elevated plus-maze or home cage behavior differentially. Thus, with respect to the assessed endocrinological, physical, and behavioral outcome measures, no signs of compromised welfare could be detected in mice that were tested in the open-field repeatedly, once, or, not at all. These findings challenge current classification guidelines and may, furthermore, stimulate systematic research on the severity of single procedures involving living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. For the Public Good: Research Impact and the Promise of Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    DePauw, Karen P.; Seyam, Mohammed; Roy, Siddhartha; Abbas, Montasir; Hole, Brian; Potter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    As a land-grant institution, Virginia Tech is committed to research that meaningfully engages with the vital concerns of our day such as feeding, building, and empowering a healthy world. How does Virginia Tech’s commitment to engagement fit with the Open Access vision for unrestricted online access to scholarly research? Have OA journals, public repositories, and federal mandates simply made a researcher’s life more complicated or could OA be the key to unlocking research impact on a global ...

  7. Public-private collaboration and scientific impact: an analysis at the level of the individual researcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, C.; Ryan, T.K.; Andersen, J.P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines whether citation impact for individual researchers differs when collaborating with industry compared to work only involving academic researchers. To do this, we have identified a group of corresponding authors with addresses in Denmark with articles involving public-private collaboration for 2008-2010 and thereafter constructed a list of all articles authored by these researchers during the period 2006-2012. (Author)

  8. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Chateau, L [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France); and others

    2001-07-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Heavy Drinkers and the Potential Impact of Minimum Unit Pricing-No Single or Simple Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Black, H; Rush, R; O'May, F; Chick, J

    2017-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of a minimum unit price (MUP: 50 pence per UK unit) on the alcohol consumption of ill Scottish heavy drinkers. Participants were 639 patients attending alcohol treatment services or admitted to hospital with an alcohol-related condition. From their reported expenditure on alcohol in their index week, and assuming this remained unchanged, we estimated the impact of a MUP (50 ppu) on future consumption. (Around 15% purchased from both the more expensive on-sale outlets (hotels, pubs, bars) and from off-sales (shops and supermarkets). For them we estimated the change in consumption that might follow MUP if (i) they continued this proportion of 'on-sales' purchasing or (ii) their reported expenditure was moved entirely to off-sale purchasing (to maintain consumption levels)). Around 69% of drinkers purchased exclusively off-sale alcohol at sales purchases could support, for some, an increase in consumption. While a proportion of our harmed, heavy drinkers might be able to mitigate the impact of MUP by changing purchasing habits, the majority are predicted to reduce purchasing. This analysis, focusing specifically on harmed drinkers, adds a unique dimension to the evidence base informing current pricing policy. From drink purchasing data of heavy drinkers, we estimated the impact of legislating £0.50 minimum unit price. Over two thirds of drinkers, representing all multiple deprivation quintiles, were predicted to decrease alcohol purchasing; remainder, hypothetically, could maintain consumption. Our data address an important gap within the evidence base informing policy. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Smyer, Tish; Kowalski, Susan; Stowers, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The methodological quality of nursing education research has not been rigorously studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality and scientific impact of nursing education research reports. The methodological quality of 133 quantitative nursing education research articles published between July 2006 and December 2007 was evaluated using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI).The mean (+/- SD) MERSQI score was 9.8 +/- 2.2. It correlated (p nursing literature and those reported for the medical literature, coupled with the association with citation counts, suggest that the MERSQI is an appropriate instrument to evaluate the quality of nursing education research.

  11. Using curriculum vitae to compare some impacts of NSF research grants with research center funding

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Gaughan; Barry Bozeman

    2002-01-01

    While traditional grants remain central in US federal support of academic scientists and engineers, the role of multidisciplinary NSF Centers is growing. Little is known about how funding through these Centers affects scientific output or (as is an NSF aim) increases academic collaboration with industry. This paper tests the use of CVs to examine how Center funding affects researchers' publication rates and their obtaining industry grants. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.

  12. The Impact of Sonication on the Surface Quality of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Byumseok; Cheng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Sonication process is regularly adopted for dispersing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an aqueous medium. This can be achieved by either covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with strong acid or by noncovalent functionalization using dispersants that adsorb onto the surface of SWCNTs during dispersion. Because the dispersion process is usually performed using sonication, unintentional free radical formation during sonication process may induce covalent modification of SWCNT surface. Herein, we have systematically investigated the status of SWCNT surface modification under various sonication conditions using Raman spectroscopy. Comparing ID /IG (Raman intensities between D and G bands) ratio of SWCNTs under various sonication conditions suggests that typical sonication conditions (1-6 h bath sonication with sonication power between 3 and 80 W) in aqueous media do not induce covalent modification of SWCNT surface. In addition, we confirm that SWCNT dispersion with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) involves noncovalent adsorption of ssDNA onto the surface of SWCNTs, but not covalent linkage between ssDNA and SWCNT surface. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy

    2017-02-01

    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Life Cycle Impact Assessment in the Arctic: Challenges and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Berg Pettersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is increasingly used for environmental assessment of products and production processes to support environmental decision-making both worldwide and in the Arctic. However, there are several weaknesses in the impact assessment methodology in LCA, e.g., related to uncertainties of impact assessment results, absence of spatial differentiation in characterization modeling, and gaps in the coverage of impact pathways of different “archetypal” environments. Searching for a new resource base and areas for operation, marine and marine-based industries are continuously moving north, which underlines the need for better life cycle impact assessment in the Arctic, particularly to aid in industrial environmental management systems and stakeholder communications. This paper aims to investigate gaps and challenges in the application of the currently available impact assessment methods in the Arctic context. A simplified Arctic mining LCA case study was carried out to demonstrate the relevance of Arctic emissions at the midpoint and endpoint levels, as well as possible influences of the Arctic context on the impact assessment results. Results of this study showed that significant research gaps remain in Arctic-dependent life cycle impact assessment, particularly on: (i the possible influences of the Arctic-specific features on characterization factors for impact assessment (such as seasonality, cold climate, precipitation, and marine dependence; and (ii the coverage of impact pathways, especially on the under-addressed marine impacts and marine/near-shore dispersion processes. Addressing those identified research gaps and demand for future Arctic life cycle impact assessment could increase the credibility of LCA as an environmental decision-making support tool for Arctic industries and better support sustainable Arctic development.

  15. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  16. Model Building of Photovoltaic Array with MPPT Function and Research on Single Phase Grid Connected

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhengzhou

    2016-01-01

    With the continued development of solar photovoltaic technology, research on distributed grid connected photovoltaic system has become a research focus in the field of photovoltaic grid power plant and the computer simulation technology is an effective technology means in the study. On the basis of the photovoltaic array output characteristic equation, the photovoltaic array maximum power control simulation model based on M function is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation m...

