WorldWideScience

Sample records for single print lithography

  1. Single-mask double-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Torres, George; Gupta, Puneet

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes shift-trim double patterning lithography (ST-DPL), a cost-effective method for achieving 2× pitchrelaxation with a single photomask (especially at polysilicon layer). The mask is re-used for the second exposure by applying a translational mask-shift. Extra printed features are then removed using a non-critical trim exposure. The viability of ST-DPL is demonstrated. The proposed method has many advantages with virtually no area overhead (DPL, (2) reduces overlay errors between the two patterns and can virtually eliminate it in some process implementations, (3) alleviates the bimodal problem in doublepatterning, and (4) enhances throughput of first-rate scanners. We implement a small 45nm standard-cell library and small benchmark designs with ST-DPL to illustrate its viability.

  2. Uniformity across 200 mm silicon wafers printed by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Tallal, J; Lazzarino, F; Landis, S; Joubert, O; Pelzer, R

    2005-01-01

    Uniformity of the printing process is one of the key parameters of nanoimprint lithography. This technique has to be extended to large size wafers to be useful for several industrial applications, and the uniformity of micro and nanostructures has to be guaranteed on large surfaces. This paper presents results of printing on 200 mm diameter wafers. The residual thickness uniformity after printing is demonstrated at the wafer scale in large patterns (100 μm), in smaller lines of 250 nm and in sub-100 nm features. We show that a mould deformation occurs during the printing process, and that this deformation is needed to guarantee printing uniformity. However, the mould deformation is also responsible for the potential degradation of the patterns

  3. Print-to-pattern dry film photoresist lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, Shaun P; Murphy, Terrence M Jr; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    Here we present facile microfabrication processes, referred to as print-to-pattern dry film photoresist (DFP) lithography, that utilize the combined advantages of wax printing and DFP to produce micropatterned substrates with high resolution over a large surface area in a non-cleanroom setting. The print-to-pattern methods can be performed in an out-of-cleanroom environment making microfabrication much more accessible to minimally equipped laboratories. Two different approaches employing either wax photomasks or wax etchmasks from a solid ink desktop printer have been demonstrated that allow the DFP to be processed in a negative tone or positive tone fashion, respectively, with resolutions of 100 µm. The effect of wax melting on resolution and as a bonding material was also characterized. In addition, solid ink printers have the capacity to pattern large areas with high resolution, which was demonstrated by stacking DFP layers in a 50 mm × 50 mm woven pattern with 1 mm features. By using an office printer to generate the masking patterns, the mask designs can be easily altered in a graphic user interface to enable rapid prototyping. (technical note)

  4. Lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Lithography is now a complex tool at the heart of a technological process for manufacturing micro and nanocomponents. A multidisciplinary technology, lithography continues to push the limits of optics, chemistry, mechanics, micro and nano-fluids, etc. This book deals with essential technologies and processes, primarily used in industrial manufacturing of microprocessors and other electronic components.

  5. A 3D-printed device for polymer nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caño-García, Manuel; Geday, Morten A.; Gil-Valverde, Manuel; Megías Zarco, Antonio; Otón, José M.; Quintana, Xabier

    2018-02-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an imprinting technique which has experienced an increasing popularity due to its versatility in fabrication processes. Commercial NIL machines are readily available achieving high quality results; however, these machines involve a relatively high investment. Hence, small laboratories often choose to perform NIL copies in a more rudimentary and cheaper way. A new simple system is presented in this document. It is based on two devices which can be made in-house in plastic by using a 3D printer or in aluminum. Thus, the overall manufacturing complexity is vastly reduced. The presented system includes pressure control and potentially temperature control. Replicas have been made using a sawtooth grating master with a pitch around half micrometre. High quality patterns with low density of imperfections have been achieved in 2.25 cm2 surfaces. The material chosen for the negative intermediary mould is PDMS. Tests of the imprint have been performed using the commercial hybrid polymer Ormostamp®.

  6. Discharge of viscous UV-curable resin droplets by screen printing for UV nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Akira; Uehara, Takuya; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a coating method of screen printing for discharging droplets of a high-viscosity resin on a substrate for ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Compared with a spin-coated resin film on a silicon substrate, discharged resin droplets on a silicon substrate were effective in terms of the uniformity of residual layer thickness (RLT) in contact with a mold with various pattern densities. Fluorescence microscope observations with a fluorescent-dye-containing UV-curable resin enabled the evaluation of the shapes of resin droplets discharged on a substrate surface. Widely used screen mesh plates composed of a stainless mesh covered with a patterned emulsion film caused defects of undischarged parts, whereas defects-free resin droplets with a narrow size distribution were discharged by mesh-free plates prepared with laser ablation. The pitch-to-diameter ratio in the configuration of 10-µm-diameter holes needs to be larger than 2.5 times for printing a resin having a viscosity of 12,800 mPa s.

  7. 3D printing of new biobased unsaturated polyesters by microstereo-thermal-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Filipa A M M; Costa, Cátia S M F; Fabela, Inês G P; Simões, Pedro N; Serra, Arménio C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Farinha, Dina; Faneca, Henrique; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2014-01-01

    New micro three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs) were prepared by microstereo-thermal-lithography (μSTLG). This advanced processing technique offers indubitable advantages over traditional printing methods. The accuracy and roughness of the 3D structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy, revealing a suitable roughness for cell attachment. UPs were synthesized by bulk polycondensation between biobased aliphatic diacids (succinic, adipic and sebacic acid) and two different glycols (propylene glycol and diethylene glycol) using fumaric acid as the source of double bonds. The chemical structures of the new oligomers were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The thermal and mechanical properties of the UPs were evaluated to determine the influence of the diacid/glycol ratio and the type of diacid in the polyester’s properties. In addition an extensive thermal characterization of the polyesters is reported. The data presented in this work opens the possibility for the use of biobased polyesters in additive manufacturing technologies as a route to prepare biodegradable tailor made scaffolds that have potential applications in a tissue engineering area. (paper)

  8. Lithography for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1987-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods.This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6.

  9. Fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors by nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, N. V.; Tarkhov, M. A.; Dudova, D. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors from ultrathin NbN films on SiO2 substrates. The technology is based on nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography and includes direct formation of the sensitive element of the detector (the meander) through femtosecond laser exposure of the polymethyl methacrylate resist at a wavelength of 525 nm and subsequent removal of NbN using plasma-chemical etching. The nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography method allows the formation of planar structures with a spatial resolution of ~50 nm. These structures were used to fabricate single-photon superconducting detectors with quantum efficiency no worse than 8% at a wavelength of 1310 nm and dark count rate of 10 s‑1 at liquid helium temperature.

  10. Direct fabrication of diffraction grating onto organic single crystals by electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Kazuki; Inada, Yuhi; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2018-03-01

    We have directly fabricated a diffraction grating onto platelike single crystals made of an organic semiconducting oligomer by electron beam lithography followed by reactive-ion etching. The decrease in the grating period resulted in photoexcited spectrally narrowed emission peaks related to the first-order diffraction from the crystal edge without outstanding quenching of the crystal. This work is expected to lead to the realization of organic semiconductor lasers.

  11. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical characteristics of the single-electron transistor were observed to be consistent with the expected behavior of electron transport through gated quantum dots, up to 150 K. The dependence of the electrical characteristics on the dot size reveals that the d oscillation follows from the Coulomb blockade by poly-Si ...

