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Sample records for single rat tail

  1. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  2. Single-Tailed Lipidoids Enhance the Transfection Activity of Their Double-Tailed Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihang; Li, Linxian; Chen, Qing; Su, Yi; Levkin, Pavel A; Davidson, Gary

    2016-01-11

    Cationic lipid-like molecules (lipidoids) are widely used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Nearly all lipidoids developed to date employ double-tail or multiple-tail structures for transfection. Single-tail lipidoids are seldom considered for transfection as they have low efficiency in gene delivery. So far, there is no detailed study on the contribution to transfection efficiency of single-tail lipidoids when combined with standard double-tail lipidoids. Here, we use combinatorial chemistry to synthesize 17 double-tail and 17 single-tail lipidoids using thiol-yne and thiol-ene click chemistry, respectively. HEK 293T cells were used to analyze transfection efficiency by fluorescence microscopy and calculated based on the percentage of cells transfected. The size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular DNA delivery and trafficking was further examined using confocal microscopy. Our study shows that combining single with double-tail lipidoids increases uptake of lipoplexes, as well as cellular transfection efficiency.

  3. Study on a Single-Dose Toxicity Test of D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO Extracts Injected into the Tail Vein of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jungue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of DAAO extracts, 0.1 to 0.3 cc, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the LD50 of DAAO extracts administered by IV was over 0.3 ml/kg. No significant changes in the weight between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ, the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with D-amino acid oxidase extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  4. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  5. Static magnetic field influence on rat tail nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C Z; Harmon, D; Yu, J

    1986-10-01

    Motor nerve conduction and excitability were measured on the tail nerve of anesthetized rats before and after the nerve was exposed perpendicularly to a static electromagnetic field of various intensities and durations. There was no significant change in either the distal latencies or the amplitudes of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measured from stimulating the tail nerve after it was exposed to the electromagnetic field with a density up to 1.2 Tesla (T) for a duration of 60 seconds. However, the nerve excitability expressed as changes of the amplitudes of the submaximally evoked CMAP increased significantly when the tail nerve was exposed to a magnetic field with a density higher than 0.5T for more than 30 seconds. The finding that an electromagnetic field increases motor nerve excitability suggests a possible mechanism of its therapeutic effects.

  6. Langmuir monolayers composed of single and double tail sulfobetaine lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Gavin; Gee, Anthony P; Arnold, Thomas; Edler, Karen J; Lewis, Simon E

    2016-07-15

    Owing to structural similarities between sulfobetaine lipids and phospholipids it should be possible to form stable Langmuir monolayers from long tail sulfobetaines. By modification of the density of lipid tail group (number of carbon chains) it should also be possible to modulate the two-dimensional phase behaviour of these lipids and thereby compare with that of equivalent phospholipids. Potentially this could enable the use of such lipids for the wide array of applications that currently use phospholipids. The benefit of using sulfobetaine lipids is that they can be synthesised by a one-step reaction from cheap and readily available starting materials and will degrade via different pathways than natural lipids. The molecular architecture of the lipid can be easily modified allowing the design of lipids for specific purposes. In addition the reversal of the charge within the sulfobetaine head group relative to the charge orientation in phospholipids may modify behaviour and thereby allow for novel uses of these surfactants. Stable Langmuir monolayers were formed composed of single and double tailed sulfobetaine lipids. Surface pressure-area isotherm, Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-ray and neutron reflectometry measurements were conducted to measure the two-dimensional phase behaviour and out-of-plane structure of the monolayers as a function of molecular area. Sulfobetaine lipids are able to form stable Langmuir monolayers with two dimensional phase behaviour analogous to that seen for the well-studied phospholipids. Changing the number of carbon tail groups on the lipid from one to two promotes the existence of a liquid condensed phase due to increased Van der Waals interactions between the tail groups. Thus the structure of the monolayers appears to be defined by the relative sizes of the head and tail groups in a predictable way. However, the presence of sub-phase ions has little effect on the monolayer structure, behaviour that is surprisingly different to

  7. Novel rat tail discitis model using bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostian, Phillip A; Karnes, Jonathan M; Cui, Shari; Robinson, Lisa J; Daffner, Scott D; Witt, Michelle R; Emery, Sanford E

    2017-09-01

    Management of spondylodiscitis is a challenging clinical problem requiring medical and surgical treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to establish a rat model of spondylodiscitis that utilizes bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), thus permitting in vivo surveillance of infection intensity. Inocula of the bioluminescent S. aureus strain XEN36 were created in concentrations of 10 2 CFU/0.1 ml, 10 4  CFU/0.1 ml, and 10 6  CFU/0.1 ml. Three groups of rats were injected with the bacteria in the most proximal intervertebral tail segment. The third most proximal tail segment was injected with saline as a control. Bioluminescence was measured at baseline, 3 days, and weekly for a total of 6 weeks. Detected bioluminescence for each group peaked at day 3 and returned to baseline in 21 days. The average intensity was highest for the experimental group injected with the most concentrated bacterial solution (10 6  CFU/0.1 ml). Radiographic analysis revealed loss of intervertebral disc space and evidence of osseous bridging. Saline-injected spaces exhibited no decrease in intervertebral spacing as compared to distal sites. Histologic analysis revealed neutrophilic infiltrates, destruction of the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, destruction of vertebral endplates, and osseous bridging. Saline-injected discs exhibited preserved annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus on histology. This study demonstrates that injection of bioluminescent S. aureus into the intervertebral disc of a rat tail is a viable animal model for spondylodiscitis research. This model allows for real-time, in vivo quantification of infection intensity, which may decrease the number of animals required for infection studies of the intervertebral disc. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2075-2081, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling interpopulation dispersal by banner-tailed kangaroo rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvarla, J.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Waser, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many metapopulation models assume rules of population connectivity that are implicitly based on what we know about within-population dispersal, but especially for vertebrates, few data exist to assess whether interpopulation dispersal is just within-population dispersal "scaled up." We extended existing multi-stratum mark-release-recapture models to incorporate the robust design, allowing us to compare patterns of within- and between-population movement in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Movement was rare among eight populations separated by only a few hundred meters: seven years of twice-annual sampling captured >1200 individuals but only 26 interpopulation dispersers. We developed a program that implemented models with parameters for capture, survival, and interpopulation movement probability and that evaluated competing hypotheses in a model selection framework. We evaluated variants of the island, stepping-stone, and isolation-by-distance models of interpopulation movement, incorporating effects of age, season, and habitat (short or tall grass). For both sexes, QAICc values clearly favored isolation-by-distance models, or models combining the effects of isolation by distance and habitat. Models with probability of dispersal expressed as linear-logistic functions of distance and as negative exponentials of distance fit the data equally well. Interpopulation movement probabilities were similar among sexes (perhaps slightly biased toward females), greater for juveniles than adults (especially for females), and greater before than during the breeding season (especially for females). These patterns resemble those previously described for within-population dispersal in this species, which we interpret as indicating that the same processes initiate both within- and between-population dispersal.

  9. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total 3 H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats

  10. Tail position affects the body temperature of rats during cold exposure in a low-energy state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nakamura, Mayumi; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Nagashima, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks when cold (tail-hiding behavior). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this behavior is necessary to maintain body temperature. Male Wistar rats were divided into 'fed' and '42-h fasting' groups. A one-piece tail holder (8.4 cm in length) that prevented the tail-hiding behavior or a three-piece tail holder (2.8 cm in length) that allowed for the tail-hiding behavior was attached to the tails of the rats. The rats were exposed to 27°C for 180 min or to 20°C for 90 min followed by 15°C for 90 min with continuous body temperature and oxygen consumption measurements. Body temperature decreased by -1.0 ± 0.1°C at 15°C only in the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior of the 42-h fasting group, and oxygen consumption increased at 15°C in all animals. Oxygen consumption was not different between the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior and the rats that allowed the behavior in the fed and 42-h fasting groups under ambient conditions. These results show that the tail-hiding behavior is involved in thermoregulation in the cold in fasting rats.

  11. Effect of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists on nicotine-induced tail-tremor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemaru, K; Gomita, Y; Furuno, K; Araki, Y

    1993-09-01

    The effects of various beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists on nicotine-induced tail-tremor were investigated in rats. Atenolol (5 and 10 mg/kg, IP), arotinolol (5 and 10 mg/kg, IP), and carteolol (5 and 10 mg/kg, IP), hydrophilic beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, did not affect the tail-tremor induced by nicotine given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg SC. However, propranolol (5-20 mg/kg, IP) and pindolol (5-20 mg/kg, IP), nonselective and lipophilic beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, did suppress the tail-tremor dose dependently. In contrast, metoprolol (5-20 mg/kg, IP), lipophilic and beta 1-selective adrenergic receptor antagonists, did not show such an effect. These results suggest that nicotine-induced tail-tremors may be mediated through central beta 2-adrenergic receptors as an appearance and developmental mechanism.

  12. “Effect of giant rat's tail grass ( Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of giant rat's tail grass ( Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv ) on Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Heavy metals content of crude oil polluted soils” ... Abstract. Soil contamination by crude oil has been an issue within the oil producing areas of the Niger Delta Nigeria and so, many remediation methods; including ...

  13. “Effect of Giant Rat's Tail Grass (Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, giant rat's tail, crude oil contamination. The Niger-Delta region of Nigeria face serious soil contamination problem. As a result of human economic activity, large quantities of soil have been contaminated with petroleum products (Kaimiet al.,. 2006).

  14. Effect of ischemia and cooling on the response to high frequency stimulation in rat tail nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning; Feldbæk Nielsen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Bodil

    2000-01-01

    In normal rat tail nerves the effect of temperature and ischemia on the response to long-term high frequency stimulation (HFS) (143 Hz) was studied. The effect of temperature was studied in two consecutive tests at 14 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Prior to the HFS the peak-to-peak amplitude (PP...

  15. Thermal effect of sonophoresis for accelerating the analgesic effect of local anesthetics on rat tail nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hui; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chong, Fok-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Sonophoresis is an ultrasound transdermal drugs delivery system. The eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) has been used clinically for anesthesia but requires at least one hour to take effect and lacks of analgesia's objective assessment. We proposed that sonophoresis could reduce the duration of EMLA analgesia effect onset and be assessed by sensory conduction studies. Thirty Wistar adult rats were randomized into normal, control, ultrasound-, and heat-treatment groups. Normal group was received no EMLA cream or ultrasound and heat treatment. The control group received the EMLA cream on the rat tail at 3.5 cm distal to the rat tail base for local anesthesia of tail nerve. Ultrasound- and heat-treatment groups were received ultrasound with different parameters and heat treatment, respectively, before EMLA cream applied. Sensory conduction studies of tail nerve were made before and after treatment every 5 min at least for 60 min in all rats. There was no significant difference between the EMLA control group and heat treatment group. All rats in ultrasound-treatment group exhibit significant difference with EMLA control group and heat-treatment group in time for decreased 20% SNCV except for the 2 W/cm(2), 25 min, 20% in ultrasound-treatment group having no significant difference with heat-treatment group. There was no significant difference between ultrasound-treatment subgroups. In the decrease of amplitude, only the 2 W/cm(2), 5 min, 100% and the 2 W/cm(2), 10 min, 50% in ultrasound-treatment group had significant difference between EMLA control and heat-treatment groups. We have objectively examined the sonophoresis effect of ultrasound by investigating the effects of EMLA. Applying ultrasound for 5 min reduces the onset time of EMLA analgesia from 60 min to less than 20 min. Ultrasound sonophoresis of analgesic drugs is potentially useful in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, tooth extraction, and other applications of analgesia.

  16. A hind limb disuse model inducing extensor digitorum longus atrophy in rats: tail suspension-immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangying; Wang, Jun; Gao, Yunfang; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Shanfeng; Goswami, Nandu

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a new hind limb disuse model on the morphology and fiber type distribution of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats. Quicker onset of disuse atrophy would reduce the amount of time the animals have to be subjected to tail suspension. The new hind limb disuse mode was achieved by tail suspension (TS) and one hind limb fixed by plaster-casting (tail suspension-immobilization, TS+Im). There were 42 female Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into 7 groups (6 rats in each group) and exposed to the conditions for 0-6 wk, respectively. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and the types of muscle fiber of the rats' EDL were measured and classified by histochemical staining. The decrease of EDL's CSA caused by TS+Im was more obvious (significant change was observed after 4 wk and Type I fiber's CSA decreased 27.3% after 6 wk) than that caused by TS only (significant change occurred after 6 wk and Type I fiber's CSA diminished 18.01% at that time). TS lead to the transition of Type IIB fibers to Type I and IIA fibers while TS+Im led to Type I and IIA fibers getting converted to Type IIB fibers. When compared to TS only, TS+Im caused faster and greater reduction of the EDL's CSA in rats. TS+Im can also lead to a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism of the EDL muscle fiber. Tail suspension-immobilization is a new hind limb disuse model for the EDL and may be more effective.

  17. [Changes of dentin, dental pulp and periodontium tissue in tail-suspended rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin-tian; Wen, Ling-ying; Luo, Ya-ning; Hu, Pei-zhen; Jiang, Wei-zhong; Wu, Xing-yu

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the metabolic changes of calcium and phosphorus in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium in tail-suspended rats, and the functions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium. Relative percentage contents of Ca, P in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium were measured with scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analytical system in 3 groups of rats. The expression of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV were also observed. In the suspension group, the relative percentage content of Ca declined significantly, while P increased slightly. There were no significant differences of Ca, P in alveolar bone. The expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I declined, but the expression of collagen-IV in pulp vessel increased. There were no significant changes of expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen-IV in the vicinity of PDL. After adopting artificial countermeasures, the above expressions restored partly. Weightlessness might cause abnormal mineralization in dentin, and 1.5 G artificial countermeasures could eliminate the above changes of mineral metabolism. The poor mineralization of dentin might be associated with the reduced secretion of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I in tail-suspended rats.

  18. Thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen from rat tail tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionkowska, A; Kamińska, A

    1999-05-01

    The thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen solution, collagen film and pieces of rat tail tendon (RTT) were compared. Their thermal stability's were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by viscometric measurements. The denaturation temperatures of collagen solution, film and pieces of RTT were different. The helix-coil transition occur near 40 degrees C in collagen solution, near 112 degrees C in collagen film, and near 101 degrees C in pieces of RTT. After UV irradiation the thermal helix-coil transition of collagen samples were changed. These changes depend on the degree of hydratation.

  19. Bone loss in tail-suspended rats in restricted to the unweighted limbs

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    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Space flight which results in certain characteristic changes in the skeleton and it was hypothesized that these abnormalities are a direct result of the weightless state. To determine the role of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D in the bone changes associated with weightlessness, we studied bone metabolism under various dietary conditions using an Earth based rat model system which simulates weightlessness. In this model, rats are suspended by their tails such that their rear limbs are completely unloaded while their fore limbs are normally loaded. It is suggested that skeletal unloading induces a localized defect in the unloaded bone which results in abnormal growth and mineralization. It is concluded that skeletal unloading may make the unloaded bone more or less sensitive to a systemic factor which in turn could account for a change in bone metabolism.

  20. Aeolian Rat Tails (ARTs): A New Morphological Indicator of Abrasion Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E. A.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian rat tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented aeolian abrasion feature observed on ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina and bare morphological similarity to small-scale features on Mars. We describe the terrestrial features and present an evolutionary sequence from inception to demise. ARTs are regionally-ubiquitous and characterized by a windward abrasion-resistant lithic clast and a downwind-tapering tail. The size of ARTs is controlled by the diameter of the windward lithic clast, observed on the sub-decimeter to meter scale. Their distribution throughout the Campo de Piedra Pómez, and adjacent regions is determined by the ignimbrite clast content. ARTs develop under a uni-modal abrasion direction when lithic clasts are eroded out of the ignimbrite matrix, protrude from the surface, and shelter material directly behind the clast. As the surrounding material is eroded away, a downwind-tapered tail develops. Continued erosion of the adjacent surface leads to the undercutting of clasts, liberating them from the feature where, if small enough, the clasts can be transported downwind, leading to the destruction of the tail and ultimately the feature. This evolutionary sequence accounts not only for the morphology of the feature, but also the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which plays a role in the development of other enigmatic landforms in the area, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. The significance of the identification of ARTs is due to the necessity of uni-modal abrasion direction for their development, thereby making their orientation a diagnostic indicator of long-term aeolian abrasion direction. ARTs are likely analogs of features identified by MSL Curiosity Rover on Mars, possibly providing information on past and present wind regimes.

  1. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (p<0.01). However, there is no response to TANES from rats with L2 transection, consistent with other reports that the CPG may be located at L1-2. S1 transection negatively implies the key role of TANES in CPG activation. The TANES not only renders paralyzed rats with a technique-induced ability to walk via activating CPG, but also is likely to be used for locomotor training. It has more beneficial effects for physical training over other training paradigms including treadmill training and invasive functional electrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Mediates Tail-Pinch Induced Food Intake in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M H; Bashir, Z; Li, X F; O'Byrne, K T

    2016-05-01

    Comfort eating during periods of stress is a common phenomenon observed in both animals and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced food intake remain elusive. The amygdala plays a central role in higher-order emotional processing and the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD), in particular, is involved in food intake. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is well recognised for mediating behavioural responses to stress. To explore the possible role of amygdala CRF receptor activation in stress-induced food intake, we evaluated whether a stressor such as tail-pinch, which reliably induces food intake, would fail to do so in animals bearing bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the MePD. Our results showed that ibotenic acid induced lesions of the MePD markedly reduced tail-pinch induced food intake in ovariectomised, 17β-oestradiol replaced rats. In addition, intra-MePD (right side only) administration of CRF (0.002 or 0.02 ng) via chronically implanted cannulae resulted in a dose-dependent increase in food intake, although higher doses of 0.2 and 2 ng CRF had less effect, producing a bell shaped curve. Furthermore, intra-MePD (bilateral) administration of the CRF receptor antagonist, astressin (0.3 μg per side) effectively blocked tail-pinch induced food intake. These data suggest that the MePD is involved in stress-induced food intake and that the amygdala CRF system may be a mediator of comfort eating. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. [Study on the acid hydrolysis, fiber remodeling and bionics mineralization of rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Qiaofeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To produce bionic bone material that is consistent with human bone in chemical composition and molecular structure using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ. Methods: The type Ⅰcollagen derived from rat tail was extracted by acetic acid to form collagen fibers. The reconstructed collagen fibers were placed in the mineralized solution to mimic bone mineralization for 2-6 days. Bone mineralization was observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Results: Collagen fibers with characteristic D-Band structure were reconstructed by using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ extracted with acid hydrolysis method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction showed that calcium hydroxyapatite precursor infiltrated into the collagen fibers, and the collagen fibers were partially mineralized after 2 days of mineralization; the collagen fibers were completely mineralized and bionic bone material of typeⅠ collagen/calcium hydroxyapatite was formed after 6 days of mineralization. Conclusion: The collagen type Ⅰ can be extracted from rat tail tendon by acid hydrolysis method, and can be reformed and mineralized to form the bionic bone material which mimics human bone in chemical composition and the molecular structure.

  4. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla on Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels, Spermatozoon Quality, and Tail Length in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Karbalay-Doust

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile is a herbused to treat various human illnesses. The present study wasconducted to investigate the effects of chamomile extract onspermatozoon quality, serum levels of estradiol and testosterone,and sperm tail length in male adult rat.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received extract ofchamomile (400 mg/kg once daily, orally during an 8-weekperiod, while the control animals received water. After thisperiod, the animals were sacrificed and the blood sampleswere obtained. The serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, andthe number, motility, and morphology of spermatozoon wereassessed. The spermatozoon tail length was assessed by arapid stereological method.Results: The body weight, and weight, and volume of thetestis in the control and experimental rats did not changesignificantly. Serum testosterone level was decreased (~76%,P<0.005 and the serum estradiol level was increased (~16%,P<0.04 in the experimental animals. The spermatozoon countand motility were decreased in the experimental group butspermatozoon morphology did not show significant changes.The mid-piece and total tail length were reduced in theexperimental group (~22%, P<0.001.Conclusion: Matricaria chamomilla extract can decreasespermatozoa count and motility, spermatozoon tail length, serumtestosterone level and increase serum estradiol level inmale adult rat.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 122-128.

  5. Roasted Barley Extract Affects Blood Flow in the Rat Tail and Increases Cutaneous Blood Flow and Skin Temperature in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashigai, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Ikeshima, Emiko; Nakashima, Keiko; Mizutani, Mai; Yajima, Hiroaki

    2018-02-07

    Roasted barley extract (RBE, "Mugicha") is a traditional Japanese beverage reported to improve blood viscosity and affect food functionality. RBE is suggested to contain 2,5-diketopiperazines, which are the functional component with neuroprotective and immunostimulatory effects that are produced in food through roasting. In this study, we investigated the effects of RBE on blood circulation, both clinically and in rats. At first, we confirmed five 2,5-diketopiperazine derivatives in RBE by LC-MS analysis. Secondarily, we revealed that RBE affects blood flow in the rat tail and compared the efficacy on rat tail blood flow among five 2,5-diketopiperazines in RBE. Especially, cyclo(d-Phe-l-Pro) was the most effective in increasing blood flow in the rat tail. We also researched the mechanism of cyclo(d-Phe-l-Pro) with rat aorta study. As a result, we confirmed that cyclo(d-Phe-l-Pro) has an effect on vasodilatation through the release of nitric oxide in the vascular endothelium. Finally, we also confirmed that RBE affects cutaneous blood flow and increases skin temperature in humans.

  6. Spatiotemporal Changes of Neuronal Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Noxious Tail Stimulation in Awake and Pentobarbital-Anesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lee, Jye-Chang; Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2015-10-31

    Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is a key area in the processing of nociceptor inputs to our consciousness. To clarify the columnar and laminar organization of SI for pain processing, we compared spatiotemporal changes in neuronal activities of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) of the rat in response to noxious laser heat stimulation applied to the mid-tail. Longitudinal and vertical array microelectrodes were chronically implanted in the cerebral cortex. Evoked neuronal activities, including intracortical local field potentials (LFP) and ensemble single-unit activity (SU) around SmI were simultaneously recorded. The effect of pentobarbital on the neuronal responses was evaluated in comparison with the neuronal responses in conscious animals to explore the potential substrate of nociceptive processing in the conscious state. The results from the experiment with longitudinal microelectrode arrays indicated that noxious stimulation induced a neuronal response which was spread widely around the SmI of the conscious rat, and the range of neuronal responses was limited to the tail region of the SmI under anesthesia. The results from the experiment with vertical microelectrode arrays showed the universal neuronal responses through all cortical layers of the SmI in conscious rats, and sodium pentobarbital suppressed these neuronal responses in the supragranular layers significantly relative to the deeper layers and basal activity. These results imply that a wider range of cortical activation, both in the horizontal or vertical dimension, might be important for nociceptive processing in the conscious state.

  7. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  8. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

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    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  9. Gender effects on tail damage development in single- or mixed-sex groups of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Kemp, B.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    While extensive research on tail biting among pigs has focused on external factors (e.g., enrichment material), limited research has been conducted on internal factors (e.g., gender, breed or age), which may affect the predisposition of piglets to start tail biting. Furthermore, to test internal or

  10. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  11. Electrical activity in rat tail artery during asynchronous activation of postganglionic nerve terminals by ciguatoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. A.; McLachlan, E. M.; Jobling, P.; Lewis, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ciguatoxin-1 (CTX-1) on the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells have been examined in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. 2. CTX-1 (> or = 10 pM) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (s.e.j.ps). At 100-400 pM, there was also a marked and maintained depolarization (19.7 +/- 1.4 mV, n = 14, at 400 pM). 3. In 20-400 pM CTX-1, perivascular stimuli evoked excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) which were prolonged in time course relative to control. 4. Although threshold and latency of the e.j.p. were not affected by CTX-1 ( or = 100 pM. 5. The spontaneous activity and the depolarization produced by CTX-1 were reduced in the presence of Ca2+ (0.1 mM)/Mg2+ (25 mM), omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM) or Cd2+ (50-100 microM). 6. All effects of CTX-1 were abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM). 7. Raised Ca2+ (6 mM) reduced the depolarization and spontaneous activity produced by CTX-1. 8. In 400 pM CTX-1, the membrane repolarized (17 +/- 3.2 mV, n = 4) following the addition of phentolamine (1 microM). S.e.j.ps and e.j.ps were selectively abolished by suramin (1 mM), and the membrane repolarized by 1.3 +/- 1.6 mV (n = 4). 9. We conclude that CTX-1 releases noradrenaline and ATP by initiating asynchronous discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons. In 100-400 pM CTX-1, the smooth muscle was depolarized to levels resembling those recorded in this artery during ongoing vasoconstrictor discharge in vivo. PMID:8564251

  12. Effects of Panax ginseng-containing herbal plasters on compressed intervertebral discs in an in vivo rat tail model

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    Chow Daniel H K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tienchi (Panax notoginseng has been used in conservative treatments for back pain as a major ingredient of many herbal medicines. This study aims to investigate the effects of a herbal medicine containing tienchi on compressed intervertebral discs in rats. Methods Using an in vivo rat tail model, intervertebral disc compression was simulated in the caudal 8–9 discs of 25 rats by continuous static compression (11 N for 2 weeks. An herbal medicine plaster (in which the major ingredient was tienchi was externally applied to the compressed disc (n=9 for three weeks, and held in place by an adhesive bandage, in animals in the Chinese Medicine (CM group. The effect of the bandage was evaluated in a separate placebo group (n=9, while no intervention with unrestricted motion was provided to rats in an additional control group (n=7. Disc structural properties were quantified by in vivo disc height measurement and in vitro morphological analysis. Results Disc height decreased after the application of compression (P P = 0.006 and placebo (P = 0.003 groups, but was maintained in the CM group (P = 0.494. No obvious differences in disc morphology were observed among the three groups (P = 0.896. Conclusion The tienchi-containing herbal plaster had no significant effect on the morphology of compressed discs, but maintained disc height in rats.

  13. Evolution and diagnostic utility of aeolian rat-tails: A new type of abrasion feature on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Elena A.; Hugenholtz, Christopher H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.

    2017-10-01

    Aeolian rat-tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented, regionally-ubiquitous aeolian abrasion feature observed on matrix-supported ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina. ARTs consist of an abrasion-resistant lithic clast projecting above the surface with a lee tail or 'keel' in the more erodible matrix. Size is controlled by the dimensions of the windward lithic clast, ranging from centimetre to meter scale; spatial density varies with clast content, which may reflect variations in ignimbrite facies. Field observations suggest ARTs follow a definable evolutionary sequence. First, an abrasion-resistant lithic clast contained within the ignimbrite is exposed to abrasion at the surface. Impacts from abrading particles erode the softer ignimbrite matrix adjacent to the clast. The clast shelters the leeward surface under a unimodal abrasion direction, creating a tail that tapers downwind and elongates as the clast emerges. Clasts become dislodged from the matrix as the surrounding surface erodes, ultimately destroying the feature if the clast is small enough to be mobilized directly by wind or impacting particles. This evolutionary sequence explains the morphology of ARTs and the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which contributes to the development of other landforms in the region, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. Satellite and rover images suggest similar features also exist on Mars. Because the formation and preservation of ARTs is contingent on unimodal abrasion direction, their orientation can be used as an indicator of long-term aeolian sediment transport direction.

  14. Seven day insertion rest in whole body vibration improves multi-level bone quality in tail suspension rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels.Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X = 1, 3, 5, 7, vibrational loading every day (VLNR, tail suspension (SPD, and baseline control (BCL. One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses.Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar.Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics.

  15. Monitoring the stress-level of rats with different types of anesthesia: a tail-artery cannulation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Dávid Z; Schwarz, Saskia; Wiesner, Hannes M; Hennige, Anita M; Pohmann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI in rats under anesthesia can largely minimize motion artifacts and attenuate the stress of the animal. However, two issues remain to be clarified and improved. First, fMRI results obtained with different types of anesthesia during surgical preparation and imaging show a large variability, which could be caused by the variable stress level of the rodents. Second, the most common surgical procedure used for anesthesia, blood gas analysis and mean arterial blood-pressure (MABP) monitoring is the femoral vein and artery catheterization that makes longitudinal studies difficult. In order to examine the variability of the stress level with three different anesthesia protocols using isoflurane (Iso), medetomidine-ketamine (MK) or propofol-remifentanil (PR), we measured the plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration with (125)I-radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected prior to, immediately after and 60min after surgery. Tail-artery and vein catheterization was adapted for long-term monitoring of MABP with periodic blood sampling and is proposed as a less invasive and technically simple alternative to femoral vessel catheterization in fMRI preparation protocols. We show that the CORT concentration depends on the anesthesia protocol with both alternatives providing more efficient stress reduction than the protocol using Iso. However, only the protocol using PR achieved a significant hormone reduction during surgery. Stress was not reliably manifested in changes in heart-rate and breathing-rate. Anesthesia and strain related changes in these two physiological parameters may be assigned to the pharmacological effects of the premedication and anesthetic agents. The results indicate also that MABP can be monitored over a long period of time (e.g. functional imaging session) through an arterial access point in the rat tail after cannulation with the proposed procedure. Animals can experience stress during fMRI preparation protocols without obvious signs in

  16. Responses to noradrenaline of tail arteries in hypertensive, hypotensive and normotensive rats under different regimens of perfusion: role of the myogenic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S

    1998-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenaline were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), and in Wistar rats with regional hypotension (WH) compared to control Wistar rats (WC). The abdominal aorta was ligated in WH distal to the renal arteries......, lowering blood pressure in the hindquarters by 41% and tail artery wall cross-sectional area by 35% compared with WC. A cylindrical segment was dissected from the proximal part of the tail artery, cannulated at both ends and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution either at constant flow starting from...... a pressure of 120 mmHg or at a constant pressure of 120 mmHg. The cumulative dose-response relationships for noradrenaline were determined in control conditions and subsequently in the presence of gadolinium (100 microM), a non-specific blocker of mechanosensitive channels. Under constant-flow perfusion...

  17. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  18. Contribution of α-adrenoceptors to depolarization and contraction evoked by continuous asynchronous sympathetic nerve activity in rat tail artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J A; McLachlan, E M; Rayner, S E

    1997-01-01

    The effects of continuous but asynchronous nerve activity induced by ciguatoxin (CTX-1) on the membrane potential and contraction of smooth muscle cells have been investigated in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. These effects have been compared with those produced by the continuous application of phenylephrine (PE).CTX-1 (0.4 nM) and PE (10 μM) produced a maintained depolarization of the arterial smooth muscle that was almost completely blocked by α-adrenoceptor blockade. In both cases, the depolarization was more sensitive to the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.1 μM), than to the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.01 μM).In contrast, the maintained contraction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1 (0.2 nM) and PE (2 and 10 μM) was more sensitive to prazosin (0.01) μM, than to idazoxan (0.01 μM). In combination, these antagonists almost completely inhibited contraction to both agents.Application of the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine (1 μM), had no effect on the depolarization induced by either CTX-1 or PE but maximally reduced the force of the maintained contraction to both agents by about 50%.We conclude that the constriction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1, which mimics the natural discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons, is due almost entirely to α-adrenoceptor activation. The results indicate that neuronally released noradrenaline activates more than one α-adrenoceptor subtype. The depolarization is dependent primarily on α2-adrenoceptor activation whereas the contraction is dependent primarily on α1-adrenoceptor activation. The links between α-adrenoceptor activation and the voltage-dependent and voltage-independent mechanisms that deliver Ca2+ to the contractile apparatus appear to be complex. PMID:9113373

  19. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

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    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Ruth A; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, hawks were randomly assigned to first receive voriconazole (15 mg/kg, PO) injected into a dead mouse (n = 3; fed birds) or without food (4; unfed birds). Sixteen days later, treatments were reversed. Blood samples were collected at various points to measure plasma voriconazole concentrations by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and fit to a compartmental model through nonlinear mixed-effects regression, with feeding status and body weight investigated as covariates. RESULTS Voriconazole was well absorbed, with quantifiable plasma concentrations up to 24 hours after administration. Mean plasma half-life was approximately 2 hours in fed and unfed birds. Administration of the voriconazole in food delayed absorption, resulting in a significant delay in time to maximum plasma concentration. The final compartmental model included a categorical covariate to account for this lag in absorption as well as body weight as a covariate of total body clearance (relative to unknown bioavailability). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A single dose of voriconazole (15 mg/kg) administered PO to red-tailed hawks resulted in mean plasma voriconazole concentrations greater than the targeted value (1 μg/mL). Additional studies with larger sample sizes and multidose regimens are required before the model developed here can be applied in clinical settings.

  1. Transcriptome markers of viral persistence in naturally-infected andes virus (bunyaviridae seropositive long-tailed pygmy rice rats.

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    Corey L Campbell

    Full Text Available Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV (Bunyaviridae, which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV. One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1 variations in viral load, 2 dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3 factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous

  2. Tail-pinch stress and REM sleep deprivation differentially affect sensorimotor gating function in modafinil-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Tung, Che-Se; Chuang, Chia-Hsin; Lo, Shih-Mao; Ku, Yu-Chi

    2011-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a mild stimulus attenuates a cross-modality startle response to later intense stimulation. PPI is thought to index the central inhibitory mechanism through which behavioural responses are filtered. The present study compared the effects of two stress paradigms on the acoustic startle response (ASR) and on PPI in a rat model. The tail-pinch (TP) method produces an acute and immediate stressful condition, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) leads to a more persistent and long-term stress. Our results demonstrated that in rats, TP stress reduced the size of the ASR, and REMSD impaired PPI. The wake-promoting agent modafinil (MOD) had no effect on PPI if given alone. However, MOD reduced the ASR and PPI under TP stress, whereas only PPI was reduced by MOD after 96 h of REMSD. These results suggest that distinct stress paradigms differentially mediated sensorimotor gating abilities in terms of either responsiveness to the stimulus or information-filtering capabilities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The structure of helokinestatin-5 and its biosynthetic precursor from Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) venom: evidence for helokinestatin antagonism of bradykinin-induced relaxation of rat tail artery smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Zhou, Zhihao; Chen, Xiaole; Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, HangFai; Ivanyi, Craig; Shaw, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Here we report the primary structure of a novel peptide, named helokinestatin-5 (VPPPLQMPLIPR), from the venom of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). Helokinestatin-5 differs in structure from helokinestatin-3 by deletion of a single prolyl residue in the N-terminally located polyproline region. Two different biosynthetic precursors were consistently cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library. The first encoded helokinestatins 1-4 and a single copy of C-type natriuretic peptide, as previously described, whereas the second was virtually identical, lacking only a single prolyl codon as found in the mature attenuated helokinestatin-5 peptide. Helokinestatins 1-3 and 5 were synthesized by solid-phase fmoc chemistry and each synthetic replicate was found to antagonize the relaxation effect induced by bradykinin on rat tail artery smooth muscle. Helokinestatins thus represent a novel family of vasoactive peptides from the venom of helodermatid lizards. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsley, Ruth A; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a

  5. Histological changes in connective tissue of rat tails after bipolar radiofrequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Bernal-Mañas, C M; Navarro, S; Zuasti, A; Ferrer, C; Canteras, M; Seco-Rovira, V; García-Collado, A J; Pastor, L M

    2012-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) has been included in the techniques used in aesthetic surgery/medicine. To date, no studies have performed a histological assessment of changes in the tissue after application of bipolar radiofrequency (BRF) with low energy and frequency. The aim of this study was to examine changes that are produced in connective tissue, principally in the fibroblasts, following BRF treatment. Four groups of rats received a different number of RF sessions (1, 2, 3 and 5). The following parameters were determined: the number of fibroblasts/unit area (FA), the proliferation index (PI), the Heat shock Protein 47 index (HSPI) and the percentage of connective tissue (PC). For statistical analysis, two subgroups (A and B) were made for the variables FA, PI and PC, and another two subgroups (C and D) for the variable HSPI. Significant differences for FA, PI and PC were observed between subgroups A and B, FA and PI having higher values in A, while PC had higher values in B. The HSPI in subgroup C showed significantly higher values than in D. Low energy and frequency BRF led to an increase in the number, proliferation and biosynthetic activity of fibroblasts. The resulting stress suffered by fibroblasts as a result of heat may be associated with the phenomenon of hormesis.

  6. Corticosteroid administration alters the mechanical properties of isolated collagen fascicles in rat-tail tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, B T; Aagaard, P; Crafoord-Larsen, D

    2009-01-01

    L of 40 mg/mL mixed with 1.0 mL 9% saline (n=12), and (B) a control group that was injected with 9% saline (n=12). Three days after the injections, the animals were sacrificed and single individual collagen fascicles were collected and underwent displacement to failure. Corticosteroid administration......Overload tendon injuries are frequent in recreational and elite sports. The optimal treatment strategy remains unknown, but local administration of corticosteroids is one common treatment option. The direct effects of the corticosteroid administration on the tissue are not fully understood...

  7. Effects of black cohosh and estrogen on core body and tail-skin temperatures in ovariectomized rats by telemetric monitoring with dual thermistor probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Qin, L H; Chen, X; Yan, X; Mao, L; Bai, W; Kang, J

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of black cohosh and estrogen on the temperature in ovariectomized rats, the core body temperature (CBT) and tail-skin temperature (TST) were simultaneously monitored and the relationship between these two temperatures was explored. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX treated with estradiol valerate (OVX + E), and OVX treated with isopropanolic black cohosh extract (OVX + ICR). Rats were sham-operated or ovariectomized and were implanted with telemetry transmitters with dual thermistor probes. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were treated with drugs for 4 weeks. During the last week of the treatments, the dynamic temperature profiles of the CBT and TST were collected. The average CBT and TST, TST fluctuation frequency, and the average amplitude fluctuation were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats. In addition, dramatic fluctuations of TST in OVX rats occurred at the time points of the day when the CBTs were lower in OVX rats than in SHAM rats. Treatment of OVX rats with estradiol valerate or isopropanolic black cohosh extract markedly decreased the average CBT and TST, TST fluctuation frequency, and the average amplitude fluctuation. Moreover, CBT was found to be significantly higher, while TST was lower in OVX + E than in OVX + ICR rats. Both black cohosh and estradiol treatments ameliorated the abnormal thermoregulation in OVX rats. In particular, black cohosh reduced CBT better than estradiol and estradiol reduced TST better than black cohosh.