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED ''SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES'' (VOLUME 75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YUAN, F.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-01-01

    Single-transverse spin asymmetries (SSA) in strong interactions have a long history, starting from the 1970s and 1980s when surprisingly large single-transverse spin asymmetries were observed in p+p → πX and pp → Λ + X, where really none were expected. They have again attracted much interest in recent years from both experimental and theoretical sides. In particular, first measurements by the STAR, PHENIX, and BRAHMS collaborations at RHIC have now become available which again reveal large single transverse spin asymmetries for hadron production in polarized proton proton scattering. This extends the SSA observations from the fixed target energy range to the collider regime. Meanwhile, experimental studies in Deep Inelastic Scattering by the HERMES collaboration at DESY, SMC at CERN, and CLAS at JLab also show a remarkably large SSA in semi-inclusive hadron production, γ*p → πX, when the proton is transversely polarized. On the theoretical side, there are several approaches to understanding SSA within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For example, to explain the large SSAs for hadron production in hadron collisions, a mechanism that takes into account the contribution from quark-gluon-quark correlations (twist-3) in the nucleon was proposed. On the other hand, possible origins of SSA in DIS and hadronic scattering were also found in leading-twist transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. Current theoretical efforts aim at a better conceptual understanding of these two types of mechanisms, and of their connections. We were very happy at this timely date to bring together the theorists and experimentalists of this field to review and discuss the current theoretical status and the latest experimental results. The whole workshop contained 25 formal talks, both experiment (15) and theory (10), and a few informal talks and many fruitful discussions. The topics covered all the relevant SSA observables, including in Deep Inelastic Scattering, the Drell

  18. Strategies towards Evaluation beyond Scientific Impact. Pathways not only for Agricultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birge M. Wolf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Various research fields, like organic agricultural research, are dedicated to solving real-world problems and contributing to sustainable development. Therefore, systems research and the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly endorsed. However, research performance depends not only on self-conception, but also on framework conditions of the scientific system, which are not always of benefit to such research fields. Recently, science and its framework conditions have been under increasing scrutiny as regards their ability to serve societal benefit. This provides opportunities for (organic agricultural research to engage in the development of a research system that will serve its needs. This article focuses on possible strategies for facilitating a balanced research evaluation that recognises scientific quality as well as societal relevance and applicability. These strategies are (a to strengthen the general support for evaluation beyond scientific impact, and (b to provide accessible data for such evaluations. Synergies of interest are found between open access movements and research communities focusing on global challenges and sustainability. As both are committed to increasing the societal benefit of science, they may support evaluation criteria such as knowledge production and dissemination tailored to societal needs, and the use of open access. Additional synergies exist between all those who scrutinise current research evaluation systems for their ability to serve scientific quality, which is also a precondition for societal benefit. Here, digital communication technologies provide opportunities to increase effectiveness, transparency, fairness and plurality in the dissemination of scientific results, quality assurance and reputation. Furthermore, funders may support transdisciplinary approaches and open access and improve data availability for evaluation beyond scientific impact. If they begin to

  19. Analytical and molecular dynamics studies on the impact loading of single-layered graphene sheet by fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Amin; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Saeid

    2018-04-01

    Normal impact performance of a system including a fullerene molecule and a single-layered graphene sheet is studied in the present paper. Firstly, through a mathematical approach, a new contact law is derived to describe the overall non-bonding interaction forces of the "hollow indenter-target" system. Preliminary verifications show that the derived contact law gives a reliable picture of force field of the system which is in good agreements with the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Afterwards, equation of the transversal motion of graphene sheet is utilized on the basis of both the nonlocal theory of elasticity and the assumptions of classical plate theory. Then, to derive dynamic behavior of the system, a set including the proposed contact law and the equations of motion of both graphene sheet and fullerene molecule is solved numerically. In order to evaluate outcomes of this method, the problem is modeled by MD simulation. Despite intrinsic differences between analytical and MD methods as well as various errors arise due to transient nature of the problem, acceptable agreements are established between analytical and MD outcomes. As a result, the proposed analytical method can be reliably used to address similar impact problems. Furthermore, it is found that a single-layered graphene sheet is capable of trapping fullerenes approaching with low velocities. Otherwise, in case of rebound, the sheet effectively absorbs predominant portion of fullerene energy.

  20. Long term impact of the endocrine disruptor tributyltin on male fertility following a single acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2017-10-01

    Declining rate of human fertility is a growing concern, where lifestyle and environmental factors play an important role. We recently demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT), an omnipresent endocrine disruptor, affects testicular cells in vitro. In this study, male Wistar rats were gavaged a single dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg TBT-chloride (TBTC) (to mimic accidental exposure in vivo) and sacrificed on day 3 and day 7, respectively. TBT bioavailability was evaluated by estimating total tin content, and essential metal levels were analyzed along with redox molecules (ROS and GSH/GSSG) to understand the effect on physiological conditions. Blood-testicular barrier (BTB) disruption, levels of associated proteins and activity of proteolytic enzymes were evaluated to understand the effect on BTB. Histological analysis of tissue architecture and effect on protein expression of steroidogenic, stress and apoptotic markers were also evaluated. Widespread TBTC pollution can be an eventual threat to male fertility worldwide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Groff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review includes examinations of (1 resources used in animal research; (2 waste production in laboratories; (3 sources of pollution; (4 impacts on laboratory workers’ health; and (5 biodiversity impacts. The clear conclusion from the review is that the environmental implications of animal testing must be acknowledged, reported, and taken into account as another factor in addition to ethical and scientific reasons weighing heavily in favor of moving away from allowing and requiring animal use in research and testing.

  2. Inclusion of non-English-speaking patients in research: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Rachel; Halpin, Erin; Staffa, Steven J; Benson, Lindsey; DiNardo, James A; Nasr, Viviane G

    2018-05-01

    Considering the recent increase in medical care provided to patients from foreign countries and the diversity of languages spoken by families living within the United States, it is important to determine whether non-English-speaking patients have access to participate in clinical research from which they may benefit. We aimed to determine the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for medical care between 2011 and 2016, the number of clinical research protocols active within the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients, as well as the number of both non-English- and English-speaking patients approached and enrolled in these studies. Furthermore, we attempted to determine barriers that may have prevented non-English-speaking patients from inclusion in clinical research. We conducted a retrospective review of various data sources during a 5-year period. Data included the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for care as well as the number of English- and non-English-speaking patients approached for studies at the Department of Anesthesiology each year. Additionally, we reviewed data from the IRB which included the justification that research teams provided when opting to exclude non-English-speaking participants. In addition, we attempted to determine the barriers that may have prevented these patients from inclusion in research protocols. We found that the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital increased over time. However, the number of studies approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients within the Department of Anesthesiology and the rate of enrollment of these patients did not increase at the same rate. In order to increase the number of non-English-speaking patients approached to participate in research, we must improve cultural awareness and provide investigators

  3. Improving methods to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions: lessons from 40 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Hagan, Donald; Flory, S. Luke

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the ecological impacts of biological invasions vary widely from broad-scale observational studies to removal experiments in invaded communities and experimental additions in common gardens and greenhouses. Different methods provide information at diverse spatial and temporal scales with varying levels of reliability. Thus, here we provide a synthetic and critical review of the methods used to evaluate the impacts of plant invasions and provide recommendations for future research. We review the types of methods available and report patterns in methods used, including the duration and spatial scale of studies and plant functional groups examined, from 410 peer-reviewed papers published between 1971 and 2011. We found that there has been a marked increase in papers published on plant invasion impacts since 2003 and that more than half of all studies employed observational methods while impacts of invasive forbs and graminoids while impacts, we argue that longer-term experimental research and more studies that use predictive modelling and evaluate impacts of invasions on ecosystem processes and fauna are needed. Combining broad-scale observational studies with experiments and predictive modelling may provide the most insight into invasion impacts for policy makers and land managers seeking to reduce the effects of plant invasions. PMID:25829379

  4. Single versus double-layer uterine closure at cesarean: impact on lower uterine segment thickness at next pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Marceau, Chantale; Demers, Suzanne; Bujold, Emmanuel; Roberge, Stephanie; Gauthier, Robert J; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Girard, Mario; Chaillet, Nils; Boulvain, Michel; Jastrow, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Uterine rupture is a potential life-threatening complication during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. Single-layer closure of the uterus at cesarean delivery has been associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture compared with double-layer closure. Lower uterine segment thickness measurement by ultrasound has been used to evaluate the quality of the uterine scar after cesarean delivery and is associated with the risk of uterine rupture. To estimate the impact of previous uterine closure on lower uterine segment thickness. Women with a previous single low-transverse cesarean delivery were recruited at 34-38 weeks' gestation. Transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound evaluation of the lower uterine segment thickness was performed by a sonographer blinded to clinical data. Previous operative reports were reviewed to obtain the type of previous uterine closure. Third-trimester lower uterine segment thickness at the next pregnancy was compared according to the number of layers sutured and according to the type of thread for uterine closure, using weighted mean differences and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of 1613 women recruited, with operative reports available, 495 (31%) had a single-layer and 1118 (69%) had a double-layer closure. The mean third-trimester lower uterine segment thickness was 3.3 ± 1.3 mm and the proportion with lower uterine segment thickness cesarean delivery is associated with a thicker third-trimester lower uterine segment and a reduced risk of lower uterine segment thickness <2.0 mm in the next pregnancy. The type of thread for uterine closure has no significant impact on lower uterine segment thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  6. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  7. How Work-Family Research Can Finally Have an Impact in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Baltes, Boris B; Matthews, Russell A