  12. A High Sensitivity Three-Dimensional-Shape Sensing Patch Prepared by Lithography and Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yao Lo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 ´ 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has a thickness of less than 130 μm and 20 ´ 20 mm2 dimensions. A complete finite element method (FEM model with simulation results was calculated and performed based on the buckling of columns and the deflection equation. The results show high compatibility of the drop-on-demand (DOD inkjet printing with photolithography and the interferometer design also supports bi-directional detection of deformation. The 3DS sensing patch can be operated remotely without any power consumption. It provides a novel and alternative option compared with other optical curvature sensors.

  13. Optically Clear and Resilient Free-Form µ-Optics 3D-Printed via Ultrafast Laser Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jonušauskas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce optically clear and resilient free-form micro-optical components of pure (non-photosensitized organic-inorganic SZ2080 material made by femtosecond 3D laser lithography (3DLL. This is advantageous for rapid printing of 3D micro-/nano-optics, including their integration directly onto optical fibers. A systematic study of the fabrication peculiarities and quality of resultant structures is performed. Comparison of microlens resiliency to continuous wave (CW and femtosecond pulsed exposure is determined. Experimental results prove that pure SZ2080 is ∼20 fold more resistant to high irradiance as compared with standard lithographic material (SU8 and can sustain up to 1.91 GW/cm2 intensity. 3DLL is a promising manufacturing approach for high-intensity micro-optics for emerging fields in astro-photonics and atto-second pulse generation. Additionally, pyrolysis is employed to homogeneously shrink structures up to 40% by removing organic SZ2080 constituents. This opens a promising route towards downscaling photonic lattices and the creation of mechanically robust glass-ceramic microstructures.

  14. Large-Area High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Interference Lithography Utilizing a Single High-k Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Jing; Guo, L Jay

    2016-04-26

    Plasmonic lithography, which utilizes subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polartion (SPP) waves, has the capability of breaking the diffraction limit and delivering high resolution. However, all previously reported results suffer from critical issues, such as shallow pattern depth and pattern nonuniformity even over small exposure areas, which limit the application of the technology. In this work, periodic patterns with high aspect ratios and a half-pitch of about 1/6 of the wavelength were achieved with pattern uniformity in square centimeter areas. This was accomplished by designing a special mask and photoresist (PR) system to select a single high spatial frequency mode and incorporating the PR into a waveguide configuration to ensure uniform light exposure over the entire depth of the photoresist layer. In addition to the experimental progress toward large-scale applications of plasmonic interference lithography, the general criteria of designing such an exposure system is also discussed, which can be used for nanoscale fabrication in this fashion for various applications with different requirements for wavelength, pitch, aspect ratio, and structure.

  15. Optically addressable single-use microfluidic valves by laser printer lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cordero, Jose L; Kurzbuch, Dirk; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot; Lee, Luke P; Ricco, Antonio J

    2010-10-21

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of practical microfluidic valves fabricated using laser printer lithography. These optofluidic valves are opened by directing optical energy from a solid-state laser, with similar power characteristics to those used in CD/DVD drives, to a spot of printed toner where localized heating melts an orifice in the polymer layer in as little as 500 ms, connecting previously isolated fluidic components or compartments. Valve functionality, response time, and laser input energy dependence of orifice size are reported for cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Implementation of these optofluidic valves is demonstrated on pressure-driven and centrifugal microfluidic platforms. In addition, these "one-shot" valves comprise a continuous polymer film that hermetically isolates on-chip fluid volumes within fluidic devices using low-vapor-permeability materials; we confirmed this for a period of one month. The fabrication and integration of optofluidic valves are compatible with a range of polymer microfabrication technologies and should facilitate the development of fully integrated, reconfigurable, and automated lab-on-a-chip systems, particularly when reagents must be stored on chip for extended periods, e.g. for medical diagnostic devices, lab-on-a-chip synthetic systems, or hazardous biochemical analysis platforms.

  16. A single-step lithography system based on an enhanced robotic adhesive dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiyao; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Ding; Wang, Lefeng; Sun, Lining

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, we present a single-step lithography system whereby the robotically controlled micro-extrusion of resist adhesive onto a substrate surface to directly create resist adhesive patterns of interest. This system is modified from a robotic adhesive dispenser by shrinking the aperture of the nozzle to a few micrometers aiming to realize patterns at microscale. From experimental investigation, it is found that working factors including writing speed, working time, and applied pressure can be adopted to conveniently regulate the feature size (the width of the line features and the diameter of the dot features). To test its functionality, the system was used to pattern line features on silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and generate an array of square-like silicon microstructure by combining with wet etching. It provides a simple and flexible alternative tool to facilitate the development of microfabrication.

  17. Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sarah; Schlehahn, Alexander; Thoma, Alexander; Srocka, Nicole; Gissibl, Timo; Ristok, Simon; Thiele, Simon; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Strittmatter, André; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-06-21

    Integrated single-photon sources with high photon-extraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright single-photon source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g (2) (τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources.

  18. Pharmaceutical 3D printing: Design and qualification of a single step print and fill capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick M; Kapoor, Yash; Klinzing, Gerard R; Procopio, Adam T

    2018-03-29

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) has a potential to change how we envision manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. A more common utilization for FDM 3DP is to build upon existing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology where the drug is dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, reliable manufacturing of drug-containing filaments remains a challenge along with the limitation of active ingredients which can sustain the processing risks involved in the HME process. To circumvent this obstacle, a single step FDM 3DP process was developed to manufacture thin-walled drug-free capsules which can be filled with dry or liquid drug product formulations. Drug release from these systems is governed by the combined dissolution of the FDM capsule 'shell' and the dosage form encapsulated in these shells. To prepare the shells, the 3D printer files (extension '.gcode') were modified by creating discrete zones, so-called 'zoning process', with individual print parameters. Capsules printed without the zoning process resulted in macroscopic print defects and holes. X-ray computed tomography, finite element analysis and mechanical testing were used to guide the zoning process and printing parameters in order to manufacture consistent and robust capsule shell geometries. Additionally, dose consistencies of drug containing liquid formulations were investigated in this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visible near-infrared light scattering of single silver split-ring structure made by nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukuta, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Fukui, Masuo

    2011-04-11

    We succeeded in making a silver split-ring (SR) structure of approximately 130 nm in diameter on a glass substrate using a nanosphere lithography technique. The light scattering spectrum in visible near-infrared region of a single, isolated SR was measured using a microscope spectroscopy optical system. The electromagnetic field enhancement spectrum and distribution of the SR structure were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method, and the excitation modes were clarified. The long wavelength peak in the light scattering spectra corresponded to a fundamental LC resonance mode excited by an incident electric field. It was shown that a single SR structure fabricated as abovementioned can operate as a resonator and generate a magnetic dipole. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Regular cell design approach considering lithography-induced process variations

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Fernández, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The deployment delays for EUVL, forces IC design to continue using 193nm wavelength lithography with innovative and costly techniques in order to faithfully print sub-wavelength features and combat lithography induced process variations. The effect of the lithography gap in current and upcoming technologies is to cause severe distortions due to optical diffraction in the printed patterns and thus degrading manufacturing yield. Therefore, a paradigm shift in layout design is mandatory towards ...