  8. Elevated surface temperature depresses survival of banner-tailed kangaroo rats: will climate change cook a desert icon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Martin R; Frey, Jennifer K; Roemer, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Modest increases in global temperature have been implicated in causing population extirpations and range shifts in taxa inhabiting colder environs and in ectotherms whose thermoregulation is more closely tied to environmental conditions. Many arid-adapted endotherms already experience conditions at their physiological limits, so it is conceivable that they could be similarly affected by warming temperatures. We explored how climatic variables might influence the apparent survival of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis), a rodent endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert of North America and renowned for its behavioral and physiological adaptations to arid environments. Relative variable weight, strength of variable relationships, and other criteria indicated that summer, diurnal land surface temperature (SD_LST) was the primary environmental driver of apparent survival in these arid-adapted rodents. Higher temperatures had a negative effect on apparent survival, which ranged from 0.15 (SE = 0.04) for subadults to 0.50 (SE = 0.07) for adults. Elevated SD_LST may negatively influence survival through multiple pathways, including increased water loss and energy expenditure that could lead to chronic stress and/or hyperthermia that could cause direct mortality. Land surface temperatures are predicted to increase by as much 6.5°C by 2099, reducing apparent survival of adults to ~0.15 in some regions of the species' range, possibly causing a shift in their distribution. The relationship between SD_LST and survival suggests a mechanism whereby physiological tolerances are exceeded resulting in a reduction to individual fitness that may ultimately cause a shift in the species' range over time.

  9. Comparison of bone histomorphometry and μCT for evaluating bone quality in tail-suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; Luan, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Astronauts often suffer from microgravity-induced osteoporosis due to their time in space. Bone histomorphometry, the 'gold standard' technique for detecting bone quality, is widely used in the evaluation of osteoporosis. This study investigates whether μCT has the same application value as histomorphometry in the evaluation of weightlessness-induced bone loss. A total of 24 SD rats were distributed into three groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus active exercise (TSA), and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and μCT, and microstructure was measured by μCT and histomorphometry. BMD was found to have decreased significantly in TS and TSA compared with the CON group. The results of the μCT measurements showed that a change in BMD mainly occurred in the trabecular bone, and the trabecular BMD increased significantly in the TSA compared with the TS group. The comparison of μCT and histomorphometry showed that TS led to a significant decrease in bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N), and it led to an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). However, active exercise can prevent these changes. Significant differences in most parameters between TSA and CON were found by μCT but not by histomorphometry. Additionally, the parameters of these two methods are highly correlated. Therefore, the application value of μCT is as good as histomorphometry and DXA in the diagnosis of weightlessness-induced osteoporosis and is even better in evaluating the efficacy of exercise.

  10. Effects of maturation and advanced glycation on tensile mechanics of collagen fibrils from rat tail and Achilles tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Rene B; Smith, Stuart T; Moyer, Patrick J; Magnusson, S Peter

    2018-02-13

    Connective tissues are ubiquitous throughout the body and consequently affect the function of many organs. In load bearing connective tissues like tendon, the mechanical functionality is provided almost exclusively by collagen fibrils that in turn are stabilized by covalent cross-links. Functionally distinct tendons display different cross-link patterns, which also change with maturation, but these differences have not been studied in detail at the fibril level. In the present study, a custom built nanomechanical test platform was designed and fabricated to measure tensile mechanics of individual fibrils from rat tendons. The influence of animal maturity (4 vs. 16 week old rats) and functionally different tendons (tail vs. Achilles tendons) were examined. Additionally the effect of methylglyoxal (MG) treatment in vitro to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was investigated. Age and tissue type had no significant effect on fibril mechanics, but MG treatment increased strength and stiffness without inducing brittleness and gave rise to a distinct three-phase mechanical response corroborating that previously reported in human patellar tendon fibrils. That age and tissue had little mechanical effect, tentatively suggest that variations in enzymatic cross-links may play a minor role after initial tissue formation. Tendons are connective tissues that connect muscle to bone and carry some of the greatest mechanical loads in the body, which makes them common sites of injury. A tendon is essentially a biological rope formed by thin strands called fibrils made of the protein collagen. Tendon function relies on the strength of these fibrils, which in turn depends on naturally occurring cross-links between collagen molecules, but the mechanical influence of these cross-links have not been measured before. It is believed that beneficial cross-linking occurs with maturation while additional cross-linking with aging may lead to brittleness, but this study provides

  11. Intraglomerular microcirculation: measurements of single glomerular loop flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, M; Zimmerhackl, B; Thederan, H; Dussel, R; Parekh, N; Esslinger, H U; von Hagens, G; Komitowski, D; Dallenbach, F D

    1981-08-01

    With the use of a new fluorescent microscopic technique, we were able to measure the mean intracapillary velocities and pressures of single capillary loops of renal glomeruli of living rats. The technique involved photographing and recording the flow of fluorescent latex particles through the glomerular loops with a television monitor. In 25 rats the single glomerular loop flow velocity was 781 +/- (SD) 271 micrometers . sec-1. The mean diameter of the capillary loops measured 8.4 +/- 1.4 micrometers; their lengths were 72.3 +/- 37.5 micrometers. From the decrease in velocity of flow along the capillary loop, we were able to evaluate the filtration equivalent for the capillary surface. It was possible to measure intracapillary pressures of single glomerular loops continuously under microscopic control. High intracapillary pressures correlated with high intracapillary velocities. From the data we obtained, we were unable to calculate a filtration equilibrium at the ends of the observed capillary loops. For further correlations, we injected the glomeruli we had studied in the living state and examined them with the scanning electron microscope.

  12. Influence of a single gamma radiation on rat microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanicova, V.; Benova, K.; Sesztakova, E.; Sehnalkova, H.; Molokacova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte count and in the gut microflora of laboratory rats irradiated with a single whole-body dose of gamma rays (5.0 Gy) were determined. The number of leukocytes was lower especially 1 and 2 weeks after irradiation. A significant decrease in lymphocytes was observed 1 week and in monocytes 1 and 2 weeks after irradiation. In parallel with these changes, an increase in common microflora was observed, some microorganisms, witch normally are not present in duodenum, liver and mouth cavity, were detected in these organs. (authors)

  13. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  14. Thermoregulatory vasomotor tone of the rat tail and paws in thermoneutral conditions and its impact on a behavioral model of acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bitar, Nabil; Pollin, Bernard; Karroum, Elias; Pincedé, Ivanne; Mouraux, André; Le Bars, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The tail and paws in rodents are heat exchangers involved in the maintenance of core body temperature (T(core)). They are also the most widely used target organs to study acute or chronic "models" of pain. We describe the fluctuations of vasomotor tone in the tail and paws in conditions of thermal neutrality and the constraints of these physiological processes on the responses to thermal nociceptive stimuli, commonly used as an index of pain. Skin temperatures were recorded with a calibrated thermal camera to monitor changes of vasomotor tone in the tail and paws of awake and anesthetized rats. In thermoneutral conditions, the sympathetic tone fluctuated at a rate of two to seven cycles/h. Increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; ∼46 mmHg) was followed by increased heart rate (HR; ∼45 beats/min) within 30 s, vasoconstriction of extremities (3.5-7°C range) within 3-5 min, and increased T(core) (∼0.7°C) within 6 min. Decreased MAP was followed by opposite events. There was a high correlation between HR and T(core) recorded 5-6 min later. The reaction time of the animal's response to a radiant thermal stimulus-heat ramp (6°C/s, 20 mm(2) spot) generated by a CO2 laser-directed to the tail depends on these variations. Consequently, the fluctuations in tail and paw temperature thus represent a serious confound for thermal nociceptive tests, particularly when they are conducted at thermal neutrality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury.

  16. Fast, single-step, and surfactant-free oligonucleotide modification of gold nanoparticles using DNA with a positively charged tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, Ron; Göeken, Kristian L; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Fast modification of large gold nanoparticles with DNA is achieved by using DNA with a polycationic tail. The conjugated DNA is available for specific hybridization, and therefore can be used for DNA-based assays or for constructing nanoparticle superstructures based on DNA hybridization.

  17. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test and Formalin-induced Pain in Wistar Rats: Possible Modulatory Role of Cobalt (II) Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A H; Suleiman, I; Muhammed, H

    2017-03-06

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5) and administered Pb (5mg/kg), Pb (5mg/kg) + CoCl2 (50mg/kg) and CoCl2 (50mg/kg) orally for twenty-eight days. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. This work suggested that exposure to 5mg/kg Pb for twenty-eight days do not significantly impair reaction time in tail immersion test and pain score in formalin induced pain in Wistar rats. Also, administration of 50mg/kg CoCl2 do not improve performance of the animals in the experiments.

  18. Rediscovery of the Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis (Musser, Heaney & Rabor, 1985 (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae from Dinagat Island, Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Řeháková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis belongs to the group of Cloud Rats, arboreal and folivorous nocturnal rodents endemic to the forests of the Philippines.  The species, endemic to a small island Dinagat in the Philippines, was discovered and captured in 1975.  Since then, despite repeated surveys, no specimen was found until 2012.  It is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN Red List and was even believed to be extinct.  Finally, Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat was rediscovered in January 2012 and its presence confirmed on Dinagat Island.  The rediscovery of this species underlines the local, national and international importance of Dinagat Island (or Dinagat-Siargao cluster of islands, as the most distinct subcentre of species endemism within the Greater Mindanao Faunal Region.  Unfortunately, only one locally protected area exists on the whole island and none of the last remaining native forest habitats on Dinagat are currently protected at the national level.  Mining and habitat destruction constitute a serious threat to this species.  We believe that this rediscovery may provide some important and timely impetus and urgency to the need for a more rational, scientifically-based and island-wide, development program on Dinagat by also incorporating an island/region-wide biodiversity conservation strategy that would help ensure the effective, longer-term protection of the larger majority of the few remaining natural habitats in this region. 

  19. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  20. Reversible inactivation and excitation of nucleus raphe magnus can modulate tail blood flow of male Wistar rats in response to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Mansour; Kourosh Arami, Masoomeh; Sarihi, Abdorahman; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Behzadi, Gila; Shahidi, Siamak; Komaki, Alireza; Heshmatian, Behnam; Vahabian, Mehrangiz

    2008-10-01

    The nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is involved in thermoregulatory processing. There is a correlation between changes in the firing rates of the cells in the NRM and the application of the peripheral thermal stimulus. we examined the effect of reversible inactivation and excitation of NRM on mechanisms involved in tail blood flow (TBF) regulation in hypothermia. Hypothermia was induced in Male Wistar rats and cannula was implanted above the NRM. To evaluate the effect of nucleus inactivation on TBF, the amount of TBF was measured by Laser Doppler in hypothermic rats, before and after lidocaine microinjection into NRM. TBF was also measured after glutamate microinjection to assess the effect of nucleus excitation in hypothermic rats. Results indicated that after dropping TBF by hypothermia, microinjection of lidocaine into NRM significantly decreased TBF from 54.43 +- 5.7 to 46.81 +- 3.4, whereas glutamate microinjection caused a significant increase from 44.194 +- 0.6 to 98 +- 10.0 CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NRM have thermoregulatory effect in response to hypothermia.

  1. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S-x; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-01-01

    Study design: This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. Setting: This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. Methods: A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25?-mm height setting in femal...

  2. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot......-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  3. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Chun; Tai, Ching-Lung; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Niu, Chi-Chien; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2017-02-01

    Of the proposed animal interbody fusion models, rat caudal discs have gained popularity in disc research due to their strong resemblance to human discs with respect to geometry, composition and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible animal model of interbody fusion for future research into mechanical testing and graft materials. Twelve 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent caudal interbody fusion of the third and fourth coccygeal vertebrae of the tail. Serial radiological evaluation, and histological evaluation and manual palpation after sacrifice were performed to assess the fusion quality. Mechanical testing of functional units (FUs) of non-operated and operated segments was compared using a three-point bending test. At postoperative 12 weeks, callus formation was observed at the fusion sites in all rats, with the mean radiological evaluations of 2.75/3 according to the Bransford classification. Newly formed bone tissue was also observed in all rats with the mean histological score of 5.85/7, according to the Emery grading system. No palpable gaps and obvious change of bending stiffness was observed in the operated segments. The mean bending stiffness of the FUs was statistically higher than that of the control FUs (26.57 ± 6.71 N/mm vs. 12.45 ± 3.21 N/mm, p materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified cytoplasmic Ca2+ sequestration contributes to spinal cord injury-induced augmentation of nerve-evoked contractions in the rat tail artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Al Dera

    Full Text Available In rat tail artery (RTA, spinal cord injury (SCI increases nerve-evoked contractions and the contribution of L-type Ca2+ channels to these responses. In RTAs from unoperated rats, these channels play a minor role in contractions and Bay K8644 (L-type channel agonist mimics the effects of SCI. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory actions of SCI and Bay K8644 on nerve-evoked contractions of RTAs and the hypothesis that Ca2+ entering via L-type Ca2+ channels is rapidly sequestered by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR limiting its role in contraction. In situ electrochemical detection of noradrenaline was used to assess if Bay K8644 increased noradrenaline release. Perforated patch recordings were used to assess if SCI changed the Ca2+ current recorded in RTA myocytes. Wire myography was used to assess if SCI modified the effects of Bay K8644 and of interrupting SR Ca2+ uptake on nerve-evoked contractions. Bay K8644 did not change noradrenaline-induced oxidation currents. Neither the size nor gating of Ca2+ currents differed between myocytes from sham-operated (control and SCI rats. Bay K8644 increased nerve-evoked contractions in RTAs from both control and SCI rats, but the magnitude of this effect was reduced by SCI. By contrast, depleting SR Ca2+ stores with ryanodine or cyclopiazonic acid selectively increased nerve-evoked contractions in control RTAs. Cyclopiazonic acid also selectively increased the blockade of these responses by nifedipine (L-type channel blocker in control RTAs, whereas ryanodine increased the blockade produced by nifedipine in both groups of RTAs. These findings suggest that Ca2+ entering via L-type channels is normally rapidly sequestered limiting its access to the contractile mechanism. Furthermore, the findings suggest SCI reduces the role of this mechanism.

  5. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  6. Insight into the Unfolding Properties of Chd64, a Small, Single Domain Protein with a Globular Core and Disordered Tails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tarczewska

    Full Text Available Two major lipophilic hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E and juvenile hormone (JH, govern insect development and growth. While the mode of action of 20E is well understood, some understanding of JH-dependent signalling has been attained only in the past few years, and the crosstalk of the two hormonal pathways remains unknown. Two proteins, the calponin-like Chd64 and immunophilin FKBP39 proteins, have recently been found to play pivotal roles in the formation of dynamic, multiprotein complex that cross-links these two signalling pathways. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction remains unexplored. The aim of this work was to determine structural elements of Chd64 to provide an understanding of molecular basis of multiple interactions. We analysed Chd64 in two unrelated insect species, Drosophila melanogaster (DmChd64 and Tribolium castaneum (TcChd64. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS, we showed that both Chd64 proteins have disordered tails that outflank the globular core. The folds of the globular cores of both Chd64 resemble the calponin homology (CH domain previously resolved by crystallography. Monitoring the unfolding of DmChd64 and TcChd64 by far-ultraviolet (UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC revealed a highly complex process. Chd64 unfolds and forms of a molten globule (MG-like intermediate state. Furthermore, our data indicate that in some conditions, Chd64 may exists in discrete structural forms, indicating that the protein is pliable and capable of easily acquiring different conformations. The plasticity of Chd64 and the existence of terminal intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs may be crucial for multiple interactions with many partners.

  7. Biomechanical and morphological remodelings of gastrointestinal tract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats of diabetic group(DM, a single tail vein injection 40mg/kg of STZ, 9 rats) and no...

  8. The evaluation of nociceptive intensity by using free radicals direct measurement by EPR method in the tail of anaesthetized rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokyta, R.; Stopka, Pavel; Káfuňková, Eva; Křížová, Jana; Fricová, J.; Holeček, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2008), s. 1007-1014 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : EPR - direct measurement in living * rats * nociceptive stimulation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.359, year: 2008

  9. An experimental study and mathematical simulation of adrenergic control of hindlimb vessels in rats after 3-week tail suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionov, Ivan M; Timin, Eugeny N; Matchkov, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    stimulation, as well as to exogenous noradrenaline, the latter effect being registered when the pressure level was close to normal. Mathematical simulation indicated that long-term suspension induces both structural and functional changes in the vascular bed of the hind limbs, one of which is a disorder......Adrenoreactivity of rat hindlimb vessels was studied in experiments with constant-pressure saline perfusion. An original mathematical model was applied to evaluate the mechanism of changes in vascular tone regulation. A 3-week suspension resulted in decreased responses to sympathetic nerve...

  10. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Seung-Ho; Park, Sunju; Jeong, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yu, Jun-Sang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Ki-Rok

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2). No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  11. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. Methods: The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156. The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group. General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2. Results: No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  12. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  13. Binaural response characteristics of single neurons in the medial superior olivary nucleus of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbody, S B; Feng, A S

    1981-04-06

    Binaural response properties of single neurons in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) were investigated in the anesthetized rat. Stimulus parameters studied included interaural time difference and interaural intensity difference. In the present study, of the two cell types observed in the rat MSO nucleus, EE and EI, variations in the binaural response properties of the MSO neurons permitted further subclassifications, which may be related to the dendritic dominance of the MSO neurons.

  14. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  15. Changes in behaviour and body weight following a single or double social defeat in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Daan, S.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the consequences of a single and double social conflict on various behaviours and body weight in rats were studied. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for one hour, either once, or twice at the same

  16. Episodic release of renin from single isolated superfused rat afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1986-01-01

    Doubts have been raised about the involvement of an exocytotic event in the renin release process. This motivated the development of a technique which permitted the study of renin release from one single superfused rat afferent arteriole with a time resolution of 20 seconds. By using this technique...

  17. Uranium-mill-tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physico-chemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sntering tailings at high temperatures (1100 to 1200 0 C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 0 C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulfuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stag extraction. An economic analysis of a sulfuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the leaching step and would contribute about 60% of the costs of moving and burying the tailings at a new site

  18. Single Molecule Arrays for ultra-sensitive detection of rat cytokines in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Limor; Xie, Liangxia; Xylas, Mark E; Walt, David R

    2018-01-01

    Rats are used as animal models for many human diseases. Cytokines can serve as biomarkers indicative of these diseases or disease states. Techniques for measuring cytokine expression levels often do not provide the sensitivity needed to measure these biomarkers in biological fluids because the concentrations of many cytokines are below the detection limits of conventional methods. In this paper, we present ultra-sensitive digital immunoassays using Single Molecule Arrays (Simoa) for seven rat cytokines: TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17F, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-1α. These ultra-sensitive immunoassays have limits of detection (LODs) in the femtomolar range and provide the ability to measure rat cytokines in serum below the LODs of conventional immunoassays. We also measured these cytokines in healthy rat serum to obtain baseline levels. The ability to measure cytokines present at low concentrations in rat serum will facilitate future studies of disease using rats as animal models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological fate of a single administration of 191Pt in rats following different routes of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W. Jr.; Hysell, D.; Crocker, W.; Stara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The retention, tissue distribution, and excretion of 191 Pt in adult rats was determined following oral, intravenous (IV), and intratracheal administration. The highest retention was obtained following IV dosing, and lowest retention (less than 0.5 percent) occurred after oral dosing. Tissues containing the highest concentrations of 191 Pt following IV administration were the kidney, adrenal, spleen, and liver. Following a single oral dose, almost all of the 191 Pt was excreted in the feces due to nonabsorption, whereas after IV dosing, similar quantities were excreted in both the urine and feces. Following IV dosing of pregnant rats, 191 Pt was found in all the fetuses; however, the amount was small

  20. Imaging of dopamine transporters in rats using high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2N, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Voorn, Pieter [Department of Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of investigations on the dopaminergic system in small animals have been in vitro studies. In comparison with in vitro studies, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the dopaminergic system in small animals has the advantage of permitting repeated studies within the same group of animals. Dopamine transporter imaging is a valuable non-invasive tool with which to investigate the integrity of dopaminergic neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing dopamine transporter density semi-quantitatively in rats using a recently developed high-resolution pinhole SPET system. This system was built exclusively for imaging of small animals. In this unique single-pinhole system, the animal rotates instead of the collimated detector. The system has proven to have a high spatial resolution. We performed SPET imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT to quantify striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain. In all seven studied control rats, symmetrical striatal binding to dopamine transporters was seen 2 h after injection of the radiotracer, with striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios of approximately 3.5. In addition, test/retest variability of the striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios was studied and found to be 14.5%. Finally, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, striatal binding was only visible on the non-lesioned side. Quantitative analysis revealed that striatal-to-cerebellar SPET ratios were significantly lower on the lesioned (mean binding ratio 2.2{+-}0.2) than on the non-lesioned (mean ratio 3.1{+-}0.4) side. The preliminary results of this study indicate that semi-quantitative assessment of striatal dopamine transporter density using our recently developed high-resolution single-pinhole SPET system is feasible in living rat brain. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary Responses of Sprague-Dawley Rats in Single Inhalation Exposure to Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gu Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is receiving increased attention due to its potential widespread applications in future. However, the health effects of graphene have not yet been well studied. Therefore, this study examined the pulmonary effects of graphene oxide using male Sprague-Dawley rats and a single 6-hour nose-only inhalation technique. Following the exposure, the rats were allowed to recover for 1 day, 7 days, or 14 days. A total of three groups were compared: control (fresh air, low concentration (0.46±0.06 mg/m3, and high concentration (3.76±0.24 mg/m3. The exposure to graphene oxide did not induce significant changes in the body weights, organ weights, and food consumption during the 14 days of recovery time. The microalbumin and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were not significantly changed due to the exposure. Similarly, total cell count, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and lymphocytes were not significantly altered in the BAL fluid. Plus, the histopathological examination of the rat lungs only showed an uptake of graphene oxide in the alveolar macrophages of the high-concentration group. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the single inhalation exposure to graphene oxide induce minimal toxic responses in rat lungs at the concentrations and time points used in the present study.

  2. Optimization algorithm for absorbed dose calculation during single intake of 131І to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Drozd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Original calculation algorithms are proposed for absorbed doses in the thyroid gland and thymus of rats at single income of 131I that enable to simplify the calculations and at the same time ensure high reliability of results in the range of input activities of 1 - 115000 Bq. According to the algorithms, the program is developed in the MATLAB environment, adapted for use on Windows running PC. Relative error of calculations is ±2 %.

  3. The effects of single and fractionated irradiation of the trunk in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, P.G.S.; Kimler, B.F.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole trunk irradiation on the development of functional damage was investigated in rats. Rats were restrained without anesthesia such that only the trunk (from clavicle to pelvic girdle) was irradiated with a Cs-137 irradiator at a dose rate of 8.5 Gy/min. Rats received single doses of 9.4, 11.7, 14.1, or 16.4 Gy; or total doses of 11.7, 14.1, 16.4, 18.8, or 21.1 Gy in two equal fractions separated by 4-6 hr. Except for the highest dose in both schedules, there was no lethality; 16.4 Gy reduced survival to 45% and 21.1 Gy in two fractions reduced survival to 77% by day 150. From day 10 to day 150 there was a dose-dependent reduction in weight for both schedules, with the two-dose response displaced from the single dose response by ≅ 6 Gy. A whole-body plethysmograph was used to measure respiration frequency. There was no increase in respiration frequency compared to control animals, except for the highest single dose - 16.4 Gy producing an increase that was manifested from 10 to 150 days. The authors conclude that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation into two equal doses separated by 4-6 hr produces a sparing effect of ≅ 6 Gy as measured by delay in weight gain (presumably a result of irradiation of the abdomen); and ≥ 6 Gy as measured by survival and increased respiration frequency (a result of irradiation of the thorax)

  4. Cav1.2 channel current block by the PKA inhibitor H-89 in rat tail artery myocytes via a PKA-independent mechanism: Electrophysiological, functional, and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Fabio; Trezza, Alfonso; Spiga, Ottavia; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Bova, Sergio

    2017-09-15

    To characterize the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in regulating vascular Ca 2+ current through Ca v 1.2 channels [I Ca1.2 ], we have documented a marked capacity of the isoquinoline H-89, widely used as a PKA inhibitor, to reduce current amplitude. We hypothesized that the I Ca1.2 inhibitory activity of H-89 was mediated by mechanisms unrelated to PKA inhibition. To support this, an in-depth analysis of H-89 vascular effects on both I Ca1.2 and contractility was undertaken by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and functional experiments in rat tail main artery single myocytes and rings, respectively. H-89 inhibited I Ca1.2 with a pIC 50 (M) value of about 5.5, even under conditions where PKA activity was either abolished by both the PKA antagonists KT5720 and protein kinase inhibitor fragment 6-22 amide or enhanced by the PKA stimulators 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP. Inhibition of I Ca1.2 by H-89 appeared almost irreversible upon washout, was charge carrier- and voltage-dependent, and antagonised by the Ca v 1.2 channel agonist (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644. H-89 did not alter both potency and efficacy of verapamil, did not affect current kinetics or voltage-dependent activation, while shifting to the left the 50% voltage of inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner. H-89 docked at the α 1C subunit in a pocket region close to that of (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644 docking, forming a hydrogen bond with the same, key amino acid residue Tyr-1489. Finally, both high K + - and (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced contractions of rings were fully reverted by H-89. In conclusion, these results indicate that H-89 inhibited vascular I Ca1.2 and, consequently, the contractile function through a PKA-independent mechanism. Therefore, caution is recommended when interpreting experiments where H-89 is used to inhibit vascular smooth muscle PKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  6. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  7. The effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amiresmaili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endogenous opioids and addictive opiate drugs change many body functions. . Previous studies have referred to the effects of morphine on smooth and pulmonary muscles ., but the  effects of opioids on skeletal muscles is not known well. Thus, the current study aimed at assessing the effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats weighing 220-270 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (the mice were kept in their cages and received food and water, morphine receiving group, fatigue group (the mice in this group were kept running on  a treadmill . for120 minutes at a rate of 20 meters per minute, and morphine plus fatigue group. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained from the corner of their eyes and were sent to the laboratory for measurement of muscle fatigue indexes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Results: Administration of morphine to the fatigue group decreased running time compared with the control group (P=0.009. Furthermore, administration of morphine to the fatigue group significantly increased serum levels of LDH (P=0.009 and CPK (P=0.008. Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of a single dose of morphine in rats increases muscle fatigue biomarkers (LDH, CPK.

  8. A single-neuron tracing study of arkypallidal and prototypic neurons in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakano, Takashi; Matsuda, Wakoto; Furuta, Takahiro; Udagawa, Jun; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called "prototypic" and "arkypallidal" neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy rats has not been reported. Here we visualized the entire axonal arborization of four single arkypallidal neurons and six single prototypic neurons in rat brain using labeling with a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein and examined the distribution of axon boutons in the target nuclei. Results revealed that not only the arkypallidal neurons but nearly all of the prototypic neurons projected to the striatum with numerous axon varicosities. Thus, the striatum is a major target nucleus for pallidal neurons. Arkypallidal and prototypic GP neurons located in the calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative regions mainly projected to the corresponding positive and negative regions in the striatum. Because the GP and striatum calbindin staining patterns reflect the topographic organization of the striatopallidal projection, the striatal neurons in the sensorimotor and associative regions constitute the reciprocal connection with the GP neurons in the corresponding regions.

  9. Selected oxidative stress parameters after single and repeated administration of octabromodiphenyl ether to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bruchajzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Octabromodiphenyl ether (OctaBDE was used as a flame retardant applied mostly in the manufacture of plastics utilized in the electrical and electronic industries. Owing to its long half-life and being regarded as an environmental pollutant, OctaBDE, like other polybrominated diphenyl ethers, has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP. This study was carried out to assess the effects of oxidative stress (redox homeostasis induced in rats by OctaBDE. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats exposed intragastrically to OctaBDE at single (25, 200 or 2000 mg/kg b.w., or repeated (0.4, 2, 8, 40 or 200 mg/kg/day doses during 7–28 days were used in the experiment. Selected oxidative stress parameters were determined in the liver and blood serum. Results: Administration (single or repeated of OctaBDE to rats resulted in the impaired redox homeostasis, as evidenced by the increased levels of reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione in the liver, the reduced total antioxidant status (TAS in serum and the increased concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA in the liver. After multiple doses of OctaBDE, elevated activity of glutathione transferase (GST in the liver was also noted. Conclusions: After repeated administration of OctaBDE at the lowest dose (0.4 mg/kg/day, changes were observed in the parameters (MDA, TAS, GSSG indicative of oxidative stress.

  10. Protective effects of orally applied fullerenol nano particles in rats after a single dose of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ičević Ivana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxylated, water soluble, fullerenol C60(OH24 nano particles (FNP in vitro and in vivo models, showed an expressive biological activity. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential protective effects of orally applied FNP on rats after a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX (8 mg/kg (i.p. 6 h after the last application of FNP. After the last drug administration, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and tissues were taken for the analysis. Biochemical and pathological results obtained in this study indicate that fullerenol (FNP, in H2O:DMSO (80:20, w/w solution given orally in final doses of 10, 14.4, and 21.2 mg/kg three days successively, has the protective (hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

  11. Single- and repeated-dose toxicities of aloe fermentation products in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Baik, Soon-Ok; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aloe fermentation products were derived from mycelia from 3 mushrooms: Ganoderma lucidum (AG), Hericium erinaceum (AH), and Phellinus linteus (AP). Levels of aloin A and B increased with fermentation time. The highest levels were measured on the fifth day of fermentation. β-Glucan levels decreased with fermentation time. The safety of aloe fermentation products were examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered the three aloe fermentation products at dose levels of 1, 2 or 5 g/kg for single-dose toxicity test and 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg for repeated-dose toxicity test. There were no significant differences in body weight gain between vehicle control and AG-, AH- or AP-treated rats. Also, significant changes in daily feed intake and water consumption were not observed. In hematological analysis, none of the parameters were affected by aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia. This suggests that there are no negative effects on homeostasis and immunity. In blood biochemistry analysis, none of the markers were affected by feeding rats with AG, AH or AP. Similarly, there were no significant effects on markers for liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle functions. No remarkable lesions were observed in these organs at histopathology. Since there were no adverse effects of AG, AH and AP in single- or repeated-dose toxicity tests, even at higher doses than normal, we conclude that the aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia possess long-term safety and could be candidates as multifunctional nutrients for the improvement of intestinal function and immunity. PMID:21998613

  12. Effects of the single and fractionated irradiation on the microvasculature of the rat submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the single and fractionated irradiation on the microvasculature of the rat submandibular gland in rats. For this study, 90 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated to their neck region with equal split doses of 9 Gy for a 4 hours interval and 15 Gy single dose by 6 MV X-irradiation and sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 27th day after irradiation. The author observed histological changes at Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and PAS staining under a light microscope, and also observed distribution and structural changes of the microvasculature in rat submandibular gland using a scanning electron microscope by forming vascular resin casting. The results were as follows: 1. In the light microscopic examination, the microvasculature was slightly diated and decreased in number on the 1st day after irradiation, and increase in number of microvasculatere was observed on the 3rd day after irradiation. And then distribution of microvasculature was markedly increased on the 7th day after irradiation, but decreased on the 14th day after irradiation again. Such changes were greater in the single irradiated group than in the fractionated irradiated group. 2. The reaction to PAS staining on glandular cell was decreased on the 1st and the 3rd day after irradiation, and recovered on the 7th day after irradiation. The reaction was decreased on the 14th day after irradiation again, and recovered on the 28th day after irradiation. Changes were more apparent in the single irradiated group. 3. In the scanning electron microscopic examination, early changes of microvasculature were decreased capillary density, dilation of conduits and meandering. Increased capillary density or anastomosis due to vascular reproduction and smooth curved running were observed on the 7th and 14th day after irradiation. Decreased capillary and smooth running tendency were observed on the 28th day after irradiation again. Such changes were

  13. The tailings technology suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Deborah

    2011-10-15

    Oilsands tailing ponds contain leftover bitumen and asphaltenes, which are dangerous to local wildlife. The Oil Sands Tailings Consortium (OSTCS) was founded by all major mining players and aims to prompt collaboration within the oilsands industry to reclaim the tailings area. Each company has hitherto worked on different tailings management technologies, often duplicating efforts. Some technologies proposed by these oilsands miners were introduced in this article.

  14. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail probabili...

  15. Single Silver Nanoparticle Instillation Induced Early and Persisting Moderate Cortical Damage in Rat Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, administered by a single intratracheal instillation (i.t, was assessed in a rat model using commercial physico-chemical characterized nanosilver. Histopathological changes, overall toxic response and oxidative stress (kidney and plasma protein carbonylation, paralleled by ultrastructural observations (TEM, were evaluated to examine renal responses 7 and 28 days after i.t. application of a low AgNP dose (50 µg/rat, compared to an equivalent dose of ionic silver (7 µg AgNO3/rat. The AgNPs caused moderate renal histopathological and ultrastructural alteration, in a region-specific manner, being the cortex the most affected area. Notably, the bulk AgNO3, caused similar adverse effects with a slightly more marked extent, also triggering apoptotic phenomena. Specifically, 7 days after exposure to both AgNPs and AgNO3, dilatation of the intercapillary and peripheral Bowman’s space was observed, together with glomerular shrinkage. At day 28, these effects still persisted after both treatments, accompanied by an additional injury involving the vascular component of the mesangium, with interstitial micro-hemorrhages. Neither AgNPs nor AgNO3 induced oxidative stress effects in kidneys and plasma, at either time point. The AgNP-induced moderate renal effects indicate that, despite their benefits, novel AgNPs employed in consumer products need exhaustive investigation to ensure public health safety.

  16. Talking tails : quantifying the development of tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tail biting is an adverse behaviour characterised by manipulation of a pig’s tail by another pig resulting in tail damage and a possible tail biting outbreak. Tail biting is a common problem in the pig husbandry causing economic losses and reduced animal welfare worldwide. To prevent tail biting,

  17. [Single dose toxicity studies of calcipotriol (MC903) in rats and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, T; Tsuruta, M; Kitagaki, T; Ono, M; Shirakawa, K; Nagata, M; Konishi, R

    1996-07-01

    A single dose toxicity of calcipotriol (MC903), an anti-psoriasic agent, administered subcutaneously (s.c.) and percutaneously (p.c.) was studied in Slc:SD rats (s.c. and p.c.) and beagle dogs (s.c.). The LD50 values of MC903 were as follows: rats, 2.19 mg/kg in males and 2.51 mg/kg in females by s.c., and more than 15 mg/kg in both sexes by p.c.; dogs, more than 1.5 mg/kg in males by p.c. No sexual difference was noted in LD50 values of rats. Death of rats was observed from 1 to 3 days after administration by both routes. Dead animals showed decreases in body weight and locomotor activity, reddish tear, abnormal gait and dirty hair by both routes. Furthermore, dead animals administered by s.c. showed salivation, nasal discharge, piloerection, ptosis, diarrhea, urorrhea, nasal and vaginal bleeding, subnormal temperature, loose stool, cyanosis, irregular and deep respirations, clonic and tonic convulsions. Survival of rats showed similar signs to those of dead animals except for nasal discharge, nasal and vaginal bleeding, cyanosis, agonal respiration and convulsion. Discoloration of the kidney, white patch of the heart and a dilatation of the stomach wall were observed on macroscopic examinations. No mortalities were observed in dogs which showed vomiting, conjunctival congestion, circumoral and auricular reddenings, periblepharal purplish reddening, decreases in locomotor activity and defecation, emaciation, eye discharge, skin desquamation of treated area and an increase in respiration. On macroscopic examination, desquamation of the skin, reddening of the circumoral mucosa, pale gray yellow striations in renal tubules of the cortex and discoloration of the thyroid were observed. Histopathological findings revealed epidermal thickening with parakeratosis, fibrocytes, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands, formation of epitheloid glanulomas and infiltration of neutrophils in the subcutaneous tissues. Furthermore, moderate calcium

  18. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rüdiger; Müller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model.

  19. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  20. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  1. Intravenous Single Dose Toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anaphylactic shock can be fatal to people who become hypersensitive when bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP is used. Thus, sweet bee venom (SBV was developed to reduce these allergic responses. SBV is almost pure melittin, and SBV has been reported to have fewer allergic responses than BVP. BVP has been administered only into acupoints or intramuscularly, but we thought that intravenous injection might be possible if SBV were shown to be a safe medium. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of SBV through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with SBV (high dosage: 1.0 mL/animal; medium dosage: 0.5 mL/animal; low dosage: 0.1 mL/animal. Normal saline was injected into the control group in a similar method. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, and hematology, biochemistry, and histological observations. Results: No death was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia was observed in the high and the medium dosage groups on the injection day, but from next day, no general symptoms were observed in any of the experimental groups. No significant changes due to intravenous SBV injection were observed in the weights, in the hematology, biochemistry, and histological observations, and in the local tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that the lethal dose of SBV is over 1.0 mL/animal in SD rats and that the intravenous injection of SBV is safe in SD rats.

  2. Gait analysis in rats with single joint inflammation: influence of experimental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ängeby Möller

    Full Text Available Disability and movement-related pain are major symptoms of joint disease, motivating the development of methods to quantify motor behaviour in rodent joint pain models. We used observational scoring and automated methods to compare weight bearing during locomotion and during standing after single joint inflammation induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (0.12-8.0 mg/mL or carrageenan (0.47-30 mg/mL. Automated gait analysis was based on video capture of prints generated by light projected into the long edge of the floor of a walkway, producing an illuminated image of the contact area of each paw with light intensity reflecting the contact pressure. Weight bearing was calculated as an area-integrated paw pressure, that is, the light intensity of all pixels activated during the contact phase of a paw placement. Automated static weight bearing was measured with the Incapacitance tester. Pharmacological sensitivity of weight-bearing during locomotion was tested in carrageenan-induced monoarthritis by administration of the commonly used analgesics diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen, as well as oxycodone and paracetamol. Observational scoring and automated quantification yielded similar results. We found that the window between control rats and monoarthritic rats was greater during locomotion. The response was more pronounced for inflammation in the ankle as compared to the knee, suggesting a methodological advantage of using this injection site. The effects of both Freund's complete adjuvant and carrageenan were concentration related, but Freund's incomplete adjuvant was found to be as effective as lower, commonly used concentrations of the complete adjuvant. The results show that gait analysis can be an effective method to quantify behavioural effects of single joint inflammation in the rat, sensitive to analgesic treatment.