    2011-09-01

    Although work-family research has mushroomed over the past several decades, an implementation gap persists in putting work-family research into practice. Because of this, work-family researchers have not made a significant impact in improving the lives of employees relative to the amount of research that has been conducted. The goal of this article is to clarify areas where implementation gaps between work-family research and practice are prevalent, discuss the importance of reducing these gaps, and make the case that both better and different research should be conducted. We recommend several alternative but complementary actions for the work-family researcher: (a) work with organizations to study their policy and practice implementation efforts, (b) focus on the impact of rapid technological advances that are blurring work-family boundaries, (c) conduct research to empower the individual to self-manage the work-family interface, and (d) engage in advocacy and collaborative policy research to change institutional contexts and break down silos. Increased partnerships between industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology practitioners and researchers from many industries and disciplines could break down silos that we see as limiting development of the field.

  8. Connecting the pieces: Using ORCIDs to improve research impact and repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessa, Mohamed; Lery, Thibaut; Grenz, Daryl; Vijayakumar, J K

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data are crucial in the assessment of research impact in the academic world. However, as a young university created in 2009, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) needs to aggregate bibliometrics from researchers coming from diverse origins, not necessarily with the proper affiliations. In this context, the University has launched an institutional repository in September 2012 with the objectives of creating a home for the intellectual outputs of KAUST researchers. Later, the university adopted the first mandated institutional open access policy in the Arab region, effective June 31, 2014. Several projects were then initiated in order to accurately identify the research being done by KAUST authors and bring it into the repository in accordance with the open access policy. Integration with ORCID has been a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher's scientific contributions. It included the systematic inclusion and creation, if necessary, of ORCID identifiers in the existing repository system, an institutional membership in ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools. In addition and in cooperation with the Office of Research Evaluation, the Library worked at implementing a Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will present our findings about the CRIS implementation, the ORCID API, the repository statistics as well as our approach in conducting the assessment of research impact in terms of usage by the global research community.

  9. Tangible and intangible costs of "protecting human subjects": The impact of the National Research Act of 1974 onuniversity research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Jacobs

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article (1 examines the overall structure of regulatory research oversight in the United States; (2 details the origins and evolution of federal legislation pertaining to the protection of human subjects in biomedical and behavioral treatment and research; and (3 describes the expansion of oversight regulation from biomedical and behavioral treatment areas to the social sciences. In addition, the paper describes three areas identified by compliance administrators as susceptible to abuse: (1 informed consent, (2 assessment of risks and benefits, and (3 equitable selection of human subjects. There is a discussion of existing tensions in the implementation of oversight policies and procedures. Finally, the paper identifies four issues for future consideration: (1 scope of the mandate regarding protection of human subjects, (2 impact on the nature of research being undertaken, (3 financial burden of compliance and oversight activities, and (4 ethical standards, constraints, and potential.

  10. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  11. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  12. A survey of the SWISS researchers on the impact of sibling privacy protections on pedigree recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Bradford B; Chen, Donna T; Brown, Robert D; Brott, Thomas G; Meschia, James F

    2005-01-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes about privacy safeguards in research and investigate the impact of letter-based proband-initiated contact on recruitment, we surveyed researchers in the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS). All 49 actively recruiting sites provided at least 1 response, and 61% reported that potential probands were enthusiastic. Although 66% of researchers valued proband-initiated contact, only 23% said that probands viewed this strategy as important to protecting the privacy of siblings. A substantial minority of researchers (37%) said the strategy impeded enrollment, and 44% said it was overly burdensome to probands.

  13. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  14. Colleagues as Change Agents: How Department Networks and Opinion Leaders Influence Teaching at a Single Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. C.; Conaway, E. P.; Zhao, J.; Dolan, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with colleagues have the potential to be a source of support for faculty to make meaningful change in how they teach, but the impact of these relationships is poorly understood. We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the characteristics of faculty who provide colleagues with teaching resources and facilitate change in teaching, how faculty influence one another. Our exploratory investigation was informed by social network theory and research on the impact of opinion leaders within organizations. We used surveys and interviews to examine collegial interactions about undergraduate teaching in life sciences departments at one research university. Each department included discipline-based education researchers (DBERs). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that DBERs promote changes in teaching to a greater degree than other departmental colleagues. The influence of DBERs derives, at least partly, from a perception that they have unique professional expertise in education. DBERs facilitated change through coteaching, offering ready and approachable access to education research, and providing teaching training and mentoring. Faculty who had participated in a team based–teaching professional development program were also credited with providing more support for teaching than nonparticipants. Further research will be necessary to determine whether these results generalize beyond the studied institution. PMID:27174582

  15. Mentoring for Inclusion: The Impact of Mentoring on Undergraduate Researchers in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeger, Heather; Fresquez, Carla

    Increasing inclusion of underrepresented minority and first-generation students in mentored research experiences both increases diversity in the life sciences research community and prepares students for successful careers in these fields. However, analyses of the impact of mentoring approaches on specific student gains are limited. This study addresses the impact of mentoring strategies within research experiences on broadening access to the life sciences by examining both how these experiences impacted student success and how the quality of mentorship affected the development of research and academic skills for a diverse population of students at a public, minority-serving institution. Institutional data on student grades and graduation rates (n = 348) along with postresearch experience surveys (n = 138) found that students mentored in research had significantly higher cumulative grade point averages and similar graduation rates as a matched set of peers. Examination of the relationships between student-reported gains and mentoring strategies demonstrated that socioemotional and culturally relevant mentoring impacted student development during mentored research experiences. Additionally, extended engagement in research yielded significantly higher development of research-related skills and level of independence in research. Recommendations are provided for using mentoring to support traditionally underrepresented students in the sciences. © 2016 H. Haeger and C. Fresquez. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Determinants and impacts of public agricultural research in Japan: Product level evidence on agricultural Kosetsushi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukugawa, Nobuya

    2017-12-01

    The public sector is an important source of agricultural research as the agricultural sector in many countries consists of a number of individual farmers who have difficulty in bearing the cost of research and development. Public institutes for testing and research called Kosetsushi help agriculture and manufacturing improve labor productivity through technology transfer activities, whereby constituting an important component of regional innovation systems in Japan. This study establishes panel data of agricultural Kosetsushi and examines whether their research activities are responsive to local needs and which type of research effort is conducive to the promotion of agricultural product innovations. Estimation results reveal variations across plants in the impacts of agricultural clusters on research on the plant conducted by Kosetsushi located in the cluster. A positive impact is observed only for vegetable while negative or statistically insignificant relationships are found for rice, fruit, and flower. The impact of research on plant breeding on agricultural product innovations also varies across plants. Policy implications of the major findings are discussed.

  17. Mathematics Research in Association of Southeast Asian Nations Countries: A Scientometric Analysis of Patterns and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao P. Ho-Le

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at mapping the trend and impact of mathematics research originated from Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries by using a scientometric approach. We extracted the Web of Science’s article-level data of all publications concerning mathematics research during the period of 2006–2015 for ASEAN countries. The impact of research was assessed in terms of citation, and the pattern of international collaboration was mapped by the presence of coauthorship and international affiliations. During the coverage period, ASEAN countries had published 9,890 papers in mathematics, accounting for 3.8% of total ISI-indexed publications from the region. Almost 95% of the mathematics publication was from Singapore (4,107 papers, Vietnam (2,046, Malaysia (1,927, and Thailand (1,317. Approximately 54% of mathematics papers from ASEAN countries had international coauthorship, and these papers had greater yearly citation rate than those without international collaboration. With the exception of Singapore, the citation rate for other ASEAN countries was below the world average by 8–30%. The most important predictor of citations was journal impact factor, which accounted for 5.2% of total variation in citations between papers. These findings suggest that the contribution of ASEAN countries as a group to mathematics research worldwide is modest in terms of research output and impact.