  1. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerto, D., E-mail: puerto@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Biver, E. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Oxford Lasers Ltd., Unit 8, Moorbrook Park, Didcot, OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks. • We have achieved the printing of lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s (1 MHz laser). • The ejection dynamics has been investigated by means of a time-resolved imaging technique. • The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to print lines at high velocities. • Continuous conductive lines of silver inks are laser-printed on PET flexible substrates. - Abstract: The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  2. Identification of Dewetting Stages and Preparation of Single Chain Gold Nanoparticle Rings by Colloidal Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Zámbó, Dániel; Pothorszky, Szilárd; Gergely-Fülöp, Eszter; Deák, András

    2016-02-02

    Massively parallel nanoparticle assembly was carried out by means of colloidal lithographic experiments over a silicon substrate supported (sub)microparticle Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer, using high purity aqueous solution of PEGylated gold nanoparticles. The size of the polystyrene template particles in the monolayer was varied between 608 nm and 2.48 μm, while gold nanoparticles with diameters between 18 and 65 nm were used. Thanks to the PEGylation of the gold nanoparticles, they could be used as tracer objects to follow the drying process. In this way, different dewetting stages could be identified in the confined space between and underneath the template polystyrene spheres. Depending on the concentration of the nanoparticles, the presented approach allows the preparation of single-particle width necklace structures composed of gold particles. At the same time, the high purity of the substrate as well as of the evolved particle rings is preserved and unwanted particle deposition on the substrate surface is minimized.

  3. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    are optically pumped at 532 nm, and exhibit low lasing threshold from 530 nJ/mm2 and single mode output at selectable wavelengths from 580 to 630 nm, determined by the grating pitch. The lasers are well suited for integration into polymer based lab-on-chip circuits for interference based sensing.......We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  4. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink-jet printing onto a paper substrate due to the excellent ink absorption of paper. A specific capacity of 33 F/g at a high specific power of 250 000 W/kg is achieved with an organic electrolyte. Such a lightweight paper-based supercapacitor could be used to power paper electronics such as transistors or displays. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  6. Nano lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Lithography is an extremely complex tool - based on the concept of "imprinting" an original template version onto mass output - originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams - in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation, to name but a few. In the last few years, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics,

  7. Reverse-contact UV nanoimprint lithography for multilayered structure fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagias, N.; Reboud, V.; Chansin, G.

    2007-01-01

    polymer areas are dissolved in a developer solution leaving behind the negative features of the original stamp. This method delivers resist pattern transfer without a residual layer, thereby rending unnecessary the etching steps typically needed in the imprint lithography techniques for three......In this paper, we report results on a newly developed nanofabrication technique, namely reverse-contact UV nanoimprint lithography. This technique is a combination of nanoimprint lithography and contact printing lithography. In this process, a lift-off resist and a UV cross-linkable polymer......-dimensional patterning. Three-dimensional woodpile-like structures were successfully fabricated with this new technique....

  8. Real-time two-photon lithography in controlled flow to create a single-microparticle array and particle-cluster array for optofluidic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Yang; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Li, Guoqiang; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Chu, Jiaru; Wu, Dong; Sugioka, Koji

    2018-01-30

    Microarray technology provides an excellent platform for biomedical and biochemical research including basic scientific studies, drug discovery, and diagnostics. Here, we develop a novel method referred to as real-time two-photon lithography in a controlled flow in which femtosecond laser two-photon lithography is performed in situ in the sequential mode stopping and flowing the flow of liquid resin containing microparticles to achieve 100% trapping on a one-bead-to-one-trap basis. Polydisperse particles can be all trapped to form a desired array by freely designing trap structures, resulting in an unprecedentedly high capture efficiency of ∼100%. No persistent pressure is needed after trapping which reduces the complexity of the system. In addition, trapping of particle-cluster arrays with a controlled number of particles is also achieved via this method. The trapped particles inside the microchip are successfully applied as microlenses for high quality imaging. The present technology marks an essential step towards a versatile platform for the integration of bead-based assays and paves the way for developing innovative microfluidics, optofluidics, micro-optics and single-cell analysis devices.

  9. Single Additive Enables 3D Printing of Highly Loaded Iron Oxide Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Amin; Akhlaghi, Omid; Khani, Navid; Aytas, Tunahan; Sezer, Dilek; Tatli, Buse; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z; Koc, Bahattin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-21

    A single additive, a grafted copolymer, is designed to ensure the stability of suspensions of highly loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) and to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) printing of these suspensions in the filament form. This poly (ethylene glycol)-grafted copolymer of N-[3(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide and acrylic acid harnesses both electrostatic and steric repulsion to realize an optimum formulation for 3D printing. When used at 1.15 wt % (by the weight of IOPs), the suspension attains ∼81 wt % solid loading-96% of the theoretical limit as calculated by the Krieger-Dougherty equation. Rectangular, thick-walled toroidal, and thin-walled toroidal magnetic cores and a porous lattice structure are fabricated to demonstrate the utilization of this suspension as an ink for 3D printing. The electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic cores are characterized through impedance spectroscopy (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), respectively. The IS indicates the possibility of utilizing wire-wound 3D printed cores as the inductive coils. The VSM verifies that the magnetic properties of IOPs before and after the ink formulation are kept almost unchanged because of the low dosage of the additive. This particle-targeted approach for the formulation of 3D printing inks allows embodiment of a fully aqueous system with utmost target material content.

  10. MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. The objective of building these tools is to involve semiconductor companies to be able to verify tool performance in their own environment. To enable this, the tools will have a 300 mm wafer stage in addition to a 110-beam optics column. First exposures at 45 nm half pitch resolution have been performed and analyzed. On the same wafer it is observed that all beams print and based on analysis of 11 beams the CD for the different patterns is within 2.2 nm from target and the CD uniformity for the different patterns is better

  11. Making PMT halftone prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    In the printing process for technical reports presently used at Bendix Kansas City Division, photographs are reproduced by pasting up PMT halftone prints on the artwork originals. These originals are used to make positive-working plastic plates for offset lithography. Instructions for making good-quality halftone prints using Eastman Kodak's PMT materials and processes are given in this report. 14 figures.

  12. Narrow conductive structures with high aspect ratios through single-pass inkjet printing and evaporation-induced dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.; Teunissen, P.; Michels, J.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printed silver lines contract to widths below 20-μm during drying on an organic planarization coating. Aspect ratios previously unprecedented with single pass inkjet printing on isotropic homogeneous substrates are obtained. This effect is caused by the subsequent evaporation of solvents from

  13. Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Albrektsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic color printing with subwavelength resolution using circular gap-plasmon resonators (GPRs) arranged in 340 nm period arrays of square unit cells and fabricated with single-step electron-beam lithography. We develop a printing procedure resulting in correct single-pixel color...... reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its...... coloring. Using finite-element simulations, we uncover the physical mechanisms responsible for color printing with GPR arrays and suggest the appropriate design procedure minimizing the influence of the protection layer....

  14. 2-μm single longitudinal mode GaSb-based laterally coupled distributed feedback laser with regrowth-free shallow-etched gratings by interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ao, Yang; Yu, Zhang; Yong-Ping, Liao; Jun-Liang, Xing; Si-Hang, Wei; Li-Chun, Zhang; Ying-Qiang, Xu; Hai-Qiao, Ni; Zhi-Chuan, Niu

    2016-02-01

    We report a type-I GaSb-based laterally coupled distributed-feedback (LC-DFB) laser with shallow-etched gratings operating a continuous wave at room temperature without re-growth process. Second-order Bragg gratings are fabricated alongside the ridge waveguide by interference lithography. Index-coupled LC-DFB laser with a cavity of 1500 μm achieves single longitudinal mode continuous-wave operation at 20 °C with side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) as high as 24 dB. The maximum single mode continuous-wave output power is about 10 mW at room temperature (uncoated facet). A low threshold current density of 230 A/cm2 is achieved with differential quantum efficiency estimated to be 93 mW/A. The laser shows a good wavelength stability against drive current and working temperature. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014CB643903 and 2013CB932904), the National Special Funds for the Development of Major Research Equipment and Instruments, China (Grant No. 2012YQ140005), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435012, 61274013, 61306088, and 61290303), and the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01010200).