  3. A single acute hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 causes oxidative stress in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a hepatotoxic agent is widely used to study the toxic mechanisms in experimental animals. We have investigated whether oxidative stress is induced in the brain at a single hepatotoxic dosage (1 ml/kg bw of CCl4. Increased lipid peroxidation (LPO, protein carbonyls (PC content and glutathione (GSH depletion were observed in the brain regions of rats treated with CCl4 which was higher than that of liver. A drastic reduction in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST was seen in the brain regions which was higher than that of liver. Similarly, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenase were reduced in the brain regions similar to that of liver. Higher induction of oxidative stress in the brain compared to that of liver implies vulnerability of the brain for CCl4 neurotoxicity. Our study shows that a single hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 is equally neurotoxic to rats.

  4. Analysis of Heavy-Tailed Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Xiaolei

    and expressed in terms of the parameters of the dependence structure, among others. Furthermore, we study an importance sampling method for estimating rare-event probabilities of multivariate heavy-tailed time series generated by matrix recursion. We show that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the sense......This thesis is about analysis of heavy-tailed time series. We discuss tail properties of real-world equity return series and investigate the possibility that a single tail index is shared by all return series of actively traded equities in a market. Conditions for this hypothesis to be true...... are identified. We study the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sample covariance and sample auto-covariance matrices of multivariate heavy-tailed time series, and particularly for time series with very high dimensions. Asymptotic approximations of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such matrices are found...

  5. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, R.J.J.; Booij, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graduate School of Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, K. de; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of

  6. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  7. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  8. Bile Salt Homeostasis in Normal and Bsep Gene Knockout Rats with Single and Repeated Doses of Troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaofeng; Chen, Shenjue; Freeden, Chris; Chen, Weiqi; Zhang, Yueping; Abraham, Pamela; Nelson, David M; Humphreys, W Griffith; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong

    2017-09-01

    The interference of bile acid secretion through bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition is one of the mechanisms for troglitazone (TGZ)-induced hepatotoxicity. Here, we investigated the impact of single or repeated oral doses of TGZ (200 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on bile acid homoeostasis in wild-type (WT) and Bsep knockout (KO) rats. Following oral doses, plasma exposures of TGZ were not different between WT and KO rats, and were similar on day 1 and day 7. However, plasma exposures of the major metabolite, troglitazone sulfate (TS), in KO rats were 7.6- and 9.3-fold lower than in WT on day 1 and day 7, respectively, due to increased TS biliary excretion. With Bsep KO, the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), Mrp3, Mrp4, Mdr1, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, small heterodimer partner, and Sult2A1 were significantly altered in KO rats. Following seven daily TGZ treatments, Cyp7A1 was significantly increased in both WT and KO rats. In the vehicle groups, plasma exposures of individual bile acids demonstrated variable changes in KO rats as compared with WT. WT rats dosed with TGZ showed an increase of many bile acid species in plasma on day 1, suggesting the inhibition of Bsep. Conversely, these changes returned to base levels on day 7. In KO rats, alterations of most bile acids were observed after seven doses of TGZ. Collectively, bile acid homeostasis in rats was regulated through bile acid synthesis and transport in response to Bsep deficiency and TGZ inhibition. Additionally, our study is the first to demonstrate that repeated TGZ doses can upregulate Cyp7A1 in rats. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  10. Quantitative determination of dopamine in single rat pheochromocytoma cells by microchip electrophoresis with only one high-voltage power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Cuicui; Fan, Yuejuan; Cheng, Jieke; Cheng, Han

    2015-07-01

    We developed a method for the direct identification of dopamine in single cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells by capillary electrophoresis using an end-channel carbon fiber nanoelectrode amperometric detector. The operation mode was designed to achieve single-cell injection and lysis in microfluidic chip electrophoresis with only one high-voltage power supply. The separation and detection conditions were optimized. Four catecholamines were baseline-separated and determined with this system, and the cell density and liquid height of the reservoirs were accommodated for single cell loading, docking and analysis. The microchip capillary electrophoresis system was successfully applied to determine dopamine in single cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  12. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  13. Effects of a Single Dose of Parecoxib on Inflammatory Response and Ischemic Tubular Injury Caused by Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Takaku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, is used to improve analgesia in postoperative procedures. Here we evaluated whether pretreatment with a single dose of parecoxib affects the function, cell injury, and inflammatory response of the kidney of rats subjected to acute hemorrhage. Inflammatory response was determined according to serum and renal tissue cytokine levels (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Forty-four adult Wistar rats anesthetized with sevoflurane were randomized into four groups: placebo/no hemorrhage (Plc/NH; parecoxib/no hemorrhage (Pcx/NH; placebo/hemorrhage (Plc/H; and parecoxib/hemorrhage (Pcx/H. Pcx groups received a single dose of intravenous parecoxib while Plc groups received a single dose of placebo (isotonic saline. Animals in hemorrhage groups underwent bleeding of 30% of blood volume. Renal function and renal histology were then evaluated. Plc/H showed the highest serum levels of cytokines, suggesting that pretreatment with parecoxib reduced the inflammatory response in rats subjected to hemorrhage. No difference in tissue cytokine levels between groups was observed. Plc/H showed higher percentage of tubular dilation and degeneration, indicating that parecoxib inhibited tubular injury resulting from renal hypoperfusion. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with a single dose of parecoxib reduced the inflammatory response and tubular renal injury without altering renal function in rats undergoing acute hemorrhage.

  14. Influence of tetrahydrocurcumin on tail tendon collagen contents and its properties in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Murugan, Pidaran

    2007-12-01

    Changes in the structural and functional properties of collagen caused by advanced glycation might be of importance for the etiology of late-stage complications in diabetics. Curcumin is the most active component of turmeric. It is believed that curcumin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is one of the major metabolites of curcumin, exhibiting many of the same physiological and pharmacological activities of curcumin and in some systems may exert greater antioxidant activity than curcumin. In diabetic rats, hydroxyproline and collagen content as well as its degree of cross-linking were increased, as shown by increased extent of glycation, collagen-linked fluorescence, neutral salt collagen, and decreased acid and pepsin solubility. Administration of THC for 45 days to diabetic rats significantly reduced the accumulation and cross-linking of collagen. The effects of THC were comparable with those of curcumin. In conclusion, administration of THC had a positive influence on the content of collagen and its properties in streptozotocin- and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. THC was found to be more effective than curcumin.

  15. Tailings management at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    1989-01-01

    As the entire uranium deposit at Nabarlek was mined in 1979, the mine pit was available as a tailing's repository from the time of commencement of ore processing. In the early years Nabarlek's tailings were deposited subaqueously. In 1985 the tailings deposition method was changed to a sub-aerial, or semi-dry, method. Over the subsequent three years there was evidence that the tailings settled further and squeezed water from lower layers. The water was pumped away and treated for removal of radium before being evaporated in one of the mine's evaporation ponds. When milling was completed in 1988 it was decided to try and increase the rate of water removal and so obtain even greater consolidation of the trailings in a shorter time. This was achieved by loading the tailings with a layer of screened leached sands and waste rock placed on a layer of geotextile filter fabric that had been laid over the whole of the tailings surface in the pit. Once this was completed a modified piling rig was used to insert vertical drains, or wicks, up to 30 metres into the tailings. The drains were placed on a square grid at a spacing of 3.25 metres. Water that was forced out of the tailings by the downward pressure of the sand and rock could flow freely to the surface up these drains. Once at the surface the water was gathered into a sump and pumped away for treatment as before. The drains are working very well at present although it will be some considerable time before the water stops flowing. Already settlement of the tailings is apparent and the settled density of the material is increasing. As far as is known this is the first time that such a system has been employed on mine tailings in a pit in this way

  16. Informational basis of sensory adaptation: entropy and single-spike efficiency in rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Mehdi; Clifford, Colin W G; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-09-11

    We showed recently that exposure to whisker vibrations enhances coding efficiency in rat barrel cortex despite increasing correlations in variability (Adibi et al., 2013). Here, to understand how adaptation achieves this improvement in sensory representation, we decomposed the stimulus information carried in neuronal population activity into its fundamental components in the framework of information theory. In the context of sensory coding, these components are the entropy of the responses across the entire stimulus set (response entropy) and the entropy of the responses conditional on the stimulus (conditional response entropy). We found that adaptation decreased response entropy and conditional response entropy at both the level of single neurons and the pooled activity of neuronal populations. However, the net effect of adaptation was to increase the mutual information because the drop in the conditional entropy outweighed the drop in the response entropy. The information transmitted by a single spike also increased under adaptation. As population size increased, the information content of individual spikes declined but the relative improvement attributable to adaptation was maintained.

  17. Dynamic trajectory of multiple single-unit activity during working memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yi, Hu; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Working memory plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. A popular theoretical view is that transient properties of neuronal dynamics underlie cognitive processing. The question raised here as to how the transient dynamics evolve in working memory. To address this issue, we investigated the multiple single-unit activity dynamics in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a Y-maze working memory task. The approach worked by reconstructing state space from delays of the original single-unit firing rate variables, which were further analyzed using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Then the neural trajectories were obtained to visualize the multiple single-unit activity. Furthermore, the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the neural trajectories during the working memory task. The results showed that the neuronal activity produced stable and reproducible neural trajectories in the correct trials while showed irregular trajectories in the incorrect trials, which may establish a link between the neurocognitive process and behavioral performance in working memory. The MLEs significantly increased during working memory in the correctly performed trials, indicating an increased divergence of the neural trajectories. In the incorrect trials, the MLEs were nearly zero and remained unchanged during the task. Taken together, the trial-specific neural trajectory provides an effective way to track the instantaneous state of the neuronal population during the working memory task and offers valuable insights into working memory function. The MLE describes the changes of neural dynamics in working memory and may reflect different neuronal population states in working memory.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, and dogs following a single IV administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents pose tremendous threats to both military and civilian populations. The substance 1,1'-methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) is being developed as a replacement for the currently fielded 2-pyridine aldoxime, or pralidoxime (2-PAM) as a treatment for OP nerve agent-induced toxicity. The present study characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MMB4 in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and beagle dogs given a single intravenous (IV) administration of MMB4 dimethanesulfonate (DMS) at 55, 25, and 15 mg/kg dose, respectively. The plasma MMB4 concentration versus time profiles were biphasic for all species tested and fit a 2-compartment model with first-order elimination. There were no overt sex-related differences in the calculated PK parameters. For the rat, rabbit, and dog, the average systemic exposure parameters predicted Cmax (µg/mL) and AUC∞ (µg·h/mL) were 273 and 71.0, 115 and 48.1, and 87.4 and 39.6; the average volume of distribution (mL/kg) values to the central and peripheral compartments were 207 and 143, 242 and 172, and 198 and 213; and the average elimination half-life (hour) and clearance (mL/h/kg) values were 0.18 and 778, 0.29 and 577, and 0.32 and 430, respectively, when the PK parameters for males and females were combined. The current study revealed a similarity in the volume of distribution to the central compartment for MMB4 among the 3 species tested while demonstrating species-related differences in the elimination half-life and clearance of MMB4.

  19. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  20. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  1. Therapeutic response to single intravenous bolus administration of formate dehydrogenase in methanol-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, Arumugham; Rajamani, Rathinam; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2006-02-20

    Methanol remains to be a major public and environmental health hazard. Formic acid is the toxic metabolite responsible for the metabolic acidosis observed in methanol poisoning in humans, in non-human primates and in folate-depleted rodents. Cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate leads to lactic acid accumulation, which contributes significantly to metabolic acidosis. Toxic effects in human beings are characterized by formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis, ocular toxicity, nervous system depression, blindness, coma and death. Elimination of formate is one of the principles of management in methanol poisoning. Hemodialysis facility is not readily available in all the places, in developing countries like India. Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) acts directly over formate and converts formate into CO(2) in the presence of NAD. Effect of single intravenous bolus infusion of formate dehydrogenase, obtained from Candida boidinii; in methanol-intoxicated folate deficient rat model was evaluated. Folate depletion induced by methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Carbicarb (Carb) (equimolar solution of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) was used to treat metabolic acidosis. Experimental design consists of seven groups, namely Saline control, methanol control, MTX control, Enzyme control, MTX-methanol control, MTX-methanol-Carb and MTX-methanol-Carb-Enz group. Male wistar rats treated with MTX (0.3mg/kg) for a week, were injected (i.p.) with methanol (4 gm/kg), 12h latter, Carbicarb solution was infused, following this enzyme was infused (i.v.) in bolus. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for an hour from the cannulated left jugular vein and blood methanol, formate were estimated, respectively, with HPLC and fluorimetric assay. Blood pH, blood gases pO(2), pCO(2) and bicarbonate were monitored with blood gas analyzer in order to evaluate acid base status of the animal. Results obtained show that there is significant elimination of formate within 15 min. It may be

  2. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  3. Vertical-Tail Aerodynamic Configuration of Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-16

    effect of a rapid drop in aerodynamic efficiency of the vertical tail. Fig. 6. Scheme of a hypersonic Fig. 7. British Hotal scheme research craft KEY: a...5 - SSTO in the absence of vertical tail 6 - U.S. Space Shuttle In the British Hotal scheme (Fig. 7) the anomalous central single vertical tail...Feiji Sheji [Aircraft Design], National Defense Industry Publishing House, 1987, pp. 227-235. 2 Young J C, Underwood J M. e: at. NASA CP-2283, 1983

  4. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  6. The long tail of molecular alterations in non-small cell lung cancer: a single-institution experience of next-generation sequencing in clinical molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Caterina; Vacirca, Davide; Rappa, Alessandra; Passaro, Antonio; Guarize, Juliana; Rafaniello Raviele, Paola; de Marinis, Filippo; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Casadio, Chiara; Viale, Giuseppe; Barberis, Massimo; Guerini-Rocco, Elena

    2018-03-13

    Molecular profiling of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) is essential to identify patients who may benefit from targeted treatments. In the last years, the number of potentially actionable molecular alterations has rapidly increased. Next-generation sequencing allows for the analysis of multiple genes simultaneously. To evaluate the feasibility and the throughput of next-generation sequencing in clinical molecular diagnostics of advanced NSCLC. A single-institution cohort of 535 non-squamous NSCLC was profiled using a next-generation sequencing panel targeting 22 actionable and cancer-related genes. 441 non-squamous NSCLC (82.4%) harboured at least one gene alteration, including 340 cases (63.6%) with clinically relevant molecular aberrations. Mutations have been detected in all but one gene ( FGFR1 ) of the panel. Recurrent alterations were observed in KRAS , TP53 , EGFR , STK11 and MET genes, whereas the remaining genes were mutated in <5% of the cases. Concurrent mutations were detected in 183 tumours (34.2%), mostly impairing KRAS or EGFR in association with TP53 alterations. The study highlights the feasibility of targeted next-generation sequencing in clinical setting. The majority of NSCLC harboured mutations in clinically relevant genes, thus identifying patients who might benefit from different targeted therapies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Urbach Tail and Optical Absorption in Layered Semiconductor TlGaSe2(1-x)S2x Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, S.; Gürbulak, B.

    2005-01-01

    TlGaSe2(1 - x)S2x single crystals were grown by the modified Bridgman-Stockbarger method. None of the grown crystals had cracks and voids on the surface. The freshly cleaved crystals had mirror-like surfaces and there was no need for mechanical or chemical polishing treatments. The measurements were performed in steps of 10 K if changes were small, and with steps of 3 and 5 K if changes were large in the direct and indirect band gaps energies. The direct and indirect band gaps for TlGaSe2(1 - x)S2x (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) samples were calculated as a function of temperature. There is an abrupt change in the energy spectrum of TlGaSe2(1 - x)S2x in the temperature ranges 90 100, 100, 100 120, 160 180, 220 240, and 240 250 K. The values obtained from the energy peak change may be phase transition temperatures. It is the first time that Urbach's rule and steepness parameters of TlGaSe2(1 - x)S2x samples have been investigated. The steepness parameters and Urbach energies for TlGaSe2(1 - x)S2x samples increased with increasing sample temperature in the range 10 320 K. We have concluded that the compositions x are determined without using the other techniques during crystal growth considering band gaps energies.

  8. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  9. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  10. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  11. Comparative toxicokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys following single and repeated intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Hawk, Michael A; Croutch, Claire R; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Time courses of MMB4 concentrations in plasma were characterized following 7-day repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of MMB4 DMS to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, beagle dogs (single dose only), and rhesus monkeys at drug dose levels used in earlier toxicology studies. In general, there were no significant differences in MMB4 toxicokinetic (TK) parameters between males and females for all the species tested in these studies. After a single IM administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, MMB4 DMS was rapidly absorbed, resulting in average T max values ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Although C max values did not increase dose proportionally, the overall exposure to MMB4 in these preclinical species, as indicated by area under the curve (AUC) extrapolated to the infinity (AUC∞) values, increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The MMB4 DMS was extensively absorbed into the systemic circulation after IM administration as demonstrated by greater than 80% absolute bioavailability values for rats, rabbits, and dogs. Repeated administrations of MMB4 DMS for 7 days did not overtly alter TK parameters for MMB4 in rats, rabbits, and monkeys (150 and 300 mg/kg/d dose groups only). However, C max and AUC values decreased in monkeys given 450 and 600 mg/kg IM doses of MMB4 DMS following repeated administrations for 7 days. Based on the TK results obtained from the current study and published investigations, it was found that the apparent volume of distribution and clearance values were similar among various preclinical species, except for the rat.

  12. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Hwan Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture when used as a single-dose in 6 week old, male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 0.5 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the groups, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, and histopathology results were noted. Hematologically, some changes in the male rats in two experimental groups were observed, but those changes had no clinical or toxicological meaning because they were not dose dependent. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed cell infiltration in the male rats in one of the experimental groups; however, that result was due to spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning. Therefore, this study showed that Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single-dose tests of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, the above findings suggest that treatment with Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed.

  13. Measurement of Na-K-ATPase-mediated rubidium influx in single segments of rat nephron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheval, L.; Doucet, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris (France))

    1990-07-01

    To determine the functioning rate of Na-K-ATPase in the rat nephron, a micromethod was developed to measure the rate of rubidium uptake in single nephron segments microdissected from collagenase-treated kidneys. Because the hydrolytic activity of Na-K-ATPase displayed the same apparent affinity for K and Rb ions, whereas the Vmax elicited by K was higher than that in the presence of Rb, experiments were performed in the presence of cold Rb plus 86Rb. Before the assay, tubules were preincubated for 10 min at 37 degrees C to restore the normal transmembrane cation gradients. 86Rb uptake was measured after washing out extracellular cations by rinsing the tubules in ice-cold choline chloride solution containing Ba2+. Rb uptake increased quasi-linearly as a function of incubation time up to 30 s in the thick ascending limb, 1 min in the proximal convoluted tubule, and 5 min in the collecting tubule, and reached an equilibrium after 5-30 min. The initial rates of Rb uptake increased in a saturable fashion as Rb concentration in the medium rose from 0.25 to 5 mM. In medullary thick ascending limb, the initial rate of Rb uptake was inhibited by greater than 90% by 2.5 mM ouabain and by 10(-5) M of the metabolic inhibitor carbonyl cyanide trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Correlation of Na-K-ATPase hydrolytic activity at Vmax and initial rates of ouabain-sensitive Rb uptake in the successive segments of nephron indicates that in intact cells the pump works at approximately 20-30% of its Vmax. Increasing intracellular Na concentration by tubule preincubation in a Rb- and K-free medium increased the initial rates of Rb intake up to the Vmax of the hydrolytic activity of the pump.

  14. Measurement of Na-K-ATPase-mediated rubidium influx in single segments of rat nephron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheval, L.; Doucet, A.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the functioning rate of Na-K-ATPase in the rat nephron, a micromethod was developed to measure the rate of rubidium uptake in single nephron segments microdissected from collagenase-treated kidneys. Because the hydrolytic activity of Na-K-ATPase displayed the same apparent affinity for K and Rb ions, whereas the Vmax elicited by K was higher than that in the presence of Rb, experiments were performed in the presence of cold Rb plus 86Rb. Before the assay, tubules were preincubated for 10 min at 37 degrees C to restore the normal transmembrane cation gradients. 86Rb uptake was measured after washing out extracellular cations by rinsing the tubules in ice-cold choline chloride solution containing Ba2+. Rb uptake increased quasi-linearly as a function of incubation time up to 30 s in the thick ascending limb, 1 min in the proximal convoluted tubule, and 5 min in the collecting tubule, and reached an equilibrium after 5-30 min. The initial rates of Rb uptake increased in a saturable fashion as Rb concentration in the medium rose from 0.25 to 5 mM. In medullary thick ascending limb, the initial rate of Rb uptake was inhibited by greater than 90% by 2.5 mM ouabain and by 10(-5) M of the metabolic inhibitor carbonyl cyanide trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Correlation of Na-K-ATPase hydrolytic activity at Vmax and initial rates of ouabain-sensitive Rb uptake in the successive segments of nephron indicates that in intact cells the pump works at approximately 20-30% of its Vmax. Increasing intracellular Na concentration by tubule preincubation in a Rb- and K-free medium increased the initial rates of Rb intake up to the Vmax of the hydrolytic activity of the pump

  15. Myocardial infarction in rats: High-resolution single-photon emission tomographic imaging with a pinhole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukihiro, Masashi; Inoue, Tomio; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Erlandsson, K.; Endo, Keigo

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial imaging by means of high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with a pinhole collimator in rats with experimental infarction. Myocardial infarctions were induced in male Wistar rats by ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion. Two days after the reperfusion, pinhole SPET was performed after the intravenous administration of 111 MBq of thallium-201 chloride, using a rotating gamma camera equipped with a pinhole insert (2.0-mm aperature) in a low-energy pinhole collimator. SPET projection data were collected at 6 increments over 360 using a 4-cm radius of rotation to reconstruct the short- and long-axis images. Projection data were acquired in 15 or 30 s, the SPET imaging being accomplished within 40 min after the injection of 201 Tl. After SPET, the rats were sacrificed to remove the hearts for autoradiography (ARG) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining as a visual correlative study. Quantitative correlative studies between pinhole SPET and ARG were performed with linear regression analysis for infarct size and distribution properties (relative counts on SPET images and relative density on autoradiographs) on the short-axis sections. All infarcts (4 mm in minimum diameter) in seven rats were detected by pinhole SPET. The SPET images in rats with or without myocardial infarction were consistent within the findings of ARG and NBT staining. There were significant correlations between pinhole SPET and ARG with respect to the infarct size (r=0.933, P<0.001; n=15) and the relative radiotracer distribution (r=0.931, P<0.001; n=68). This study therefore confirmed the accuracy of myocardial pinhole SPET imaging in rats with myocardial infarction. This method may partially substitute for ARG and prove useful for assessing new myocardial imaging agents in vivo in small laboratory animals. (orig.)

  16. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  17. Actions of ADP, but not ATP, on cytosolic free Ca2+ in single rat hepatocytes mimicked by 2-methylthioATP.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, C. J.; Cobbold, P. H.; Green, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    1. Aequorin-injected, single rat hepatocytes generate series of repetitive transients in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) when stimulated with agonists acting through the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, including ADP and ATP. We have previously described differences in the [Ca2+]i responses of aequorin-injected hepatocytes to ADP and ATP. 2. The effects of the phosphorothioate analogue of ATP, 2-methylthioATP (2-meSATP), have been examined on single rat hepatocytes. This an...

  18. Oxidatively damaged DNA in rats exposed by oral gavage to C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Janne K; Risom, Lotte; Jacobsen, Nicklas R

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are projected to be used in medicine and consumer products with potential human exposure. The hazardous effects of these particles are expected to involve oxidative stress with generation of oxidatively damaged DNA that might......, liver, and lung of rats after intragastric administration of pristine C60 fullerenes or SWCNT (0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg body weight) suspended in saline solution or corn oil. We investigated the regulation of DNA repair systems toward 8-oxodG in liver and lung tissue. RESULTS: Both doses of SWCNT increased...... of genotoxicity, whereas corn oil per se generated more genotoxicity than the particles. Although there was increased mRNA expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in the liver of C60 fullerene-treated rats, we found no significant increase in repair activity. CONCLUSIONS: Oral exposure to low doses of C60...

  19. Single-prolonged stress induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongjuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a life-threatening traumatic experience. Meta-analyses of the brainstem showed that midsagittal area of the pons was significantly reduced in patients with PTSD, suggesting a potential apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus after single-prolonged stress (SPS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether SPS induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in PTSD rats, which may be a possible mechanism of reduced volume of pons and density of gray matter. Methods In this study, rats were randomly divided into 1d, 7d and 14d groups after SPS along with the control group. The apoptosis rate was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled flow cytometry (FCM. Levels of Cytochrome c (Cyt-C was examined by Western blotting. Expression of Cyt-C on mitochondria in the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron was determined by enzymohistochemistry under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The change of thiamine monophosphatase (TMP levels was assessed by enzymohistochemistry under light microscope and TEM. Morphological changes of the ultrastructure of the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron were determined by TEM. Results Apoptotic morphological alterations were observed in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron for all SPS-stimulate groups of rats. The apoptosis rates were significantly increased in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of SPS rats, along with increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, increased expression of Cyt-C and TMP levels in the cytoplasm, which reached to the peak of increase 7 days of SPS. Conclusions The results indicate that SPS induced Cyt-C released from mitochondria into cytosol and apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of rats. Increased TMP in cytoplasm facilitated the clearance of apoptotic cells. We propose that this presents one of the mechanisms that lead to reduced volume of pons and gray matter associated

  20. Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyung-geol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of WCF (Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL.

  1. THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE Hα TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ji, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Sarazin, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, E. [Germany Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M., E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: mingsun.cluster@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ∼2 L{sub *} late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (∼>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (∼3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ∼1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ∼1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (∼0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The Hα data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ∼21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (∼12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ∼23° and starting at a distance of ∼7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary Hα tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ∼2σ level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations

  2. DNA damage in rats after a single oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Risom, Lotte; Wallin, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    The gastrointestinal route of exposure to particulate matter is important because particles are ingested via contaminated foods and inhaled particles are swallowed when removed from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We investigated the effect of an intragastric administration by oral...... gavage of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in terms of DNA damage, oxidative stress and DNA repair in colon epithelial cells, liver, and lung of rats. Eight rats per group were exposed to Standard Reference Material 2975 at 0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 and 24 h. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7...

  3. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  4. Expressions of Hippocampal Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) in the Single-Prolonged Stress-Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhe, Du; Fang, Han; Yuxiu, Shi

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus regulate HPA axis by glucocorticoid negative feedback. Abnormalities in negative feedback are found in PTSD, suggesting that GR and MR might be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry and western blotting to examine the changes in hippocampal MR- and GR-expression after SPS. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased MR- and GR-immunoreactivity (ir) in the CA1 of hippocampus in SPS animals. Change in GR sub-distribution was also observed, where GR-ir was shifted from nucleus to cytoplasm in SPS rats. Western blotting showed that SPS induced significantly decreased MR- and GR-protein in the whole hippocampus, although the degree of decreased expression of both receptors was different. Meanwhile, we also found the MR/GR ratio decreased in SPS rats. In general, SPS induced down-regulation of MR- and GR-expression. These findings suggest that MR and GR play critical roles in affecting hippocampal function. Changes in MR/GR ratio may be relevant for behavioral syndrome in PTSD

  5. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  6. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fat-tailed distributions data, diagnostics and dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger M; Misiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This title is written for the numerate nonspecialist, and hopes to serve three purposes. First it gathers mathematical material from diverse but related fields of order statistics, records, extreme value theory, majorization, regular variation and subexponentiality. All of these are relevant for understanding fat tails, but they are not, to our knowledge, brought together in a single source for the target readership. Proofs that give insight are included, but for most fussy calculations the reader is referred to the excellent sources referenced in the text. Multivariate extremes are not treated. This allows us to present material spread over hundreds of pages in specialist texts in twenty pages. Chapter 5 develops new material on heavy tail diagnostics and gives more mathematical detail. Since variances and covariances may not exist for heavy tailed joint distributions, Chapter 6 reviews dependence concepts for certain classes of heavy tailed joint distributions, with a view to regressing heavy tailed variabl...

  8. Micropore Structure of Cement-Stabilized Gold Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Kyu Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings have often to be stabilized by mixing them with cementing agents. In this study, the pore structure of gold tailings stabilized with Portland cement was evaluated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The investigation was conducted on samples prepared with different fractions of tailings and cement as well as on samples activated with elevated temperature curing and chemical (CaCl2 addition. It was observed that all mixed samples exhibit a mono-modal pore size distribution, indicating that the cement-stabilized tailings are characterized by a single-porosity structure. The results also showed that the higher fraction of tailings and cement leads to a dense and finer pore structure. The total porosity of mixture samples decreases with increasing curing temperature and CaCl2 concentration due to the acceleration of hydration reaction.

  9. Impact of benzodiazepines on brain FDG-PET quantification after single-dose and chronic administration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; García-Varela, Lara; López-Arias, Esteban; Domínguez-Prado, Inés; Cortés, Julia; Pardo-Montero, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current guidelines for brain PET imaging advice against the injection of diazepam prior to brain FDG-PET examination in order to avoid possible interactions of benzodiazepines with the radiotracer uptake. Nevertheless, many patients undergoing PET studies are likely to be under chronic treatment with benzodiazepines, for example due to the use of different medications such as sleeping pills. Animal studies may provide an extensive and accurate estimation of the effect of benzodiazepines on brain metabolism in a well-defined and controlled framework. Aim: This study aims at evaluating the impact of benzodiazepines on brain FDG uptake after single-dose administration and chronic treatment in rats. Methods: Twelve Sprague–Dawley healthy rats were randomly divided into two groups, one treated with diazepam and the other used as control group. Both groups underwent PET/CT examinations after single-dose and chronic administration of diazepam (treated) or saline (controls) during twenty-eight days. Different atlas-based quantification methods were used to explore differences on the total uptake and uptake patterns of FDG between both groups. Results: Our analysis revealed a significant reduction of global FDG uptake after acute (−16.2%) and chronic (−23.2%) administration of diazepam. Moreover, a strong trend pointing to differences between acute and chronic administrations (p < 0.08) was also observed. Uptake levels returned to normal after interrupting the administration of diazepam. On the other hand, patterns of FDG uptake were not affected by the administration of diazepam. Conclusions: The administration of diazepam causes a progressive decrease of the FDG global uptake in the rat brain, but it does not change local patterns within the brain. Under these conditions, visual assessment and quantification methods based on regional differences such as asymmetry indexes or SPM statistical analysis would still be valid when administrating this

  10. A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSencilo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologues and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologues and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons. Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

  11. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle, and sup......We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...

  12. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  13. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...... and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring...

  14. Placental transfer, disposition, and metabolism of a single oral dose of [14CH3S] methamidophos in Sprague Dawley rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.K.; Bakry, N.M.; Aly, H.A.; Abou-Donia, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    A single oral dose of 8 mg/kg (8 μci/kg) of [ 14 CH 3 S]methamidophos was administered on day 18 of gestation to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats. Eight groups of three rats were killed after 10 min. and 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hr. At termination, 27.10% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine, but only 4.19% of the dose was recovered in the feces. Also, 24.59% was recovered as 14 CO 2 , while only 0.11% was detected in expired air as volatile materials. Radiolabeled material was rapidly absorbed and distributed in the tissues with levels in most tissues peaking at one hour. A total of 1.73% of the dose was recovered in the fetus. Methamidophos and its metabolites were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. Methamidophos disappeared biexponentially from tissues and the fetus. The terminal half-lives of methamidophos were 94 and 13.5 hr for plasma and fetus, respectively. The major metabolites in the tissues were monomethyl phosphoramidate and monomethyl phosphate. In addition to these metabolites, phosphoric acid was found in the liver, kidneys, lung, uterus, fetus and urine

  15. Behavioral changes over time in post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from a rat model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoyun; Tian, Qing; Li, Feng; Gao, Junqiao; Liu, Yan; Mao, Meng; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuyan; Li, Genmao; Ge, Dongyu; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhaolan; Song, Yuehan

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is manifested as a persistent mental and emotional condition after potentially life-threatening events. Different animal models of PTSD have been developed for neuro-pathophysiology and pharmacological evaluations. A single prolonged stress (SPS) induced animal model has demonstrated to result in specific neuro-endocrinological dysregulation, and behavior abnormalities observed in PTSD. However, animal studies of PTSD have mostly been performed at one time point after SPS exposure. To better understand the development of PTSD-like behaviors in the SPS animal model, and to identify an optimal period of study, we examined depressive behavior, anxiety-like behavior, physical activity and body weight in SPS model rats for two weeks. Our results confirmed the SPS-induced PTSD-like behavior and physical activity observed in previous studies, and indicated that the most pronounced symptomatic behavior changes were observed on day 1 and 7 after SPS exposure, which may involve stress-induced acute hormone changes and unclear secondary neurobiological changes, respectively. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation into the neuro-pathophysiology of or neuropharmacology for PTSD using the SPS rat model. However, for chronic (pharmacological) studies longer than 7 days, a prolonged PTSD animal model should be developed, perhaps using enhanced stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the Mutagenicity Potential of Supermint Herbal Medicine by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis in Rat Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivar Amanpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity test to analyze their toxicity and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Supermint herbal medicine in DNA breakage of rat hepatocytes in comparison with sodium dichromate by single cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared from male wistar rats and were counted and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Then cells were exposed to the Supermint herbal medicine at doses of 125, 250 and 500 μl/ml. Buffer 4 (incubation buffer and sodium dichromate were used as negative and positive control for one hour respectively. Then cell suspension with low melting point agarose were put on precoated slides and covered with agarose gel. Then lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The parameter under this analysis was the type of migration which was determined according to Kobayashi pattern. Results: With increased dose of Supermint herbal medicine the DNA damage was slightly increased (P<0001. Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect.

  17. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhong Son

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats. Methods:All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Scolopendrid pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 1.0 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results:No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. No significant changes in the weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry were noted between the control group and the experimental group. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion:The above findings suggest Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe to use for treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  18. Oilsand tailings : solving the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2008-11-15

    Oilsands tailings management is an integral part of oil sands research and development. Studies to decrease land disturbance and to resolve environmental and safety issues are underway at several government agencies and industry groups, including the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility and Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies division. Fresh tailings that come from the bitumen extraction process are composed of 85 to 90 per cent water and 10 to 15 per cent solids having the consistency of muddy water. The 3 zones that develop following discharge into the tailings ponds are 3 metres of clear water; residual hydrocarbons that float on the surface; and, a 1 metre zone of water and settling clay particles known as mature fine tailings (MFT) which comprise about 90 per cent of the volume of the tailings pond. The tailings ponds must be built in areas where there is no bitumen suitable for surface mining. The impounded area is surrounded by tailings dykes built from local overburden materials. As such, tailings ponds are managed as dams according to Alberta Dam Safety regulation requirements. Dam stability is increased by the installation of internal seepage control measures. This article described the key guidelines and objectives for the construction of tailings ponds. It also described the 3 primary types of reclamation settings, namely aquatic reclamation, wetland reclamation and terrestrial reclamation. Water removed from the MFT can be recycled back to the plant to reduce the amount of water used from the river. Although this contributes to lower energy costs, there are challenges regarding salt levels that builds up in piping and equipment. The presence of water in the tailings also prevents tailings reclamation. In addition to mechanical systems to remove water, researchers are also considering the use of chemicals and natural processes. In the consolidated tailings (CT) process, the

  19. Single rat muscle Na+channel mutation confers batrachotoxin autoresistance found in poison-dart frogPhyllobates terribilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sho-Ya; Wang, Ging Kuo

    2017-09-26

    Poison-dart Phyllobates terribilis frogs sequester lethal amounts of steroidal alkaloid batrachotoxin (BTX) in their skin as a defense mechanism against predators. BTX targets voltage-gated Na + channels and enables them to open persistently. How BTX autoresistance arises in such frogs remains a mystery. The BTX receptor has been delineated along the Na + channel inner cavity, which is formed jointly by four S6 transmembrane segments from domains D1 to D4. Within the P. terribilis muscle Na + channel, five amino acid (AA) substitutions have been identified at D1/S6 and D4/S6. We therefore investigated the role of these naturally occurring substitutions in BTX autoresistance by introducing them into rat Nav1.4 muscle Na + channel, both individually and in combination. Our results showed that combination mutants containing an N1584T substitution all conferred a complete BTX-resistant phenotype when expressed in mammalian HEK293t cells. The single N1584T mutant also retained its functional integrity and became exceptionally resistant to 5 µM BTX, aside from a small residual BTX effect. Single and combination mutants with the other four S6 residues (S429A, I433V, A445D, and V1583I) all remained highly BTX sensitive. These findings, along with diverse BTX phenotypes of N1584K/A/D/T mutant channels, led us to conclude that the conserved N1584 residue is indispensable for BTX actions, probably functioning as an integral part of the BTX receptor. Thus, complete BTX autoresistance found in P. terribilis muscle Na + channels could emerge primarily from a single AA substitution (asparagine→threonine) via a single nucleotide mutation (AAC→ACC).

  20. Long-term changes in open field behaviour following a single social defeat in rats can be reversed by sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Overkamp, GJF; Benning, MA; Koolhaas, JM; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    1996-01-01

    The long-term consequences of a single social defeat on open field behaviour in rats were studied, with special emphasis on the time course of stress-induced changes. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. After the

  1. l-arginine modulates inflammation and muscle regulatory genes after a single session of resistance exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S R L; Brito, V G B; Mello, W G; Oliveira, S H P

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the skeletal muscle adaptation to l-arginine supplementation prior to a single session of resistance exercise (RE) during the early phase of muscle repair. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into non-exercised (Control), RE plus vehicle (RE); RE plus l-arginine (RE+L-arg) and RE plus aminoguanidine (RE+AG) groups. Animals received four doses of either vehicle (0.9% NaCl), l-arg (1 g/b.w.), or AG (iNOS inhibitor) (50 mg/b.w.). The animals performed a single RE session until the concentric failure (ladder climbing; 80% overload) and the skeletal muscles were harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours post-RE. The RE resulted in increased neutrophil infiltrate (24 hours post-RE) (3621 vs 11852; Pl-arginine supplementation attenuates neutrophil infiltration (5622; Pl-arginine supplementation seems to attenuate the resolution of RE-induced muscle inflammation and up-regulates MyoD expression during the early phase of muscle repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Single Postnatal Dose of Dexamethasone Enhances Memory of Rat Pups Later in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Jer Tsai

    Full Text Available Postnatal dexamethasone (Dex therapy is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, which might be related to its timing of administration. We used time-dated pregnant Wistar albino rats, whose litters were divided into experimental (Dex and control groups intraperitoneally administered one dose of Dex (0.5 mg/kg or normal saline (NS, respectively, at either day 1 (P1 or 7 (P7. The magnitude of the contextual freezing response and performance on the Morris water maze were significantly higher in the Dex-P7 group than in those of the other groups at P56. Dendritic spine density, membranous expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunit NR2A/2B, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95 were significantly higher in the Dex-P7 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, cytosolic expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K was significantly higher in the Dex group than in NS group. Moreover, Dex administration at P7 increased cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and the survival of newly born neurons in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest Dex at P7 enhances the acquisition of contextual fear and spatial memory later in life due to the modulation of the newly born neurons, increase in dendritic spine number, and NMDAR expression.