  18. Clinical Impact Research – how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. Aims: This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. Methods: The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author’s idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author’s previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). Results: The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. Conclusions: CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messagesThe new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals.The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study

  19. Clinical Impact Research - how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-11-01

    Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author's idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author's previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messages The new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study designs: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (experimental

  20. Academic impact of a public electronic health database: bibliometric analysis of studies using the general practice research database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with 'General Practice Research Database' as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors contributed nearly half (47.9% of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of "Pharmacology and Pharmacy", "General and Internal Medicine", and "Public, Environmental and Occupational Health". The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. CONCLUSIONS: A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research.

  1. Academic Impact of a Public Electronic Health Database: Bibliometric Analysis of Studies Using the General Practice Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Wu, Jau-Ching; Haschler, Ingo; Majeed, Azeem; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD) is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. Methodology and Findings A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with ‘General Practice Research Database’ as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors) contributed nearly half (47.9%) of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of “Pharmacology and Pharmacy”, “General and Internal Medicine”, and “Public, Environmental and Occupational Health”. The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. Conclusions A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research. PMID:21731733

  2. Transfer of single farm payment entitlements to farm successors: impact on structural change and rental prices in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of tradable and non-tradable single farm payment (SFP entitlements for farm successors on structural change and the lease market. Using the example of Swiss agriculture, the effects on rental-price trends and farm-exit rates are investigated. An ex-ante normative impact analysis is performed with the agent-based agricultural-sector model SWISSland, which simulates structural change processes and income trends in Swiss agriculture over a period of up to 15 years. A land market implemented at municipality level simulates the plot-by-plot leasing of land to surrounding neighbouring agents that is common in Switzerland. Allocation of plots to tenants as well as lease pricing is modelled taking into account the farm-specific land rents. The results show that personalised SFP entitlements which could not be transferred to a farm successor not only cause an intensification of structural change, but would also thus lead to a substantial reduction in rental prices. SFP entitlements which were successfully transferred to farm successors have only a slight impact on structural change and the rental prices of arable land. Only for grassland in the mountain region does a stronger shift result in a significant reduction in rental prices.

  3. The evolution of IRRR nuclear standards from the single failure criterion and their impact on system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    One of the first industry standards developed in the United States to meet regulatory agency criteria for the design and installation of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems was prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., abbreviated IEEE. This was IEEE Std. 279, first issued in 1968. It was subsequently revised and reissued as IEEE Std. 279-1971 ''IEEE Standard: Criteria for Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''. Not only has the implementation of this standard had a tremendous impact on nuclear power plant design in the United States, it has been the base document from which subsequent IEEE nuclear standards have been developed. Three major concepts which are addressed by IEEE 279, and which have had a major impact upon control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants are the following : 1) Single failure criterion. 2) Equipment qualification. 3) Channel independence. Each of these concepts has resulted in the development of subsequent IEEE Nuclear Standards. The impact of some of these on control and instrumentation systems are discussed. (author)

  4. Impacts of Coulomb Interactions on the Magnetic Responses of Excitonic Complexes in Single Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying-Jhe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the diamagnetic responses of different exciton complexes in single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and quantum rings (QRs. For QDs, the imbalanced magnetic responses of inter-particle Coulomb interactions play a crucial role in the diamagnetic shifts of excitons (X, biexcitons (XX, and positive trions (X−. For negative trions (X− in QDs, anomalous magnetic responses are observed, which cannot be described by the conventional quadratic energy shift with the magnetic field. The anomalous behavior is attributed to the apparent change in the electron wave function extent after photon emission due to the strong Coulomb attraction by the hole in its initial state. In QRs, the diamagnetic responses of X and XX also show different behaviors. Unlike QDs, the diamagnetic shift of XX in QRs is considerably larger than that of X. The inherent structural asymmetry combined with the inter-particle Coulomb interactions makes the wave function distribution of XX very different from that of X in QRs. Our results suggest that the phase coherence of XX in QRs may survive from the wave function localization due to the structural asymmetry or imperfections.

  5. Impact of quantum–classical correspondence on entanglement enhancement by single-mode squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Sijo K.; Chew, Lock Yue; Sanjuán, Miguel A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum entanglement between two field modes can be achieved through the collective squeezing of the two respective modes. If single-mode squeezing is performed prior to such a two-mode squeezing, an enhancement of entanglement production can happen. Interestingly, the occurrence of this enhancement can be implicitly linked to the local classical dynamical behavior via the paradigm of quantum–classical correspondence. In particular, the entanglement generated through quantum chaos is found to be hardly enhanced by prior squeezing, since it is bounded by the saturation value of the maximally entangled Schmidt state with fixed energy. These results illustrate that entanglement enhancement via initial squeezing can serve as a useful indicator of quantum chaotic behaviour. - Highlights: • Continuous-variable entanglement is explored in the Pullen–Edmonds Hamiltonian. • The local phase-space structure and the entanglement enhancement are related. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is smaller for the chaotic orbit. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is higher for the regular orbit. • The magnitude of the entanglement enhancement serves as a quantum-chaos indicator

  6. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and equality of services. SIR creates the

  7. System impact research – increasing public health and health care system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  8. Connecting the pieces: using ORCIDs to improve research impact and repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2015-05-19

    Quantitative data are crucial in the assessment of research impact in the academic world. However, as a young university created in 2009, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) needs to aggregate bibliometrics from researchers coming from diverse origins, not necessarily with the proper affiliations. In this context, the University has launched an institutional repository in September 2012 with the objectives of creating a home for the intellectual outputs of KAUST researchers. Later, the university adopted the first mandated institutional open access policy in the Arab region, effective June 31, 2014. Several projects were then initiated in order to accurately identify the research being done by KAUST authors and bring it into the repository in accordance with the open access policy. Integration with ORCID has been a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher’s scientific contributions. It included the systematic inclusion and creation, if necessary, of ORCID identifiers in the existing repository system, an institutional membership in ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools. In addition and in cooperation with the Office of Research Evaluation, the Library worked at implementing a Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will present our findings about the CRIS implementation, the ORCID API, the repository statistics as well as our approach in conducting the assessment of research impact in terms of usage by the global research community.

  9. Assessing the impact of systematic reviews on future research: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Nerz, Patrick; Dalberth, Barbara; Voisin, Christiane; Lohr, Kathleen N; Tant, Elizabeth; Jonas, Daniel E; Carey, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of systematic reviews on research funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) through Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs), and to identify barriers to and facilitators for the effects of these documents on future research. Two AHRQ systematic reviews were selected as case studies to evaluate their impact on future research. Key citations generated by these reports were identified through ISI Web of Science and PubMed Central and traced forward to identify effects on subsequent studies through citation analysis from updated systematic reviews on the topics. Requests for applications and program announcements from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts website were reviewed and dissemination data were obtained from AHRQ. Finally, interviews were conducted with 13 key informants to help identify short-, medium- and long-term impacts of the EPC reviews. The measurable impact of the two EPC reviews is demonstrably greater on short-term outcomes (greater awareness of the issues) than on medium-term (e.g., the generation of new knowledge) or long-term outcomes (e.g., changes in patient practice or health outcomes). Factors such as the topic and the timing of the report relative to the development of the field may explain the impact of these two AHRQ reports. The degree to which the new research can be directly attributed to the AHRQ reviews remains unclear. Key informants discussed several benefits stemming from the EPC reports, including providing a foundation for the research community on which to build, heightening awareness of the gaps in knowledge, increasing the quality of research and sparking new directions of research. However, the degree to which these reports were influential hinged on several factors including marketing efforts, the very nature of the reports and other influences external to the EPC domain. The findings outlined in this article illustrate the importance of numerous factors influencing future

  10. Jonkershoek research catchments: history and impacts on commercial forestry in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapman, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available conservation and allied problems” was endorsed by the 1935 Fourth Empire Forestry Conference held in Cape Town. By 1936 construction was underway on weirs in the Jonkershoek State Forest and a programme of research was developed, with Dr CL Wicht as Founder... collected within these research catchments. Other national impacts include: • Regulation of the R22 billion/a forest industry. The commercial forest industry today derives benefit in export markets from the Sustainable Forest Certification (FSC...