  15. Surface enhanced thermo lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, Maria Laura

    2017-01-13

    We used electroless deposition to fabricate clusters of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on a silicon substrate. These clusters are plasmonics devices that induce giant electromagnetic (EM) field increments. When those EM field are absorbed by the metal NPs clusters generate, in turn, severe temperature increases. Here, we used the laser radiation of a conventional Raman set-up to transfer geometrical patterns from a template of metal NPs clusters into a layer of thermo sensitive Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA) polymer. Temperature profile on the devices depends on specific arrangements of silver nanoparticles. In plane temperature variations may be controlled with (i) high nano-meter spatial precision and (ii) single Kelvin temperature resolution on varying the shape, size and spacing of metal nanostructures. This scheme can be used to generate strongly localized heat amplifications for applications in nanotechnology, surface enhanced thermo-lithography (SETL), biology and medicine (for space resolved cell ablation and treatment), nano-chemistry.

  16. The effectiveness of single minute exchange of dies for lean changeover process in printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The changeover time is a factor that greatly affects the lean production implementation in industry with make to order system. Large product variations and unpredictable quantity of orders will trigger some kind of production wastes if changeover time is done in a longer time. One industry with make to order system is printing industry. In general, to produce several types of products such as books takes quite a long time because of long production changeover process. The general problem faced is the delay in book’s production completion. Based on this problem, changeover time reduction is needed to overcome the delay of book’s production completion using single minute exchanges of dies (SMED method. The SMED method is the method that separates the changeover activity into two, i.e. internal setup and external setup. The research shows that changeover time for printing workstation is 18 minutes 29 seconds, which consists of internal setup activities 14 minutes 37 seconds and external setup 4 minutes 33 seconds. By converting 45% of the internal setup activity into an external setup, then the setup time can be reduced. The initial setup activities performed when machine is stop, now can be done when the machine is running. In addition, a changeover process improvement also done using 5S method in workstation tools area so the internal setup time is reduced 46% becomes 7 minutes 59 seconds. Under these conditions, the printing industry can increase production by 2%.

  17. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  18. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-11-23

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, low threshold voltages of<1 V and low subthreshold swings <0.5 V dec−1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  19. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-07-01

    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  20. Overlay control for nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masato; Mitsuyasu, Masaki; Kono, Takuya; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Lim, Yonghyun; Jung, Wooyung

    2017-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a promising technique for fine-patterning with a lower cost than other lithography techniques such as EUV or immersion with multi-patterning. NIL has the potential of "single" patterning for both line patterns and hole patterns with a half-pitch of less than 20nm. NIL tools for semiconductor manufacturing employ die-by-die alignment system with moiré fringe detection which gives alignment measurement accuracy of below 1nm. In this paper we describe the evaluation results of NIL the overlay performance using an up-to-date NIL tool for 300mm wafer. We show the progress of both "NIL-to-NIL" and "NIL-to-optical tool" distortion matching techniques. From these analyses based on actual NIL overlay data, we discuss the possibility of NIL overlay evolution to realize an on-product overlay accuracy to 3nm and beyond.

  1. Some Thoughts on Contemporary Graphic Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Skiba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The production requirements of original graphic works of art have changed since 1980. The development of digital printing using lightfast colors now rivals traditional techniques such as wood cut, screen print, lithography, etching etc. Today, with respect to artistic legitimacy, original graphics using traditional printing techniques compete with original graphics produced by digital printing techniques on the art market. What criteria distinguish traditional printing techniques from those of digital printing in the production and acquisition of original graphics? What consequences is the serious artist faced with when deciding to implement digital print production? How does digital print change original graphic acquisition decisions?

  2. Single-layer ionic conduction on carboxyl-terminated silane monolayers patterned by constructive lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Jonathan; Burshtain, Doron; Zeira, Assaf; Yoffe, Alexander; Maoz, Rivka; Sagiv, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Ionic transport plays a central role in key technologies relevant to energy, and information processing and storage, as well as in the implementation of biological functions in living organisms. Here, we introduce a supramolecular strategy based on the non-destructive chemical patterning of a highly ordered self-assembled monolayer that allows the reproducible fabrication of ion-conducting surface patterns (ion-conducting channels) with top -COOH functional groups precisely definable over the full range of length scales from nanometre to centimetre. The transport of a single layer of selected metal ions and the electrochemical processes related to their motion may thus be confined to predefined surface paths. As a generic solid ionic conductor that can accommodate different mobile ions in the absence of any added electrolyte, these ion-conducting channels exhibit bias-induced competitive transport of different ionic species. This approach offers unprecedented opportunities for the realization of designed ion-conducting systems with nanoscale control, beyond the inherent limitations posed by available ionic materials.

  3. 32nm 1-D regular pitch SRAM bitcell design for interference-assisted lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Robert T.; Jeong, Kwangok; Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong; Petersen, John S.

    2008-10-01

    As optical lithography advances into the 45nm technology node and beyond, new manufacturing-aware design requirements have emerged. We address layout design for interference-assisted lithography (IAL), a double exposure method that combines maskless interference lithography (IL) and projection lithography (PL); cf. hybrid optical maskless lithography (HOMA) in [2] and [3]. Since IL can generate dense but regular pitch patterns, a key challenge to deployment of IAL is the conversion of existing designs to regular-linewidth, regular-pitch layouts. In this paper, we propose new 1-D regular pitch SRAM bitcell layouts which are amenable to IAL. We evaluate the feasibility of our bitcell designs via lithography simulations and circuit simulations, and confirm that the proposed bitcells can be successfully printed by IAL and that their electrical characteristics are comparable to those of existing bitcells.

  4. Photoinhibition superresolution lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Darren Lawrence

    While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography---the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable. This thesis describes development of an integrated optical and materials system for investigating spatiotemporal dynamics of photoinhibited superresolution lithography, with a demonstrated 3x superresolution beyond the diffraction limit. The two-color response, arising from orthogonal photogeneration of species that participate in competing reactions, is shown to be highly complex. This is both a direct and indirect consequence of mobility. Interesting trade-offs arise: thin-film resins (necessitated by single-photon absorption kinetics) require high viscosity for film stability, but the photoinhibition effect is suppressed in viscous resins. Despite this apparent suppression, which can be overcome with high excitation of the photoinhibition system, the low mobility afforded by viscous materials is beneficial for confinement of active species. Diffusion-induced blurring of patterned photoinhibition is problematic in a resin with viscosity = 1,000 cP, and overcome in a resin with viscosity eta = 500,000 cP. Superresolution of factor 3x beyond the diffraction limit is demonstrated at 0.2 NA, with additional results indicating superresolution ability at 1.2 NA. Investigating the effect of diminished photoinhibition efficacy

  5. Fully Printed Flexible Single-Chip RFID Tag with Light Detection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Falco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A printed passive radiofrequency identification (RFID tag in the ultra-high frequency band for light and temperature monitoring is presented. The whole tag has been manufactured by printing techniques on a flexible substrate. Antenna and interconnects are realized with silver nanoparticles via inkjet printing. A sprayed photodetector performs the light monitoring, whereas temperature measurement comes from an in-built sensor in the silicon RFID chip. One of the advantages of this system is the digital read-out and transmission of the sensors information on the RFID tag that ensures reliability. Furthermore, the use of printing techniques allows large-scale manufacturing and the direct fabrication of the tag on the desired surface. This work proves for the first time the feasibility of the embedment of large-scale organic photodetectors onto inkjet printed RFID tags. Here, we solve the problem of integration of different manufacturing techniques to develop an optimal final sensor system.