  3. Practical considerations of pyrite oxidation control in uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The problems posed by the oxidation of pyrite in uranium tailings include the generation of sulfuric acid and acid sulfate metal salts. These have substantial negative impacts on watercourse biota by themselves, and the lowered pH levels tend to mobilize heavy metals present in the tailings the rate of oxidation of pyrite at lower pH levels is catalyzed by sulfur and iron oxidizing bacteria present in soils. No single clear solution to the problems came from this study. Exclusion of air is a most important preventative of bacterial catalysis of oxidation. Bactericides, chemically breaking the chain of integrated oxidation reactions, maintaining anaerobic conditions, or maintaining a neutral or alkaline pH all reduce the oxidation rate. Removal of pyrite by flotation will reduce but not eliminate the impact of pyrite oxidation. Controlled oxidation of the remaining sulfide in the flotation tails would provide an innocuous tailing so far as acidity generation is concerned

  4. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  5. Effect of single and repeated heat stress on chemical signals of heat shock response cascade in the rat's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Gordana; Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Suzana; Miova, Biljana

    2017-11-24

    Exposure to sublethal heat stress activates a complex cascade of signaling events, such as activators (NO), signal molecules (PKCε), and mediators (HSP70 and COX-2), leading to implementation of heat preconditioning, an adaptive mechanism which makes the organism more tolerant to additional stress. We investigated the time frame in which these chemical signals are triggered after heat stress (41 ± 0.5°С/45 min), single or repeated (24 or 72 h after the first one) in heart tissue of male Wistar rats. The animals were allowed to recover 24, 48 or 72 h at room temperature. Single heat stress caused a significant increase of the concentration of HSP70, NO, and PKC level and decrease of COX-2 level 24 h after the heat stress, which in the next course of recovery gradually normalized. The second heat stress, 24 h after the first one, caused a significant reduction of the HSP70 levels, concentration of NO and PKCɛ, and significant increase of COX-2 concentration. The second exposure, 72 h after the first heat stress, caused more expressive changes of HSP70 and NO in the 24 h-recovery groups. The level of PKCɛ was not significantly changed, but there was significantly increased COX-2 concentration during recovery. Serum activity of AST, ALT, and CK was reduced after single exposure and increased after repeated exposure to heat stress, in both time intervals. In conclusion, a longer period of recovery (72 h) between two consecutive sessions of heat stress is necessary to achieve more expressive changes in mediators (HSP70) and triggers (NO) of heat preconditioning.

  6. o-Toluidine blood protein adducts: HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection after a single dose in the adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, K.L.; DeBord, G.D.; Swearengin, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) adducts of the suspect human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) were quantified in blood samples collected from rats after a single i.p. injection. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of Hb-adducted [ 14 C]OT followed by extraction with ethylacetate resulted in recovery of 66% of the bound radioactivity. HPLC analysis revealed a single radiolabeled peak which was identified as OT by GC-MS. In subsequent experiments the Hb and Alb adduct levels were determined by HPLC analysis of this split product using fluorescence detection. 4-Ethylaniline was used as internal standard. The detection limit for OT was approximately 450 pg/injection of 5 pmol. mg Hb. Mean adduct levels for Hb increased rapidly over the first 4 hr with the highest (ng/mg Hb ± SD) 3.7 ± 0.5 detected 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after dosing. Hb adducts showed a linear relationship for OT doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg body wt. The Hb adduct t 1/2 (11.2 days) was determined after a single 100 mg/kg OT dose. Hb adduct levels were quantifiable (1.3 ± 0.2 ng/mg Hb) by HPLC/fluorescence 28 days after 100 mg/kg OT

  7. Blood-spinal cord barrier function and morphometry after single doses of x-rays in rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Patricia A.; Vinters, Harry V.; Wong, C. Shun

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of irradiation on blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) function and ultrastructure were evaluated using a rat spinal cord model. Methods and Materials: Rats received a single dose of 25 Gy to the cervical spinal cord (C2-T2). At various times following irradiation and before the onset of paralysis, BSCB function was assessed using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a vascular tracer, and barrier-related structural changes in the capillaries were evaluated using morphometric techniques. Results: Focal extravasation of HRP was seen at 93 days after irradiation, and extensive extravasation was apparent by 114 days in white matter, but not in gray matter. At 93 days, pathologic changes apparent by light microscopy were very minor in the white matter of the irradiated segment. By 107 days, myelin beading, Wallerian degeneration, edema, and histiocytes were apparent in white matter, and these features became increasingly prominent over the following weeks. No noteworthy changes were seen in gray matter at these times. Electron microscopic examination showed that, during the first 93 days following irradiation, more than half of the endothelial cells in white matter had disappeared (p < 0.05). In terms of the putative vascular pores, no abnormalities in endothelial junctions (the presumed small pore) were found, but there was an increase in the density of endothelial vesicles (a putative form of the large pore) in irradiated white matter (p < 0.001), but not in gray matter. Pericytes, thought to act as a second line of defence in the blood-brain barrier, increased in size but not in number in the irradiated white matter of the spinal cord. Conclusion: We suggest that radiation damage to endothelial cells, which form the BSCB prior to the onset of neurological deficit, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of white matter necrosis

  8. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  9. Mechanisms of temporal variation in single-nephron blood flow in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, K P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1993-01-01

    Modified laser-Doppler velocimetry was used to determine the number of different mechanisms regulating single-nephron blood flow. Two oscillations were identified in star vessel blood flow, one at 20-50 mHz and another at 100-200 mHz. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mediates the slower oscillation......, and the faster one is probably myogenic in origin. Acute hypertension increased autospectral power in the 20-50 mHz and 100-200 mHz frequency bands to 282 +/- 50 and 248 +/- 64%, respectively, of control even though mean single-nephron blood flow was autoregulated. Mean blood flow increased 24.6 +/- 6.1% when...... TGF was inhibited by intratubular perfusion with furosemide, and it decreased 42.8 +/- 3.9% when TGF was saturated by tubular perfusion with artificial tubular fluid at high rates. Autospectral power in the low-frequency band decreased 50.5 +/- 9.6% during furosemide and decreased 74.9 +/- 5.9% during...

  10. Effects of stress on the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current in rat cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-li QI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of stress on the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr in rat cardiomyocytes. Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each: control group (Ctrl, exhaustive group (ES, noise group (WN and composite group (ES+WN. Stress animal models were prepared as follows: Rats in ES group were undergoing exhaustive swimming as the stress factor, in WN group undergoing white noise and in ES+WN group undergoing exhaustive swimming + white noise as the stress factor. Langendorff device was used to reversely perfuse collagenase for isolating the rat's ventricular myocytes. The effect of stress on IKr current and gating mechanism of single ventricular myocyte was recorded by whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Compared with the Ctrl group, the tail current density of IKr (IKr,tail of ventricular myocytes increased significantly in ES group and WN group (P<0.01. The IKr,tail current density of the ventricular myocytes in ES+WN group was significantly higher than that in ES group and WN group (P<0.01, and the effect was voltage dependent. Gating mechanism revealed that the half inactivation voltage of IKr,tail (V1/2,inact can be shifted to the right in ES group, WN group and ES+WN group when compared with the Ctrl group, and the recovery time constant shortened after inactivation (P<0.01. However, the steady-state activation, fast inactivation constant and voltage dependence of IKr,tail were not statistically significant in ES group, WN group and ES+WN group when compared with the Ctrl group. Conclusion Stress increases the IKr current in rat cardiomyocytes, suggesting it be one of the electrophysiological bases of stress-induced arrhythmia. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.06

  11. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational

  12. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  13. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We show that the compensation for rare events accounts for a large fraction of the equity and variance risk premia in the S&P 500 market index. The probability of rare events vary significantly over time, increasing in periods of high market volatility, but the risk premium for tail events cannot...... solely be explained by the level of the volatil- ity. Our empirical investigations are essentially model-free. We estimate the expected values of the tails under the statistical probability measure from "medium" size jumps in high-frequency intraday prices and an extreme value theory approximation...... for the corresponding jump tail density. Our estimates for the risk-neutral expectations are based on short maturity out-of-the money options and new model-free option implied variation measures explicitly designed to separate the tail probabilities. At a general level, our results suggest that any satisfactory...

  14. More tail lesions among undocked than tail docked pigs in a conventional herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, H. P.; Busch, M. E.; D'Eath, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of piglets reared in the European Union (EU) and worldwide is tail docked to reduce the risk of being tail bitten, even though EU animal welfare legislation bans routine tail docking. Many conventional herds experience low levels of tail biting among tail docked pigs, however...... it is not known, what the prevalence would have been had the pigs not been tail docked. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of tail lesions between docked and undocked pigs in a conventional piggery in Denmark with very low prevalence of tail biting among tail docked pigs. The study included 1922...... that housing pigs with intact tails in conventional herds with very low prevalence of tail biting among tail docked pigs, will increase the prevalence of pigs with tail lesions considerably, and pig producers will need more hospital pens. Abattoir data indicate that tail biting remarks from meat inspection...

  15. A single subcutaneous bolus of erythropoietin normalizes cerebral blood flow autoregulation after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Ma, XiaoDong; Rochat, Per

    2002-01-01

    . SAH was induced by injection of 0.07 ml of autologous blood into the cisterna magna. EPO (400 iu kg(-1) s.c.) or vehicle was given immediately after the subarachnoid injection of blood or saline. Forty-eight hours after the induction of SAH, CBF autoregulatory function was evaluated using...... was best described by a single linear regression line. A subcutaneous injection of EPO given immediately after the induction of SAH normalized autoregulation of CBF (lower limit in group D: 93+/-4 mmHg, NS compared with groups A and B). Early activation of endothelial EPO receptors may represent...... a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cerebrovascular perturbations after SAH....

  16. Single axon branching analysis in rat thalamocortical projection from the anteroventral thalamus to the granular retrosplenial cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori eOdagiri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS in the rat has a distinct microcoluimn-type structure. The apical tufts of dendritic bundles at layer I, which are formed by layer II neurons, co-localize with patches of thalamic terminations from anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV. To further understand this microcolumn-type structure in the GRS, one of remaining questions is whether this structure extends into other layers, such as layers III/IV. Other than layer I, previous tracer injection study showed that AV thalamic nucleus also projects to layer III/IV in the GRS. In this study, we examined the morphology of branches in the GRS from the AV thalamus in single axon branch resolution in order to determine whether AV axon branches in layer III/IV are branches of axons with extensive branch in layer I, and, if so, whether the extent of these arborizations in layer III/IV vertically matches with that in layer I. For this purpose, we used a small volume injection of biotinylated dextran-amine into the AV thalamus and reconstructing labeled single axon branches in the GRS. We found that the AV axons consisted of heterogeneous branching types. Type 1 had extensive arborization occurring only in layer Ia. Type 2 had additional branches in III/IV. Types 1 and 2 had extensive ramifications in layer Ia, with lateral extensions within the previously reported extensions of tufts from single dendritic bundles (i.e., 30-200 µm; mean 78 µm. In type 2 branches, axon arborizations in layer III/IV were just below to layer Ia ramifications, but much wider (148-533 µm: mean, 341 µm than that in layer Ia axon branches and dendritic bundles, suggesting that layer-specific information transmission spacing existed even from the same single axons from the AV to the GRS. Thus, microcolumn-type structure in the upper layer of the GRS was not strictly continuous from layer I to layer IV. How each layer and its components interact each other in different spatial scale should

  17. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  18. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Findings. Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Conclusion. The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  19. [Intestinal absorption of different combinations of active compounds from Gegenqinlian decoction by rat single pass intestinal perfusion in situ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yi-Zhu; Xu, Ran-Chi; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2012-12-01

    The aim is to study the intestinal absorption of different combinations of active compounds out of Gegenqinlian decoction. Rat single pass intestinal perfusion model with jugular vein cannulated was used. Samples were obtained continuously from the outlet perfusate and the mesenteric vein. The levels of puerarin, daidzin, liquilitin, baicalin, wogonoside, jatrorrhizine, berberine and palmatine were determined by LC-MS/MS and their permeability coefficients were calculated. The results showed that Glycyrrhiza could promote the absorption of the active ingredients in Pueraria which is the monarch herb; meanwhile, Pueraria also played a role in promoting the absorption of liquilitin. Based on the Gegenqinlian decoction and the different combinations experiments, the results concerning the absorption of baicalin and wogonoside were as follows. For baicalin, Pueraria and Glycyrrhiza could promote its absorption and the effect of Pueraria was more obvious. For wogonoside, Pueraria could also promote its absorption, while Glycyrrhiza played a opposite role. Pueraria and Glycyrrhiza both played a part in promoting the absorption of jateorhizine, berberine and palmatine, the effective compounds in Coptis.

  20. Influence of fullerenol C60(OH24 on enzime status in serum of rats after single dose administration of doxorubicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica Biljana Č.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The antracycline antibiotics have one of the widest areas of use in oncology. The most investigated mechanisms of their antineoplastic activity include: interactions of these antibiotics with DNA, inhibition of topoisomerase II and production of free radicals. However, the side effects of doxorubicin, especially cardiotoxicity, are the limiting factor of its use in cancer therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of fullerenol С60(ОH24 as a cytoprotector in single doze administration of doxorubicin on the activity of enzymes in serum (CK, AST, ALT, LDH and a-HBDH in rats in in vivo system. Activity of enzymes (CK, LDH, HBDH, AST, and ALT in serume was measured with standard commercial methods. The results of analysis of the samples treated with the combination of fullerenol and doxorubicin show no difference in enzyme activity in comparison with the control group. The results indicate the possibility of using fullerenol as a protector in the therapy with doxorubicin in malign neoplasm.

  1. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2018-01-15

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. μ-Opioid receptor activation and noradrenaline transport inhibition by tapentadol in rat single locus coeruleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Christie, MacDonald J

    2015-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that combines moderate μ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. Both mechanisms of action are involved in producing analgesia; however, the potency and efficacy of tapentadol in individual neurons has not been characterized. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (KIR 3.x) currents were made from rat locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices to investigate the potency and relative efficacy of tapentadol and compare its intrinsic activity with other clinically used opioids. Tapentadol showed agonist activity at μ receptors and was approximately six times less potent than morphine with respect to KIR 3.x current modulation. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol was lower than [Met]enkephalin, morphine and oxycodone, but higher than buprenorphine and pentazocine. Tapentadol inhibited the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) with potency similar to that at μ receptors. The interaction between these two mechanisms of action was additive in individual LC neurons. Tapentadol displays similar potency for both µ receptor activation and NAT inhibition in functioning neurons. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol at the μ receptor lies between that of buprenorphine and oxycodone, potentially explaining the favourable profile of side effects, related to μ receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shuhua; Wu, Gangwei; Jiang, Zhixian

    2018-01-01

    Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor) or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist) can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1 is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Methods: Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. Results: We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli.

  5. L-arginine supplementation protects exercise performance and structural integrity of muscle fibers after a single bout of eccentric exercise in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia N Lomonosova

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C, downhill running with (RA or without (R L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN. Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively, reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively, and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.

  6. L-arginine supplementation protects exercise performance and structural integrity of muscle fibers after a single bout of eccentric exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonosova, Yulia N; Shenkman, Boris S; Kalamkarov, Grigorii R; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana L

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C), downhill running with (RA) or without (R) L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN). Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively), reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively), and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively). In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.

  7. The mechanism of the transient depression of the erythropoietic rate induced in the rat by a single injection of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, M.J.; Brandan, N.; Leal, T.L.; Bozzini, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the effect of uranyl nitrate (UN) on the rate of erythropoiesis, 1 mg/kg of the compound was injected iv to adult female Wistar rats. The dosing vehicle was injected into control animals. A single injection of UN induced a transient depression of the rate of red cell volume 59 Fe uptake, which reached its lowest value (68% depression) by the seventh postinjection day. By 14 days, 59 Fe incorporation had returned to normal. The amount of iron going to erythroid tissue per hour, reticulocyte count, and immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration in both plasma and kidney extracts were also significantly depressed in UN-treated rats in relation to these values in vehicle-injected rats by the seventh postinjection day. Dose-response curves for exogenous erythropoietin (Epo) performed in polycythemic intact and UN-treated rats 7 days after drug injection revealed a significant depression of the response in UN-injected animals. Moreover, bone marrow cells obtained from rats pretreated with UN formed a reduced number of erythroid colonies in vitro in response to Epo. Therefore, possible mechanisms for the observed transient depression in the rate of erythropoiesis associated with acute UN treatment include decreased Epo production and direct or indirect damage of erythroid progenitor cells

  8. The delayed lung responses to single and repeated intratracheal administration of pure cobalt and hard metal powder in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, G; Lardot, C; Delos, M; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    1995-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that inhalation of cobalt metal dust (Co) mixed with tungsten carbide particles (WC), but not of cobalt dust alone, may cause interstitial pulmonary lesions (hard metal disease). In previous experimental studies in the rat, we have demonstrated the greater acute pulmonary toxicity of a WC-Co mixture compared to Co or WC alone. The present study was undertaken to compare in the same animal model the delayed lung response after intratracheal administration of Co or WC-Co particles (cobalt particle 6.3 wt%). The responses were also compared with those obtained after treatment with arsenic trioxide and crystalline silica used a reference materials producing an acute toxic insult and a progressive fibrogenic response, respectively. Cellular (total and differential counts) and biochemical parameters (LDH, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, total protein, albumin, fibronectin, and hyaluronic acid) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following single and repeated intratracheal instillations. The results indicate that the delayed lung response observed after WC-Co is different from that after cobalt metal alone. A single intratracheal dose of WC-Co (1, 5, or 10 mg/100 g body wt) induced an acute alveolitis which persisted for at least 1 month. Four months after a single instillation of WC-Co, no clear histological lung fibrosis could however be evidenced, indicating a reversibility of the lesions. The effects of cobalt (0.06, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/100 g body wt) or tungsten carbide alone (1, 5, 10 mg/ 100 g body wt) were very modest, if any. Following repeated intratracheal instillations (four administrations at 1-month interval), increased lung hydroxyproline content and histopathological evidence of interstitial fibrosis were observed after WC-Co (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt), but not after administration of each component separately, i.e., Co (4 x 0.06 mg/100 g body wt) or WC (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt). The mechanism of the fibrotic

  9. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  10. Lifshitz Tails for Random Perturbations of Periodic Schrödinger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present paper is a non-exhaustive review of Lifshitz tails for random perturbations of periodic Schrödinger operators. It is not our goal to review the whole literature on Lifshitz tails; we will concentrate on a single model, the continuous Anderson model.

  11. Effects of Calorie Restriction and Fiber Type on Glucose Uptake and Abundance of Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation Proteins in Single Fibers from Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Yu, Carmen S; Verkerke, Anthony R P; Cartee, Gregory D

    2017-11-09

    Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Does ultrasound stimulate osteoconduction? A placebo-controlled single-blind study using collagen membranes in the rat mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Ruben, JL; Raghoebar, GM; Stegenga, B; de Bont, LGM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether ultrasound can stimulate osteoconduction in the mandible, an attempt was made to stimulate the osteoconductive process with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in rats. Materials and Methods: In 64 rats, a 5.0-mm diameter circular mandibular defect was made in the ramus

  13. The tail of integrin activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

  14. Correlative single photon emission computed tomography imaging of [123I]altropane binding in the rat model of Parkinson's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleave, Jacqueline A.; Farncombe, Troy H.; Saab, Chantal; Doering, Laurie C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study used the dopamine transporter (DAT) probe, [ 123 I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(3-iodo-E-allyl)nortropane ([ 123 I]altropane), to assess the DAT levels in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease. We sought to assess if the right to left [ 123 I]altropane striatal ratios correlated with dopamine content in the striatum and substantia nigra and with behavioural outcomes. Methods: [ 123 I]altropane images taken pre- and postlesion were acquired before and after the transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells. The images obtained using [ 123 I]altropane and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared with specific behavioural tests and the dopamine content assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: [ 123 I]altropane binding correlated with the content of dopamine in the striatum; however, [ 123 I]altropane binding did not correlate with the dopamine content in the substantia nigra. There was a significant correlation of altropane ratios with the cylinder test and the postural instability test, but not with amphetamine rotations. The low coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for these correlations indicated that [ 123 I]altropane SPECT was not a good predictor of behavioural outcomes. Conclusion: Our data reveal that [ 123 I]altropane predicts the integrity of the striatal dopamine nerve terminals, but does not predict the integrity of the nigrostriatal system. [ 123 I]altropane could be a useful marker to measure dopamine content in cell replacement therapies; however, it would not be able to evaluate outcomes for neuroprotective strategies.

  15. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  16. Acute administration of single oral dose of grape seed polyphenols restores blood pressure in a rat model of metabolic syndrome: role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of different doses of grape seed polyphenols in cafeteria diet-fed hypertensive rats (CHRs) and to establish the mechanism involved in the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of these compounds in this experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS). Male 8-week-old Wistar rats were fed cafeteria or standard (ST) diet for 10 weeks. After this, the antihypertensive effect of a single oral administration of a polyphenol grape seed extract (GSPE) was tested at different doses (250, 375 and 500 mg/kg) in CHRs. BP was recorded before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-administration. The hypotensive effect of GSPE was also proved in ST diet-fed rats. Additionally, in other experiment, CHRs were orally administered 375 mg/kg GSPE. Four hours post-administration, the rats were intraperitoneally administrated 30 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 5 mg/kg indomethacin [inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin synthesis, respectively]. BP was recorded initially and 6 h post-administration. GSPE produced a decrease in SBP and DBP, the most effective dose (375 mg/kg) showing an antihypertensive effect in CHRs similar to the drug captopril, and did not affect BP of ST diet-fed rats. The antihypertensive effect was completely abolished by L-NAME and partially inhibited by indomethacin. GSPE acts as an antihypertensive agent in a rat model of hypertension associated with MS. The change in endothelium-derived NO availability is one of the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of GSPE in CHRs. Additionally, endothelial prostacyclin contributes to the effect of GSPE on arterial BP.

  17. Closed-Loop Doluisio (Colon, Small Intestine) and Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (Colon, Jejunum) in Rat-Biophysical Model and Predictions Based on Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Zur, Moran; Fine-Shamir, Noa; Cohen, Yael; Markovic, Milica; Garrigues, Teresa M; Dahan, Arik; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival; Avdeef, Alex

    2017-12-29

    The effective rat intestinal permeability (P eff ) was deconvolved using a biophysical model based on parameterized paracellular, aqueous boundary layer, transcellular permeabilities, and the villus-fold surface area expansion factor. Four types of rat intestinal perfusion data were considered: single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in the jejunum (n = 40), and colon (n = 15), closed-loop (Doluisio type) in the small intestine (n = 78), and colon (n = 74). Moreover, in vitro Caco-2 permeability values were used to predict rat in vivo values in the rat data studied. Comparable number of molecules permeate via paracellular water channels as by the lipoidal transcellular route in the SPIP method, although in the closed-loop method, the paracellular route appears dominant in the colon. The aqueous boundary layer thickness in the small intestine is comparable to that found in unstirred in vitro monolayer assays; it is thinner in the colon. The mucosal surface area in anaesthetized rats is 0.96-1.4 times the smooth cylinder calculated value in the colon, and it is 3.1-3.6 times in the small intestine. The paracellular permeability of the intestine appeared to be greater in rat than human, with the colon showing more leakiness (higher P para ) than the small intestine. Based on log intrinsic permeability values, the correlations between the in vitro and in vivo models ranged from r 2 0.82 to 0.92. The SPIP-Doluisio method comparison indicated identical log permeability selectivity trend with negligible bias.

  18. Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clichici, Simona, E-mail: simonaclichici@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Biris, Alexandru Radu [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tabaran, Flaviu [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Filip, Adriana [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup −1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 15–25 nm, interior diameter 10–15 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ► ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF

  19. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin......To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...

  20. Conditions required for the appearance of double responses in hippocampal field CA1 to application of single stimuli to Shäffer collaterals in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosimovskii, V A; Korshunov, V A; Markevich, V A

    2008-03-01

    Stimulation of Shäffer collaterals with single current impulses could evoke double responses in hippocampal field CA1 in freely moving rats. The late response - the population excitatory postsynaptic potential with a preceding transient potential, often biphasic - occurred only after an early population spike and was time-locked to it. The shape characteristics of the late response, its polarity, and its latent period relative to the early population spike suggest that stimulation of Shäffer collaterals gives rise, in CA1, to a wave of excitation which passes through the entorhinal cortex and returns to CA1 directly via fibers of the perforant path. In conscious rats, medium-strength stimulation of Shäffer collaterals, sufficient to evoke a quite early population spike in CA1, did not usually lead to the appearance of a late response; the same stimulation became effective after tetanization of Shäffer collaterals in conditions of long-term potentiation of the early population spike. Furthermore, the appearance of the late response was facilitated in rats falling asleep on the background of high-amplitude, low-frequency EEG oscillations in CA1 characteristic of slow-wave sleep, as well as in sleeping rats, regardless of the EEG pattern.

  1. [Conditions required for appearance of a double response to a single-shock stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in hippocampal field CA1 in freely moving rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosimovskiĭ, V A; Korshunov, V A; Markevich, V A

    2007-01-01

    Schaffer collateral stimulation with a single current impulse can evoke a double response in hippocampal field CA1 of freely moving rats. The late response appears as a population excitatory postsynaptic potential with a preceding short-term potential (frequently biphasic) only after the early population spike and is time-locked to it. The wave shape and polarity of the late response, its latency with respect to the peak of the early population spike suggest that the excitation wave produced in the CA1 field by the stimulation of Schaffer collaterals passes across the entorhinal cortex and returns to the CA1 directly via the perforant path fibers. In waking rat, the medium-intensity stimulation of Schaffer collaterals (able to evoke in the CA1 an early population spike of sufficiently high amplitude) usually does not result in the appearance of the late response. However, similar stimulation becomes efficient after the tetanization of Schaffer collaterals, under conditions of the long-term potentiation of the early population spike. Moreover, the late response occurrence is facilitated in a rat falling asleep after the development in the CA1 of high-amplitude low-frequency EEG oscillations typical for the slow-wave sleep and in a sleeping rat independently of the EEG pattern.

  2. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  3. Segmental-dependent membrane permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration: Evaluation of a triple single-pass intestinal perfusion (TSPIP) approach in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; West, Brady T; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-02-15

    In this paper we evaluate a modified approach to the traditional single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) rat model in investigating segmental-dependent permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration. Whereas in the traditional model one single segment of the intestine is perfused, we have simultaneously perfused three individual segments of each rat intestine: proximal jejunum, mid-small intestine and distal ileum, enabling to obtain tripled data from each rat compared to the traditional model. Three drugs, with different permeabilities, were utilized to evaluate the model: metoprolol, propranolol and cimetidine. Data was evaluated in comparison to the traditional method. Metoprolol and propranolol showed similar P(eff) values in the modified model in all segments. Segmental-dependent permeability was obtained for cimetidine, with lower P(eff) in the distal parts. Similar P(eff) values for all drugs were obtained in the traditional method, illustrating that the modified model is as accurate as the traditional, throughout a wide range of permeability characteristics, whether the permeability is constant or segment-dependent along the intestine. Three-fold higher statistical power to detect segmental-dependency was obtained in the modified approach, as each subject serves as his own control. In conclusion, the Triple SPIP model can reduce the number of animals utilized in segmental-dependent permeability research without compromising the quality of the data obtained.

  4. Molecular and functional identification of cyclic AMP-sensitive BKCa potassium channels (ZERO variant) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in single rat juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulla G; Jørgensen, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the type and functional significance of potassium channels and voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(v)) in single rat JG cells using whole-cell patch clamp. Single JG cells displayed outward rectification at positive membrane potentials and limited net currents......, respectively. Double immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of BKCa and renin in the same cell. cAMP increased the outward current by 1.6-fold, and this was inhibited by 74% with iberiotoxin. Expression of the cAMP-sensitive splice variant (ZERO) of BKCa was confirmed in single-sampled JG cells by RT...... no effect. We conclude that JG cells express functional cAMP-sensitive BKCa channels (the ZERO splice variant) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels....

  5. Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of [14C] p-nitrophenol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Qare, A.W.; Brownie, C.F.; Abou-Donia, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg (10 μCi/kg, 16% of acute oral LD 50 ) of uniformly phenyl-labeled [ 14 C]p-nitrophenol were investigated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Three animals were killed on gestation day 18, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after dosing. Radioactivity was rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the maternal and fetal tissues. The gastrointestinal tract contents retained 20% and 2% of the dose at 0.5 h and 4 h after dosing. The peak maternal plasma concentration of radioactivity (μg p-nitrophenol equivalent/ml) was 7.17 compared with 0.37 for fetal plasma at 0.5 h. Maximum concentration of radioactivity (μg p-nitrophenol equivalent/g fresh tissue) was detected in most tissues 0.5 h after dosing and was in descending order: kidney 23.27, liver 12.37, placenta 3.56, fetus 2.17, and brain 1.99. Radioactivity was eliminated from plasma and all tissues beiexponentially. The half-lives of elimination of 14 C were 34.65 h and 69.30 h for maternal and fetal plasma, respectively. p-Nitrophenol, detected by HPLC, was the major compound identified in plasma and tissues. While p-nitrophenol disappeared biphasically from maternal plasma and kidney, it was eliminated monophasically from brain, placenta, and liver. p-Nitrocatechol and p-aminophenol were detected in the liver with peak concentrations at 0.5 h of 1.13 and 1.00 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. While the change in the concentration of p-nitrocatechol with time was monophasic, that of p-aminophenol showed a biphasic pattern with elimination half-lives of 1.93 h and 4.95 h, respectively. Radioactivity was rapidly excreted in the urine mostly as polar metabolites, while only 3% of the dose was recovered in the feces. Radioactive materials excreted in the urine comprised: glucuronides 4%, sulfates 8%, hot-acid hydrolysates 11%, nonconjugated compounds 16%, and water-soluble metabolites 61%. This study demonstrated

  6. Single-prolonged stress induces endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptosis in the hippocampus in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research indicated that apoptosis induced atrophy in the hippocampus of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD rats. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced apoptosis has been implicated in the development of several disorder diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum-related pathway is involved in single-prolonged stress (SPS induces apoptosis in the hippocampus of PTSD rats by examining the expression levels of three important indicators in the ER-related apoptotic pathway: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78, caspase-12 and Ca(2+/CaM/CaMkinaseIIα (CaMkIIα. METHODS: Wistar rats were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days after SPS. SPS is a reliable animal model of PTSD. The apoptotic cells in the hippocampus were assessed by TUNEL method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Free intracellular Ca(2+ concentration was measured. GRP78 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR. mRNA of caspase-12 and CaM/CaMkIIα were determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Our results showed that apoptotic cells were increased in the SPS rats. TEM analysis revealed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis in these cells. We observed that GRP78 was significantly up-regulated during early PTSD, and then recovered at 7 days after SPS. By RT-PCR, we observed that the change in caspase-12 expression level was similar to that in GRP78. Moreover, the free intracellular Ca(2+ concentration was significantly higher at 1 day after SPS and decreased in 7 days. CaM expression increased significantly, while CaMKIIα expression decreased significantly in the hippocampus at 1 day after SPS. CONCLUSION: SPS induced change in the expression levels of GRP78, caspase-12 and Ca(2+/CaM/CaMkIIα in the hippocampus of PTSD rats indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum pathway may be involved in PTSD-induced apoptosis.

  7. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  8. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  9. Imaging of striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain with single pinhole SPECT and co-aligned MRI is highly reproducible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Win, Maartje M.L. de; Lavini, Cristina Mphil; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Habraken, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed pinhole high-resolution SPECT system was used to measure striatal to non-specific binding ratios in rats (n = 9), after injection of the dopamine transporter ligand 123 I-FP-CIT, and to assess its test/retest reproducibility. For co-alignment purposes, the rat brain was imaged on a 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner using a specially developed surface coil. The SPECT images showed clear striatal uptake. On the MR images, cerebral and extra-cerebral structures could be easily delineated. The mean striatal to non-specific [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios of the test/retest studies were 1.7 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. The test/retest variability was approximately 9%. We conclude that the assessment of striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios in rats is highly reproducible

  10. Changes in the content of fatty acids in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats after single and fivefold audiogenic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Tatyana; Aripovsky, Alexander; Kulagina, Tatyana

    2017-09-01

    Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures. The total content of fatty acids in field СА3 decreased at all times of examination after a single seizure, whereas it remained unchanged on days 3 and 14 following five AS. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in both fields at all times of observation after a single seizure and fivefold AS did not significantly differ from that in intact animals. The absence of significant changes in the content of stearic and α-linolenic acids and a considerable decrease in the levels of palmitic, oleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were common to both fields at all times after both a single seizure or fivefold AS. The changes in the content of fatty acids in the СА3 and СА1 fields of the brain of AS-susceptible rats indicate that fatty acids are involved in both the development of seizure activity and neuroprotective anticonvulsive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  12. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000 Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers.

  13. Therapeutic ultrasound to stimulate osteoconduction - A placebo controlled single blind study using e-PTFE membranes in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Ruben, JL; Raghoebar, GM; Stegenga, B

    To decrease heating time of bone defects covered with osteoconductive membranes, an attempt was made to stimulate the osteoconductive process with therapeutic ultrasound. In 72 rats, a circular mandibular defect was created and covered on both sides with an e-PTFE membrane. A control group, an

  14. Ultrasound to stimulate mandibular bone defect healing : A placebo-controlled single-blind study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Ruben, JL; Raghoebar, GM; Stegenga, B

    Purpose: Because of the limitations of the body to heal large maxillofacial bone defects, an attempt was made to stimulate mandibular defect healing with low intensity pulsed ultrasound in rats. This ultrasound consists of a 1.5-MHz pressure wave administered in pulses of 200 musec, with an average

  15. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask Latent Cardiopulmonary Effects of Air Pollution Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress th...

  16. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  17. Rapid effects of single small doses of L-thyroxine and triiodo-L-thyronine on growth hormone, as studied in the rat by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, F.; Morreale de Escobar, G.; Escobar del Rey, F.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone deprivation and restitution on growth hormone (GH) economy have been studied in the rat by means of a specific radioimmunoassay. The pituitary GH content and the plasma GH levels before and during stimulation with pentobarbital (''PB-test'') were studied in male rats at different intervals after surgical thyroidectomy (T), and in T rats at different time intervals after the ip injection of 0.20, 1.75, and 5.0 μg thyroxine (T 4 ) or 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 1.0 μg triiodothyronine (T 3 ), all doses being referred to 100 g body wt. Pituitary GH content decreased very rapidly after T, a difference being shown at the end of the shortest time interval studied (24 h); 24 days after T, pituitary GH content was 0.3 percent or less of the pre-T level, the basal plasma GH was lower than in intact controls and an increase in plasma GH during PB-stimulation was no longer observed. When rats T for 30 days or longer were injected with T 4 or T 3 , pituitary GH content increased; basal plasma GH levels increased also and a positive response to PB was observed. An effect on pituitary GH content could be observed as soon as 2 h after the ip injection of 1.0 μg T 3 , or 6 h after 5.0 μg T 4 . The ''latent period'' was somewhat longer when lower doses of the hormones were used. Effects of a single 0.10 μg T 3 dose could be detected within 12 h. L-T 3 appeared to be at least 9 times more potent in vivo than T 4 , as assessed from the effect on pituitary GH. The measurement by RIA of changes in GH content of the rat pituitary may thus provide the most adequate parameter available at present (other than suppression of TRH-induced TSH release) for a biological effect in vivo of single doses of the thyroid hormones, a measurement clearly related to an important physiological role. (U.S.)

  18. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  19. Time course of immune system status in rats during adaptation to single and fractionated external low-level gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambur, M.B.; Mel'nikov, O.F.; Timchenko, S.V.; Timchenko, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The content of serum corticosterone so as immunological and nonspecific reactivity in rats exposed to single or fractionated gamma-radiation (0.35 Gy) were studied during 1 month. It has been revealed that corticosteron level, dynamics of absolute amount of leucocytes, lymphocytes, Rc-receptor-bearing cells in blood, relative content of FcR + -cells in bone marrow, spleen and peripheral lymph nodes of irradiated animals depend on the scheme of irradiation. Single irradiation didn't significantly influence natural and antibody-dependent killer cells activity and basal chemiluminescence level of polymorphonuclear cells, while the fractionated irradiation in equal dose induced considerable fluctuations of these parameters. The direction and intensity of the disturbance depend on the time after irradiation

  20. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  1. Investigating drug absorption from the colon: Single-pass vs. Doluisio approaches to in-situ rat large-intestinal perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; Zur, Moran; Fine-Shamir, Noa; Markovic, Milica; Cohen, Yael; Porat, Daniel; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival; Dahan, Arik

    2017-07-15

    Traditionally, the colon is considered a secondary intestinal segment in the drug absorption process. However, in many cases the role of colonic drug permeability cannot be overlooked. The purpose of this research was to compare colon permeability data obtained using two different rat perfusion methods the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) approach and the closed-loop (Doluisio) perfusion model. A list of 14 structurally diverse model drugs was constructed, and their rat colon permeability was studied using the two methods. The two sets of results were compared to each other, and were evaluated vs. in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo literature values. The SPIP and the Doluisio results exhibited good correlation between them (R 2 =0.81). The best correlation of both sets was obtained with transport studies across Caco-2 monolayers (R 2 ∼0.9), as well as the sigmoidal fit vs. human fraction of dose absorbed (F abs ) data. On the other hand, Ussing chambers data, as well as lipophilicity (Log P) data, resulted in weak correlation to the in-situ results. In conclusion, the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) and the Doluisio (closed-loop) perfusion models were found to be equally convenient and useful for obtaining validated colon permeability values, although more human colonic F abs data are needed for a better understanding of colonic drug permeability and absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P < 0.05). However, LLLT showed better effects than TD and ID regarding PGE2 levels and walking track analysis (P < 0.05). We can conclude that LLLT has more efficacy than topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  4. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO 3 ) and hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  6. Effects of a Single Dose of Erythropoietin on Motor Function and Cognition after Focal Brain Ischemia in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hralová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the influence of erythropoietin (EPO, a basic cytokine in erythropoiesis regulation, on the process of motor function and cognition after focal brain ischemia induced by a local application of endothelin. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced short lasting strong vasoconstriction, with described impact on the structure and on the function of neuronal cells. Neurological description of motor function and Morris water maze test (the swimming test is one of most widely used methods for studying cognitive functions in rodents were used to study the process of learning and memory in three-month-old male albino Wistar rats (n=52. Both tests were performed one week before, and three weeks after ischemia induction (endothelin application on the cortex in the area of a. cerebri media dx.. Experimental group received i.p. injection of EPO (5,000 IU/kg body weight, 10 min before endothelin application. Control group of animals received one i.p. injection of saline at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight at the same time. Only sham surgery was performed in the third group of animals. Rats with EPO pretreatment before the experimental lesion exhibited significantly better motor and cognitive function then those with saline injection. No significant changes in the motor and cognitive function were found in the third group of rats (sham operated controls.