  11. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglieris, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Putti, M. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Sala, A. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Fujioka, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Hummel, F.; Johrendt, D. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department Chemie, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 München (Germany); Takano, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ishida, S.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ogino, H.; Yakita, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeAs{sub 2} single crystal with T{sub c} = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density J{sub c} for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as J{sub c}(B = 0) ∼ 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  12. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  13. Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields, as distal interdisciplinary research might be too risky and more likely to fail. On the other hand, these results may be interpreted as suggesting that scientific audiences are reluctant to cite heterodox papers that mix highly disparate bodies of knowledge—thus giving less credit to publications that are too groundbreaking or challenging. PMID:26266805

  14. IMPACT EVALUATION OF TWO MASTER COURSES ATTENDED BY TEACHERS: AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN ANGOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Silva Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the impact of two master courses offered by one public higher education institution in Angola on the professional development of Angolan teachers and also on the broader educational community. The two courses were attended by 393 teachers. The data of 45 answered questionnaires and six verbatim transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews were analysed. According to the teachers perspective the courses contributed to teachers’ personal growth and changes of practices, as well as improved students’ learning (micro context of impact. Although to a lesser extent, impact on broader contexts was also identified, indicating that changes occurred also within other teachers and elements of the surrounding school community (meso context of impact as well as the community of educational research (macro context of impact. The results in discussion are of relevance for further investment on post graduation courses (master level for teachers offered by higher education institutions. Outlined recommendations could potentially contribute to impact enhancement (and understanding of academic post-graduation courses’ attended by in-service teachers, particularly those integrated in recent higher education systems of post conflict countries, such as the Republic of Angola.

  15. Three essays on the economics of science policy: The impact of funding, collaboration and research chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnezami, Seyed Reza

    This thesis studies the determinants that influence the number of citations, the effect of having a research collaboration with top-funded scientists on scientific productivity, and the effect of holding a research chair on scientific productivity. Based on a review study by Bornmann and Daniel (2008), one can argue that non-scientific factors determining the decision to cite do not significantly alter the role of citation as a measure of research impact. Assuming that the number of citations is a good measure for research impact and, in turn, for a certain kind of quality, we showed that the number of articles and the visibility of a researcher, the impact factor of the journal, the size of the research team, and the institutional setting of the university are the important determinants of citation counts. However, we have found that there is no significant effect of public funding and gender in most of the domains examined. The point that funding amount is not a significant determinant of citation counts does not necessarily contradict the positive effect of funding on scientific productivity. We also developed a theoretical model and proposed some hypotheses about the effect of collaboration with top-funded scientists on scientific productivity. We then validated the hypotheses with empirical analysis and showed that such collaboration has a positive effect on scientific productivity. This significant effect may exist through different channels: transfer of tacit knowledge, more scientific publications, economy of scale in knowledge production because of better research equipment, and expanded research network. The results also verified the positive effect of funding, the positive effect of networking (measured by number of co-authors), the inverted U-shaped effect of age, and the fewer number of publications by women compared to men. Finally, we made a distinction between different attributes of research chairs and their effect on scientific productivity. One

  16. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  17. Common single nucleotide variants underlying drug addiction: more than a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Calleja-Conde, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Drug-related phenotypes are common complex and highly heritable traits. In the last few years, candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with drug use, abuse or dependence, mainly related to alcohol or nicotine. Nevertheless, few of these associations have been replicated in independent studies. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the SNPs that have been most significantly associated with alcohol-, nicotine-, cannabis- and cocaine-related phenotypes in humans between the years of 2000 and 2012. To this end, we selected CGAS, GWAS, family-based association and case-only studies published in peer-reviewed international scientific journals (using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Addiction GWAS Resource databases) in which a significant association was reported. A total of 371 studies fit the search criteria. We then filtered SNPs with at least one replication study and performed meta-analysis of the significance of the associations. SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes, in the cholinergic gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes, are, to date, the most replicated and significant gene variants associated with alcohol- and nicotine-related phenotypes. In the case of cannabis and cocaine, a far fewer number of studies and replications have been reported, indicating either a need for further investigation or that the genetics of cannabis/cocaine addiction are more elusive. This review brings a global state-of-the-art vision of the behavioral genetics of addiction and collaborates on formulation of new hypothesis to guide future work. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Review of the Research Literature on Defining and Demonstrating Quality Teaching and Impact in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Bélanger, Julie; Manville, Catriona; Meads, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March 2016, the Higher Education Academy (HEA) commissioned RAND Europe to conduct a literature review of research published since 2012, with the aim of identifying and summarising the key trends and issues in the literature on how "quality teaching" and its impact are currently being defined and demonstrated at higher education…

  19. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M.

    2009-11-01

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  20. What do Experts Know About Ranking Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with the ranking of academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals. A comparison is made with publicly

  1. What Do Experts Know About Forecasting Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with forecasting academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of international experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals in Taiwan. A comparison is

  2. What Do Experts Know About Forecasting Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with forecasting academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of international experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals in Taiwan. A comparison is

  3. Research Productivity and Scholarly Impact of APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs: 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…

  4. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  5. Developments in Social Impact Assessment : An introduction to a collection of seminal research papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This Edward Elgar research collection comprises 50 of the key journal articles in the field of social impact assessment (SIA) as it has developed over time. As discussed in more detail below and in the papers in this collection, the general understanding of SIA has changed over time, and will likely

  6. The NIOSH Construction Program: research to practice, impact, and developing a National Construction Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Matt

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research to improve and protect the health and safety of workers. This paper describes the experience of the NIOSH Construction Program with two recent program planning initiatives intended to improve the program: (a) an independent external review of work over the past decade and (b) the development of strategic goals organized into a "National Construction Agenda" to guide a decade of future work. These goals, developed with input from construction industry stakeholders and researchers, are a part of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) initiative. The NORA goals are intended to provide an ambitious set of goals for all construction stakeholders to work together on. Both efforts relate to insuring the relevance and impact of research, reflecting an emerging policy perspective that research programs should be judged not just by the quality and quantity of science produced, but by the industry impact and tangible benefit resulting from the research. This paper describes how views on research planning have evolved to incorporate lessons learned about how research leads to improved safety and health for workers. It also describes the process used to develop the goals and the resulting strategic and intermediate goals that comprise the National Construction Agenda. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on Impact Process of Lander Footpad against Simulant Lunar Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe landing of a Moon lander and the performance of the precise instruments it carries may be affected by too heavy impact on touchdown. Accordingly, landing characteristics have become an important research focus. Described in this paper are model tests carried out using simulated lunar soils of different relative densities (called “simulant” lunar soils below, with a scale reduction factor of 1/6 to consider the relative gravities of the Earth and Moon. In the model tests, the lander was simplified as an impact column with a saucer-shaped footpad with various impact landing masses and velocities. Based on the test results, the relationships between the footpad peak feature responses and impact kinetic energy have been analyzed. Numerical simulation analyses were also conducted to simulate the vertical impact process. A 3D dynamic finite element model was built for which the material parameters were obtained from laboratory test data. When compared with the model tests, the numerical model proved able to effectively simulate the dynamic characteristics of the axial forces, accelerations, and penetration depths of the impact column during landing. This numerical model can be further used as required for simulating oblique landing impacts.