  6. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  7. Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissibl, Timo; Thiele, Simon; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Micro-optics are widely used in numerous applications, such as beam shaping, collimation, focusing and imaging. We use femtosecond 3D printing to manufacture free-form micro-optical elements. Our method gives sub-micrometre accuracy so that direct manufacturing even on single-mode fibres is possible. We demonstrate the potential of our method by writing different collimation optics, toric lenses, free-form surfaces with polynomials of up to 10th order for intensity beam shaping, as well as chiral photonic crystals for circular polarization filtering, all aligned onto the core of the single-mode fibres. We determine the accuracy of our optics by analysing the output patterns as well as interferometrically characterizing the surfaces. We find excellent agreement with numerical calculations. 3D printing of microoptics can achieve sufficient performance that will allow for rapid prototyping and production of beam-shaping and imaging devices. PMID:27339700

  8. Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissibl, Timo; Thiele, Simon; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Micro-optics are widely used in numerous applications, such as beam shaping, collimation, focusing and imaging. We use femtosecond 3D printing to manufacture free-form micro-optical elements. Our method gives sub-micrometre accuracy so that direct manufacturing even on single-mode fibres is possible. We demonstrate the potential of our method by writing different collimation optics, toric lenses, free-form surfaces with polynomials of up to 10th order for intensity beam shaping, as well as chiral photonic crystals for circular polarization filtering, all aligned onto the core of the single-mode fibres. We determine the accuracy of our optics by analysing the output patterns as well as interferometrically characterizing the surfaces. We find excellent agreement with numerical calculations. 3D printing of microoptics can achieve sufficient performance that will allow for rapid prototyping and production of beam-shaping and imaging devices.

  9. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  10. Fire-through Ag contact formation for crystalline Si solar cells using single-step inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Gang; Cho, Sung-Bin; Chung, Bo-Mook; Huh, Joo-Youl; Yoon, Sam S

    2012-04-01

    Inkjet-printed Ag metallization is a promising method of forming front-side contacts on Si solar cells due to its non-contact printing nature and fine grid resolution. However, conventional Ag inks are unable to punch through the SiN(x) anti-reflection coating (ARC) layer on emitter Si surfaces. In this study, a novel formulation of Ag ink is examined for the formation of fire-through contacts on a SiN(x)-coated Si substrate using the single-step printing of Ag ink, followed by rapid thermal annealing at 800 degrees C. In order to formulate Ag inks with fire-through contact formation capabilities, a liquid etching agent was first formulated by dissolving metal nitrates in an organic solvent and then mixing the resulting solution with a commercial Ag nanoparticle ink at various volume ratios. During the firing process, the dissolved metal nitrates decomposed into metal oxides and acted in a similar manner to the glass frit contained in Ag pastes for screen-printed Ag metallization. The newly formulated ink with a 1 wt% loading ratio of metal oxides to Ag formed finely distributed Ag crystallites on the Si substrate after firing at 800 degrees C for 1 min.

  11. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  12. All-Printed Thin-Film Transistor Based on Purified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Linear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiru Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an all-printed thin-film transistor (TFT on a polyimide substrate with linear transconductance response. The TFT is based on our purified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT solution that is primarily consists of semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs with low metal impurities. The all-printed TFT exhibits a high ON/OFF ratio of around 103 and bias-independent transconductance over a certain gate bias range. Such bias-independent transconductance property is different from that of conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs due to the special band structure and the one-dimensional (1D quantum confined density of state (DOS of CNTs. The bias-independent transconductance promises modulation linearity for analog electronics.

  13. Scalable Top-Down Approach Tailored by Interferometric Lithography to Achieve Large-Area Single-Mode GaN Nanowire Laser Arrays on Sapphire Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Nami, Mohsen; Wostbrock, Neal; Zamani Kouhpanji, Mohammad Reza; Feezell, Daniel F; Brueck, Steven R J; Busani, Tito

    2018-03-27

    GaN nanowires are promising for optical and optoelectronic applications because of their waveguiding properties and large optical band gap. However, developing a precise, scalable, and cost-effective fabrication method with a high degree of controllability to obtain high-aspect-ratio nanowires with high optical properties and minimum crystal defects remains a challenge. Here, we present a scalable two-step top-down approach using interferometric lithography, for which parameters can be controlled precisely to achieve highly ordered arrays of nanowires with excellent quality and desired aspect ratios. The wet-etch mechanism is investigated, and the etch rates of m-planes {11̅00} (sidewalls) were measured to be 2.5 to 70 nm/h depending on the Si doping concentration. Using this method, uniform nanowire arrays were achieved over a large area (>10 5 μm 2 ) with an spect ratio as large as 50, a radius as small as 17 nm, and atomic-scale sidewall roughness (vertical cavity nanowire arrays with different doping concentrations on a sapphire substrate was interestingly observed in photoluminescence measurements. High Q-factors of ∼1139-2443 were obtained in nanowire array lasers with a radius and length of 65 nm and 2 μm, respectively, corresponding to a line width of 0.32-0.15 nm (minimum threshold of 3.31 MW/cm 2 ). Our results show that fabrication of high-quality GaN nanowire arrays with adaptable aspect ratio and large-area uniformity is feasible through a top-down approach using interferometric lithography and is promising for fabrication of III-nitride-based nanophotonic devices (radial/axial) on the original substrate.

  14. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-30

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  15. Influence of the Print Run on Silver Halide Printing Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Cigula

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common printing technique today is lithography. The difference between printing and nonprinting areason a printing plate is accomplished by opposite physical and chemical properties of those areas (MacPhee, 1998.The printing areas are made of photoactive layer that attracts oil and chemical substances with oil solvent – printinginks. The nonprinting areas are made of aluminium-oxide which attracts water based substances – the fountainsolution.There are many of various types of photoactive layer which are used for production of offset printing plates, amongothers is silver halide layer. The usage of the silver halide technology in the graphic reproduction is not a novelty.The filmmaking phase is based on the usage of the silver halide as the photographically active ingredient, for instance,AgBr (silver bromide. The new, digital plate making technology (Computer to Plate, CtP eliminates thefilmmaking phase and therefore enables control of the printing plate’s exposure made by computer. CtP technologyeliminates the filmmaking phase, but it also results with the reduction of needed material quantities and requiredtime for the production (Limburg, 1994; Seydel, 1996.In this paper the basis of the graphic reproduction by using the silver halide digital printing plates was described.The changes of the AgX copying layer and the surface of the aluminium base in the printing process have beenobserved. The surface characteristics were determined by measuring the relevant surface roughness parameters. Inaddition, measurements of coverage values on the prints, detailed at smaller print run, were conducted.Results showed that surface changes on the printing plate are changing during printing process and that thesechanges influence transfer of the printing ink on the printing substrate. These measurements proved to be of greatinterest in the graphic reproduction as they enable us to determine consistency of the printing plates during theprinting

  16. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e......-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  17. 3D-printed adaptive acoustic lens as a disruptive technology for transcranial ultrasound therapy using single-element transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimbourg, Guillaume; Houdouin, Alexandre; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickael; Aubry, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    The development of multi-element arrays for better control of the shape of ultrasonic beams has opened the way for focusing through highly aberrating media, such as the human skull. As a result, the use of brain therapy with transcranial-focused ultrasound has rapidly grown. Although effective, such technology is expensive. We propose a disruptive, low-cost approach that consists of focusing a 1 MHz ultrasound beam through a human skull with a single-element transducer coupled with a tailored silicone acoustic lens cast in a 3D-printed mold and designed using computed tomography-based numerical acoustic simulation. We demonstrate on N  =  3 human skulls that adding lens-based aberration correction to a single-element transducer increases the deposited energy on the target 10 fold.