  7. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  8. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  9. Absorption Properties of Luteolin and Apigenin in Genkwa Flos Using In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion System in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Song, Zi-Jing; Jiang, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The flower bud of Daphne genkwa (Genkwa Flos) is a commonly used herbal medicine in Asian countries. Luteolin and apigenin are two recognized active flavonoids in Genkwa Flos. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of Genkwa Flos flavonoids using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model. Using HPLC, we determined its major effective flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, as well as, hydroxygenkwanin and genkwanin in biological samples. The intestinal absorption mechanisms of the total flavonoids in Genkwa Flos (TFG) were investigated using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion rat model. Comparing the TFG absorption rate in different intestinal segments, data showed that the small intestine absorption was significantly higher than that of the colon ([Formula: see text]). Compared with duodenum and ileum, the jejunum was the best small intestinal site for TFG absorption. The high TFG concentration (61.48[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/ml) yielded the highest permeability ([Formula: see text]). Subsequently, three membrane protein inhibitors (verapamil, pantoprazole and probenecid) were used to explore the TFG absorption pathways. Data showed probenecid, a multidrug resistance protein (or MRP) inhibitor, effectively enhanced the TFG absorption ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, by comparing commonly used natural absorption enhancers on TFG, it was observed that camphor was the most effective. In Situ single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment shows that TFG absorption is much higher in the small intestine than in the colon, and the TFG is absorbed mainly via an active transport pathway with MRP-mediated efflux mechanism. Camphor obviously enhanced the TFG absorption, and this could be an effective TFG formulation preparation method to increase clinical effectiveness after Genkwa Flos administration. Our study elucidated the TFG absorption mechanisms, and provided new information for its formulation preparation.

  10. Acute and long-term Purkinje cell loss following a single ethanol binge during the early third trimester equivalent in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Napper, Ruth M A

    2012-08-01

    In the rat, binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure during the early neonatal period (a developmental period equivalent to the human third trimester) can result in a permanent deficit of cerebellar Purkinje cells (Pcells). However, the consequences of a moderate binge alcohol exposure on a single day during this postnatal period have not been established. This is an issue of importance as many pregnant women binge drink periodically at social drinking levels. This study aimed to identify both the acute and long-term effects of exposure to a single alcohol binge that achieved a mean peak blood EtOH concentration of approximately 250 mg/dl during early postnatal life using a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Acute apoptotic Pcell death 10 hours after a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure from postnatal days (PDs) 0 to 10 was assessed using active caspase-3 immunolabeling. Acute Pcell apoptosis was quantified in cerebellar vermal lobules I-X using the physical disector method. Long-term effects were assessed at PD 60 using stereological methods to determine total Pcell numbers in the vermis, lobule III, and lobule IX, following a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure at PDs 0, 2, or 4. Acute apoptosis was induced by EtOH on PDs 1 to 8 in a time and lobular-dependent manner. For EtOH exposure on PD 2, significant long-term Pcell loss occurred in lobule III. EtOH exposure on PD 4 resulted in significant long-term Pcell loss throughout the entire vermis. These results indicate that a single, early EtOH episode of moderate dose can create significant and permanent Pcell loss in the developing cerebellum. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Not single but periodic injections of synovial mesenchymal stem cells maintain viable cells in knees and inhibit osteoarthritis progression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, N; Muneta, T; Koga, H; Nakagawa, Y; Mizuno, M; Tsuji, K; Mabuchi, Y; Akazawa, C; Kobayashi, E; Matsumoto, K; Futamura, K; Saito, T; Sekiya, I

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of single or repetitive intra-articular injections of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model, and elucidated the behaviors and underlying mechanisms of the stem cells after the injection. One week after the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of wild type Lewis rats, one million synovial MSCs were injected into the knee joint every week. Cartilage degeneration was evaluated with safranin-o staining after the first injection. To analyze cell kinetics or MSC properties, luciferase, LacZ, and GFP expressing synovial MSCs were used. To confirm the role of MSCs, species-specific microarray and PCR analyses were performed using human synovial MSCs. Histological analysis for femoral and tibial cartilage showed that a single injection was ineffective but weekly injections had significant chondroprotective effects for 12 weeks. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of LacZ and GFP expressing synovial MSCs revealed that injected MSCs migrated mainly into the synovium and most of them retained their undifferentiated MSC properties though the migrated cells rapidly decreased. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that MSCs maintained in knees while weekly injection. Species-specific microarray and PCR analyses showed that the human mRNAs on day 1 for 21 genes increased over 50-fold, and increased the expressions of PRG-4, BMP-2, and BMP-6 genes encoding chondroprotective proteins, and TSG-6 encoding an anti-inflammatory one. Not single but periodic injections of synovial MSCs maintained viable cells without losing their MSC properties in knees and inhibited osteoarthritis (OA) progression by secretion of trophic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim...... by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis...

  13. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  14. A randomised field study evaluating the effectiveness of buccal meloxicam and topical local anaesthetic formulations administered singly or in combination at improving welfare of female Merino lambs undergoing surgical mulesing and hot knife tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Alison Holdhus; Marini, Danila; Dyall, Tim; Paull, David; Lee, Caroline

    2018-03-08

    This study was a field-based behavioural assessment of the pain responses to surgical mulesing modulated by a buccal formulation of meloxicam (Buccalgesic) and a topical local anaesthetic wound dressing (Tri-Solfen). 20 lambs were randomly allocated to each of: 1) Placebo and sham handled (Sham); 2) Placebo and mulesing (Mules); 3) Buccalgesic and mulesing (Mules+B); 4) Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules+T); 5) Placebo, Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules+T+P); 6) Buccalgesic, Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules+T+B). Lamb behaviour was observed by scan sampling every 15 min for 6 h post mulesing then for 1.5 h daily over the subsequent 10 days. Wound score, wound sensitivity and body weight were recorded on day 4, 7 and 10. On the day of mulesing, abnormal behaviours were reduced for all groups that received the analgesic drugs compared to the Mules group (P < 0.05). Tri-Solfen reduced expression of abnormal behaviours in the first 4 h; Buccalgesic reduced expression of abnormal behaviours between 2 and 6 h; and combination treatment reduced expression of abnormal behaviours over the entire observation period. On the subsequent two days, the drug combination resulted in fewer abnormal postures than Tri-Solfen alone. The drug combination tended to result in lower pain sensitivity (965.3 g tolerated) than either Mules+T+P (828.8 g), or Mules+B (791.2 g) on day 7 (P < 0.05). Use of Tri-Solfen and Buccalgesic singly or in combination improved the welfare of lambs undergoing surgical mulesing. The residual effect of pain and discomfort caused by mulesing, were evident despite provision of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  16. Quantization function for attractive, singular potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, Patrick N.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between atoms and molecules with each other are deep potential wells with attractive, singular tails. Bound state energies are determined by a quantization function according to a simple quantization rule. This function is dominantly determined by the singular potential tail for near-threshold states. General expressions for the low- and high-energy contributions of the singular potential tail to the quantization function, as well as the connection to the scattering length are presented in two and three dimensions. Precise analytical expressions for the quantization function are determined for the case of potential tails proportional to -1/r 4 and -1/r 6 for three dimensions. (orig.)

  17. Increased type I collagen content and DNA binding activity of a single-stranded, cytosine-rich sequence in the high-salt buffer protein extract of the copper-deficient rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Saari, Jack T

    2004-11-01

    Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency not only causes a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but also increases cancer risk in rodent models. However, a possible alteration in gene expression has not been fully examined. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Cu deficiency on protein profiles in rat heart tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets that were either a Cu-adequate diet (6.0 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) or a Cu-deficient diet (0.3 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) for 5 weeks. The high-salt buffer (HSB) protein extract from heart tissue of Cu-deficient, but not Cu-adequate rats showed a 132 kDa protein band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. This protein band stained pink with Coomassie Blue, suggesting the presence of collagens or other proline-rich proteins. Dot immunoblotting demonstrated that total type I collagen was increased by 110% in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient, relative to Cu-adequate, rats. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the 132 kDa protein band contained a collagen alpha (I) chain precursor as well as a leucine-rich protein 130 (LRP130) in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient but not Cu-adequate rats. A gel shift assay showed that HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient rats bound to a single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA with higher affinity than the extract of Cu-adequate rats, similar to reports of an increase in LRP130 single-stranded DNA binding activity in several types of tumor cells. Collectively, these results not only suggest an additional feature of altered collagen metabolism with Cu deficiency but also demonstrate for the first time an increase in single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA binding in Cu-deficient rat heart.

  18. [Safety Evaluation of Rare Sugar Syrup: Single-dose Oral Toxicity in Rats, Reverse Mutation Assay, Chromosome Aberration Assay, and Acute Non-Effect Level for Diarrhea of a Single Dose in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Takamine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.

  19. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  20. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  1. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  2. A single exposure to acrolein causes arrhythmogenesis, cardiac electrical dysfunction and decreased heart rate variability in hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between cardiovascular morbidity, arrhythmias, and exposure to air toxicants such as acrolein. We hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would increase arrhythmias and cause changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of hype...

  3. Expression of cAMP-responsive element binding proteins (CREBs) in fast- and slow-twitch muscles: a signaling pathway to account for the synaptic expression of collagen-tailed subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase at the rat neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Roy C Y; Chen, Vicky P; Luk, Wilson K W; Yung, Amanda W Y; Ng, Alice H M; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-03-25

    The gene encoding the collagen-tailed subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) contains two distinct promoters that drive the production of two ColQ mRNAs, ColQ-1 and ColQ-1a, in slow- and fast-twitch muscles, respectively. ColQ-1a is expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in fast-twitch muscle, and this expression depends on trophic factors supplied by motor neurons signaling via a cAMP-dependent pathway in muscle. To further elucidate the molecular basis of ColQ-1a's synaptic expression, here we investigated the expression and localization of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) at the synaptic and extra-synaptic regions of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from adult rats. The total amount of active, phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) present in slow-twitch soleus muscle was higher than that in fast-twitch tibialis muscle, but P-CREB was predominantly expressed in the fast-twitch muscle at NMJs. In contrast, P-CREB was detected in both synaptic and extra-synaptic regions of slow-twitch muscle. These results reveal, for the first time, the differential distribution of P-CREB in fast- and slow-twitch muscles, which might support the crucial role of cAMP-dependent signaling in controlling the synapse-specific expression of ColQ-1a in fast-twitch muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Single Zidovudine (AZT Administration Delays Hepatic Cell Proliferation by Altering Oxidative State in the Regenerating Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Butanda-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine or Zidovudine (AZT was the first antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV patients, which has good effectiveness but also hepatotoxic side effects that include cell cycle arrest and oxidative/nitrative mitochondrial damage. Whether such an oxidative damage may affect the proliferative-regenerative capacity of liver remains to be clearly specified at doses commonly used in the clinical practice. In this study, we described the oxidative-proliferative effect of AZT administered at a common clinical dose in rat liver submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH. The results indicate that AZT significantly decreased DNA synthesis and the number of mitosis in liver subjected to PH in a synchronized way with the promotion of organelle-selective lipid peroxidation events (especially those observed in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions and with liver enzyme release to the bloodstream. Then at the dose used in clinical practice AZT decreased liver regeneration but stimulates oxidative events involved during the proliferation process in a way that each membrane system inside the cell preserves its integrity in order to maintain the cell proliferative process. Here, the induction of large amounts of free ammonia in the systemic circulation could become a factor capable of mediating the deleterious effects of AZT on PH-induced rat liver regeneration.

  5. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  6. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  7. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J. Speaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease, duration (transient versus chronic, and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control, 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS. Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT. In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS, fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  8. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Kristin J; Paton, Madeline M; Cox, Stewart S; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1 β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF- α , subcutaneous WAT IL-1 β , and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  9. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  10. In Vivo Quantification of 5-HT2A Brain Receptors in Mdr1a KO Rats with 123I-R91150 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Dumas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify suitable image quantification methods to image 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A receptors in vivo in Mdr1a knockout (KO rats (i.e., P-glycoprotein KO using 123I-R91150 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. The 123I-R91150 binding parameters estimated with different reference tissue models (simplified reference tissue model [SRTM], Logan reference tissue model, and tissue ratio [TR] method were compared to the estimates obtained with a comprehensive three-tissue/seven-parameter (3T/7k-based model. The SRTM and Logan reference tissue model estimates of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND correlated well with the absolute receptor density measured with the 3T/7k gold standard (r > .89. Quantification of 5-HT2AR using the Logan reference tissue model required at least 90 minutes of scanning, whereas the SRTM required at least 110 minutes. The TR method estimates were also highly correlated to the 5-HT2AR density (r > .91 and only required a single 20-minute scan between 100 and 120 minutes postinjection. However, a systematic overestimation of the BPND values was observed. The Logan reference tissue method is more convenient than the SRTM for the quantification of 5-HT2AR in Mdr1a KO rats using 123I-R91150 SPECT. The TR method is an interesting and simple alternative, despite its bias, as it still provides a valid index of 5-HT2AR density.

  11. Tailings treatment and nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, P.; Burkus, Z.; Yu, T.; Ulrich, A.; Zhu, D. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands fluid tailings are heterodispersed colloidal and suspended particles comprised of hydrophilic clays, metal oxides, organic acids, and hydration shells that create weak gels. Approximately 3 per cent of the total tailings stream are particles less than 0.2 {mu}m. Smaller fines are mobile with a high charge, and have a reactive surface that attracts organics and heavy metals. The fines also stick to bitumen and inhibit recovery. The particles in clays in tailings are typically less than 2 {mu}m. The multivalent ion increase the tendency for gelling. Treatment processes for fluid fine tailings include flocculation, chemical oxidation, and biological fermentation oxidation processes. Large polyacrylamides are used to capture fines in cross-bridged structures, while inorganic gels are used to hold water. Exopolysaccharides are used in mature fine tailings remediation processes. Other nanotechnology processes for tailings include photo-catalyzed oxidation, ozone pre-treatment; and zero valent ion treatments. Biotreatment researchers are now exploring the use of engineered microbially-mediated wastewater treatment technologies to accelerate oil sands tailings consolidation. Organic coagulants are also being considered as a means of consolidating tailings. It was concluded that various engineering reactors are now being investigated in order to accelerate microbial transformations. tabs., figs.

  12. The big head and the long tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    on the generative mechanism behind the long–tail distribution of Web site use. The analysis shows that the long tail should be seen as a tiered version of popular top sites, and argues that downsizing of large–scale datasets in combination with qualitative and/or small–scale quantitative procedures may provide...

  13. Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in female DA/Han rats after a single i.v. and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmeier, A; Degen, G H; Diel, P; Michna, H; Bolt, H M

    2000-10-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane] is a monomer used in the manufacture of resins with a wide range of applications, e.g. plastic coatings in the food packaging industry. BPA has been shown to have a weak oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Despite its low oestrogenic potency there is concern that, as a consequence of slow clearance, BPA might reach biologically significant levels in humans and animals exposed to environmental levels. To address this concern, we assessed the kinetic behaviour of BPA in female DA/Han rats. Groups of female rats received 10 mg BPA/kg body weight intravenously or 10 or 100 mg BPA/kg body weight orally (by gavage). Blood samples were collected at different time-points and plasma was prepared. Free BPA in the samples was isolated by fluid-fluid extraction. BPA was measured by GC-MS which allowed the reliable determination of BPA concentrations as low as approximately 10 ng/ml plasma. Immediately after i.v. administration, the BPA plasma concentration was in the range of about 15 microg/ml and decreased rapidly within the first hour (to 700 ng/ml). The levels declined further (100 ng/ml at 2 h), and after 24 h the analytical detection limit was reached. BPA was detected in plasma as early as 10 min after gavage administration, indicating rapid initial uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption of BPA was variable. In animals receiving 10 mg/kg, maximal plasma levels were reached after 1.5 h (31 ng/ ml) and 6 h (40 ng/ml). In animals receiving 100 mg/kg, plasma levels reached maxima around 30 min (150 ng/ml) and 3 h (134 ng/ml) after administration. After 48 h BPA was at or below the detection limit in both dose groups. Fluctuations in the BPA plasma concentrations over time point to the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation and protracted absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Using the area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs), low bioavailabilities of 16.4% and 5.6% were calculated for

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  15. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  16. Tail posture predicts tail biting outbreaks at pen level in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Helle Pelant; Hansen, Christian Fink; D'Eath, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Detecting a tail biting outbreak early is essential to reduce the risk of pigs getting severe tail damage. A few previous studies suggest that tail posture and behavioural differences can predict an upcoming outbreak. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate if differences in tail...... posture and behaviour could be detected at pen level between upcoming tail biting pens (T-pens) and control pens (C-pens). The study included 2301 undocked weaner pigs in 74 pens (mean 31.1 pigs/pen; SD 1.5). Tails were scored three times weekly (wound freshness, wound severity and tail length) between 07......:00 h-14:00 h from weaning until a tail biting outbreak. An outbreak (day 0) occurred when at least four pigs had a tail damage, regardless of wound freshness. On average 7.6 (SD 4.3) pigs had a damaged tail (scratches + wound) in T-pens on day 0. Tail posture and behaviour (activity, eating...

  17. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M. S.; Thodberg, K.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50......% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...... (1.0±0.2 v. 0; Piron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need...

  18. Fusion Peptide Improves Stability and Bioactivity of Single Chain Antibody against Rabies Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Shi, Linqing; Zhang, Renxia; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-04-28

    The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application. Therefore, an acidic tail of synuclein (ATS) derived from the C-terminal acidic tail of human alpha-synuclein protein was fused to the C-terminus of scFv57R in order to help it resist adverse stress and improve the stability and halflife. The tail showed no apparent effect on the preparation procedure and affinity of the protein, nor did it change the neutralizing potency in vitro. In the ELISA test of molecular stability, the ATS fusion form of the protein, scFv57R-ATS, showed an increase in thermal stability and longer half-life in serum than scFv57R. The protection against fatal rabies virus challenge improved after fusing the tail to the scFv, which may be attributed to the improved stability. Thus, the ATS fusion approach presented here is easily implemented and can be used as a new strategy to improve the stability and half-life of engineered antibody proteins for practical applications.

  19. Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pittman

    Full Text Available Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves. Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds, dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph

  20. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loram, L.C.; Strand, K.A.; Taylor, F.R.; Sloane, E.; van Dam, A.M.; Rieger, J.; Maier, S.F.; Watkins, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a

  1. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager

    2002-01-01

    BioProtein is a single cell protein produced by a mixed methanotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria culture using natural gas as energy source, which has been approved for animal feed. BioProtein contains a large amount of nucleic acids making the product less suitable for human consumption, theref...

  2. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: A field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H.; Neuschutz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2 m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6 m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3 m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.

  3. Impact of Single or Repeated Dose Intranasal Zinc-free Insulin in Young and Aged F344 Rats on Cognition, Signaling, and Brain Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katie L; Frazier, Hilaree N; Maimaiti, Shaniya; Bakshi, Vikas V; Majeed, Zana R; Brewer, Lawrence D; Porter, Nada M; Lin, Ai-Ling; Thibault, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Novel therapies have turned to delivering compounds to the brain using nasal sprays, bypassing the blood brain barrier, and enriching treatment options for brain aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a series of in vivo experiments to test the impact of intranasal Apidra, a zinc-free insulin formulation, on the brain of young and aged F344 rats. Both single acute and repeated daily doses were compared to test the hypothesis that insulin could improve memory recall in aged memory-deficient animals. We quantified insulin signaling in different brain regions and at different times following delivery. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using MRI and also characterized several brain metabolite levels using MR spectroscopy. We show that neither acute nor chronic Apidra improved memory or recall in young or aged animals. Within 2 hours of a single dose, increased insulin signaling was seen in ventral areas of the aged brains only. Although chronic Apidra was able to offset reduced CBF with aging, it also caused significant reductions in markers of neuronal integrity. Our data suggest that this zinc-free insulin formulation may actually hasten cognitive decline with age when used chronically. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. APPLICATION OF POSTFLOTATION TAILINGS IN HYDROENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stefaniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development stimulated by the increased demand for production of consumer goods and the growing human population result in increasing amounts of various wastes, including tailings. The mining industry in Poland, comprising also mining of non-ferrous metal ores, is a strategic branch of the national economy and at the same time a leading waste producer. Tailings management is a significant problem both in Poland and worldwide. Frequently considerable amounts of wastes are accumulated in mine spoil tips, in areas not always suitable for their deposition, thus leading to the degradation of the surrounding environment. At the huge volume of produced wastes their rational and economically viable management is becoming crucial. On the other hand, depletion of natural aggregate deposits is an important incentive to search for substitutes, which would be suitable for the development of road infrastructure or which could be used in earth structure engineering to construct hydroengineering objects. Since no profitable recovery technologies are available at present, tailings generated by copper mining are deposited in tailings storage facilities. The largest and at the same time the only currently operating facility in Poland is the Żelazny Most Mining Tailings Storage Facility, belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. The paper presents criteria for material quality and density imposed on the material embedded in the static core of the tailings pond dam. For this purpose studies were conducted to confirm applicability of sorted tailings as a material for the construction of earth structures.

  5. The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2018-01-31

    Weaponry, for the purpose of intraspecific combat or predator defence, is one of the most widespread animal adaptations, yet the selective pressures and constraints governing its phenotypic diversity and skeletal regionalization are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of tail weaponry in amniotes, a rare form of weaponry that nonetheless evolved independently among a broad spectrum of life including mammals, turtles and dinosaurs. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test for links between morphology, ecology and behaviour in extant amniotes known to use the tail as a weapon, and in extinct taxa bearing osseous tail armaments. We find robust ecological and morphological correlates of both tail lashing behaviour and bony tail weaponry, including large body size, body armour and herbivory, suggesting these life-history parameters factor into the evolution of antipredator behaviours and tail armaments. We suggest that the evolution of tail weaponry is rare because large, armoured herbivores are uncommon in extant terrestrial faunas, as they have been throughout evolutionary history. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Tail-biting: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  10. Inhibition of Neuropathic Pain by a Single Intraperitoneal Injection of Diazepam in the Rat: Possible Role of Neurosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Zang, Ying; Zheng, Wen-Hui; Wei, Xu-Hong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2016-02-29

    Diazepam binds with the same high affinity to the central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) and the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, which has been renamed translocator protein (TSPO). Both receptors could promote neurosteroid synthesis. In the present study, we investigated whether a single dose of diazepam could inhibit neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (L5 SNL), and whether CBR and TSPO mediated this effect. We found that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam 9 d after L5 SNL significantly depressed the established mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which persisted until the end of the experiments. Furthermore, the effects were mimicked by a single intraperitoneal injection of Ro5-4864, a specific TSPO agonist and pregnenolone, a neurosteroid precursor. In addition, we found that the inhibitory effect of diazepam was also completely blocked by pretreatment with a specific CBR antagonist, flumazenil. The effects of diazepam or Ro5-4864 on neuropathic pain were completely blocked by pretreatment with a neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor, aminoglutethimide (AMG). Finally, any one of the three drugs, diazepam, Ro5-4864 and pregnenolone, could reduce the activation of astrocytes and the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the L5 spinal dorsal horn 14 d after L5 SNL. These results suggest that in addition to exerting effects on CBR, diazepam may inhibit neuropathic pain via TSPO, which promotes neurosteroid formation, subsequently reducing the activation of astrocytes and production of cytokines.

  11. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.; Hendry, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The waste product from uranium mining and milling that generates the greatest public and regulatory concern is tailings. The tailings contain all of the mined material except uranium plus a host of processing reagents. These minerals and compounds have the potential to harm the local environment if not deposited in a fashion that is both geochemically and geotechnically stable. Environmental leadership impels Cameco Corporation to ensure that the methods used to dispose of tailings are at the forefront of best available technologies whereby tailings production results in a product with geotechnical and geochemical characteristics that minimize the environmental impact associated with long-term storage of this product. Cameco has developed an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to ensure optimization of long-term tailings performance and minimal impacts of elements of concern (EOCs) to the receiving environment, regardless of the ore being milled. Within this program chemical and physical performance of tailings from geochemical and geotechnical investigations and baseline environmental data, integrated with regulatory requirements and corporate commitments, will be used to evaluate and set criteria for mill- and tailings management facilities-based chemical and physical tailings characteristics, identify key knowledge gaps, prioritize areas of concern and implement appropriate responses. This paper provides an overview of the Engineered Tailings program, the research being conducted as part of the ET program, and how it links with present and future Cameco operations. (author)

  12. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.

  13. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Studies of Rat Behavior: Transient Motor Deficit in Skilled Reaching, Rears, and Activity in Rats After a Single Dose of MnCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Lapointe, Valerie; Whishaw, Ian Q; Cross, Albert R

    2017-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn 2+ toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn 2+ toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation. We evaluated Mn 2+ effect on skilled reach-to-eat action, locomotion, and balance using a single pellet reaching task, activity cage, and cylinder test, respectively. The tests used are sensitive to the pathophysiology of many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders of the motor system. The behavioral testing was done in combination with a moderate dose of manganese. Behavior was studied before and after a single, intravenous infusion of MnCl 2 (48 mg/kg). The rats were imaged at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days following infusion. The results show that MnCl 2 infusion resulted in detectable abnormalities in skilled reaching, locomotion, and balance that recovered within 3 days compared with the infusion of saline. Because some tests and behavioral measures could not detect motor abnormalities of skilled movements, comprehensive evaluation of motor behavior is critical in assessing the effects of MnCl 2 . The relaxation mapping results suggest that the transport of Mn 2+ into the brain is through the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system with the primary entry point and highest relaxation rates found in the pituitary gland. Relaxation rates in the pituitary gland correlated with measures of motor skill, suggesting that altered motor ability is related to the level of Mn circulating in the brain. Thus, combined MEMRI and behavioral studies that both achieve adequate image enhancement and are also free of motor skills deficits are difficult to achieve

  14. Dermal absorption and distribution of 14 C carbaryl in wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tos-Luty, S.; Tokarska-Rodak, M.; Latuszynska, J.; Przebirowska, D.

    2001-01-01

    The level of 14 C carbaryl was determined in blood (leukocytes, erythrocytes, all blood cells, plasma) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, skin at the site of exposure) of male Wistar rats after dermal administration. The application liquid was 14 C carbaryl solution in 96% ethyl alcohol. This preparation, possessing an activity of 670 kBq/ml, containing 1.67 mg of carbaryl, was applied to the skin of the tail according to Massmann's method in own modification. The amount of the preparation per 1 cm 2 of the tail skin was 0.19 mg of carbaryl (74.4 kBq). The tails of experimental rats were exposed to 14 C carbaryl by soaking for 4 h daily: once, twice or three times. Beta radiation from 14 C was measured in homogenized organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, skin) and in blood by computer controlled Wallac scintillation counter Model 1409, using Multi Calc software. The dermal absorption of carbaryl at the site of exposure and in the surrounding area of about 2 cm was observed already during 4 hour exposure. Carbaryl reached plasma within 4 h of a single dermal exposure and penetrated into leukocytes, erythrocytes, heart, liver, lung, kidney and brain. The largest amount of 14 C carbaryl, about 2% of absorbed dose, was detected in liver. (author)

  15. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Single-dose rosuvastatin ameliorates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in rats with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Saiki, Yuriko; Adachi, Osamu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2015-03-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury during cardiopulmonary surgery is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Using a rat model for monocrotaline-induced PH, we investigated the protective effect of rosuvastatin against IR injury in lungs affected by PH and attempted to elucidate its mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley monocrotaline-treated rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8-9): sham, control + IR, statin + IR, and statin + mevalonolactone + IR. Lung ischemia was induced by left pulmonary artery occlusion (1 hour), followed by reperfusion (4 hours). Rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg) was injected 18 hours before reperfusion and mevalonolactone (1 mg/kg) was injected immediately before reperfusion. The arterial oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction ratio was used as a measure of lung oxygenation. Left lung tissue was analyzed for the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio and protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phospho-eNOS. Macrophage recruitment was assessed by CD68 immunostaining. Our results showed that rosuvastatin decreased IR lung injury (control + IR vs statin + IR) in terms of the arterial oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction ratio (272 ± 43 vs 442 ± 13), wet-to-dry ratio (5.7 ± 0.7 vs 4.8 ± 0.6), and macrophage infiltration (8.0 ± 0.6/field vs 4.0 ± 0.5/field) (P < .05 for all). eNOS and phospho-eNOS were downregulated by IR, which was blocked by rosuvastatin. Effects of rosuvastatin were blunted by mevalonolactone. Single-dose rosuvastatin decreased IR injury in lungs affected by PH via 2 anti-inflammatory mechanisms: preserving eNOS function and inhibiting macrophage infiltration. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single variant bottleneck in the early dynamics of H. influenzae bacteremia in neonatal rats questions the theory of independent action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Levin, Bruce; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-08-01

    There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm S and Sm R ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm S or Sm R . After ruling out other possibilities through years of related experiments, the field seems to have settled on a plausible explanation for this phenomenon: the first bacterium to invade the host activates the host immune response that ‘shuts the door’ on the second invading strain. To explore this hypothesis in a necessarily quantitative way, we modeled this process with a set of mixed stochastic and deterministic differential equations. Our analysis of the properties of this model with realistic parameters suggests that this hypothesis cannot explain the experimental results of Moxon and Murphy, and in particular the observed relationship between the frequency of different types of blood infections (bacteremias) and the inoculum size. We propose modifications to the model that come closer to explaining these data. However, the modified and better fitting model contradicts the common theory of independent action of individual bacteria in establishing infections. We suggest possible experiments that would be able to confirm or reject our proposed modification of the early infection model.

  18. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  19. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  20. White-tailed deer in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA FS

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of the nonyarding white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States. Range appraisal, habitat, harvest regulation, and population control are included.

  1. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian W Sanggaard

    Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  2. On Estimation and Testing for Pareto Tails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, P.; Stehlík, M.; Fabián, Zdeněk; Střelec, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 89-108 ISSN 0204-9805 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : testing against heavy tails * asymptotic properties of estimators * point estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. A single episode of high intensity sound inhibits long-term potentiation in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Deus, J L; Cunha, A O S; Terzian, A L; Resstel, L B; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Almeida, S S; Leão, R M

    2017-10-26

    Exposure to loud sounds has become increasingly common. The most common consequences of loud sound exposure are deafness and tinnitus, but emotional and cognitive problems are also associated with loud sound exposure. Loud sounds can activate the hipothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in the secretion of corticosterone, which affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to short episodes of high intensity sound inhibited hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without affecting spatial learning and memory. Here we aimed to study the impact of short term loud sound exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and function. We found that a single minute of 110 dB sound inhibits hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 LTP for 24 hours. This effect did not occur with an 80-dB sound exposure, was not correlated with corticosterone secretion and was also observed in the perforant-dentate gyrus synapse. We found that despite the deficit in the LTP these animals presented normal spatial learning and memory and fear conditioning. We conclude that a single episode of high-intensity sound impairs hippocampal LTP, without impairing memory and learning. Our results show that the hippocampus is very responsive to loud sounds which can have a potential, but not yet identified, impact on its function.

  4. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  5. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Danielsen, C. C.; Wogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...... of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments....

  6. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  7. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  8. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  9. Static Stability and Control of Canard Configurations at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 2.22 - Triangular Wing and Canard with Twin Vertical Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Victor L.

    1961-01-01

    The static aerodynamic characteristics of a canard airplane configuration having twin vertical stabilizing surfaces are presented. The model consisted of a wing and canard both of triangular plan form and aspect ratio 2 mounted on a Sears-Haack body of fineness ratio 12.5 and two swept and tapered wing-mounted vertical tails of aspect ratio 1.35. Data are presented for Mach numbers from 0.70 to 2.22 and for angles of attack from -6 to +18 deg. at 0 and 5 deg. sideslip. Tests were made with the canard off and with the canard on. Nominal canard deflection angles ranged from 0 to 10 deg. The Reynolds number was 3.68 x 10(exp 6) based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Selected portions of the data obtained in this investigation are compared with previously published results for the same model having a single vertical tail instead of twin vertical tails. Without the canard, the directional stability at supersonic Mach numbers and high angles of attack was improved slightly by replacing the single tail with twin tails. However, at a Mach number of 0.70, the directional stability of the twin-tail model deteriorated rapidly with increasing angle of attack above 10 deg. and fell considerably below the level for the single-tail model. At subsonic speeds the directional stability of the twin-tail model with the canard was comparable to that for the single-tail model and at supersonic speed it was considerably greater at high angles of attack. Unlike the single-tail model, the twin-tail model at 50 sideslip exhibited an unstable break in the variation of pitching-moment coefficient with lift coefficient near 10 deg. angle of attack for 0.70 Mach number.

  10. Passage and absorption of dietary and endogenous nitrogen in different regions of the digestive tract of rats given a single meal of 15N-labelled barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, I.G.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats (86.9 +- 0.96 g) were fasted for 24 hours and then offered a single meal (intake of 1 to 2.5 g) of 15 N-labelled barley (5.34 atom% 15 N excess). The test meal also contained Cr 2 O 3 (20 mg/g). Groups of five animals were killed 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 4; 6 and 8 hours after removal of food. The contents of different regions of the digestive tract (stomach, proximal, middle and distal third of small intestine, large intestine) and feces were analyzed for Cr 2 O 3 and for N and 15 N abundance in both a TCA soluble and a TCA precipitable fraction. The distribution patterns of Cr 2 O 3 and 15 N along the digestive tract were very similar. If the disappearance of 15 N from the contents of the small and of the large intestines was expressed as a proportion of the gastric outflow of 15 N, a disappearance rate of 90% was found. On the basis of isotopic dilution the proportion of dietary nitrogen in digesta was calculated. The results illustrated the intensive dilution of dietary nitrogen by endogenous secretions in all regions of the digestive tract. In the distal small intestine endogenous nitrogen accounted for 70% of total nitrogen. 17 mg endogenous N were produced by the stomach within 8 hours after the single meal. The results show the value of the method in determining the true digestibility of nitrogen in 15 N-labelled feedstuffs more accurately than with classical methods and in providing an insight into the dynamics of nitrogen absorption and secretion in the digestive tract. (author)

  11. Plasma Catecholamines (CA) and Gene Expression of CA Biosynthetic Enzymes in Adrenal Medulla and Sympathetic Ganglia of Rats Exposed to Single or Repeated Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, J.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.; Kvetnansky, R.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in blood collected directly during a single or 8-times repeated centrifugation at hypergravity 4G, using remote controlled equipment. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge hypergravity-induced increase. After the last blood collection during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge decelerated and stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels showed none or small changes. Repeated exposure to hypergravity 4G (8 days for 60 min) eliminated the increase in plasma EPI levels at the 15 min interval but did not markedly affect plasma NE levels. To explain these findings we measured mRNA levels of CA biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the adrenal medulla (AM) and stellate ganglia (SG) of rats exposed to continuous hypergravity (2G) up to 6 days. In AM, TH, DBH and PNMT mRNA levels were significantly increased in intervals up to 3 days, however, after 6 day hypergravity exposure, no significant elevation was found. In SG, no significant changes in gene expression of CA enzymes were seen both after a single or repeated hypergravity. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary system, whereas the sympathoneural system is not significantly changed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that during repeated or continuous exposure of the organism to hypergravity the adrenomedullary system is adapted, whereas sympathoneural system is not affected.

  12. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux.

  13. Quantitative analysis of axon bouton distribution of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the rat by single neuron visualization with a viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Yoshinori; Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2013-06-15

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia plays a key role in motor control, and STN efferents are known to mainly target the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), entopeduncular nucleus (Ep), and substantia nigra (SN) with some axon collaterals to the other regions. However, it remains to be clarified how each STN neuron projects axon fibers and collaterals to those target nuclei of the STN. Here we visualized the whole axonal arborization of single STN neurons in the rat brain by using a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein, and examined the distribution of axon boutons in those target nuclei. The vast majority (8-9) of 10 reconstructed STN neurons projected to the GPe, SN, caudate-putamen (CPu), and Ep, which received, on average ± SD, 457 ± 425, 400 ± 347, 126 ± 143, and 106 ± 100 axon boutons per STN neuron, respectively. Furthermore, the density of axon boutons in the GPe was highest among these nuclei. Although these target nuclei were divided into calbindin-rich and -poor portions, STN projection showed no exclusive preference for those portions. Since STN neurons mainly projected not only to the GPe, SN, and Ep but also to the CPu, the subthalamostriatal projection might serve as a positive feedback path for the striato-GPe-subthalamic disinhibitory pathway, or work as another route of cortical inputs to the striatum through the corticosubthalamostriatal disynaptic excitatory pathway. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  15. Comparison of the Local Tolerability to 5 Long-acting Drug Nanosuspensions with Different Stabilizing Excipients, Following a Single Intramuscular Administration in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; De Jonghe, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of common nanosuspension-stabilizing excipients on the nature and temporal evolution of histopathological changes at intramuscular (i.m.) administration sites, 5 groups of 39 male rats per group received a single injection of 1 of the 5 analogous crystalline drug nanosuspensions containing 200 mg/ml of an antiviral compound with particle sizes of ±200 nm and identical vehicle compositions, except for the type of nanosuspension stabilizer. The investigated stabilizers were poloxamer 338, poloxamer 407, d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1,000-succinate (TPGS), polysorbate 80, and polysorbate 80 combined with egg phosphatidylglycerol. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed progressive inflammatory changes at the i.m. administration sites and the draining lymph nodes that differed according to the time point of sacrifice and the type of stabilizer. Although the overall time course of inflammatory changes was similar across the groups, differences in the nature, severity, and timing of the inflammatory response were observed between animals injected with poloxamer- or TPGS-containing nanosuspensions and those injected with formulations containing polysorbate 80. A more severe and prolonged active inflammatory phase, the presence of multinucleate giant cells, prolonged macrophage infiltration of the formulation depot, and more persistent histiocytic infiltrates in the lymph nodes were observed in the polysorbate 80-containing nanosuspension groups. Such vehicle-mediated effects could influence the overall tolerability profile of long-acting nanosuspensions.