  8. Absolute experimental cross sections for the ionization of singly charged barium ions by electron impact: Technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hooper, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the single ionization of Ba + ions by electron impact have been measured as a function of incident electron energy over the electron energy range from below threshold (10.001 eV) to approximately 1000 eV. It is found that the cross section increases from 1.94 x 10 -16 cm 2 to 3.76 x 10 -16 cm 2 between 15.5 and 18 eV actual incident electron energy. This rapid rise is interpreted as the onset of autoionization. Some evidence of structure occurring near the peak of the cross section curve such as found in the isoelectronic system of Cs is observed, but the relative magnitude of the apparent structure is of the same order as the 90% random error confidence limits and thus cannot conclusively be regarded as being present. 56 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Electron impact single detachment on the F- ions using the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING: cross-section determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Hanstorp, D.; Oesterdahl, F.; Danared, H.; Kaellberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Electron Impact Single Detachment (EISD) of F - has been studied using the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden. F - ions stored in the ring were merged with an electron beam in one of the ring sections. Neutral F atoms produced in the EISD process were detected in the zero-degree direction using a surface barrier detector. The threshold for the detachment process was found to be around 7.6 eV, thus more than twice the binding energy of F - . The cross-sections increased smoothly up to 55 eV where it reached a maximum of 1.9 x 10 -16 cm 2 . At higher energies a slow decrease of the cross-section was observed, which follows the energy dependence predicted by the Bethe-Born approximation. The experiment showed that CRYRING can be used favourably for studies of anions, and several experiments are forthcoming. (orig.)

  10. Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  11. Research into three-component biodiesel fuels combustion process using a single droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raslavičius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the engine emission while at same time improving engine efficiency, it is very important to clarify the combustion mechanism. Even if, there are many researches into investigating the mechanism of engine combustion, so that to clarify the relationship between complicated phenomena, it is very difficult to investigate due to the complicated process of both physical and chemical reaction from the start of fuel injection to the end of combustion event. The numerical simulations are based on a detailed vaporization model and detailed chemical kinetics. The influence of different physical parameters like droplet temperature, gas phase temperature, ambient gas pressure and droplet burning velocity on the ignition delay process is investigated using fuel droplet combustion stand. Experimental results about their influence on ignition delay time were presented.

  12. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  13. Impact of a single educational session on oral hygiene practices among children of a primary school of Meerut, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Parashar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral health promotion through schools is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO for improving knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to oral health and for prevention and control of dental diseases among school children. In low resource settings, it is important to develop evidence for health education methods in oral health behavioral practices. The objectives of this study were to assess both the baseline awareness and practices regarding oral hygiene and the impact of a single education session on the change in oral health behavior. A school based, cross-sectional study on 112 primary school children was conducted after obtaining the consent of the school authorities and parents. A pretested, structured proforma was used for baseline awareness and behavior regarding oral health. A 30 min educational session was imparted and after 1 month, and the oral health practices were reassessed to find out the impact of the education session. Baseline survey revealed the following findings. Self-reported dental problems were found in 48.22% of the children in the last 6 months. When asked about the risk factors for dental problems, 28.57% mentioned eating sweets followed by improper brushing, whereas 40.17% were not aware about any risk factor for dental problems. It was found that 28.57% of the children did not brush their teeth regularly, whereas 35.71% used a tooth-brush for brushing their teeth. After the intervention, it was observed that there was a significant improvement in the proportion of children using a toothbrush for cleaning their teeth and of those who rinsed their mouth after meals. In conclusion, even a single education session was found to be effective in bringing about a change in the oral health behavior of primary school children.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  15. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLUSTERS IN ROMANIA AND THE IMPACT ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses on the empirical study about the features of clusters in Romania and its impact on business environment. In the scientific approach we tested five research hypotheses which have been validated. Methodological framework included as main instruments: questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with persons who represent the clusters, studies reported in the specialized literature, studies conducted in other projects, examples of best practice from countries with advanced economies. Findings which emerged from our empirical research, as a result of processing of data collection from respondents, may be useful to persons who manage clusters and decision-making authorities at regional and even national level.

  16. The impact of a single surgical intervention for patients with a cleft lip living in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Matthew J; Hoyle, Tom; Abebe, Mekonen E; Kebede, Yegeremu; Medhin, Yohannes D; Hiwot, Fikre A; Cifeta, Taye H; Ali, Ibrahim M; McGurk, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Humanitarian organisations commonly provide reconstructive treatment for patients with cleft lip within developing countries, but follow-up is often non-existent, particularly for those living in rural areas. This study aimed to assess whether a single surgical intervention was sufficient to produce an observable change to the life of a patient with cleft lip living in rural Hararghe in eastern Ethiopia. 356 patients with isolated cleft lips, who received a single surgical treatment at least 6 months previously, were evaluated in 21 rural health centres. Patients and their families expressed unhappiness before treatment, mainly because the society reacted negatively towards the deformities, isolating the patients from community activities. Postoperatively, the percentage of school-aged children participating in education increased from 46% to 79%, some older patients were able to marry, but employment was unaffected. The prevalence of wound dehiscence in the lip repair was 3% and occurred more frequently in patients with a bilateral cleft lip compared to a unilateral cleft lip (p charitable organisations treating rural patients and that the majority of patients report a positive impact following surgical intervention. We recommend that bilateral cleft lips have a more intense rural aftercare. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research of thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load single screw refrigeration compressor with different capacity control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zengli; Wang, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wenchun; Feng, Quanke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical models of SSRC under part-load condition have been established. • The experiment of SSRC performance under part-load condition was conducted. • Thermal dynamic characteristic of SSRC under part-load condition was gained. • Economy and reliability of SSRC under part-load condition was analyzed. - Abstract: In the single screw refrigeration compressor (SSRC), the capacity control mechanism is normally employed to meet the actual required cooling capacity under different load conditions. In this paper, theoretical calculation models describing the working process of the SSRC with the single slide valve capacity control mechanism (SVCCM) and SSRC with the frequency conversion regulating mechanism (FCRM) are established to research the thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load SSRC under part-load conditions. Experimental investigation on a SSRC under part-load conditions is also carried out to verify the theoretical calculation models. By using these validated models, the thermodynamic performances and dynamic characteristics of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism under part-load conditions have been analyzed and compared. Through the comparison, the economical efficiency and reliability of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism were obtained. All of these works can provide the basis for the later optimization design for the variable load single screw refrigeration compressor.

  18. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen J. Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  19. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Yan; Ma Xiao-Yan; Li Xia; Miao Xiang-Yang; Jia Xiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. One size fits all? Mixed methods evaluation of the impact of 100% single-room accommodation on staff and patient experience, safety and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Penfold, Clarissa; Simon, Michael; Anderson, Janet E; Robert, Glenn; Pizzo, Elena; Hughes, Jane; Murrells, Trevor; Barlow, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives There is little strong evidence relating to the impact of single-room accommodation on healthcare quality and safety. We explore the impact of all single rooms on staff and patient experience; safety outcomes; and costs. Methods Mixed methods pre/post ‘move’ comparison within four nested case study wards in a single acute hospital with 100% single rooms; quasi-experimental before-and-after study with two control hospitals; analysis of capital and operational costs associated with single rooms. Results Two-thirds of patients expressed a preference for single rooms with comfort and control outweighing any disadvantages (sense of isolation) felt by some. Patients appreciated privacy, confidentiality and flexibility for visitors afforded by single rooms. Staff perceived improvements (patient comfort and confidentiality), but single rooms were worse for visibility, surveillance, teamwork, monitoring and keeping patients safe. Staff walking distances increased significantly post move. A temporary increase of falls and medication errors in one ward was likely to be associated with the need to adjust work patterns rather than associated with single rooms per se. We found no evidence that single rooms reduced infection rates. Building an all single-room hospital can cost 5% more with higher housekeeping and cleaning costs but the difference is marginal over time. Conclusions Staff needed to adapt their working practices significantly and felt unprepared for new ways of working with potentially significant implications for the nature of teamwork in the longer term. Staff preference remained for a mix of single rooms and bays. Patients preferred single rooms. PMID:26408568

  1. Connecting the pieces: using ORCIDs to improve research impact and repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Lery, Thibaut L.; Vijayakumar, J.K.; Grenz, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Integration with ORCID has been a key element in this process and the best way to ensure data quality for researcher’s scientific contributions. It included the systematic inclusion and creation, if necessary, of ORCID identifiers in the existing repository system, an institutional membership in ORCID, and the creation of dedicated integration tools. In addition and in cooperation with the Office of Research Evaluation, the Library worked at implementing a Current Research Information System (CRIS) as a standardized common resource to monitor KAUST research outputs. We will present our findings about the CRIS implementation, the ORCID API, the repository statistics as well as our approach in conducting the assessment of research impact in terms of usage by the global research community.