  18. EUV lithography imaging using novel pellicle membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollentier, Ivan; Vanpaemel, Johannes; Lee, Jae Uk; Adelmann, Christoph; Zahedmanesh, Houman; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Gallagher, Emily E.

    2016-03-01

    EUV mask protection against defects during use remains a challenge for EUV lithography. A stand-off protective membrane - a pellicle - is targeted to prevent yield losses in high volume manufacturing during handling and exposure, just as it is for 193nm lithography. The pellicle is thin enough to transmit EUV exposure light, yet strong enough to remain intact and hold any particles out of focus during exposure. The development of pellicles for EUV is much more challenging than for 193nm lithography for multiple reasons including: high absorption of most materials at EUV wavelength, pump-down sequences in the EUV vacuum system, and exposure to high intensity EUV light. To solve the problems of transmission and film durability, various options have been explored. In most cases a thin core film is considered, since the deposition process for this is well established and because it is the simplest option. The transmission specification typically dictates that membranes are very thin (~50nm or less), which makes both fabrication and film mechanical integrity difficult. As an alternative, low density films (e.g. including porosity) will allow thicker membranes for a given transmission specification, which is likely to improve film durability. The risk is that the porosity could influence the imaging. At imec, two cases of pellicle concepts based on reducing density have been assessed : (1) 3D-patterned SiN by directed self-assembly (DSA), and (2) carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanosheets (CNS). The first case is based on SiN membranes that are 3D-patterned by Directed Self Assembly (DSA). The materials are tested relative to the primary specifications: EUV transmission and film durability. A risk assessment of printing performance is provided based on simulations of scattered energy. General conclusions on the efficacy of various approaches will provided.

  19. Evanescent interferometric lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, R J; McNab, S J

    2001-04-01

    Simulation results are presented to illustrate the main features of what we believe is a new photolithographic technique, evanescent interferometric lithography (EIL). The technique exploits interference between resonantly enhanced, evanescently decaying diffracted orders to create a frequency-doubled intensity pattern in the near field of a metallic diffraction grating. It is shown that the intensity in a grating's near field can be enhanced significantly compared with conventional interferometric lithography. Contrast in the interference pattern is also increased, owing to a reduction in the zeroth-order transmission near resonance. The pattern's depth of field reduces as the wavelength is increased beyond cutoff of the first-order diffracted components, and results are presented showing the trade-offs that can be made between depth of field and intensity enhancement. Examples are given for a 270-nm-period grating embedded in material with refractive index n = 1.6 and illuminated with wavelengths near 450 nm. Under these conditions it is predicted that high-intensity, high-contrast patterns with 135-nm period can be formed in photoresists more than 50 nm thick.

  20. Focused ion beam lithography for rapid prototyping of metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, Patrick; Kiermaier, Josef; Becherer, Markus; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Elektronik, TU Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We present FIB-lithography methods for rapid and cost-effective prototyping of metal structures covering the deep-submicron- to the millimeter-range in a single lithography cycle. Focused ion beam (FIB) systems are widely used in semiconductor industry and research facilities for both analytical testing and prototyping. A typical application is to apply electrical contact to micron-sized sensors/particles by FIB induced metal deposition. However, as for E-beam lithography, patterning times for large area bonding pads are unacceptably long, resulting in cost-intensive prototyping. In this work, we optimized FIB lithography processing for negative and positive imaging mode to form metallic structures for large-areas down do the sub-100 nm range. For negative lithography features are defined by implanting Ga{sup +}-ions into a commercial photo resist, without affecting the underlying structures by impinging ions. The structures are highly suitable for following lift-off processing due to the undercut of the resist.Metallic feature size of down to 150 nm are achievable. For positive lithography a PMMA resist is exposed in FIB irradiation. Due to the very low dose (3.10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the writing time for an e.g. 100 {mu}m x 100 {mu}m square is approx. 15 seconds. The developed resist is used for subsequent wet chemical etching, obtaining a 100 nm resolution in metal layers.

  1. Mapper: high throughput maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.; Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Boers, J.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.

    2009-01-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. A new platform has been designed and built which contains a 300 mm wafer stage, a wafer handler and an electron beam column with 110 parallel electron beams. This manuscript describes the first patterning results with this 300 mm platform.

  2. A disposable screen-printed silver strip sensor for single drop analysis of halide in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hsin; Cheng, Wan-Ling; Muthuraman, Govindan; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Chung, Hsieh-Hsun; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-06-15

    A screen-printed silver strip with three-electrode configuration of Ag-working, Ag-counter and Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrodes was developed for simultaneous determination of chloride, bromide and iodide in aqueous solutions. It was fabricated simply by screen-printing silver ink onto a polypropylene (PP) base. The in-situ prepared Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrode can avoid the leaching interference in chloride detection while using a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A single drop of analyte (50 microl) is enough to determine iodide, bromide and chloride by measuring the well-separated oxidation peak currents of respective silver halides. The calibration graph was linear from 10 microM to 20 mM for iodide and bromide and 100 microM to 20 mM for chloride and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.05 microM, 2.95 microM and 18.83 microM for iodide, bromide and chloride, respectively. The strip is designed to be disposable and as such manual polishing is not necessary. The proposed sensor is not only simple to manufacture and easy to operate but also fast and precise with little detection volume. It is successfully applied to the determination of halide ions in real samples.

  3. Nanoimprint lithography: Review of aspects and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D. J.; Jayatissa, A. H.

    2005-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography is a relatively new area of study in nanotechnology. Higher resolution patterning can be achieved with nanoimprint lithography than with light diffraction or beam scattering in photoresists. Nanoimprint lithography is a generic term for nano-scale pattern transfer using embossing techniques. These techniques introduce new problems such as: nano-scale alignment, nanovoids and adhesion to the mold. The pattern is typically created in a mold using e-beam writing in photoresist on a substrate and dry etching to transfer the pattern to the mold. A low wattage dry etching process is preferred as to create as smooth a surface as possible to reduce the likelihood of polymers adhering to the mold surface. These molds are generally very durable and can be used repeatedly. Once the mold is created, an anti-sticking coating is often applied to prevent photoresist adhesion. There have been a variety of parameters used to emboss the patterns in photoresists using elevated temperature, room temperature, single and multiple layers of photoresists to name a few. This article reviews some of the current methods of creating nano-scale geometries and will include some areas of application. It will also discuss examples of achieved resolutions and the difficulties in producing them.