  16. Characterization of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2017-12-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. The species is a promising animal model for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to susceptibility to HIV-1. However, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics in northern pig-tailed macaques remains poorly understood. We have previously studied the MHC class I genes in northern pig-tailed macaques and identified 39 novel alleles. Here, we describe the MHC class II alleles in all six classical loci (DPA, DPB, DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB) from northern pig-tailed macaques using a sequence-based typing method for the first time. A total of 60 MHC-II alleles were identified of which 27 were shared by other macaque species. Additionally, northern pig-tailed macaques expressed a single DRA and multiple DRB genes similar to the expression in humans and other macaque species. Polymorphism and positive selection were detected, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of a common ancestor in human and northern pig-tailed macaque MHC class II allelic lineages at the DQA, DQB, and DRB loci. The characterization of full-length MHC class II alleles in this study significantly improves understanding of the immunogenetics of northern pig-tailed macaques and provides the groundwork for future animal model studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of a single session of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions on skeletal muscle and isolated artery gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Newcomer, Sean C; Laughlin, M H

    2011-12-01

    Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) have proven to be an effective noninvasive approach for treatment of patients with claudication, but the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits remain elusive. In the present study, a rodent model of claudication produced by bilateral ligation of the femoral artery was used to investigate the acute impact of a single session of IPC (150 min) on hemodynamics, skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior), and isolated collateral artery (perforating artery) expression of a subset of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. In addition, the effect of compression frequency (15 vs. 3 compressions/min) on the expression of these factors was studied. In ligated animals, IPC evoked an increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1) mRNA (P < 0.01) and immunostaining (P < 0.05), as well as a minor increase in VEGF immunostaining in the muscle endomysium 150 min postintervention. Further, collateral arteries from these animals showed an increased expression of MCP-1 (approximately twofold, P = 0.02). These effects were most evident in the group exposed to the high-frequency protocol (15 compressions/min). In contrast, IPC in sham-operated control animals evoked a modest initial upregulation of VEGF (P = 0.01), MCP-1 (P = 0.02), and CXCL1 (P = 0.03) mRNA in the muscle without concomitant changes in protein levels. No changes in gene expression were observed in arteries isolated from sham animals. In conclusion, IPC acutely up-regulates the expression of important factors involved in vascular remodeling in the compressed muscle and collateral arteries in a model of hindlimb ischemia. These effects appear to be dependent on the compression frequency, such that a high compression frequency (15 compressions/min) evokes more consistent and robust effects compared with the frequency commonly employed clinically to treat patients with claudication (3

  18. Social Cost of Tail Loss in Uta stansburiand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S F; Rostker, M A

    1982-11-12

    Tail removal from dominant juvenile Uta stansburiana resulted in a decrease in social status in dyadic encounters. Most lizards were affected after removal of two-thirds of their tails. In some pairs, dominant lizards lost status after removal of one-third of their tails but regained dominance after the other member of the pair lost two-thirds of its tail. Tail loss in nature may impose a social handicap to successful home range acquisition and thereby increase risk of death.

  19. Generalized processor sharing with light-tailed and heavy-tailed input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2003-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic flows are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing, have emerged as an important mechanism for achieving

  20. Tailings neutralization and other alternatives for immobilizing toxic materials in tailings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    This document, ''Tailing Neutralization and Other Alternatives for Immobilizing Toxic Materials in Tailings,'' is the final report in a series of six. It summarizes research completed since the beginning of the project. Three subtasks are included: Subtask A - Neutralization Methods Selection; Subtask B - Laboratory Analysis; and Subtask C - Field Testing. Subtask A reviews treatment processes from other industries to evaluate whether current waste technology from other fields is applicable to the uranium industry. This task also identifies several reagents that were tested for their effectiveness in treating acidic tailings and tailings solution in order to immobilize the contaminants associated with the acid waste. Subtask B describes the laboratory batch and column treatment studies performed on solid waste tailings and tailings solutions over the course of the project. The evaluation of several reagents identified in Subtask A was based on three criteria: (1) treated effluent water quality; (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties; and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. Subtask C presents a field demonstration plan that will evaluate the effectiveness, costs, and benefits of neutralizing acidic uranium mill tailings solution to reduce the potential leaching of toxic trace metals, radionuclides, and macro ions from a tailings impoundment. Details of the related research can be found in the documents listed in the ''Previous Documents in Series.'' 43 refs., 9 figs., 46 tabs

  1. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33

  2. Tail Asymptotics for the Sum of two Heavy-tailed Dependent Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    Let X1,X2 denote positive exchangable heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution function F. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X1 + X2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F an...

  3. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Karanovic

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities, kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v. twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day, tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day or combined T+L treatment (by gavage during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4 protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2 protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria, pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  4. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  5. Measurement of Liver Stiffness Using Shear Wave Elastography in a Rat Model: Factors Impacting Stiffness Measurement with Multiple- and Single-Tracking-Location Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Jonathan H; Elegbe, Etana; Gonzalez, Raul S; Osapoetra, Laurentius; Ford, Tristan; McAleavey, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    The clinical use of elastography for monitoring fibrosis progression is challenged by the subtle changes in liver stiffness associated with early-stage fibrosis and the comparatively large variance in stiffness estimates provided by elastography. Single-tracking-location (STL) shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is an ultrasound elastography technique previously found to provide improved estimate precision compared with multiple-tracking-location (MTL) SWEI. Because of the improved precision, it is reasonable to expect that STL-SWEI would provide improved ability to differentiate liver fibrosis stage compared with MTL-SWEI. However, this expectation has not been previously challenged rigorously. In this work, the performance of STL- and MTL-SWEI in the setting of a rat model of liver fibrosis is characterized, and the advantages of STL-SWEI in staging fibrosis are explored. The purpose of this study was to determine what advantages, if any, arise from using STL-SWEI instead of MTL-SWEI in the characterization of fibrotic liver. Thus, the ability of STL-SWEI to differentiate livers at various METAVIR fibrosis scores, for ex vivo postmortem measurements, is explored. In addition, we examined the effect of the common confounding factor of fluid versus solid boundary conditions in SWEI experiments. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride over several weeks to produce liver disease of varying severity. STL and MTL stiffness measurements were performed ex vivo and compared with the METAVIR scores from histological analysis and the duration of treatment. A strong association was observed between liver stiffness and weeks of treatment with the liver toxin carbon tetrachloride. Direct comparison of STL- and MTL-SWEI measurements revealed no significant difference in ability to differentiate fibrosis stages based on SWEI mean values. However, image interquartile range was greatly improved in the case of STL-SWEI, compared with MTL-SWEI, at small beam

  6. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10 -3 cm/s to values approaching 10 -7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10 -8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  8. Hydrogeochemical studies on WTC uranium tailings lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    In 1974, Environment Canada initiated a series of tailings lysimeter studies at the Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) in Burlington, Ontario, to examine the leachability of radionuclides and major constituents (TDS, pH) from uranium mill tailings. In addition, the study attempted to assess the effect of two leachate control methods (chemical fixation and vegetation) upon the characteristics of tailings leachate. In 1982 IEC Beak Consultants Ltd. was retained to conduct additional physical/chemical characterization of the tailings solids and some leachate samples. This information, together with the existing data, was then used to develop a conceptual model with which to try to explain the behaviour of the tailings during the leaching of the lysimeters. The specific tasks undertaken included: multi-parameter analysis of leachates collected from 4 lysimeters over the last 1 1/2 years of operation; physical/chemical characterization of the final lysimeter solids including grain size, bulk density, sulphate and carbonate con-tent; use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Emission (XRE) spectroscopy, plus Mossbauer spectroscopy to characterize surface precipitates and iron speciation respectively; chemical equilibrium modelling on leachates to estimate controlling species in radioisotope and TDS release

  9. Remote sensing to monitor uranium tailing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report concerns the feasibility of using remotely-sensed data for long-term monitoring of uranium tailings. Decommissioning of uranium mine tailings sites may require long-term monitoring to confirm that no unanticipated release of contaminants occurs. Traditional ground-based monitoring of specific criteria of concern would be a significant expense depending on the nature and frequency of the monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether available remote-sensing data and techniques were applicable to the long-term monitoring of tailings sites. This objective was met by evaluating to what extent the data and techniques could be used to identify and discriminate information useful for monitoring tailings sites. The cost associated with obtaining and interpreting this information was also evaluated. Satellite and aircraft remote-sensing-based activities were evaluated. A monitoring programme based on annual coverage of Landsat Thematic Mapper data is recommended. Immediately prior to and for several years after decommissioning of the tailings sites, airborne multispectral and thermal infrared surveys combined with field verification data are required in order to establish a baseline for the long-term satellite-based monitoring programme. More frequent airborne surveys may be required if rapidly changing phenomena require monitoring. The use of a geographic information system is recommended for the effective storage and manipulation of data accumulated over a number of years

  10. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Ding

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8 or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (n = 8 via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  11. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Non-Monotonic Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaoglu, Kadir; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven L.

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A U-shaped pricing kernel is economically most im...

  12. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Nonlinear Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaoglu, Kadir Gokhan; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A second volatility factor is economically most i...

  13. Genetic background of nonmutant Piebald-Virol-Glaxo rats does not influence nephronophthisis phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yengkopiong JP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jada Pasquale Yengkopiong, Joseph Daniel Wani LakoJohn Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bor, Jonglei State, Republic of South SudanBackground: Nephronophthisis (NPHP, which affects multiple organs, is a hereditary cystic kidney disease (CKD, characterized by interstitial fibrosis and numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. It is caused by mutations in NPHP genes, which encode for ciliary proteins known as nephrocystins. The disorder affects many people across the world and leads to end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic background of the nonmutant female Piebald-Virol-Glaxo (PVG/Seac-/- rat influences phenotypic inheritance of NPHP from mutant male Lewis polycystic kidney rats.Methods: Mating experiments were performed between mutant Lewis polycystic kidney male rats with CKD and nonmutant PVG and Wistar Kyoto female rats without cystic kidney disease to raise second filial and backcross 1 progeny, respectively. Rats that developed cystic kidneys were identified. Systolic blood pressure was determined in each rat at 12 weeks of age using the tail and cuff method. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and chemistry was determined. Histological examination of the kidneys, pancreas, and liver of rats with and without cystic kidney disease was performed.Results: It was established that the genetic background of nonmutant female PVG rats did not influence the phenotypic inheritance of the CKD from mutant male Lewis polycystic kidney rats. The disease arose as a result of a recessive mutation in a single gene (second filial generation, CKD = 13, non-CKD = 39, Χ2 = 0.00, P ≥ 0.97; backcross 1 generation, CKD = 67, non-CKD = 72, Χ2 = 0.18, P > 0.05 and inherited as NPHP. The rats with CKD developed larger fluid-filled cystic kidneys, higher systolic blood pressure, and anemia, but there were no extrarenal cysts and disease did not lead to

  14. Single-dose local administration of parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) with β-tricalcium phosphate/collagen (β-TCP/COL) enhances bone defect healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Zhou, Wan-Shu; Wu, Xin-Jing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Min; Xie, Jia-Bing; Xu, Zhu-Jun; Ding, Guo-Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) combined β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) achieves stable bone regeneration without cell transplantation in previous studies. Recently, with the development of tissue engineering slow release technology, PTH used locally to promote bone defect healing become possible. This study by virtue of collagen with a combination of drugs and has a slow release properties, and investigated bone regeneration by β-TCP/collagen (β-TCP/COL) with the single local administration of PTH. After the creation of a rodent critical-sized femoral metaphyseal bone defect, β-TCP/COL was prepared by mixing sieved granules of β-TCP and atelocollagen for medical use, then β-TCP/COL with dripped PTH solution (1.0 µg) was implanted into the defect of OVX rats until death at 4 and 8 weeks. The defected area in distal femurs of rats was harvested for evaluation by histology, micro-CT, and biomechanics. The results of our study show that single-dose local administration of PTH combined local usage of β-TCP/COL can increase the healing of defects in OVX rats. Furthermore, treatments with single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL showed a stronger effect on accelerating the local bone formation than β-TCP/COL used alone. The results from our study demonstrate that combination of single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL had an additive effect on local bone formation in osteoporosis rats.

  15. [On the influence of D-penicillamine on collage metabolism - investigations of the rupture of strength in tailfibre in rats of several ages (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzenschik, K; Lindenhayn, K; Mühlbach, R; Napieralski, P; Noack, K

    1980-01-01

    The tensile strength of rat tail tendons of animals wtih a different age is more influenced by D-Penicillamine (DPA) in younger rats than in elderly rats. DPA has the best effect in the regions with the highest collagen turnover. After the use of DPA the collagen of tails of the elderly rats resembles the collagen of the younger animals. The reason of this alteration is probably a lower degree of cross-links of the collagen after the use of DPA.

  16. Tree growth studies on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Turcotte, M.

    1982-01-01

    Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared with those from other investigations. Competition for light appears to be a major contributor to mortality. Differences in soil moisture conditions under a tree stand as compared to those under a grass sward are potentially significant enough to affect the tailings hydrology and effluent contamination. Recommendations include planting seeds of deciduous species or deciduous and coniferous seedlings on strips of freshly disturbed tailings. The disturbed strips would provide reduced competition for the initial year and assist in tree survival. The planting of block stands of coniferous or deciduous trees would be useful for evaluating the hydrological impact of the trees as compared to the present grass sward

  17. Field evaporation test of uranium tailings solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, B.L.; Shepard, T.A.; Stewart, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to observe the effect on evaporation rate of a uranium tailings impoundment pond water as salt concentration of the water increased. The duration of the experiment was long enough to cause maximum salt concentration of the water to be attained. The solution used in the experiment was tailings pond water from an inactive uranium tailings disposal site in the initial stages of reclamation. The solution was not neutralized. The initial pH was about 1.0 decreasing to a salt gel at the end of the test. The results of the field experiment show a gradual and slight decrease in evaporation efficiency. This resulted as salt concentrations increased and verified the practical effectiveness of evaporation as a water removal method. In addition, the physical and chemical nature of the residual salts suggest that no long-term stability problem would likely result due to their presence in the impoundment during or after reclamation

  18. Core temperature of tailless rats exposed to centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the tail in the altered thermoregulation of rats during acute exposure to hypergravity was investigated, using groups of rats of two ages: 55 days (young) and 138 days (old). Rectal and foot temperature changes were measured in intact and tailless rats subjected to 1 h centrifugation of 2.8 G, with preceding (1 h) and following (1-3 h) 1 G periods. At 22 C, the loss of body heat from the tail per se does not measurably contribute to the hypothermia induced by hypergravity. However, the heat loss from the feet was greater in the tailless rats than in the intact rats from the young group of animals, although there was no significant difference between the tailless and intact rats in the old animal group. It is concluded that the inhibition of heat production is a significant factor in the hypothermia of centrifuged tailless rats, as it has been previously shown to be in the intact animals.

  19. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.MacG.

    2001-01-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  20. Density Structure of the Martian Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauth, M.; Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Pilinski, M.; DiBraccio, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The lack of a significant, global dipole magnetic field at Mars results in a more comet-­-like interaction between the planet and the solar wind. Subsequently, the tail region is highly dynamic and variable in nature. The majority of plasma in the Martian tail is low density (a few cm-3) and warm (several eV). There are times, however, when magnetic flux tubes connected to the ionosphere are configured such that colder (effects of the local magnetic field orientation on such events.

  1. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  2. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  3. The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) protects the kidney from damage produced by a single and low dose of carbon tetrachloride in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Morales, R M; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Rodríguez-Vázquez, M L; Martínez-Saldaña, M C; Del Río, F A Posadas; Garfias-López, J A

    2017-09-05

    Gingko biloba leaves have been used as herbal medicine in China for 5000 years, and the standardized leaf extract (GB-STE) has some beneficial effects in the treatment of age-related, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of the Gingko biloba extract (GbE) against the toxicity of a single and relatively low dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). In male adult Wistar rats, we determined the urine flux, the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of glucose in urine, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in renal cortex as well as two markers of renal function (clearance of inulin and p-aminohippurate); we also compared the histological lesions caused by CCl 4 . Carbon tetrachloride increased the urinary concentration of total proteins, and the renal concentration of MDA; however, it did not modify the urine flux, urinary concentration of glucose, nor the inuline or the p-aminohipurate clearances. Morphologically, CCl 4 generated some tubular damage that was more intense in the inner cortex of kidneys. The GbE extract counteracted the effects of CCl 4 on the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of renal MDA, and the renal histological changes. In conclusion the main toxic effects produced by CCl 4 were prevented by the GbE, probably due to their antioxidant properties and the inhibition of the main P450 isoenzyme (CYP2E1) that metabolize CCl 4 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Different cortical projections from three subdivisions of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus: a single-neuron tracing study with viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    The lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LP) is one of the components of the extrageniculate pathway in the rat visual system, and is cytoarchitecturally divided into three subdivisions--lateral (LPl), rostromedial (LPrm), and caudomedial (LPcm) portions. To clarify the differences in the dendritic fields and axonal arborisations among the three subdivisions, we applied a single-neuron labeling technique with viral vectors to LP neurons. The proximal dendrites of LPl neurons were more numerous than those of LPrm and LPcm neurons, and LPrm neurons tended to have wider dendritic fields than LPl neurons. We then analysed the axonal arborisations of LP neurons by reconstructing the axon fibers in the cortex. The LPl, LPrm and LPcm were different from one another in terms of the projection targets--the main target cortical regions of LPl and LPrm neurons were the secondary and primary visual areas, whereas those of LPcm neurons were the postrhinal and temporal association areas. Furthermore, the principal target cortical layers of LPl neurons in the visual areas were middle layers, but that of LPrm neurons was layer 1. This indicates that LPl and LPrm neurons can be categorised into the core and matrix types of thalamic neurons, respectively, in the visual areas. In addition, LPl neurons formed multiple axonal clusters within the visual areas, whereas the fibers of LPrm neurons were widely and diffusely distributed. It is therefore presumed that these two types of neurons play different roles in visual information processing by dual thalamocortical innervation of the visual areas. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of chronic phenytoin administration on single prolonged stress induced extinction retention deficits and glucocorticoid upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophie A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Mariana; Riley, John; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder. Only two pharmacological agents are approved for PTSD treatment, and they often do not address the full range of symptoms nor are they equally effective in all cases. Animal models of PTSD are critical for understanding the neurobiology involved and for identification of novel therapeutic targets. Using the rodent PTSD model, single prolonged stress (SPS), we have implicated aberrant excitatory neural transmission and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC) in fear memory abnormalities associated with PTSD. The objective of this study is to examine the potential protective effect of antiepileptic phenytoin (PHE) administration on SPS-induced extinction retention deficits and GR expression. Forty-eight SPS-treated male Sprague Dawley rats or controls were administered PHE (40, 20 mg/kg, vehicle) for 7 days following SPS stressors; then, fear conditioning, extinction, and extinction retention were tested. Fear conditioning and extinction were unaffected by SPS or PHE, but SPS impaired extinction retention, and both doses of PHE rescued this impairment. Similarly, SPS increased GR expression in the mPFC and dorsal HPC, and PHE prevented SPS-induced GR upregulation in the mPFC. These data demonstrate that PHE administration can prevent the development of extinction retention deficits and upregulation of GR. PHE exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated sodium channels and decreases excitatory neural transmission via glutamate antagonism. If glutamate hyperactivity in the days following SPS contributes to SPS-induced deficits, then these data may suggest that the glutamatergic system constitutes a target for secondary prevention.

  6. Contribution of Hippocampal 5-HT3 Receptors in Hippocampal Autophagy and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses after a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Min; Yang, Li-Hua; Cui, Rong; Ni, Gui-Lian; Wu, Feng-Tian; Liang, Yong

    2017-05-01

    One of the hypotheses about the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. While certain 5-HT receptor subtypes are likely critical for the symptoms of PTSD, few studies have examined the role of 5-HT 3 receptor in the development of PTSD, even though 5-HT 3 receptor is critical for contextual fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of 5-HT 3 receptor in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) could prevent hippocampal autophagy and the development of PTSD-like behavior in animals. To this end, we infused SR57227, selective 5-HT 3 agonist, into the DH after a single prolonged stress (SPS) treatment in rats. Three weeks later, we evaluated the effects of this pharmacological treatment on anxiety-related behaviors and extinction of contextual fear memory. We also accessed hippocampal autophagy and the expression of 5-HT 3A subunit, Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the DH. We found that SPS treatment did not alter anxiety-related behaviors but prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory, and such a behavioral phenomenon was correlated with increased hippocampal autophagy, decreased 5-HT 3A expression, and increased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. Furthermore, intraDH infusions of SR57227 dose-dependently promoted the extinction of contextual fear memory, prevented hippocampal autophagy, and decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. These results indicated that 5-HT 3 receptor in the hippocampus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hippocampal autophagy, and is likely involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD.

  7. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  8. The single and synergistic effects of the major tea components caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and L-theanine on rat sperm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and L-theanine are the major components of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and the main representatives of the classes of methylxanthines, catechins and free amino acids present in this beverage. There are many studies reporting tea's health benefits, however it is not clear if those effects are mediated by a single component or a synergistic action. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and synergistic effects of tea's major components on rat epididymal spermatozoa survival and oxidative profile during 3-day storage at room temperature (RT). For that, spermatozoa were incubated with caffeine (71 μg mL(-1)), EGCG (82 μg mL(-1)), or L-theanine (19 μg mL(-1)), alone or in combination. Spermatozoa viability was assessed by the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The oxidative profile was established by evaluating the levels of carbonyl groups, protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of sperm storage medium with the three compounds together improved sperm viability, after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, relative to the control and the groups incubated with each component individually. However, at the end of the 72 h of incubation, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the group exposed to the three compounds, illustrating that the combined treatment triggers different alterations in sperm proteins during their maturational process in the epididymis. This study highlights the importance of the synergism between tea components for the beneficial effects usually attributed to this beverage, particularly in sperm storage at RT.

  9. Delayed effects of thallium in the rat brain: regional changes in lipid peroxidation and behavioral markers, but moderate alterations in antioxidants, after a single administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Maldonado, Perla D; Vázquez-Román, Beatriz; Ríos, Camilo; Santamaría, Abel

    2005-07-01

    Thallium (Tl+) toxicity has been related with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) in the central nervous system. Since changes in endogenous antioxidant systems might contribute to acute Tl+-induced OS and neurotoxicity, in this study we measured the metal concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) in different brain regions (hypothalamus (Ht); cerebellum (Ce); striatum (S); hippocampus (Hc) and frontal cortex (Cx)) in possible correlation with the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the animal performance in behavioral tests, all evaluated after a single administration of thallium acetate (8 or 16 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats. Seven days after Tl+ administration, the metal was homogeneously and dose-dependently accumulated in all regions evaluated. LP was increased in Ht, Ce and S, while GSH was depleted in S. Cu,Zn-SOD activity was also decreased in Ht and S. All these changes occurred with 16 mg/kg dose and at 7 days after treatment, but not at 1 or 3 days. In addition, Tl+-treated animals exhibited general hypokinesis, but no changes were observed in spatial learning. Our findings suggest that a delayed response of the brain to Tl+ may be the result of its residual levels. Also, despite the regional alterations produced by Tl+ in LP and the limited changes in endogenous antioxidants, there is a correlation between the Tl+-induced oxidative damage and the affected behavioral tasks, suggesting that, although still moderate, Tl+ evokes neurotoxic patterns under the experimental conditions tested.

  10. Cell turnover in the odontogenic organ of the rat incisor as visualized by graphic reconstructions following a single injection of 3H-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E

    1980-07-01

    Turnover of cells within the odontogenic organ was studied in three dimensions by preparing serial sections of incisors from young male rats killed at various times following a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi/g body weight of 3H-thymidine. Radioautographs showed that at 1 hour after injection labeled cells were present in all cell layers throughout the entire depth of the odontogenic organ. They were encountered frequently within the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium but appeared less abundant within the stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium. With time, the frequency of labeled cells in each layer declined progressively, and more rapidly at the anterior and labial side of the odontogenic organ than toward its posterior and lingual side. Hence labeled cells were observed over the longest time interval in regions where cell layers were in closest proximity to the opening of the apical foramen, that is, near the apical and cervical loops. By 32 days after injection, numerous labeled cells could still be identified within the outer dental epithelium and stellate reticulum near the apical loop (bulbous part of the odontogenic organ) and the outer dental epithelium near the cervical loops ("U"-shaped part of the odontogenic organ). These findings support the hypothesis that cells originate within the bulbous part of the odontogenic organ and migrate anteriorly through the "U"-shaped and root sheath parts of the odontogenic organ during renewal of the incisor. It appears that individual stem cell compartments may be maintained for surface (outer/inner dental epithelium) and intermediate layers (stellate reticulum/stratum intermedium) in the odontogenic epithelium.

  11. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E

    2017-09-07

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  13. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti

    2010-01-01

    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  14. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  15. Aging geomembranes in uranium tailings leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing a study to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with a database to support licensing of uranium mill tailings ponds with geomembranes. As part of this study, geomembranes have been aged under conditions closely approximating those of uranium mill tailings ponds with acidic leachate. The aging procedure and results of tests with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are presented. No degradation products were detected in the HDPE or the leachate. We expect that HDPE will not suffer significant chemical attack by uranium tailings and acidic leachate over the active life (20 years or less) of a pond. Because no large changes in physical properties were observed, we expect that changes in the physical properties of HDPE will be minor at mill tailings ponds with acidic leachate. Although testing is still underway, the PVC geomembrane has undergone some chemical reactions. Elongation declined as exposure temperatures increased, while other physical properties remained constant. The amount of aging simulated will be estimated when chemical analyses on PVC samples are completed. 11 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  16. Mechanisms of tail resorption during anuran metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuya; Nakajima, Keisuke; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2017-09-26

    Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.

  17. Pulse pile-up. II: Tailed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The considerations of the preceding paper are extended to the case of pulses having infinite (exponential) tails. Exact solutions are presented for pure exponential pulses all of the same height; ruin theory is applied for pulses of more realistic form. (Author) (2 refs., 9 figs.)

  18. Encounter of the Ulysses Spacecraft with the Ion Tail of Comet McNaught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gosling, J. T.; Rees, A.; Skoug, R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Armstrong, T. P.; Combi, M. R.; Makinen, T.; McComas, D. J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Comet McNaught was the brightest comet observed from Earth in the last 40 years. For a period of five days in early 2007 February, four instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft directly measured cometary ions and key properties of the interaction of the comet's ion tail with the high-speed solar wind from the polar regions of the Sun. Because of the record-breaking duration of the encounter, the data are unusually comprehensive. O3(+) ions were detected for the first time in a comet tail, coexisting with singly charged molecular ions with masses in the range 28-35 amu. The presence of magnetic turbulence and of ions with energies up to approximately 200 keV indicate that at a distance of approximately 1.6 AU from the comet nucleus, the ion tail McNaught had not yet reached equilibrium with the surrounding solar wind.

  19. Head-tail instability caused by electron cloud in positron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K

    2000-01-01

    In positron or proton storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, a large number of electrons can be generated in the vacuum chamber due to photoemission or secondary emission. The density of this `electron cloud' increases along a bunch train, until the growth saturates under the influence of its own space charge field. In this report, we discuss the possibility of a single-bunch two-stream instability driven by the electron cloud, where any initial head-tail perturbation of the bunch is amplified by the coherent motion of cloud electrons near the beam. Depending on the strength of the beam-electron interaction, the chromaticity and the synchrotron oscillation frequency, this instability either resembles a linac beam break up, or a head-tail instability. We present computer simulations of beam break up and head-tail instabilities for the Low Energy Ring of the KEK B factory, and compare the simulation results with analytical estimates.

  20. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-11-01

    Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Isobe, Keisuke; Morimoto, Akihiro; Shimada, Tomoko; Kataoka, Shogo; Watanabe, Wataru; Uchiyama, Susumu; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Fukui, Kiichi

    2007-01-01

    Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions

  2. A persistent increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscles after a single exercise session by old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Castorena, Carlos M; Cartee, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by predominantly type II (fast-twitch) muscle of old rats, but previous research has not evaluated exercise effects on GU by type I (slow-twitch) muscle from old rats. Accordingly, we studied male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (24 months old) and determined GU (0, 100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) of isolated soleus (predominantly type I) and epitrochlearis (predominantly type II) muscles after one exercise session. Epitrochlearis (100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) and soleus (100 and 200 μU/ml insulin) GU were greater at 3-h postexercise vs. age-matched sedentary controls. Insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr1162/1163) was unaltered by exercise in either muscle. Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Ser473 and Thr308 with 100 and 200 μU/ml, respectively) and soleus (Ser473 with 200 μU/ml). AS160 phosphorylation (pAS160) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Thr642 with 100 μU/ml), but not the soleus. Exercised vs. sedentary rats did not differ for total protein abundance of insulin receptor, Akt, AS160, or GLUT4 in either muscle. These results demonstrate that both predominantly type I and type II muscles from old rats are susceptible to exercise-induced improvement in insulin-mediated GU by mechanisms that are independent of enhanced insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation or altered abundance of important signaling proteins or GLUT4. Exercise-induced elevation in pAkt, and possibly pAS160, may contribute to this effect in the epitrochlearis of old rats, but other mechanisms are likely important for the soleus.

  3. The production and handling of dry uranium and other tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.M.; van Zyl, D.; Fisher, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes equipment for producing dry tailings and proposes a simple test procedure for evaluating the effectiveness with which the resulting sloppy products can be handled in the field. Examples are given of the application of ''dry'' tailings disposal for uranium tailings and for other tailings products in the USA and other countries. The ''sloppy'' nature of ''dry'' tailings often make them difficult to handle in bulk. Methods for assessing handling, transport and stability problems associated with the tailings are discussed. Tailings are considered to be ''dry'' if they have been de-watered sufficiently that they can stand in a substantial pile and can be handled by conventional earth moving equipment without liquefying. It is determined that tailings with moisture contents below or a little above the liquid limit can generally be handled by conventional earth moving equipment. Trafficability and stability require moisture contents appreciably below the liquid limit

  4. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls ...

  5. Microorganisms in oil sands tailings ponds influence the properties and behaviour of mature fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, D.; Cardenas, M.; Fedorak, P.M.; Guigard, S.; Gupta, R.; Siddique, T.; Foght, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large numbers of microorganisms are present in the mature fine tailings produced during oil sands operations. Many different types of microbes grow in communities that compete and cooperate. Most of the microorganisms are anaerobic, and include sulfate-reducing bacteria, nitrate-reducing bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria, fermenters, and methanogens. The microbes produce approximately 40 million litres of greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). All tailings ponds are microbiologically different. The gases are produced by microbial waste products and have been observed to degrade fugitive naphtha in fresh tailings at a Syncrude oil sands facility. At a Shell-Albian Sands facility, the microbes degraded into trisodium citrate. The microbes can aid in the settling of tailings. Agricultural byproducts have been added to tailings in order to demonstrate methane production. However, flow through systems are required to accelerate the biodensification of tailings ponds, and further studies are needed to ensure that the quality of recovered water is maintained for re-use. Various microbe degradation processes and models were presented. tabs., figs.

  6. Strategic Management Plan for Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse 2002

    OpenAIRE

    State of Utah, Department of Natural Resoures, Division of Wildlife Resources

    2002-01-01

    The Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) is one of seven subspecies of Sharp-tailed Grouse. Historically, Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse occurred within sagebrush-native bunch grass habitat throughout the intermountain region, extending from British Columbia, Washington, Idaho and Montana south through portions of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Sharp-tailed Grouse populations range-wide began declining during 1880-1920 (Bart ...

  7. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  8. Combined Triplex/Duplex Invasion of Double-Stranded DNA by "Tail-Clamp" Peptide Nucleic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Larsen, H. J.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    "Tail-clamp" PNAs composed of a short (hexamer) homopyrimidine triplex forming domain and a (decamer) mixed sequence duplex forming extension have been designed. Tail-clamp PNAs display significantly increased binding to single-stranded DNA compared with PNAs lacking a duplex-forming extension...... as determined by T-m measurements. Binding to double-stranded (ds) DNA occurred by combined triplex and duplex invasion as analyzed by permanganate probing. Furthermore, C-50 measurements revealed that tail-clamp PNAs consistently bound the dsDNA target more efficiently, and kinetics experiments revealed...... to five residues was feasible, but four bases were not sufficient to yield detectable dsDNA binding. The results validate the tail-clamp PNA concept and expand the applications of the P-loop technology....

  9. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal...

  10. Leachability of metals from gold tailings by rainwater: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mine leachates from gold tailings impoundments usually contain elevated concentrations of metals and sulphates that impact negatively on water quality. This study was aimed at assessing the leachability of such metals from tailings by rainwater. Oxidised and unoxidised tailings were leached experimentally and through ...

  11. Leachability of metals from gold tailings by rainwater: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Mine leachates from gold tailings impoundments usually contain elevated concentrations of metals and sulphates that impact negatively on water quality. This study was aimed at assessing the leachability of such metals from tailings by rainwater. Oxidised and unoxidised tailings were leached ...

  12. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal

  13. Costs associated with tail autotomy in an ambush foraging lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We induced tail autotomy in free ranging male Cordylus m. melanotus and measured potential shifts in behaviour (movements, foraging behaviour, time exposed and average distance to a potential refuge), and responses to an approaching human compared to marked individuals with complete tails. Tailed and tailless ...

  14. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  15. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ogunniyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  16. Electro-remediation of copper mine tailings. Comparing copper removal efficiencies for two tailings of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Lamas, Victor; Gutierrez, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates the copper removal efficiency when applying electric fields to two mine tailings originating from the same mine but of different age. Eight experiments were carried out - four on tailings deposited more than 20 years ago (old tailings) and four on tailings deposited...... less than 2 years ago (new tailings). Parameters analyzed were the applied voltage drop, acid concentration during pretreatment, and the use of either passive or ion exchange membranes in the experimental setup. The comparison of the results confirms that there are differences in the electroremediation...... between the two tailings, even if the pH is similar and a mineralogical analysis showed similarities between the samples with respect to composition. It was found that an electroremediation is more favorable on the old tailings. The results showed that the best experimental conditions for both tailings...

  17. Long-term neuronal damage and recovery after a single dose of MDMA: expression and distribution of serotonin transporter in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilly, Eszter

    2010-09-01

    "Ecstasy", 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), an amphetamine analogue is one of the most widely used recreational drugs. In spite of the fact that neurotoxic effects of MDMA has been found in several species from rodents to non-human primates, and results increasingly point to damage also in human MDMA users, data about the sensitivity of different brain areas and the recovery after neuronal damage are scarce. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) mRNA in the raphe nuclei also has not been examined. Humans with genetic predisposition for the slow metabolism of MDMA, the so-called "poor metabolizers" of debrisoquin are at higher risk. Five- 9% of the Caucasian population is considered to carry this phenotype. These studies were carried out in Dark Agouti rats, a special strain that show decreased microsomal CYP2D1 isoenzyme activity, and thus may serve as a model of vulnerable human users. These works were designed to characterize MDMA-induced damage and recovery of the serotonergic system including sleep and morphological changes within 180 days. In our experiments we investigated the 5-HTT mRNA expression in the brainstem and medullary raphe nuclei, 5-HTT immunoreactive (IR) fibre densities in several brain areas, and 16 functional measures of sleep in response to a single dose of +/- MDMA (15mg\\kg). Furthermore, behavioural experiments were performed 21 days after MDMA treatment. We found similar changes in 5-HTT mRNA expression in the examined raphe nuclei, namely transient increases 7 days after MDMA treatment followed by transient decreases at 21 days. Significant (20-40%), widespread reductions in 5-HTT-IR fibre density were detected in most brain areas at 7 and 21 days after MDMA administration. All cortical, but only some brainstem areas were damaged. Parallel to the neuronal damage we observed significant reductions in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency, increased fragmentation of sleep and increases in delta power spectra in non-REM sleep. At 180 days

  18. Studies on the use of Zizyphus spina-christi against pain in rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced writhing, formalin), mechanical (analgesy-meter) and thermal (tail-flick) analgesic tests with the aim of elucidating both central and peripherally mediated action in rats and mice. Its antiinflammatory action against egg albumin-induced hind ...

  19. Effects of single-dose neuropeptide Y on levels of hippocampal BDNF, MDA, GSH, and NO in a rat model of pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Maral Kir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, characterized by recurrent seizures, which may increase the content of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Th e objective of this study was to investigate the eff ects of Neuropeptide Y on oxidative and nitrosative balance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by pentylenetetrazole (a standard convulsant drug in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Th ree groups of seven rats were treated intraperitoneally as follows: group  (saline + saline  ml saline, group  (salin + Pentylenetetrazole  ml saline  min before Pentylenetetrazole; and group  (Neuropeptide Y + Pentylenetetrazole  μg/kg Neuropeptide Y  min before  mg/kg Pentylenetetrazole. After  h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation. Hippocampus were isolated to evaluate the malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in three rat groups. Th e results of this study demonstrated that while intraperitoneally administered neuropeptide Y did not result in a statistically signifi cant diff erence in BDNF levels, its administration caused a statistically signifi cant decrease in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and an increase in glutathione levels in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic seizure. Neuropeptide Y were able to reduce nitroxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.

  20. A biosafety evaluation of synchrotron radiation X-ray to skin and bone marrow: single dose irradiation study of rats and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Tang, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-01

    Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25 or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2-90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination. For non-human primate study, three male macaques were subjected to 0.5 or 2.5 Gy SR X-ray on crus. Skin responses of macaques were observed. All rats that received SR X-ray irradiation doses greater than 2.5 Gy experienced hair loss and bone-growth inhibition, which were accompanied by decreased number of follicles, thickened epidermal layer, and decreased density of bone marrow cells (p X-ray but showed significant hair loss when the dose was raised above 2.5 Gy. The safety threshold doses of SR X-ray for rat skin, bone marrow and macaque skin are between 0.5 and 2.5 Gy. Our study provided essential information regarding the biosafety of SR X-ray irradiation.