  2. Innovative Ideas on How Work-Family Research Can Have More Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Baltes, Boris B; Matthews, Russell A

    2011-09-01

    The commentaries on our focal article agreed with its main premise that work-family research should follow new strategies to improve its practical impact, and made suggestions clustering into three main themes. The first theme built on our suggestion to improve the research focus, terminology, and framing of work-family research. These essays offered additional ideas such as decoupling work-family from work-life research, and examining contextual factors more deeply. The second theme focused on how to better apply the findings from work family research. These commentaries provided social change approaches for making work-family issues more central to key stakeholders and to organizations. The third theme focused on broadening our scope to the societal level. These editorials advocated tactics supporting the development of basic rights of work-life balance within and across nations.

  3. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  4. Innovative Ideas on How Work–Family Research Can Have More Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Baltes, Boris B.; Matthews, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The commentaries on our focal article agreed with its main premise that work–family research should follow new strategies to improve its practical impact, and made suggestions clustering into three main themes. The first theme built on our suggestion to improve the research focus, terminology, and framing of work-family research. These essays offered additional ideas such as decoupling work-family from work-life research, and examining contextual factors more deeply. The second theme focused on how to better apply the findings from work family research. These commentaries provided social change approaches for making work-family issues more central to key stakeholders and to organizations. The third theme focused on broadening our scope to the societal level. These editorials advocated tactics supporting the development of basic rights of work–life balance within and across nations. PMID:22247738

  5. Impact of media on children and adolescents: a 10-year review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, S

    2001-04-01

    To review the research literature published within the past 10 years regarding the impact of media on children and adolescents. Media categories researched with computer technology included television and movies, rock music and music videos, advertising, video games, and computers and the Internet. Research prior to 1990 documented that children learn behaviors and have their value systems shaped by media. Media research since has focused on content and viewing patterns. The primary effects of media exposure are increased violent and aggressive behavior, increased high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and tobacco use, and accelerated onset of sexual activity. The newer forms of media have not been adequately studied, but concern is warranted through the logical extension of earlier research on other media forms and the amount of time the average child spends with increasingly sophisticated media.

  6. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  7. Implications of regional improvement in global climate models for agricultural impact research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Thornton, Philip K; Jarvis, Andy; Challinor, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) have become increasingly important for climate change science and provide the basis for most impact studies. Since impact models are highly sensitive to input climate data, GCM skill is crucial for getting better short-, medium- and long-term outlooks for agricultural production and food security. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) phase 5 ensemble is likely to underpin the majority of climate impact assessments over the next few years. We assess 24 CMIP3 and 26 CMIP5 simulations of present climate against climate observations for five tropical regions, as well as regional improvements in model skill and, through literature review, the sensitivities of impact estimates to model error. Climatological means of seasonal mean temperatures depict mean errors between 1 and 18 ° C (2–130% with respect to mean), whereas seasonal precipitation and wet-day frequency depict larger errors, often offsetting observed means and variability beyond 100%. Simulated interannual climate variability in GCMs warrants particular attention, given that no single GCM matches observations in more than 30% of the areas for monthly precipitation and wet-day frequency, 50% for diurnal range and 70% for mean temperatures. We report improvements in mean climate skill of 5–15% for climatological mean temperatures, 3–5% for diurnal range and 1–2% in precipitation. At these improvement rates, we estimate that at least 5–30 years of CMIP work is required to improve regional temperature simulations and at least 30–50 years for precipitation simulations, for these to be directly input into impact models. We conclude with some recommendations for the use of CMIP5 in agricultural impact studies. (letter)

  8. Measuring Impact in Research Evaluations: A Thorough Discussion of Methods For, Effects of and Problems with Impact Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Impact of science is one of the most important topics in scientometrics. Recent developments show a fundamental change in impact measurements from impact on science to impact on society. Since impact measurement is currently in a state of far reaching changes, this paper describes recent developments and facing problems in this area. For that, the…

  9. Multi-Institutional, Multidisciplinary Study of the Impact of Course-Based Research Experiences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Catherine M.; Beck, Christopher W.; Grillo, Wendy H.; Hollowell, Gail P.; Hennington, Bettye S.; Staub, Nancy L.; Delesalle, Veronique A.; Lello, Denise; Merritt, Robert B.; Griffin, Gerald D.; Bradford, Chastity; Mao, Jinghe; Blumer, Lawrence S.; White, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national reports have called for reforming laboratory courses so that all students experience the research process. In response, many course-based research experiences (CREs) have been developed and implemented. Research on the impact of these CREs suggests that student benefits can be similar to those of traditional apprentice-model research experiences. However, most assessments of CREs have been in individual courses at individual institutions or across institutions using the same CRE model. Furthermore, which structures and components of CREs result in the greatest student gains is unknown. We explored the impact of different CRE models in different contexts on student self-reported gains in understanding, skills, and professional development using the Classroom Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) survey. Our analysis included 49 courses developed and taught at seven diverse institutions. Overall, students reported greater gains for all benefits when compared with the reported national means for the Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE). Two aspects of these CREs were associated with greater student gains: 1) CREs that were the focus of the entire course or that more fully integrated modules within a traditional laboratory and 2) CREs that had a higher degree of student input and results that were unknown to both students and faculty. PMID:28861141

  10. The impact of National Institutes of Health funding on U.S. cardiovascular disease research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Lyubarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intense interest surrounds the recent expansion of US National Institutes of Health (NIH budgets as part of economic stimulus legislation. However, the relationship between NIH funding and cardiovascular disease research is poorly understood, making the likely impact of this policy change unclear. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1996 to 2006, originating from U.S. institutions, and containing the phrases "cardiolog," "cardiovascular," or "cardiac," in the first author's department. Research methodology, journal of publication, journal impact factor, and receipt of NIH funding were recorded. Differences in means and trends were tested with t-tests and linear regression, respectively, with P < or = 0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Of 117,643 world cardiovascular articles, 36,684 (31.2% originated from the U.S., of which 10,293 (28.1% received NIH funding. The NIH funded 40.1% of U.S. basic science articles, 20.3% of overall clinical trials, 18.1% of randomized-controlled, and 12.2% of multicenter clinical trials. NIH-funded and total articles grew significantly (65 articles/year, P < 0.001 and 218 articles/year, P < 0.001, respectively. The proportion of articles receiving NIH funding was stable, but grew significantly for basic science and clinical trials (0.87%/year, P < 0.001 and 0.67%/year, P = 0.029, respectively. NIH-funded articles had greater journal impact factors than non NIH-funded articles (5.76 vs. 3.71, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: NIH influence on U.S. cardiovascular research expanded in the past decade, during the period of NIH budget doubling. A substantial fraction of research is now directly funded and thus likely sensitive to budget fluctuations, particularly in basic science research. NIH funding predicts greater journal impact.