  4. Modeling Optical Lithography Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureuther, Andrew R.; Rubinstein, Juliet; Chin, Eric; Wang, Lynn; Miller, Marshal; Clifford, Chris; Yamazoe, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Key physical phenomena associated with resists, illumination, lenses and masks are used to show the progress in models and algorithms for modeling optical projection printing as well as current simulation challenges in managing process complexity for manufacturing. The amazing current capability and challenges for projection printing are discussed using the 22 nm device generation. A fundamental foundation for modeling resist exposure, partial coherent imaging and defect printability is given. The technology innovations of resolution enhancement and chemically amplified resist systems and their modeling challenges are overviewed. Automated chip-level applications in pattern pre-compensation and design-anticipation of residual process variations require new simulation approaches.

  5. Meniscus-Mask Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Vera

    This dissertation describes meniscus-mask lithography (MML): a planar top-down method for the fabrication of precisely positioned narrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and metallic and semiconducting nanowires. The method does not require demanding high resolution lithography tools. The mechanism behind the method involves masking by atmospheric water adsorbed at the edge of the lithography pattern written on top of the target material. Chapter 1 describes the fabrication of sub-10 nm GNR from graphene sheets using MML technique. The electronic properties of resulting GNRs depend on the graphene etching method with argon reactive ion etching yielding remarkably consistent results. The influence of the most common substrates (Si/SiO2 and BN) on the electronic properties of GNRs is demonstrated. The MML technique is also shown to be applicable for fabrication of narrow metallic wires, underscoring the generality of MML for narrow features on diverse materials. In chapter 2 the MML method is shown to be effective for fabrication of narrow wires in a variety of materials. Si, SiO2, Au, Cr, W, Ti, TiO2, Al nanowires are fabricated and characterized. A wide range of materials and etching processes are used and the generality of approach suggests possible applicability of MML to a majority of materials used in modern planar technology. High reproducibility of MML method is shown and some fabrication issues specific to MML are addressed. Crossbar structures produced by MML demonstrate that junctions of nanowires could be fabricated as well, providing all the building blocks required for fabrication of nanowire structures of any complex planar geometry. Chapter 3 is focused on nanoscale menisci behavior and provides additional insights into the mechanism of MML. The width of structures formed by the MML process in concave corners is found to be much more sensitive to changes in the process than the width of MML nanowires. The possibility of change in lateral dimensions of

  6. Studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasmas, as sources for next generation lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily concerned with the optimisation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission around 13.5 nm, from laser produced tin (Sn) plasmas. EUV lithography has been identified as the leading next generation technology to take over from the current optical lithography systems, due to its potential of printing smaller feature sizes on integrated circuits. Many of the problems hindering the implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing have been overcome during the past 20 years of development. However, the lack of source power is a major concern for realising EUV lithography and remains a major roadblock that must be overcome. Therefore in order to optimise and improve the EUV emission from Sn laser plasma sources, many parameters contributing to the make-up of an EUV source are investigated. Chapter 3 presents the results of varying several different experimental parameters on the EUV emission from Sn laser plasmas. Several of the laser parameters including the energy, gas mixture, focusing lens position and angle of incidence are changed, while their effect on the EUV emission is studied. Double laser pulse experiments are also carried out by creating plasma targets for the main laser pulse to interact with. The resulting emission is compared to that of a single laser pulse on solid Sn. Chapter 4 investigates tailoring the CO2 laser pulse duration to improve the efficiency of an EUV source set-up. In doing so a new technique for shortening the time duration of the pulse is described. The direct effects of shortening the CO2 laser pulse duration on the EUV emission from Sn are then studied and shown to improve the efficiency of the source. In Chapter 5 a new plasma target type is studied and compared to the previous dual laser experiments. Laser produced colliding plasma jet targets form a new plasma layer, with densities that can be optimised for re-heating with the main CO2 laser pulse. Chapter 6 will present

  7. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.

    1999-01-01

    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  8. Protein assay structured on paper by using lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, E.; Nargang, T. M.; Al Bitar, W.; Waterkotte, B.; Rapp, B. E.

    2015-03-01

    There are two main challenges in producing a robust, paper-based analytical device. The first one is to create a hydrophobic barrier which unlike the commonly used wax barriers does not break if the paper is bent. The second one is the creation of the (bio-)specific sensing layer. For this proteins have to be immobilized without diminishing their activity. We solve both problems using light-based fabrication methods that enable fast, efficient manufacturing of paper-based analytical devices. The first technique relies on silanization by which we create a flexible hydrophobic barrier made of dimethoxydimethylsilane. The second technique demonstrated within this paper uses photobleaching to immobilize proteins by means of maskless projection lithography. Both techniques have been tested on a classical lithography setup using printed toner masks and on a lithography system for maskless lithography. Using these setups we could demonstrate that the proposed manufacturing techniques can be carried out at low costs. The resolution of the paper-based analytical devices obtained with static masks was lower due to the lower mask resolution. Better results were obtained using advanced lithography equipment. By doing so we demonstrated, that our technique enables fabrication of effective hydrophobic boundary layers with a thickness of only 342 μm. Furthermore we showed that flourescine-5-biotin can be immobilized on the non-structured paper and be employed for the detection of streptavidinalkaline phosphatase. By carrying out this assay on a paper-based analytical device which had been structured using the silanization technique we proofed biological compatibility of the suggested patterning technique.

  9. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C.; Strano, Michael S.; Gleason, Karen K.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  10. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C; Strano, Michael S; Gleason, Karen K; Doyle, Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  11. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Individual Cancer Cells Isolated via Single-Cell Printing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Riba

    Full Text Available Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity may impact disease outcome. Gold standard for dissecting clonal heterogeneity are single-cell analyses. Here, we present an efficient workflow based on an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP device for the study of gene variants in single cancer cells. To allow for precise cell deposition into microwells the SCP was equipped with an automatic dispenser offset compensation, and the 384-microwell plates were electrostatically neutralized. The ejection efficiency was 99.7% for fluorescent beads (n = 2304 and 98.7% for human cells (U-2 OS or Kasumi-1 cancer cell line, acute myeloid leukemia [AML] patient; n = 150. Per fluorescence microscopy, 98.8% of beads were correctly delivered into the wells. A subset of single cells (n = 81 was subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA, which was successful in all cells. On empty droplets, a PCR on LINE1 retrotransposons yielded no product after WGA, verifying the absence of free-floating DNA in SCP-generated droplets. Representative gene variants identified in bulk specimens were sequenced in single-cell WGA DNA. In U-2 OS, 22 of 25 cells yielded results for both an SLC34A2 and TET2 mutation site, including cells harboring the SLC34A2 but not the TET2 mutation. In one cell, the TET2 mutation analysis was inconclusive due to allelic dropout, as assessed via polymorphisms located close to the mutation. Of Kasumi-1, 23 of 33 cells with data on both the KIT and TP53 mutation site harbored both mutations. In the AML patient, 21 of 23 cells were informative for a TP53 polymorphism; the identified alleles matched the loss of chromosome arm 17p. The advanced SCP allows efficient, precise and gentle isolation of individual cells for subsequent WGA and routine PCR/sequencing-based analyses of gene variants. This makes single-cell information readily accessible to a wide range of applications and can provide insights into clonal heterogeneity that were indeterminable solely by

  12. Graphene nanoribbon superlattices fabricated via He ion lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Fragneaud, Benjamin [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Gustavo Cançado, Luiz [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Winston, Donald [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Miao, Feng [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, National Center of Microstructures and Quantum Manipulation, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Alberto Achete, Carlos [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Single-step nano-lithography was performed on graphene sheets using a helium ion microscope. Parallel “defect” lines of ∼1 μm length and ≈5 nm width were written to form nanoribbon gratings down to 20 nm pitch. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallographic orientation of the nanoribbons was partially maintained at their lateral edges, indicating a high-fidelity lithography process. Furthermore, Raman analysis of large exposure areas with different ion doses reveals that He ions produce point defects with radii ∼ 2× smaller than do Ga ions, demonstrating that scanning-He{sup +}-beam lithography can texture graphene with less damage.