  1. Tail biting behaviour and tail damage in pigs and the relationship with general behaviour: Predicting the inevitable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.; Reenen, van C.G.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Tail biting behaviour in pigs is a common problem in conventional housing systems. Our study examined the consistency over time in tail biting and tail damage and it explored the predictive value of general behaviours observed in individual pigs and in pens as a whole. Pigs (n = 480), reared in

  2. Monte Carlo-Based Tail Exponent Estimator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 6 (2010), s. 1-26 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Hill estimator * α-stable distributions * tail exponent estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/barunik-0342493.pdf

  3. T-tail flutter analysis using Edge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available shape components). The solution of the structural equation of motion was modified accordingly. This approach is obviously very costly in terms of memory, since a modal mesh deformation is associated with each quadratic mode shape component... a permanent disclaimer on our CFD computer room door that reads: ?The purpose of simulation is insight, not numbers.? Oscar Buneman 1986 A more cynical person, e.g. the first author, might have replaced ?insight? with ?colours?. T-tail flutter...

  4. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  5. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  6. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  7. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Cement mixtures containing copper tailings as an additive: durability properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna Onuaguluchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of copper tailings as an additive, on some durability properties of cement mixtures were investigated. In each mixture, copper tailings addition levels by mass were 0%, 5% and 10%. Compared to the control samples, copper tailings blended pastes showed superior performance against autoclave expansion while insignificant decreases in sulfate resistance of mortars were observed. Copper tailings increased the water absorption and total permeable voids of concretes slightly. However, the compressive and flexural strengths of blended concretes were higher than those of the control samples. Similarly, improved resistance to acid attack and chloride penetration as the copper tailings content of concretes increased were also observed. Results further showed that the ASTM C 1202 rapid chloride permeability test may not be a valid indicator of chloride migration in mixtures containing conductive copper tailings. These results suggest that copper tailings can potentially enhance the durability properties of cement based materials.

  9. Fat-tailed risk about climate change and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Chang; Tol, Richard S.J.; Hofkes, Marjan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of emissions control in welfare maximization under fat-tailed risk about climate change. We provide a classification of fat tails and discuss the effect of fat-tailed risk on climate policy. One of the main findings is that emissions control may prevent the “strong” tail-effect from arising, at least under some conditions such as bounded temperature increases, low risk aversion, low damage costs, and bounded utility function. More specifically, the fat-tailed risk with respect to a climate parameter does not necessarily lead to an unbounded carbon tax. In this case, the basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. - Highlights: • A fat tail is classified and the tail effect on climate policy is discussed. • The optimal carbon tax is not necessarily unbounded. • The basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. • This is a numerical confirmation of the recent theoretical research.

  10. A Note on Upper Tail Behavior of Liouville Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family of Liouville copulas is defined as the survival copulas of multivariate Liouville distributions, and it covers the Archimedean copulas constructed by Williamson’s d-transform. Liouville copulas provide a very wide range of dependence ranging from positive to negative dependence in the upper tails, and they can be useful in modeling tail risks. In this article, we study the upper tail behavior of Liouville copulas through their upper tail orders. Tail orders of a more general scale mixture model that covers Liouville distributions is first derived, and then tail order functions and tail order density functions of Liouville copulas are derived. Concrete examples are given after the main results.

  11. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt

  12. Stability of multilayer earthen barriers used to isolate mill tailings: geologic and geotechnological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-08-01

    This report briefly discusses how seismic activity, erosion, climatic change, slope stability, differential settlement, and cover design could affect the long-term integrity of multilayer earthen cover systems. In addition, the report suggests ways to design and construct covers so that adverse impacts can be avoided or minimized. The stability of multilayer earthen barriers used to isolate uranium mill tailings depends on the morphology of the disposal site, the engineering of the barrier, the condition of the tailings, and the possible impacts of earthquakes, erosion, and climatic changes. When designing a cover for or siting a tailings pile, one must take into account both geologic and geotechnological variables. To alleviate the adverse effects of possible seismic activity, tailings piles should never be located on or near active or capable faults. Existing piles near faults should be moved to safer sites or engineered to withstand possible displacement and shaking. Liquefaction generally can be prevented if the tailings and their underlying material are compacted to a relative density of 60% or greater, or if they are kept dry. If the tailings are saturated, dewatering schemes may have to be used. Erosion may be caused by streams, glaciers, or wind, depending on the geomorphic and atmospheric conditions at the site. Fluvial erosion can be prevented by using dikes (and avoided by initially siting the pile a safe distance away from stream courses). In some cases, fluvial waters or rainfall may have to be rerouted over the pile via armored ditches. Eolian erosion can be minimized by vegetating the disposal site or covering it with gravel. Because of the wide geomorphic and geotechnological variations extant at most sites, a single cover design cannot be cost-effectively and efficiently used at all sites

  13. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  14. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis.

  15. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mao, X. W.; Archambeau, J. O.; Kubínová, Lucie; Boyle, S.; Petersen, G.; Grove, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2003), s. 5-13 ISSN 0033-7587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : endothelial cell number * rat retina * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2003

  16. Myofascial force transmission in dynamic muscle conditions: effects of dynamic shortening of a single head of multi-tendoned rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of myofascial force transmission during dynamic shortening of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III). The anterior crural compartment was left intact. Force was measured simultaneously at the distal EDL III tendon, the proximal EDL tendon and

  17. Controlled intermittent shortening contractions of a muscle-tendon complex: muscle fibre damage and effects on force transmission from a single head of rat EDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Lehti, T.M.; Tiihonen, V.; Komulainen, J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to examine effects of prolonged (3 h) intermittent shortening (amplitude 2 mm) contractions (muscles were excited maximally) of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III) on indices of muscle damage and on force transmission within the intact anterior crural

  18. [Effect of grain-bean package, grain-bean package dietary fiber and single whole grain dietary fiber on dyslipidemia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Chengkai; Sun, Guiju; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Mingxia; Zhang, Haifeng; Guo, Junling; Lan, Xi

    2014-05-01

    To observe and compare the effects of grain-bean package, dietary fiber (DF) extracted from grain-bean package, and DF from grain corn on the blood lipids and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in high-fat, high-cholesterol feeding induced dyslipidemia rats, and observe its effects on regulation of sterol regulatory element protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA expression in rat liver. Consolidation 50 SD rats of clean grade feeding adaptation for one week, randomly assigned into normal control group, hyperlipidemia model group, grain-bean package group, grain-bean package DF group and grain corn group. Feed with corresponding diets for 8 weeks, and measure the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), FAS, SREBP-1c mRNA of all groups. Compared with control group, TC, TG, FBG levels of hyperlipidemia model group were significantly increased (P dietary fiber can improve blood lipids levels of dyslipidemia rats, and decrease FAS activity and SREBP-1c mRNA expression.

  19. Single molecular image of cytosolic free Ca2+ of skeletal muscle cells in rats pre- and post-exercise-induced fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Heming; Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Zhiming

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca2+. The fluorescent of Ca2+ was recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that, the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of cells from the rat of exercise-induced fatigue group was significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue.

  20. The tail domain of theAspergillus fumigatusclass V myosin MyoE orchestrates septal localization and hyphal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Hilary; Vargas-Muñiz, José M; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Richards, Amber D; Waitt, Greg; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Steinbach, William J

    2018-02-07

    Myosins are critical motor proteins that contribute to the secretory pathway, polarized growth, and cytokinesis. The globular tail domains of class V myosins have been shown to be important for cargo binding and actin cable organization. Additionally, phosphorylation plays a role in class V myosin cargo choice. Our previous studies on the class V myosin MyoE in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus confirmed its requirement for normal morphology and virulence. However, the domains and molecular mechanisms governing the functions of MyoE remain unknown. Here, by analyzing tail mutants, we demonstrate that the tail is required for radial growth, conidiation, septation frequency and MyoE's location at the septum. Furthermore, MyoE is phosphorylated at multiple residues in vivo ; however, alanine substitution mutants revealed that no single phosphorylated residue was critical. Importantly, in the absence of the phosphatase calcineurin, an additional residue was phosphorylated in its tail domain. Mutation of this tail residue led to mislocalization of MyoE from the septa. This work reveals the importance of the MyoE tail domain and its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the growth and morphology of A. fumigatus . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Effects of curcumin and captopril on the functions of kidney and nerve in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of angiotensin converting enzyme 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. The renin-angiotensin system also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. We hypothesized that curcumin and captopril would restore the kidney and nerve functions of diabetic rats through their angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) inhibiting activity as well as their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (100 mg·kg(-1) body weight). One week after induction of diabetes, rats were treated with 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) curcumin or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) captopril orally for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic control rats, curcumin- or captopril-treated diabetic rats had significantly improved blood glucose, lipid profile, kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and pain thresholds assessed by Von Frey filaments, hot plate test, and tail-flick test. Diabetic control rats showed increased levels of total peroxide, renal and neural tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10, and renal ACE1 compared with nondiabetic rats. Although treatment with either curcumin or captopril restored the altered variables, captopril was more effective in reducing these variables. ACE1 was positively correlated with BUN and creatinine and negatively correlated with paw withdrawal threshold, hot plate reaction time, and tail-flick latency, suggesting a possible causal relationship. We conclude that curcumin and captopril protect against diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy by inhibiting ACE1 as well as oxidation and inflammation. These findings suggest that curcumin and captopril may have a role in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy.

  2. Oil sands tailings technology : understanding the impact to reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamer, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed tailings management techniques at oil sands mines and their effects on reclamation schedules and outcomes. The layer of mature fine tailings (MFT) that forms in tailings ponds does not settle within a reasonable time frame, requiring more and larger tailings ponds for storing MFT. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology was developed to accelerate the consolidation of MFT, although the process nonetheless takes decades. CT is produced from mixing tailings sand, gypsum, and MFT to create a mixture that will consolidate more quickly and release water. However, CT production is tied to the extraction process, making it applicable only when the plant is operational, and a precise recipe and accurate injection are required for CT to work. In tailings reduction operations (TRO), a new approach to tailings management, MFT is mixed with a polymer flocculant, deposited in thin layers, and allowed to dry. TRO has a significant advantage over CT in that the latter takes up to 30 years to consolidate to a trafficable surface compared to weeks for TRO. TRO allows MFT to be consumed more quickly than it is produced, reducing need to build more tailings ponds, operates independent of plant operations, accelerates the reclamation time frame, and offers enhanced flexibility in final tailings placement sites. TRO also creates a dry landscape, to which well established reclamation techniques can be applied. Dried MFT is a new material type, and research is exploring optimum reclamation techniques. 2 figs.

  3. Pharmacokinetic study of five ginsenosides using a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method following single and multiple oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin pills to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengcheng; Yang, Yongge; Lv, Chao; Jin, Huizi; Tao, Jianfei; Yuan, Xing; Huang, Huimei; Han, Lin; Chang, Wanlin; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    Shexiang Baoxin pills (SBP) are a traditional Chinese medicine that are used for treating coronary heart disease. Ginsenosides are the main effective components of SBP, but a comprehensive and deep pharmacokinetic study of ginsenosides in SBP, including multiple dosing and linear or nonlinear properties, is lacking. This study was designed to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ginsenosides in SBP at a single dose and in multiple doses. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb3, Rc and Rb1 in rat plasma. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 4, 8 or 12 g/kg and multiple doses (4 g/kg) of SBP for 8, 15 or 22 consecutive days. The results revealed that ginsenosides, following a single oral dose of 4 or 8 g/kg, were absorbed rapidly, with a Tmax ranging from 0.250 to 1.08 h. The AUC0-t and Cmax of the ppd-type ginsenosides Rb3, Rc and Rb1 were greater than those of the ppt-type ginsenosides Rg1 and Re. Nondose-dependent exposure was observed at doses of 4-12 g/kg for all of the ginsenosides. After multiple dosing, the plasma levels of the ppt-type ginsenosides decreased, whereas those of the ppd-type ginsenosides did not change significantly. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides after single and multiple oral administrations of SBP. The ginsenosides did not accumulate after multiple dosing. The ppd-type ginsenosides displayed more favorable pharmacokinetic properties compared with the ppt-type ginsenosides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Klotho gene delivery ameliorates renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppressing the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minghong; Luo, Yumei; Li, Yunkui; Yang, Qiuchen; Deng, Xiaoqin; Wu, Ping; Ma, Houxun

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether klotho gene delivery attenuated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (rAAV.mKL), was constructed for in vivo investigation of klotho expression. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Subsequently, the diabetic rats received an intravenous injection of rAAV.mKL, rAAV.green fluorescent protein (GFP) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The Sprague-Dawley rat group received PBS and served as the control group. After 12 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed and ELISA, immunohistochemical and histological analyses, fluorescence microscopy, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blottin were performed. A single dose of rAAV.mKL was found to prevent the progression of renal hypertrophy and fibrosis for at least 12 weeks (duration of study). Klotho expression was suppressed in the diabetic rats, but was increased by rAAV.mKL delivery. rAAV.mKL significantly suppressed diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy and histopathological changes, reduced renal collagen fiber generation and decreased kidney hypertrophy index. In addition, rAAV.mKL decreased the protein expression levels of fibronectin and vimentin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression and activity of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)I in the kidneys of the diabetic rats. These results indicated that klotho gene delivery ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis in diabetic rats, possibly by suppressing the ROCK signaling pathway. This may offer a novel approach for the long-term control and renoprotection of diabetes.

  5. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, O.A.; Mohamed, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  6. Antioxidant effects of selenium on lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.S.; Suh, G.J.; Kwon, W.Y.; Kwak, Y.H.; Lee, Kenneth; Lee, H.J.; Jeong, K.Y.; Lee, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Paraquat (PQ) causes lethal intoxication by inducing oxidant injury to the lung. Selenium is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is one of the major endogenous antioxidant enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selenium post-treatment activates GPx, decreases lung injury, and improves survival in PQ intoxicated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats were categorized into three groups: sham (n = 6), PQ (n = 12), and PQ + Se (n = 12). In the PQ and PQ + Se groups, 50 mg/kg of PQ was administered intraperitoneally. After 10 minutes, 60 μg/kg of Se (PQ + Se) or saline (PQ) was administered via the tail vein. Six rats per group were euthanized 6 hours or 24 hours later. Lung tissues were harvested for the measurement of GPx activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and for histological analysis. Using separated set of rats, survival of PQ (n = 10) and PQ + Se (n = 10) were observed for 72 hours. RESULTS: GPx activity in the PQ group at the 6-hour and 24-hour time points was lower than in the sham group (p CONCLUSION: Single dose of selenium post-treatment activates GPx and attenuates lipid peroxidation and lung injury early after paraquat intoxication, but does not improve 72 hours of survival.

  7. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  8. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground. Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born. The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light. This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  9. Contemporary Pollution Due Old Uranium Tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.

    2007-01-01

    The areas of our study are uranium mining areas (with tails and dumps) Min-Kush, Kadji-Sai, Mailuu-Suu. These areas situated in different parts of Tien-Shan region. We study the content (and correlations among): level of uranium in environment, immune function and level, level in human teeth. It has been found: content of uranium in river water under tails about 2,0x10-5 gm/litter, and high level in drinking water too 2,0-4,0. Drying grass and flowers uranium content was 0,04-0,51x10-5 gm/gm, most high content were in Tacniatherum crinitum and Atgilops triuncialis. Lams tissues contain 0,005-2,44 mg/g in Min-Kush, 0,03-0,107, in Mailuu-Suu, and 0,001-0,048 mg/g in Kadji-Sai. Human teeth uranium content (Mailuu-Suu): in milk-teeth 0,481x10-6 gm/gm, in former miners 0,7684x10-6 gm/gm. Inhabitants of the area, which not working in uranium industry have 0,6876x10-6 gm/gm. There was low level of immune function (lymphocytes, IgI globulin, etc) in all three regions (in child, in adults, in uranium-mining worked people). There is no doubt of the positive correlations of uranium pollution of water (by underground infiltration from tails) on one hand and, on the other hand - a) grass, b) lambs body, c) human teeth, d) human immune function. Levels of uranium in teeth strictly depend on time of mining contact. (author)

  10. DNA protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress in streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Sekkin

    2015-05-01

    the antioxidant system, MEL regulates the expression of several genes such as those of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (2-4. The aim of this study was to research the effects of MEL on oxidative stress and DNA protective effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 32 rats were equally divided into 4 experimental groups as Control, Melatonin, Diabetic, and Diabetic + Melatonin. A pancreatic beta-cell cytotoxic agent, single dose streptozotocin (60 mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal route to induce experimental diabetes in rats. Rats with ≥200mg/dL blood glucose level were established as Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin groups. MEL (10 mg/kg per day and sodium citrate solution were administrated to rats by intraperitoneal route for 6 weeks. With the termination of the experiment, tissue and blood samples were obtained for further analysis. SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA were evaluated in rat liver, renal, brain and pancreas tissues. Body weight, plasma glucose, and %HbA1c levels were studied. DNA damage was analyzed with the comet assay in rat lymphocytes; %Tail DNA and Mean Tail Moment parameters were evaluated (5. Antioxidant and oxidant enzyme levels were similar in the Control and Melatonin groups, although there were significant differences between the Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin groups. SOD levels in brain and liver tissues were higher (P<0,001, and CAT activities in renal tissue (P<0,001, GSH levels in pancreas tissue (P<0,01 as well as MDA levels in liver (P<0,001, renal (P<0,001 and brain (P<0,01 tissues were higher in the Diabetic + Melatonin group compared with the Diabetic group. Body weight changes and blood glucose levels of the rats were evaluated during the 6 weeks. The effect of MEL on the body weights of Control and Melatonin as well as Diabetic and Diabetic + Melatonin group rats were similar. MEL had no effect on body weight and the diabetic rats were lighter (P<0

  11. Monte Carlo-based tail exponent estimator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 21 (2010), s. 4863-4874 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Hill estimator * α-stable distributions * Tail exponent estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/barunik-0346486.pdf

  12. Framework for T-tail flutter analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces for a given Mach number, reduced frequency, steady load distribution and deflected shape The p-k flutter solver was modified to Call the DLM routine once to read the geometry At each speed increment... for that condition can be calculated. The present paper presents a procedure for performing a flutter analysis of a T-tailed aircraft in a given loading condition over a range of speeds. The first step at each speed is the aeroelastic trim analysis. Flutter...

  13. Optimization in the decommissioning of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report examines in detail the problem of choosing the optimal decommissioning approach for uranium and mill tailings sites. Various decision methods are discussed and evaluated, and their application in similar decision problems are summarized. This report includes, by means of a demonstration, a step by step guide of how a number of selected techniques can be applied to a decommissioning problem. The strengths and weaknesses of various methods are highlighted. A decision system approach is recommended for its flexibility and incorporation of many of the strengths found in other decision methods

  14. Biogeochemistry of metalliferous mine tailings during phytostabilizatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Wang, Y.; Maier, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the semi-arid southwest US, legacy mine tailings and the associated metal(loid) contaminants, are prone to wind dispersion and water erosion. Without remediation, tailings can remain barren for decades to centuries, providing a point source of toxic contamination. Successful mitigation of toxins (As, Pb) from fugitive dust is often limited to confinement and stabilization. Capping mine tailings with soil or gravel is an accepted, although expensive, strategy to reduce erosion. Revegetation via assisted direct planting (also known as phytostabilization) has the potential to be a cost-effective and self-sustaining alternative "green-technology" to expensive capping. The impact of phytostabilization, and requisite added organic carbon and irrigation on mechanisms of contaminant mobility is being investigated with concurrent highly-instrumented greenhouse mesocosms and in situ field studies using advanced microbiological tools and synchrotron x-ray based molecular probes. Composted treatments initially neutralized the near surface acid tailings (~2 to ~6.5). However, after 9 mo the mesocosms showed a gradual and eventual decrease back to pH 2. The exception was the root zone of Atriplex lentiformis, which buffered the acidic conditions for 12 months. Rhizosphere microbiota experienced a 5-log increase in the compost-amended compared to control greenhouse mesocosms. Weathering of the primary sulfidic mineral assemblage, indicated by the iron and sulfur speciation, was shown to control the mobility, speciation and bioavailability of both As and Pb via sequestration in (meta)stable neoformed jarosite phases as plumbojarosite and As(V) substituted for sulfate in hydronium jarosite, with important implications for human and environmental health risk management. We conclude that the disequilibrium imposed by phytostabilization results in an increase of heterotrophic biomass that is concurrent with a time series of geochemical transformations, which controls the species

  15. A Simple Decision Rule for Recognition of Poly(A) Tail Signal Motifs in Human Genome

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-05-12

    Background is the numerous attempts were made to predict motifs in genomic sequences that correspond to poly (A) tail signals. Vast portion of this effort has been directed to a plethora of nonlinear classification methods. Even when such approaches yield good discriminant results, identifying dominant features of regulatory mechanisms nevertheless remains a challenge. In this work, we look at decision rules that may help identifying such features. Findings are we present a simple decision rule for classification of candidate poly (A) tail signal motifs in human genomic sequence obtained by evaluating features during the construction of gradient boosted trees. We found that values of a single feature based on the frequency of adenine in the genomic sequence surrounding candidate signal and the number of consecutive adenine molecules in a well-defined region immediately following the motif displays good discriminative potential in classification of poly (A) tail motifs for samples covered by the rule. Conclusions is the resulting simple rule can be used as an efficient filter in construction of more complex poly(A) tail motifs classification algorithms.

  16. Tail-weighted dependence measures with limit being the tail dependence coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, David

    2017-12-02

    For bivariate continuous data, measures of monotonic dependence are based on the rank transformations of the two variables. For bivariate extreme value copulas, there is a family of estimators (Formula presented.), for (Formula presented.), of the extremal coefficient, based on a transform of the absolute difference of the α power of the ranks. In the case of general bivariate copulas, we obtain the probability limit (Formula presented.) of (Formula presented.) as the sample size goes to infinity and show that (i) (Formula presented.) for (Formula presented.) is a measure of central dependence with properties similar to Kendall\\'s tau and Spearman\\'s rank correlation, (ii) (Formula presented.) is a tail-weighted dependence measure for large α, and (iii) the limit as (Formula presented.) is the upper tail dependence coefficient. We obtain asymptotic properties for the rank-based measure (Formula presented.) and estimate tail dependence coefficients through extrapolation on (Formula presented.). A data example illustrates the use of the new dependence measures for tail inference.

  17. Rebound increase in seizure susceptibility but not isolation-induced calls after single administration of clonazepam and Ro 19-8022 in infant rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulecká, Anna; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2011), s. 12-19 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure * ultrasonic vocalization * motor performance * Clonazepam * Ro 19-8022 * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2011

  18. On the importance of tail ratios for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Mohr, Elisabeth; Hagmann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda.

  19. Utilization of mine tailings as partial cement replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigvardsen, Nina Marie; Nielsen, M.R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Depositing mine tailings entail major economic costs and negative environmental impacts. Thus finding an alternative to depositing is of interest. This study focused on the use of mine tailings as partial cement replacement, thereby preventing depositing the mine tailings. At the same time......, such use would reduce the CO2 emission related to the production of cement. Mine tailings from two different mines Zinkgruvan (Sweden) and Nalunaq (Greenland) were both tested as 5 and 10 % cement replacement. All mortar specimens with mine tailings had lower compressive strength compared to a reference...... compared to a specimen containing a 10 % replacement of cement with coal fly ash, commonly used in Denmark. The compressive strength of specimens containing mine tailings exceeded the compressive strength of the specimen containing coal fly ash, indicating further the amorphous content of volcanic decent...

  20. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.; Abouguendia, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  1. The influence of single application of paracetamol and/or N-acetylcysteine on rats in subchronic exposition to trichloroethylene vapours. II. Effect on hepatic glutathione level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Plewka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feature of modern existing hazards both environmental and occupational is cumulative exposure often leading to unexpected response of the organism resulting, among other things, in interactions with cytochrome P450 system involved in biotransformation of trichloroethylene and paracetamol. Hepatotoxity of paracetamol is closely connected with hepatic glutathione level. „In therapy of acute paracetamol poisoning application of N-acetylcysteine as a factor, which protects GSH level in cells, is recommended.” Materials and method: Tests were performed on rats which were treated with trichloroethylene, paracetamol and/or N-acetylcysteine. In rat liver total level of glutathione was determined i.e. reduced and oxidized form. Results: Paracetamol just after completion of the exposure affected the glutathione level. Trichloroethylene throughout the period of observation stimulated growth of glutathione level in liver. N-acetylcysteine didn’t have any influence on the level of investigated tripeptyde. Conclusions: N-acetylcysteine removes negative effect of paracetamol especially when it’s applied with 2-hour delay. After exposure for trichloethylene immediate application of N-acetylcysteine caused noticeable lowering of glutathione level. Cumulative exposure for three xenobiotics had positive influence for glutathione level in rat liver.

  2. Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors recovers sensory responsiveness in acute spinal neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Hillary E; Kauer, Sierra D; Allmond, Jacob T; Brumley, Michele R

    2017-02-01

    Quipazine is a 5-HT 2A -receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats. Rat pups were secured in the supine posture with limbs unrestricted. Quipazine or saline was administered intraperitoneally and after a 10-min period, a tail pinch was administered. A 1-min baseline period prior to tail-pinch administration and a 1-min response period postpinch was observed and hind-limb motor activity, including locomotor-like stepping behavior, was recorded and analyzed. Neonatal rats showed an immediate and robust response to sensory stimulation induced by the tail pinch. Quipazine recovered hind-limb movement and step frequency in spinal rats back to intact levels, suggesting a synergistic, additive effect of 5-HT-receptor and sensory stimulation in spinal rats. Although levels of activity in spinal rats were restored with quipazine, movement quality (high vs. low amplitude) was only partially restored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  4. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  5. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  6. Long Term Study of Protective Mechanisms of Human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Induced Kidney injury in Sprague-Daweley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhusseini FM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long-term evaluation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the probable renal protective activities of stem cells are lacking up until now. We evaluated the early and long-term role of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this, we determined the kidney tissue level of oxidative stress markers in conjugation with a renal histopathological scoring system of both acute and chronic renal changes. Methods: This study used eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD rats weighing 250-300g. They were assigned into four equal groups (each group n=20: (I Negative control group, rats injected with single dose of 1 ml normal saline. (II Positive control cisplatin, rats injected with a single dose of 5 mg/kg I.P in 1 ml saline. (III Cisplatin and culture media group, rats injected with 0.5 ml of culture media single dose into the tail vein and (IV Cisplatin and ADMSCs group, rats injected with a single dose of 0.5 ml of culture media containing 5 x106ADMSCs into the tail vein one day after cisplatin administration. Each main group was further divided according to the timing of sacrifice into four subgroups (each subgroup n=5. Rats in the subgroup A were sacrificed after 4 days; subgroup B were sacrificed after 7 days; subgroup C were sacrificed after 11 days; and subgroup D were sacrificed after 30 days. Before sacrifice, 24 hrs.-urine was collected using a metabolic cage. Renal function was evaluated through blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Kidney tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide dismutase (SOD and Glutathione (GSH were determined. In addition, histopathological analysis for active injury, regenerative and chronic changes was performed. Results: ADMSCs were characterized and their capability of differentiation was proved. Cisplatin induced a significant

  7. Forest habitats and the nutritional ecology of Sitka black-tailed deer: a research synthesis with implications for forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; C.T. Robbins; D.E. Spalinger

    1989-01-01

    Research on forest habitats and the nutritional ecology of Sitka black-tailed deer conducted during 1981 through 1986 is reviewed and synthesized. The research approach was based on the assumption that foraging efficiency is the best single measure of habitat quality for an individual deer. Overstory-understory relations and the influence of forest overstory on snow...

  8. Approximate MAP Decoding on Tail-Biting Trellises

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, A. S.; Shankar, Priti

    2005-01-01

    We propose two approximate algorithms for MAP decoding on tail-biting trellises. The algorithms work on a subset of nodes of the tail-biting trellis, judiciously selected. We report the results of simulations on an AWGN channel using the approximate algorithms on tail-biting trellises for the $(24,12)$ Extended Golay Code and a rate 1/2 convolutional code with memory 6.

  9. Manual for the sampling of uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures to provide a basis for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The report describes the objective and scope of a sampling program, the preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings porewater, and wind-blown dust and radon

  10. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques

  11. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Megan Arbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100 degrees laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

  12. Modelling of contaminant release from a uranium mine tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnt, Rene; Metschies, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling continuing from the early 1960's until 1990 close to the town of Seelingstaedt in Eastern Germany resulted in 4 tailings impoundments with a total tailings volume of about 105 Mio. m 3 . Leakage from these tailings impoundments enters the underlying aquifers and is discharged into surface water streams. High concentration of salts, uranium and several heavy metals are released from the tailings. At present the tailings impoundments are reshaped and covered. For the identification of suitable remediation options predictions of the contaminant release for different remediation scenarios have to be made. A compartment model representing the tailings impoundments and the surrounding aquifers for the calculation of contaminant release and transport was set up using the software GOLDSIM. This compartment model describes the time dependent hydraulic conditions within the tailings and the surrounding aquifers taking into account hydraulic and geotechnical processes influencing the hydraulic properties of the tailings material. A simple geochemical approach taking into account sorption processes as well as retardation by applying a k d -approach was implemented to describe the contaminant release and transport within the hydraulic system. For uranium as the relevant contaminant the simple approach takes into account additional geochemical conditions influencing the mobility. Alternatively the model approach allows to include the results of detailed geochemical modelling of the individual tailings zones which is than used as source term for the modelling of the contaminant transport in the aquifer and to the receiving streams. (authors)

  13. A tale of two tails: Not just skin deep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal cutaneous appendage or the so called human tail is a rare congenital anomaly protruding from the lumbo-sacro-coccygeal area. These caudal appendages are divided into true-tails and pseudo-tails. We report here two cases of congenital pseudo-tail with underlying spina bifida and lipo-meningocele. In this article we seek to emphasize that, as the skin and nervous systems are intimately linked by their similar ectodermal origin, a dorsal appendage may be regarded as a cutaneous marker of the underlying spinal dysraphism.

  14. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  15. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  16. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Dasdag, Suleyman; Canturk, Fazile; Karabulut, Derya; Caner, Yusuf; Adalier, Nur

    2016-09-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) providers have become essential in our daily lives, as wireless technology is evolving at a dizzying pace. Although there are different frequency generators, one of the most commonly used Wi-Fi devices are 2.4GHz frequency generators. These devices are heavily used in all areas of life but the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation emission on users is generally ignored. Yet, an increasing share of the public expresses concern on this issue. Therefore, this study intends to respond to the growing public concern. The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats. The study was conducted on 16 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. The rats in the experimental group (n=8) were exposed to 2.4GHz frequency radiation for over a year. The rats in the sham control group (n=8) were subjected to the same experimental conditions except the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. After the exposure period was complete the possible DNA damage on the rat's brain, liver, kidney, skin, and testicular tissues was detected through the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet) method. The amount of DNA damage was measured as percentage tail DNA value. Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the% tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05). However the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (pWi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Segev

    Full Text Available Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  19. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  20. Chaperone role for proteins p618 and p892 in the extracellular tail development of Acidianus two-tailed virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Urte; Erdmann, Susanne; Ungewickell, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The crenarchaeal Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) undergoes a remarkable morphological development, extracellularly and independently of host cells, by growing long tails at each end of a spindle-shaped virus particle. Initial work suggested that an intermediate filament-like protein, p800...... the interactions observed between the different protein and DNA components and to explain their possible structural and functional roles in extracellular tail development....

  1. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  2. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.H.; Stratowa, C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [ 32 P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  3. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days......Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...

  5. Hollywood blockbusters and long-tailed distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S.; Raghavendra, S.

    2004-11-01

    Numerical data for all movies released in theaters in the USA during the period 1997-2003 are examined for the distribution of their popularity in terms of (i) the number of weeks they spent in the Top 60 according to the weekend earnings, and (ii) the box-office gross during the opening week, as well as, the total duration for which they were shown in theaters. These distributions show long tails where the most popular movies are located. Like the study of Redner [S. Redner, Eur. Phys. J. B 4, 131 (1998)] on the distribution of citations to individual papers, our results appear to be consistent with a power-law dependence of the rank distribution of gross revenues for the most popular movies with a exponent close to -1/2.

  6. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lush, D.L.; Lendrum, C.; Hostovsky, C.; Eedy, W.; Ashbrook, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  7. Orthotopic AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma model presented an elevated methemoglobin proportion in the increased total hemoglobin content when evaluated in vivo by single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tengfei; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.; Piao, Daqing

    2017-02-01

    In vivo single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS) was performed on an orthotopic AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma model to explore potential spectroscopic features revealing neoplastic changes. AY-27 bladder tumor cells were intravesically instilled in four rats and allowed to implant and grow for one week, with two additional rats as the control. A total of 107 SfRS measurements were taken from 27 sites on two control bladders and 80 from four AY-27 treated bladders. The spectral profiles obtained from AY-27 treated bladders revealed various levels of a methemoglobin (MetHb) characteristic spectral feature around 635nm. A multisegment spectral analysis method estimated concentrations of five chromophore compositions including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, MetHb, lipid and water. The total hemoglobin concentration ([HbT]), the MetHb proportion in the total hemoglobin and the lipid volume content showed possible correlations. The 80 measurements from the AY-27 treated bladders could separate to three sub-sets according to the MetHb proportion. Specifically, 72 were in subset 1 with low proportion (5.3%30%). When grouped according to [MetHB], the [HbT] increased from 368 μM of subset 1 to 488 μM of subset 2 to 541 μM of subset 3, in comparison to the 285 μM of the control. The increased total hemoglobin and the elevation of MetHb proportion may signify angiogenesis and degradation in hemoglobin oxygen-transport. Additionally, the lipid volume content decreased from 2.58% in the control to <0.2% in the tumor groups, indicating disruption of subepithelium tissue architecture.

  8. Potential mechanisms explaining why hydrolyzed casein-based diets outclass single amino acid-based diets in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Bos, N. A.; Harthoorn, L. F.; Stellaard, F.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Rozing, J.; van Tol, E. A. F.

    Background It remains controversial whether avoidance of dietary diabetogenic triggers, such as cow's milk proteins, can prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Here, different extensive casein hydrolysates (HC) and single amino acid (AA) formulations were tested for their

  9. Evaluation of a liver micronucleus assay in young rats (IV): a study using a double-dosing/single-sampling method by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS)-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Hironao; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Izumi; Shimada, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Terashima, Yukari; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Oshida, Keiyu; Ohta, Ryo; Imamura, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Minowa, Shigenori; Maeda, Akihisa; Hayashi, Makoto

    2010-04-30

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate whether a liver micronucleus assay using four-week-old male F344 rats can be used to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using double-dosing with a single-sampling 4 days after the second dose. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by the seven laboratories involved in the study. Seven chemicals, 2,4-diaminotoluene, diethyl nitrosamine, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 2,4-dinitrotolunene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and mitomycin C, known to produce positive responses in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method were selected for use in the present study, and each chemical was examined in two laboratories with the exception of 2,4-dinitrotolunene. Although several of the compounds were examined at lower doses for reasons of toxicity than in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method, all chemicals tested in the present study induced micronuclei in liver cells indicating a positive result. These findings suggest that the liver micronucleus assay can be used in young rats to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using a double-dosing/single-sampling procedure. Further, the number of animals used in the liver micronucleus assay can be reduced by one-third to a half by using the double-dosing/single-sampling method. This reduction in animal numbers also has significant savings in time and resource for liver perfusion and hepatocyte isolation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on Arsenic Release and its Mitigation from Tailings Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Arsenic Release and its Mitigation from Tailings Dam Using Nanomagnetite Particles. ... Ghana Mining Journal ... Abstract. Knowledge of the geochemistry of As in tailings material after beneficiation of gold-bearing sulphidic ores is necessary to comprehend the nature, stability and mobilization of As into the ...

  11. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  12. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  13. Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points ...

  14. Estimating contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments are essential in evaluating long-term impacts of tailings disposal on groundwater resources. Contaminant discharge rates are a function of water flux through tailings covers, the mass and distribution of tailings, and the concentrations of contaminants in percolating pore fluids. Simple calculations, laboratory and field testing, and analytical and numerical modeling may be used to estimate water flux through variably-saturated tailings under steady-state conditions, which develop after consolidation and dewatering have essentially ceased. Contaminant concentrations in water discharging from the tailings depend on tailings composition, leachability and solubility of contaminants, geochemical conditions within the embankment, tailings-water interactions, and flux of water through the embankment. These concentrations may be estimated based on maximum reported concentrations, pore water concentrations, extrapolations of column leaching data, or geochemical equilibria and reaction pathway modeling. Attempts to estimate contaminant discharge rates should begin with simple, conservative calculations and progress to more-complicated approaches, as necessary

  15. Economic Mineral Potentials Of Tailing Dumps From Alluvial Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several tonnes of mine tailing dumps abound in the alluvial tin mining areas of the Jos Plateau. These tailings are considered low in contents of cassiterite, columbite, tantalite, zircon and other minerals normally won from tin mining. Four of these dumps in four different mines located in Barkin Ladi (BL), Gurum (GM), Sabon ...

  16. Uranium mill tailings regulation and the generic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the history of the Canadian uranium industry; the Canadian management of uranium mining wastes; Canadian federal and provincial effluent guidelines for radium-226; tailings and mine water management; backfill; liquid effluents from tailings storage; barium chloride treatment; mine water (Fay Mine); mine water (Dubyna Mine); and revegetation. 22 refs

  17. Risk factors for canine tail chasing behaviour in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akiko; Arata, Sayaka; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for tail chasing behaviour that occurs when a dog spins in tight circles to chase its tail, sometimes biting it. The behaviour is a sign of canine compulsive disorder (CD). A questionnaire about tail chasing behaviour and general information about the animals was used to collect data on seven breeds of pet dogs. The data were gathered at a dog event and at veterinary practices. To determine which variables were associated with tail chasing behaviour, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. Regardless of cohort, 'breed' and 'source of acquisition' were significantly associated with tail chasing behaviour. Using a chi-square test, the association between 'source of acquisition' and the behaviour was examined separately in two breeds (Shiba inu and Dachshund) that had the largest number of individuals chasing their tails accompanied by biting and/or growling at them. This factor showed a significant and consistent association across the two breeds. With respect to the risk factors of 'breed' and 'source of acquisition', high percentages of Shiba inu and dogs originating from pet stores were included in the group chasing their tails with biting and/or growling. The results suggest that distinct risk factors exist for tail chasing behaviour and such factors appear to be regulated by both genetics and the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human born with a tail: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological examination revealed that the tail-like structure contained skin, muscle and adipose tissue only. e infant recovered uneventfully and no neurological de cit was evident on follow-up until 12 months of age. Fig. 1. e dorsal tail. Fig. 2. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showing spina bifida in the lumbosacral.