  11. What is the impact of professional nursing on patients' outcomes globally? An overview of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Samantha; Watkins, Mary; Norman, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Nursing is an integral part of all healthcare services, and has the potential of having a wide and enduring impact on health outcomes for a global ageing population. Over time nurses have developed new roles and assumed greater responsibilities. It is increasingly important to demonstrate the safety and overall impact of nurses' practice through research, to support the case for greater investment and development of nursing services around the world. To provide an overview of existing research evidence on the impact of nursing on patient outcomes, identify gaps in evidence, and point to future priorities for global research. Specifically to address two questions: what is the evidence that nursing contributes to improving the health and well-being of populations?; and where should research activity be focused to strengthen the evidence base for the impact of nursing? A search of the literature from 1996 using CINAHL, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and the NICE evidence databases using the key words: nursing, nurse led, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. Initial analysis of the retrieved citations to reveal clusters of evidence of nursing impact in clinical areas which had been subject to systematic/integrative reviews or meta-analyses. Further analysis of these reviews to provide an overview of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare to inform discussion on future research agendas. We use the terms low, moderate and high quality evidence to reflect the assessments made by the review authors whose work is presented throughout. Analysis of 61 reviews, including ten Cochrane reviews and two scoping/selective reviews to provide a summary of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare in the following areas of practice: nursing in acute care settings; nurses' involvement in public health; the contribution of specialist nurse and nurse-led services to the management of chronic disease; comparison of care

  12. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium: Policies and Guidelines to maximize impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmüller, Hanns; Torrent I Farnell, Josep; Le Cam, Yann; Jonker, Anneliene H; Lau, Lilian Pl; Baynam, Gareth; Kaufmann, Petra; Dawkins, Hugh Js; Lasko, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Boycott, Kym M

    2017-12-01

    The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) has agreed on IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines, following extensive deliberations and discussions in 2012 and 2013, as a first step towards improving coordination of research efforts worldwide. The 25 funding members and 3 patient umbrella organizations (as of early 2013) of IRDiRC, a consortium of research funders that focuses on improving diagnosis and therapy for rare disease patients, agreed in Dublin, Ireland in April 2013 on the Policies and Guidelines that emphasize collaboration in rare disease research, the involvement of patients and their representatives in all relevant aspects of research, as well as the sharing of data and resources. The Policies and Guidelines provide guidance on ontologies, diagnostics, biomarkers, patient registries, biobanks, natural history, therapeutics, models, publication, intellectual property, and communication. Most IRDiRC members-currently nearly 50 strong-have since incorporated its policies in their funding calls and some have chosen to exceed the requirements laid out, for instance in relation to data sharing. The IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines are the first, detailed agreement of major public and private funding organizations worldwide to govern rare disease research, and may serve as a template for other areas of international research collaboration. While it is too early to assess their full impact on research productivity and patient benefit, the IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines have already contributed significantly to improving transparency and collaboration in rare disease research.

  13. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch WA 6150 (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2013-07-15

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.

  14. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential

  15. NuclearFACTS: public engagement about the impacts of nuclear research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzell, M.T.J.; Alexander, R.N.; Main, M.G., E-mail: matthew.dalzell@fedorukcentre.ca [Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation, Saskatoon, SK, (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Forum for Accountability and Communities Talking nuclear Science - nuclearFACTS - is a cornerstone of the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation's efforts to engage the people of Saskatchewan in evidence-based conversations about the impacts of the nuclear research, development and training activities supported by the Fedoruk Centre. The second annual nuclearFACTS public colloquium was held 20 November 2014, and featured the participation of 16 research projects. This paper discusses the continued development of the nuclearFACTS concept and its role in the Fedoruk Centre's upstream engagement efforts. (author)

  16. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  17. [International visibility and impact of the Spanish research on prison health (2002-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Pérez, R; Robinson-García, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyze the dissemination and impact of Spanish research published in international scientific journals on Prison Health over the last decade. Descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective analysis of scientific output. We used the Medline-Pubmed database as an information resource. We focus on the bibliometric aspects of journals, papers and authors using the indicators offered by the Web of Science, the Journal Citation Reports and the Essential Science Indicators. We identify the output of Spanish researchers, journals in which they are published, authors and main research fields. From 2002 to 2011, Spanish researchers published 159 papers, that is, nearly 2% of the world's share in Prison Health. The publication profile is mainly in international journals with an average impact on JCR. The Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria is the most productive journal (9.09%), although its role is not prominent. Only two authors can be considered as medium-high productive authors with 10 papers in the study time period. The co-authors network shows a dense network with 14 authors along with minor fragmented networks. As regards citations, 6 papers have been cited 15 or more times and only two can be considered as highly cited. Three main research fronts have been identified: infectious diseases, drugs and psychiatric-psychological problems. The Spanish research production on Prison Health represents a similar share of the world output similar to that of other disciplines (1.9%), although slightly lower (General Medicine represents 3.05%; Public Health, 2.38%; Psychiatry, 2.29%; Toxicology, 2.46%). It seems likely that this share will increase as a result of the inclusion of its main journal in Medline along with an increasing number of researchers working on this discipline at an international level. However, inclusion has not yet led to integration into high-impact journals or a larger number of citations. The average Journal Impact Factor is

  18. The Impact of Endometriosis across the Lifespan of Women: Foreseeable Research and Therapeutic Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to estrogen dependence, endometriosis is characterized by chronic pelvic inflammation. The impact of the chronic pelvic inflammatory state on other organ systems and women’s health is unclear. Endometriosis associated chronic inflammation and potential adverse health effects across the lifespan render it imperative for renewed research vigor into the identification of novel biomarkers of disease and therapeutic options. Herein we propose a number of opportunities for research and development of new therapeutics to address the unmet needs in the treatment of endometriosis per se and its ancillary risks for other diseases in women across the lifespan.

  19. Impact of three years training on operations capacities of research ethics committees in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adaranijo, Aisha; Durueke, Florita; Ajuwon, Ademola; Adejumo, Adebayo; Ezechi, Oliver; Oyedeji, Kola; Akanni, Olayide

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a three-year project designed to build the capacity of members of research ethics committes to perform their roles and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. The project participants were made up of a cross-section of the membership of 13 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) functioning in Nigeria. They received training to develop their capacity to evaluate research protocols, monitor trial implementation, provide constructive input to trial staff, and assess the trial's success in promoting community engagement in the research. Following the training, technical assistance was provided to participants on an ongoing basis and the project's impacts were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results indicate that sustained investment in capacity building efforts (including training, ongoing technical assistance, and the provision of multiple tools) improved the participants' knowledge of both the ethical principles relevant to biomedical research and how effective REC should function. Such investment was also shown to have a positive impact on the knowledge levels of other RECs members (those who did not receive training) and the overall operations of the RECs to which the participants belonged. Building the capacity of REC members to fulfill their roles effectively requires sustained effort and investment and pays off by enabling RECs to fulfill their essential mission of ensuring that trials are conducted safely and ethically. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of the implementation of a quality system in a basic research laboratory: viability and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Hilda Carolina de Jesus Rios; Fukutani, Kiyoshi Ferreira; Celes, Fabiana Santana; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Oliveira, Camila Indiani de

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the process of implementing a quality management system in a basic research laboratory of a public institution, particularly considering the feasibility and impacts of this improvement. This was a prospective and qualitative study. We employed the norm "NIT DICLA 035--Princípios das Boas Práticas de Laboratório (BPL)" and auxiliary documents of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to complement the planning and implementation of a Quality System, in a basic research laboratory. In parallel, we used the PDCA tool to define the goals of each phase of the implementation process. This study enabled the laboratory to comply with the NIT DICLA 035 norm and to implement this norm during execution of a research study. Accordingly, documents were prepared and routines were established such as the registration of non-conformities, traceability of research data and equipment calibration. The implementation of a quality system, the setting of a laboratory focused on basic research is feasible once certain structural changes are made. Importantly, impacts were noticed during the process, which could be related to several improvements in the laboratory routine.