  19. Tail index and quantile estimation with very high frequency data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA precise estimation of the tail shape of forex returns is of critical importance for proper risk assessment. We improve upon the efficiency of conventional estimators that rely on a first order expansion of the tail shape, by using the second order expansion. Here we advocate a moments

  20. Assessment of Pollution Potential of Cyanide-Bearing Tailings Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the types of chemical species that are formed in tailings material of gold leaching plants and assessed their short and long term pollution potential capabilities. The results revealed that chemical, biochemical and geochemical reactions were occurring in the tailings material; producing complexed ...

  1. Probing the density tail of radioactive nuclei with antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Obertelli, Alexandre; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Corsi, Anna; Pollacco, Emmanuel; Flavigny, Freddy

    2017-01-01

    We propose an experiment to determine the proton and neutron content of the radial density tail in short-lived nuclei. The objectives are to (i) to evidence new proton and neutron halos, (ii) to understand the development of neutron skins in medium-mass nuclei, (iii) to provide a new observable that characterises the density tail of short-lived nuclei.

  2. Characterisation of gold tailings dams of the Witwatersrand Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... bentonite layer between the 9th and 10th meter level to minimise vertical air flow from the bottom of the tailings dams. ... m depth with bentonite. Due to the age of the dams, and the fact that they ...... from Cyanide-Rich Gold Mine. Tailings. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, The University of New Bruns- wick, USA.

  3. Black-tailed prairie dog status and future conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Mulhern; Craig J. Knowles

    1997-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog is one of five prairie dog species estimated to have once occupied up to 100 million ha or more in North America. The area occupied by black-tailed prairie dogs has declined to approximately 2% of its former range. Conversion of habitat to other land uses and widespread prairie dog eradication efforts combined with sylvatic plague,

  4. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  5. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level,

  6. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed ...

  7. Gold tailings as a source of waterborne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tailings deposits from gold and uranium (U) mining in the Witwatersrand basin often contain elevated levels of radioactive and chemo-toxic heavy metals. Through seepage, dissolved U and other metals migrate from tailings deposits via groundwater into adjacent fluvial systems. The subsequent transport through flowing ...

  8. Gold tailings as a source of waterborne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Dissolved uranium (U) from the tailings deposits of various gold mines in South Africa has been found to migrate via seepage and groundwater ... Due to elevated concentrations of U and other heavy metals in tailings deposits ... dissolved metals migrate into the underlying groundwater and eventually seep ...

  9. A COUNTER-CURRENT HEAT EXCHANGE SYSTEM IN THE TAIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under such conditions the arterial blood supplying the tail skin is several degrees cooler than the core temperature ... A thermoregulatory function for the vervet monkey tail has been suggested from observa- tions on the ..... Considering the relative thickness of the human fore-arm and vervet caudal arteries at the respective ...

  10. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  11. Participation of the indigenous vs. alien herbaceous species to the constitution of vegetal layer on the Bozanta Mare tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the distribution of different species of native and alien herbaceous species on the tailing pond Bozânta Mare (Maramureş county in NW Romania and the differences in heavy metal uptake in the roots and shoots relative to: 1. herbaceous species; 2. differential metal uptake and variation within single-species; 3. metal content of soil substrate. In 2007-2009 the contribution of native and alien species to the herbaceous layer forming, were studied on the Bozânta Mare tailing pond, resulted after heavy metal extraction process. The heavy metals found at elevated level in the herbaceous species included for environmental interest are: Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Fe, Cr, Mn, Na, K. Also, the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of the native vs. alien species presence in the colonization process on the tailing pond.

  12. A two-reagent neutralization scheme for controlling the migration of contaminants from a uranium mill tailing disposal pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for reducing contaminant migration from tailings liquor impoundments and evaporation ponds are being investigated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Uranium Research and Recovery Program. Building upon previous studies investigating single-reagent neutralization, laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a two-reagent neutralization scheme for the treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings liquors. Acidic tailings liquor, pH 3 neutralization to pH 4.0 followed by continued neutralization with lime to pH 7.3, resulted in the highest solution quality with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's water quality guidelines. Furthermore, the two-reagent neutralization scheme is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested to date

  13. Developmental toxicity of clarified slurry oil, syntower bottoms, and distillate aromatic extract administered as a single oral dose to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R. [Stonybrook Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO), syntower bottoms (STB), and distillate aromatic extract (DAE) are refinery streams produced by processing crude oil. Available data indicate that some refinery streams are developmentally toxic by the dermal route of exposure. However, there is no conclusive evidence for their being teratogenic. The present studies were designed to further explore the suspected teratogenic potency of refinery streams while at the same time limiting embryolethality. In general, evidence of maternal toxicity (i.e., decreased body weight gain, decreased thymus weight) was observed at doses greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg. For each refinery stream tested, the incidence of resorption was greatest on GD 11. A common pattern of fetal malformations was observed for all of the refinery streams tested and included cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia, and paw and tail defects. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations were greatest on GD 11 and 12 for fetuses exposed to CSO; on GD 13 and 14, the incidence of malformation was comparable for CSO- and STB-exposed fetuses. The incidence of visceral anomalies was greatest on GD 11-13 for fetuses exposed to CSO and STB; on Gestation D 14, the incidence was comparable for each of the refinery streams tested. In general, the ability to produce adverse effects on development was greatest for CSO and least for DAE. Effects produced by STB were comparable to or less severe than those observed for CSO. 24 refs., 11 tabs.

  14. The Rum Jungle tailings dam - chemical profile of the subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.; Evans, J.V.; Sarbutt, J.V.; Sinclair, G.; Folk, E.

    1987-09-01

    In a survey of soils below the Rum Jungle uranium mine tailings dam, parameters measured were pH, moisture content, particle distribution, total Cu, water-extractable Cu, Ca and SO 4 and acid-extractable Ra. The cation profile had a marked discontinuity at the soil/tailings interface. This was attributed to a complex hydrogeology and to the presence of a reduction zone in the soil immediately below the tailings. The tailings acted as an aquaclude to a water table which fluctuated with the monsoonal season. The reduction zone acted as a cation trap, preventing cation transport. The radium concentration dropped to levels acceptable to public health within a few centimetres of the soil/tailings interface

  15. Jump Tails, Extreme Dependencies, and the Distribution of Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Viktor

    We provide a new framework for estimating the systematic and idiosyncratic jump tail risks in financial asset prices. The theory underlying our estimates are based on in-fill asymptotic arguments for directly identifying the systematic and idiosyncratic jumps, together with conventional long......-span asymptotics and Extreme Value Theory (EVT) approximations for consistently estimating the tail decay parameters and asymptotic tail dependencies. On implementing the new estimation procedures with a panel of highfrequency intraday prices for a large cross-section of individual stocks and the aggregate S&P 500...... market portfolio, we find that the distributions of the systematic and idiosyncratic jumps are both generally heavy-tailed and not necessarily symmetric. Our estimates also point to the existence of strong dependencies between the market-wide jumps and the corresponding systematic jump tails for all...

  16. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing

  17. Diagnostic analysis of electrodialysis in mine tailing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    types of extracting solutions, such as distilled water, or H2SO4 at pH 0, H2SO4 + HNO3 at pH 1.9 and 4.2 or NH4Cl, in the electrodialytic cell, was investigated. From all the experiments, H2O presented the best performance for the electro-removal of Cu from the old deposited mine tailings, achieving 63......Removal of heavy metals from mine tailings and soil contaminated by copper mining activities was studied under batch electrodialytic conditions. Two types of mine tailings were treated: (i) freshly produced tailings coming directly from the flotation process, and (ii) tailings deposited...... removal results of a soil sampled close to an abandoned cupric pyrite mine-mainly polluted with lead (around 3800ppm) are also presented. The results show that the heavy metals could be mobilized in all three contaminated solid materials using the electrodialytic process. The effect of adding different...

  18. Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ∑PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ∑PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ∑PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations.

  19. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging of cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier disruption, and apoptosis time course after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigue, Philippe; Giacomino, Laura; Bucci, Chiara; Muzio, Valeria; Filannino, Maria A; Sabatier, Florence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Pisano, Pascale; Guillet, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of disability worldwide and no other effective therapy has been validated to date than intravenous thrombolysis. In this context, many preclinical models have been developed and recent advances in preclinical imaging represent promising tools. Thus, we proposed here to characterize in vivo time profiles of cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier disruption and apoptosis following a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats using SPECT/CT imaging. Rats underwent a 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier disruption and apoptosis were evaluated by SPECT/CT imaging using respectively (99m)Tc-HMPAO, (99m)Tc-DTPA and the experimental (99m)Tc-Annexin V-128, up to 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Histological evaluation of apoptosis has been performed using TUNEL method to validate the (99m)Tc-Annexin V-128 uptake. (99m)Tc-HMPAO cerebral blood flow evaluation showed hypoperfusion during occlusion, partially restored on days 4 and 7 and sustained up to 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (99m)Tc-DTPA SPECT/CT showed a blood-brain barrier disruption starting on day 1 post-middle cerebral artery occlusion, peaking on day 2, with barrier integrity totally restored on day 7. (99m)Tc-Annexin V-128 SPECT/CT imaging showed significant positive correlation with TUNEL immunohistochemistry and allowed ischemic-induced apoptosis to be detected from day 2 to day 7, peaking on day 3 after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Using SPECT/CT imaging, we showed that after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat there was a sustained decrease in cerebral blood flow followed by blood-brain barrier disruption preceding meanwhile apoptosis. Rodent SPECT/CT imaging of cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier disruption and apoptosis appears to be an efficient tool for evaluating neuroprotective drugs and regenerative therapies against cerebral ischemia

  20. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the GnRH Analogs in the Form of Solution and Zn2+-Suspension After Single Subcutaneous Injection in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszka-Świtek, Aleksandra; Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Dec, Renata; Danch, Alojzy; Filipczyk, Łukasz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Although many synthetic gonadoliberin analogs have been developed, only a few of them, including buserelin, were introduced into clinical practice. Dalarelin, which differs from buserelin by just one aminoacid in the position 6 (D-Ala), is not widely used so far. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to treat many different illnesses and are available in different forms like solution for injection, nasal spray, microspheres, etc. Unfortunately, none of the above drug formulations can release the hormones for 24 h. We assumed that classical suspension could solve this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first one, buserelin and dalarelin were injected into mature female rats in two forms: suspension, in which the analogs are bounded by Zn 2+ ions and solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the analogs were calculated, based on their concentration in the plasma measured by high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the second experiment, the hormones in two different forms were injected into superovulated immature female rats and then the concentration of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol in the serum was measured by radioimmunological method. The Extent of Biological Availability (EBA), calculated on the base of AUC 0-∞ , showed that in the form of solution buserelin and dalarelin display, respectively, only 13 and 8 % of biological availability of their suspension counterparts. Comparing both analogs, the EBA of dalarelin was half (53 %) that of buserelin delivered in the form of solution and 83 % when they were delivered in the form of suspension. The injection of buserelin or dalarelin, in the form of solution or suspension, into superovulated female rats increased LH, FSH and estradiol concentration in the serum. However, after injection of the analogs in the form of suspension, the high concentration of LH and FSH in the serum persisted

  1. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A tale too long for a tail too short? : identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and biting in tails of

  3. Occupational exposure during remediation works at a uranium tailings pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiúza, António

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by different approaches the occupational exposure during the remediation of a tailings dam in an abandoned uranium mining site, with an area of about 13.3 ha and an estimated volume of 1.39 million m³. A hypothetical scenario was created in which the workers involved in the remediation activities were exposed to radiation through both internal and external pathways. It was intended to assess quantitatively the potential exposure of the workforce involved in the remediation works, focussing particularly on the inhalation of radon and on the gamma irradiation from the contaminated soil. Different methodologies were considered based on a deterministic and a probabilistic approach for dose assessment and risk assessment, respectively. The deterministic approach typically employs a highly "conservative" single value for each input parameter. The probabilistic approach employs sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters using probabilistic distributions of the sensitive parameters. The results indicate that annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure (worst scenario case created) may reach a significant fraction of occupational radiation protection limits. This is also stressed by the values obtained for the occupational risk estimated by Monte Carlo methodology using probabilistic distributions for the input parameters. The results also showed that the pathway with the highest dose does not necessarily correspond to the pathway with the highest risk. Nevertheless, it is well known that probabilistic analysis generally produces more realistic results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action fiscal year 1992 roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is funded and managed as two separate projects: Surface remediation (UMTRA-S) and Groundwater compliance (UMTRA-G). Surface remediation is a Major System Acquisition and has been completed at 10 sites, 7 sites are under construction, and 7 sites are in the planning stage. The planning stages of the UMTRA-G Project, a major project, began in April 1991. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) has been started. Site characterization work and baseline risk assessment will begin FY 1993. Thus, the UMTRA-S Project is a mature and ongoing program with the roles of various organizations well defined, while the UMTRA-G Project is still being formulated and the interfaces between the DOE, states and tribes, and the EPA are being established. The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) directed that all projects under its authority develop roadmaps for their activities. The UMTRA Project Roadmap was developed by the UMTRA Project Office with input from the TAC, RAC, the GJPO, and assistance from SAIC. A single roadmap has been prepared for both the UMTRA-S and UMTRA-G Projects. This was deemed appropriate due to the close relationship between the projects and to the fact that the same Government and contractor personnel are preparing the roadmaps. Roadmap development is a planning process that focuses on issue identification, root-cause analysis, and issues resolution. The methodology is divided into three phases: assessment, analysis, and issues resolution

  5. Polyclonal activation of rat B cells. I. A single mitogenic signal can stimulate proliferation, but three signals are required for differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stunz, L.L.; Feldbush, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    A water-soluble, proteinaceous preparation derived from the cell walls of Salmonella typhimurium Re mutants has recently been tested in this laboratory for its ability to act as a mitogen for rat lymphocytes. This preparation (STM) has been found to be a potent simulator of B lymphocyte proliferation, as measured both by 3 H-TdR incorporation and by cell cycle analysis performed with flow cytofluorometry. STM stimulates approximately 50% of rat B cells to enter cycle. Previous investigations by others have shown that at least two sets of signals are required for B cell differentiation; (a) proliferation signals that may consist of both a stimulator of B cell conversion from G 0 to G 1 and growth factors, and (b) differentiation signals that probably include at least two B cell differentiation factors (BCDF). When STM was tested in a differentiation system it did not drive purified B cells to differentiate to PFC, either alone or when supplemented with a supernatant from concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells (CAS). However, when both CAS and dextran sulfate (DXS) were supplied to the STM-stimulated cells, a large number of PFC resulted. DXT does not act by stimulating an additional, CAS-responsive B cell subset, since it has only a marginal effect upon 3 H-TdR uptake and does not increase the number of B cells in cycle when used together with STM. The authors that the two agents may be acting sequentially: STM stimulates the B cells to proliferate, and DXS drives the proliferating cells to become responsive to CAS. This suggests that the signals for B cell differentiation must consist of at least three activities: a trigger to stimulate the cells to proliferate, a factor to drive the cells to a BCDF-responsive state, and a BCDF that can drive the cells to secrete antibody

  6. Preventive Effects of Flavonoids on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lukačínová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the evaluation of possible protective effects of quercetin and chrysin in experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Alloxan was injected at a single dose of 60 mg/kg (into the tail vein for diabetes induction. Quercetin (50 and 100 mg/kg; orally and chrysin (50 and 100 mg/kg; orally were administered daily for 3 days prior and 7 days after alloxan injection. Alloxan induced a significant increase of glycaemia (p p p p < 0.01. On the other hand, glycosuria was increased in all groups of animals receiving alloxan. We suggest that the protective effect of the used flavonoids in experimental diabetes mellitus may be related to their antioxidative/chelatory properties. Increased glycosuria indicated that inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption may also play a role in the hypoglycaemic effect of both flavonoids.

  7. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  8. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

  9. Impact of flocculation on flotation tailing's hydro-cycloning properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results of hydro-cycloning of flocculated and non-flocculated flotation tailing from the lead and zinc open pit mine 'Suplja stijena', Sula - Montenegro have been shown in this paper. Reason for this research was finding conditions in order to separate fraction that is suitable for embankment erection. Flotation tailings has been tested in the very state that it goes out from the flotation process and tailings which is flocculated by anionic flocculant. The object was to determine the impact of flocculation on properties of hydro-cycloning products and disposal process. In hydro-cycloning process greater underflow mass is being separated with non-flocculated tailing. Values of geomechanical parameters are significantly different, especially hydro-cyclone's underflow. All geomechanical parameters of hydro-cyclone's underflow are suitable for erecting embankment which shall be made from non-flocculated tailing. Underflow drainage of non-flocculated tailing is faster while overflow drainage is slower and problematic with both tailings.

  10. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  11. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.

    1987-04-01

    A series of long-term studies were conducted both to examine the leachability of major constituents (acidity, TDS) and radioisotopes from uranium mining/milling tailings and settling pond sludges, and to assess the effect of two treatment methods (solidification and vegetation) on leachate characteristics. Four bench-scale experiments were conducted to examine the leachability of: 1) old tailings and those containing a large portion of (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges; 2) untreated and solidified (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges located at the bottom of settling ponds; 3) new tailings that had been vegetated or solidified; and 4) new tailings subject to varying flow rates. A fifth study was conducted to examine the microbiology of Experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the lysimeter solids remaining in the old tailings at the end of Experiment 1 were characterized through chemical and radionuclide analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope-X-ray Emission and Mossbauer Spectroscopy techniques. This report provides an extensive database of temporal variations in leachate characteristics under both normal and accelerated water application rates. It also presents hypotheses of possible leaching mechanisms in the wastes that could explain the observed data, and conceptual model of tailings leaching processes which integrates the results of all the tailings experiments

  12. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  13. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Tail Risk Constraints and Maximum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Geman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection in the financial literature has essentially been analyzed under two central assumptions: full knowledge of the joint probability distribution of the returns of the securities that will comprise the target portfolio; and investors’ preferences are expressed through a utility function. In the real world, operators build portfolios under risk constraints which are expressed both by their clients and regulators and which bear on the maximal loss that may be generated over a given time period at a given confidence level (the so-called Value at Risk of the position. Interestingly, in the finance literature, a serious discussion of how much or little is known from a probabilistic standpoint about the multi-dimensional density of the assets’ returns seems to be of limited relevance. Our approach in contrast is to highlight these issues and then adopt throughout a framework of entropy maximization to represent the real world ignorance of the “true” probability distributions, both univariate and multivariate, of traded securities’ returns. In this setting, we identify the optimal portfolio under a number of downside risk constraints. Two interesting results are exhibited: (i the left- tail constraints are sufficiently powerful to override all other considerations in the conventional theory; (ii the “barbell portfolio” (maximal certainty/ low risk in one set of holdings, maximal uncertainty in another, which is quite familiar to traders, naturally emerges in our construction.

  15. Making a Magnetorheological Fluid from Mining Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian, G.; Saldarriaga, W.; Rojas, N.

    2017-12-01

    We have obtained magnetite mining tailings and used it to fabricate a magnetorheological fluid (MRF). Mineralogical and morphological characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), as well as size and geometry for the obtained magnetite. Finally, the fabricated MRF was rheologically characterized in a device attached to a rheometer. The application of a magnetic field of 0.12 Tesla can increase the viscosity of the MRF by more than 400 pct. A structural formation should occur within the fluid by a reordering of particles into magnetic columns, which are perpendicular to the flow direction. These structures give the fluid an increased viscosity. As the magnetic field increases, the structure formed is more resistant, resulting in an increased viscosity. One can appreciate that with a value equal to or less than 0.06 Tesla of applied magnetic field, many viscosity values associated with the work area of the oils can be achieved (0.025 and 0.34 Pa s).

  16. Flocculation of flotation tailings using thermosensitive polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of thermosensitive polymers is the reversible transition between the hydrophilic and hydrophopic forms depending on the temperature. Although the main research efforts are focused on their application in different kinds of drug delivery systems, this phenomenon also allows one to precisely control the stability of solid-liquid dispersions. In this paper research on the application of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers in processing of minerals is presented. In the experiments tailings from flotation plant of one of the coal mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. (Poland were used. A laser particle sizer Fritsch Analysette 22 was used in order to determine the Particle Size Distribution (PSD. It was proved that there are some substantial issues associated with the application of thermosensitive polymers in industrial practice which may exclude them from the common application. High salinity of suspension altered the value of Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Moreover, the co-polymers used in research proved to be efficient flocculating agents without any temperature rise. Finally, the dosage needed to achieve steric stabilization of suspension was greatly beyond economic justification.

  17. Arsenic readily released to pore waters from buried mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, John; Langmuir, Donald; Gosselin, Neil; Rowson, John

    2005-01-01

    At the McClean Lake Operation in the Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, the untreated acid raffinate solutions associated with U mill tailings contain up to 700 mg/L dissolved As. To reduce the concentration of As and other contaminants in acid tailing slurries at the JEB mill at McClean Lake, ferric sulfate may be added to the acid raffinates to assure that their molar Fe/As ratio equals or exceeds 3. Tailings slurries are then neutralized with lime to pH 4, and subsequently to pH 7-8. The neutralized tailings contain minerals from the original ore, which are chiefly quartz, illite, kaolinite and chlorite, and precipitated (secondary) minerals that include gypsum, scorodite, annabergite, hydrobasaluminite and ferrihydrite. Most of the As is associated with the secondary arsenate minerals, scorodite and annabergite. However, a few percent is adsorbed and/or co-precipitated, mainly by ferrihydrite. Of major concern to provincial and federal regulators is the risk that significant amounts of As might be released from the tailings to pore waters after their subaqueous disposal in the tailings management facility. A laboratory study was performed to address this issue, measuring readily desorbed As using a method known as equilibrium partitioning in closed systems (EPICS). The EPICS method was selected because it employs a leaching solution that, except for its As concentration, is identical in composition to the neutralized raffinate in contact with the tailings. Laboratory experiments and modeling results demonstrated that the As that could be readily released to pore waters is about 0.2% of the total As in the tailings. Long-term, such releases may contribute no more than a few mg/L of dissolved As to tailings pore waters

  18. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the october 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost is estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three prinicpal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  19. Risk Management - Variance Minimization or Lower Tail Outcome Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    on future cash flows (the budget), while risk managers concerned about costly lower tail outcomes will hedge (considerably) less depending on the level of uncertainty. A risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination is in line with theoretical recommendations in a corporate value-adding...... perspective. A cross-case study of blue-chip industrial companies partly supports the empirical use of a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination but does not exclude other factors from (co-)driving the observations....

  20. Heavy-tailed distributions and robustness in economics and finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Marat; Walden, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on general frameworks for modeling heavy-tailed distributions in economics, finance, econometrics, statistics, risk management and insurance. A central theme is that of (non-)robustness, i.e., the fact that the presence of heavy tails can either reinforce or reverse the implications of a number of models in these fields, depending on the degree of heavy-tailedness. These results motivate the development and applications of robust inference approaches under heavy tails, heterogeneity and dependence in observations. Several recently developed robust inference approaches are discussed and illustrated, together with applications.

  1. Hydrology of Quirke and Panel uranium tailings basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.M.; MacPhie, L.

    1991-11-01

    The research project described by this report provides the AECB with an independent assessment of the 'saturated tailings concept' for the decommissioning of tailing areas at the Rio Algom Quirke and Panel uranium mines near Elliot Lake in Northern Ontario. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling for each facility showed the interrelation between the design of the water-level control facilities and the water levels in each cell for design flood and extreme low-flow conditions, taking into account all water-balance components. The estimate of seepage rates through the tailings mass is identified as a critical issue

  2. Automated classification of tailed bacteriophages according to their neck organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Anne; Tavares, Paulo; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Guérois, Raphaël; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    2014-11-27

    The genetic diversity observed among bacteriophages remains a major obstacle for the identification of homologs and the comparison of their functional modules. In the structural module, although several classes of homologous proteins contributing to the head and tail structure can be detected, proteins of the head-to-tail connection (or neck) are generally more divergent. Yet, molecular analyses of a few tailed phages belonging to different morphological classes suggested that only a limited number of structural solutions are used in order to produce a functional virion. To challenge this hypothesis and analyze proteins diversity at the virion neck, we developed a specific computational strategy to cope with sequence divergence in phage proteins. We searched for homologs of a set of proteins encoded in the structural module using a phage learning database. We show that using a combination of iterative profile-profile comparison and gene context analyses, we can identify a set of head, neck and tail proteins in most tailed bacteriophages of our database. Classification of phages based on neck protein sequences delineates 4 Types corresponding to known morphological subfamilies. Further analysis of the most abundant Type 1 yields 10 Clusters characterized by consistent sets of head, neck and tail proteins. We developed Virfam, a webserver that automatically identifies proteins of the phage head-neck-tail module and assign phages to the most closely related cluster of phages. This server was tested against 624 new phages from the NCBI database. 93% of the tailed and unclassified phages could be assigned to our head-neck-tail based categories, thus highlighting the large representativeness of the identified virion architectures. Types and Clusters delineate consistent subgroups of Caudovirales, which correlate with several virion properties. Our method and webserver have the capacity to automatically classify most tailed phages, detect their structural module, assign a

  3. An Analysis of a Heuristic Procedure to Evaluate Tail (independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring tail dependence is an important issue in many applied sciences in order to quantify the risk of simultaneous extreme events. A usual measure is given by the tail dependence coefficient. The characteristics of events behave quite differently as these become more extreme, whereas we are in the class of asymptotic dependence or in the class of asymptotic independence. The literature has emphasized the asymptotic dependent class but wrongly infers that tail dependence will result in the overestimation of extreme value dependence and consequently of the risk. In this paper we analyze this issue through simulation based on a heuristic procedure.

  4. Uranium mill tailings storage, use, and disposal problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Solid and liquid residues (tailings) containing substantial quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides are produced and stored at all US uranium mill sites. These radioactive wastes are a potential health hazard with the degree of hazard depending largely on the tailings management practices at the individual sites. The principal pathways of potential radiation exposure to man are discussed. A description is presented of some past and current tailings storage practices together with a description of some of the possible problems associated with various stabilization and disposal options. 16 figures

  5. Price Tails in the Smith and Farmer's Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 25 (2008), s. 31-40 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/07/1113; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : limit order market * continuous double auction * price increments * fat tails * tail exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/smid-price tails in the smith and farmer's model.pdf

  6. [Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the development and growth of rat embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Zhu, Q

    1999-07-01

    Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the development and growth of rat embryos were studied. Serious vitamin A deficiency markedly reduce body weight, body length and tail length, and induce incomplete development of skeleton and induce pathological change of brain and kidney of rat fetus. It was concluded that the development and growth of the embryos was affected and the brain and the kidney of fetus were damaged in serious vitamin A deficient rats.

  7. Presence and bioavailability of bisphenol A in the uterus of rats and mice following single and repeated dietary administration at low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tyler; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2014-11-01

    This research examined the distribution of low dietary doses of bisphenol A (BPA). When female rats received 50μg/kg (14)C-BPA orally, radioactivity was distributed throughout the body, with especial presence in the uterus. Pre-treatment with estradiol or the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780 significantly reduced radioactivity in the uterus. The majority of BPA at the uterus was determined to be aglycone (receptor-active) via GC-MS. Subsequently, mice given 0.5, 5, or 50μg/kg (14)C-BPA showed more radioactivity in the uterus than in other non-metabolic tissues. When female mice received 1, 7, or 28 daily doses of 50μg/kg (14)C-BPA, then were measured 24h after the last dose, significantly more radioactivity was detected in the uterus, liver, and kidney following repeated doses. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the in vivo interaction of BPA with estrogen receptors. They also indicate elevated presence of BPA in reproductive tissues after repeated low doses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of short-term, single and combined exposure to low-level NO sub 2 and O sub 3 on lung tissue enzyme activities in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.S.; Mustafa, M.G.; Afifi, A.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To examine the pulmonary effects of relatively low levels of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, and test for any possible interaction in their effects, we exposed 3-mo-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, free of specific pathogens, to either filtered room air (control) or 1.20 ppm (2256 micrograms/m3) NO{sub 2}, 0.30 ppm (588 micrograms/m3) O{sub 3}, or a combination of the two oxidants continuously for 3 d. We studied a series of parameters in the lung, including lung weight, and enzyme activities related to NADPH generation, sulfhydryl metabolism, and cellular detoxification. The results showed that relative to control, exposure to NO2 caused small but nonsignificant changes in all the parameters; O{sub 3} caused significant increases in all the parameters except for superoxide dismutase; and a combination of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} caused increases in all the parameters, and the increases were greater than those caused by NO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} alone. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the effects of combined exposure were synergistic for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities, and additive for glutathione peroxidase and disulfide reductase activities, but indifferent from those of O{sub 3} exposure for other enzyme activities.

  9. Altered neuronal activity patterns in the visual cortex of the adult rat after partial optic nerve crush--a single-cell resolution metabolic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharadze, Tamar; Pielot, Rainer; Wanger, Tim; Scheich, Henning; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Budinger, Eike; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutz, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Thallium autometallography (TIAMG) is a novel method for high-resolution mapping of neuronal activity. With this method, we found that a general depression of neuronal activity occurs in response to optic nerve crush (ONC) within the first 2 weeks postinjury in the contralateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as well as in the contralateral primary visual cortex (V1). Interestingly, the neuronal activity recovered thereafter in both brain regions and reached a plateau in the tenth week postinjury in layers IV and V of V1, monocular area (V1m). Several clusters of highly active neurons in V1m were found 6 weeks after ONC in layers IV and V on the side contralateral to the lesion. We reasoned that these clusters appeared due to a reorganization of the corticocolliucular projections. Employing a combination of biotinylated dextran amine retrograde tract tracing from the superior colliculus (SC) with TIAMG in the same animal, we indeed found that the clusters of neurons with high Tl(+) uptake in V1m are spatially in register with those neuronal subpopulations that project to the SC. These data suggest that extensive reorganization plasticity exists in the adult rat visual cortex following ONC.

  10. The Effect of the Flavonoid Quercetin on Pain Sensation in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Narenjkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one of the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus in patients that could affect their lifestyle. This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of chronic administration of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats using formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Methods: Rats were divided into control, control or diabetic groups receiving sodium salicylate, untreated diabetic, and quercetin-treated control and diabetic groups. The treatment groups received i.p. administration of quercetin at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Finally, hyperalgesia were assessed using standard formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Meanwhile, some markers of oxidative stress were also measured in brain tissue.Results: Quercetin or SS treatment of diabetic rats significantly reduced pain score in chronic phase of formalin test (p<0.05. Regarding hot tail immersion test, diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in tail flick latency as compared to control ones (p<0.05 and quercetin treatment of diabetic rats did significantly increase this latency relative to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. Quercetin treatment of diabetic rats also significantly decreased brain level of malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.05 and nitrite (p<0.05 and slightly increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD relative to diabetics. Discussion: Taken together, chronic administration of quercetin could attenuate nociceptive score in chronic phase of formalin test in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and could also increase threshold of thermal nociception.

  11. Desensitisation and calcium-sensitivity in the isolated perfused rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -induced desensitisation to noradrenaline were studied in the isolated perfused rat tail artery. Responses to the activators noradrenaline (NA) (3μM) and potassium chloride (KCl) (100mM) were obtained in Ca2+-buffered saline. Activators ...

  12. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathay, Nicholas

    The performance enhancement of a vertical tail using an array of finite span synthetic jet actuators was investigated in wind tunnel experiments on 1/25th, 1/19th, and 1/9 th scale models. The models were sweptback, tapered, and instrumented with multiple synthetic jets placed upstream of the rudder hinge--line with the objective of controlling the separation that commenced over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. By controlling the separation, the side force generated by the tail was augmented, which may allow for the size of the tail to be decreased. This would reduce the weight, drag, and corresponding fuel costs of an airplane. The synthetic jets augmented the side force coefficient by a maximum of 0.17 (34%). Furthermore, the performance of the vertical tail was dependent on jet strength. It was expected that the increase in side force would continue to grow as the momentum generation capabilities of the jets improved. A primary goal of the research was to determine the effect of multiple synthetic jet parameters on side force enhancement. Experiments were conducted with various jet orifice configurations, which indicated the following: the spacing between adjacent orifice edges and the orifices' aspect ratio were relatively unimportant; in terms of quantifying jet strength, the area--based (3--D) momentum coefficient of the jets was a more dominant parameter than the blowing ratio or the chord--based (2--D) momentum coefficient. Moreover, the most favorable spanwise location of control was, in general, found to be near the mid--span at lower rudder deflections and toward the inboard section of the model at larger deflections. The optimal chordwise location was hypothesized to be on the stabilizer as close as possible to the hinge--line. An investigation into the spanwise spacing of active jets demonstrated that, for some conditions, when the individual strength of the jets was held constant, larger jet spacing was more effective. Also, similar

  13. Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Woods, Leslie W; Chouicha, Nadira; Miller, Woutrina A; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) is a migratory game bird of North America that is at risk for population decline. Epidemics of avian trichomonosis caused by upper digestive tract infection with Trichomonas spp. protozoa in these and other doves and pigeons of the United States are sporadic, but can involve tens of thousands of birds in a single event. Herein, we analyze the role of trichomonosis in band-tailed pigeon mortality and relate spatial, temporal and demographic patterns of parasite transmission to the genetic background of the infecting organism. Infections were most common in adult birds and prevalence was high in band-tailed pigeons sampled at mortality events (96%) and rehabilitation centers (36%) compared to those that were hunter-killed (11%) or live-caught (4%). During non-epidemic periods, animals were primarily infected with T. gallinae Fe-hydrogenase subtype A2, and were less often infected with either T. gallinae subtype A1 (the British finch epidemic strain), T. stableri n. sp. (a T. vaginalis-like species), or Tritrichomonas blagburni n. sp.-like organisms. Birds sampled during multiple epidemics in California were only infected with T. gallinae subtype A2 and T. stableri. The non-clonal etiology of avian trichomonosis outbreaks in band-tailed pigeons and the risk of spill-over to raptor and passerine species highlights the need for additional studies that clarify the host range and evolutionary relationships between strains of Trichomonas spp. in regions of trichomonosis endemicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of noradrenaline on tail arteries of SHR and WKY under perfusion at constant flow and constant pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Tarasova, Olga S; Timin, Eugeny N

    1997-01-01

    Vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenaline were compared in 6- to 7-month-old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. A cylindrical segment was dissected from the proximal part of tail artery, cannulated at both ends and perfused alternately either at constant flow or constant...... pressure. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first series, vessels were perfused/superfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. In the second one a modified salt solution was used, in which NaCl was totally replaced by an equimolar amount of KCI. Under constant flow conditions noradrenaline evoked...

  15. Combined Cytolytic Effects of a Vaccinia Virus Encoding a Single Chain Trimer of MHC-I with a Tax-Epitope and Tax-Specific CTLs on HTLV-I-Infected Cells in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia (ATL is a malignant lymphoproliferative disease caused by human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I. To develop an effective therapy against the disease, we have examined the oncolytic ability of an attenuated vaccinia virus (VV, LC16m8Δ (m8Δ, and an HTLV-I Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL line, 4O1/C8, against an HTLV-I-infected rat T cell line, FPM1. Our results demonstrated that m8Δ was able to replicate in and lyse tumorigenic FPM1 cells but was incompetent to injure 4O1/C8 cells, suggesting the preferential cytolytic activity toward tumor cells. To further enhance the cytolysis of HTLV-I-infected cells, we modified m8Δ and obtained m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L, which can express a single chain trimer (SCT of rat major histocompatibility complex class I with a Tax-epitope. Combined treatment with m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L and 4O1/C8 increased the cytolysis of FPM1V.EFGFP/8R cells, a CTL-resistant subclone of FPM1, compared with that using 4O1/C8 and m8Δ presenting an unrelated peptide, suggesting that the activation of 4O1/C8 by m8Δ/RT1AlSCTax180L further enhanced the killing of the tumorigenic HTLV-I-infected cells. Our results indicate that combined therapy of oncolytic VVs with SCTs and HTLV-I-specific CTLs may be effective for eradication of HTLV-I-infected cells, which evade from CTL lysis and potentially develop ATL.

  16. Single-Prolonged-Stress-Induced Changes in Autophagy-Related Proteins Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Rats with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shilei; Han, Fang; Shi, Yuxiu; Wen, Lili; Han, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Autophagy, or type II programmed cell death, plays a crucial role in many nervous system diseases. However, few studies have examined the role of autophagy in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the mechanisms underlying PTSD are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to explore the expression of three important autophagy-related proteins, Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and p62/SQSTM1 (p62), in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of an animal model of PTSD to identify changes in autophagic activity during PTSD pathogenesis. PTSD was induced in rats by exposure to a single-prolonged stress (SPS). The Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive changes in rats from the SPS and control groups. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to observe mPFC morphological changes. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting techniques were used to detect expression of Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 in the mPFC. The Morris water maze test results showed that the escape latency time was increased and that the percent time in the target quadrant was decreased in the SPS group compared with that in the control group. Numerous visible autolysosomes in mPFC neurons were observed using TEM after SPS stimulation. Compared with that in the control group, the expression of Beclin-1 and the LC3-II/I ratio significantly decreased at 1 day, then increased and peaked at 7 days, and slightly decreased at 14 days after SPS stimulation, whereas the converse was found for p62 expression. In conclusion, dysregulation of autophagic activity in the mPFC may play a crucial role in PTSD pathogenesis.

  17. Probabilistic calculation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The report discusses in a general way considerations of uncertainty in relation to probabilistic modelling. An example of a probabilistic calculation applied to the behaviour of uranium mill tailings is given

  18. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized

  19. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  20. Recovery of 'Nsutite' from Tailings Material of Ghana Manganese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GMC) Limited Mine, Nsuta. M Ali, RK Amankwah. Abstract. An investigation was conducted for the enrichment of manganese oxide tailings generated by a spiral concentration plant at Ghana Manganese Company (GMC) Limited, Nsuta. The work ...