  13. Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical lithography system researched in this study adopted the laser direct-write lithography technology with nano-positioning stage by using retailing blue ray optical pickup head contained 405nm wavelength and 0.85 numerical aperture of focus lens as the system lighting source. The system employed a photodiode received the focusing error signal reflected by the glass substrate to identify specimen position and automatic focused control with voice coil motor. The pattern substrate was loaded on a nano-positioning stage; input pattern path automatically and collocate with inner program at the same time. This research has successfully developed a blue laser lithography process system. The single spot size can be narrowed down to 3.07 μm and the linewidth is 3.3μm, time of laser control can reach to 450 ns and the exposure pattern can be controlled by program as well.

  14. The Fabrication of Flow Field Plates for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Lithography and Radio Frequency Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Cho, Kun-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Yao; Chen, Zhi-Lun

    2015-08-01

    This study uses lithography to etch flow fields on a single side of a printed circuit board (PCB) and combines a flow field plate with a collector plate to make innovative anode flow field plates and cathode flow field plates for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). TiO2 thin film is also sputtered on the anode flow field plate using radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The experimental results show that the prepared DMFC has a better maximum power density of 11.928 mW/cm2. Furthermore, when a TiO2 thin film is sputtered on the flow field plate of the assembled DMFC, the maximum power density is 14.426 mW/cm2, which is actually 21% more than that for a DMFC with no TiO2 thin film coated on the flow field plate.

  15. Single layered flexible photo-detector based on perylene/graphene composite through printed technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a single layered passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite is proposed, which is deposited in comb type silver electrodes separated as 50 μm spacing. To increase an electrical conductivity of the proposed sensor, perylene and graphene are blended. Photo sensing layer (120nm thick) and Silver electrodes (50 μm width, 350 nm thick) are deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) system. The proposed photo sensor detects a terminal resistance inversely varied by an incident light in the range between 78 GΩ in dark and 25 GΩ at light intensity of 400lux. The device response is maximum at 465 nm ~ 535 nm wavelength range at blue light. The device exhibited bendability up to 4mm diameter for 1000 endurance cycles. The surface morphology analysis is carried out with FE-SEM and microscope.

  16. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J; Stone, G; Christian, A; Dugan, L; Hiddessen, A; Wu, K J; Wu, L; Hamilton, J; Stockton, C; Hubbell, J

    2007-10-15

    Photocatalytic lithography is an emerging technique that couples light with coated mask materials in order to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, it is fast and robust and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells in order to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications.

  17. 3D printed electromagnetic transmission and electronic structures fabricated on a single platform using advanced process integration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbaugh, Paul Issac

    3D printing has garnered immense attention from many fields including in-office rapid prototyping of mechanical parts, outer-space satellite replication, garage functional firearm manufacture, and NASA rocket engine component fabrication. 3D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of electronics, microwave circuits and wireless antennas and has reached a level of maturity which allows functional parts to be printed. Much more work is necessary in order to perfect the processes of 3D printed electronics especially in the area of automation. Chapter 1 shows several finished prototypes of 3D printed electronics as well as newly developed techniques in fabrication. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties and applications of the standard materials which have been developed for 3D printing. Measurement of a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies up to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods is performed throughout chapter 2. Several types of high frequency RF transmission lines are fabricated and valuable model-matched data is gathered and provided in chapter 3 for future designers' use. Of particular note is a fully 3D printed stripline which was automatically fabricated in one process on one machine. Some core advantages of 3D printing RF/microwave components include rapid manufacturing of complex, dimensionally sensitive circuits (such as antennas and filters which are often iteratively tuned) and the ability to create new devices that cannot be made using standard fabrication techniques. Chapter 4 describes an exemplary fully 3D printed curved inverted-F antenna.

  18. Nanoimprint Lithography on curved surfaces prepared by fused deposition modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köpplmayr, Thomas; Häusler, Lukas; Bergmair, Iris; Mühlberger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modelling, prototyping and production applications. The achievable surface roughness is one of its most limiting aspects. It is however of great interest to create well-defined (nanosized) patterns on the surface for functional applications such as optical effects, electronics or bio-medical devices. We used UV-curable polymers of different viscosities and flexible stamps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to perform Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) on FDM-printed curved parts. Substrates with different roughness and curvature were prepared using a commercially available 3D printer. The nanoimprint results were characterized by optical light microscopy, profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our experiments show promising results in creating well-defined microstructures on the 3D-printed parts. (paper)

  19. Pattern-integrated interference lithography instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, G M; Leibovici, M C R; Kummer, J W; Gaylord, T K

    2012-06-01

    Multi-beam interference (MBI) provides the ability to form a wide range of sub-micron periodic optical-intensity distributions with applications to a variety of areas, including photonic crystals (PCs), nanoelectronics, biomedical structures, optical trapping, metamaterials, and numerous subwavelength structures. Recently, pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) was presented as a new lithographic method that integrates superposed pattern imaging with interference lithography in a single-exposure step. In the present work, the basic design and systematic implementation of a pattern-integrated interference exposure system (PIIES) is presented to realize PIIL by incorporating a projection imaging capability in a novel three-beam interference configuration. A fundamental optimization methodology is presented to model the system and predict MBI-patterning performance. To demonstrate the PIIL method, a prototype PIIES experimental configuration is presented, including detailed alignment techniques and experimental procedures. Examples of well-defined PC structures, fabricated with a PIIES prototype, are presented to demonstrate the potential of PIIL for fabricating dense integrated optical circuits, as well as numerous other subwavelength structures.

  20. Fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J. S., LLNL

    1998-03-18

    EUV Lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate as a stepper technology for fabricating the ``0.1 {micro}m generation`` of microelectronic circuits. EUVL is an optical printing technique qualitatively similar to DUV Lithography (DUVL), except that 11-13nm wavelength light is used instead of 193-248nm. The feasibility of creating 0.1{micro}m features has been well-established using small-field EUVL printing tools and development efforts are currently underway to demonstrate that cost-effective production equipment can be engineered to perform full-width ring-field imaging consistent with high wafer throughput rates Ensuring that an industrial supplier base will be available for key components and subsystems is crucial to the success of EUVL. In particular, the projection optics are the heart of the EUVL imaging system, yet they have figure and finish specifications that are beyond the state-of-the-art in optics manufacturing. Thus it is important to demonstrate that industry will be able to fabricate and certify these optics commensurate with EUVL requirements. Indeed, the goal of this paper is to demonstrate that procuring EUVL projection optical substrates is feasible. This conclusion is based on measurements of both commercially-available and developmental substrates. The paper discusses EUVL figure and finish specifications, followed by examples of ultrasmooth and accurate surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of how substrates are measured and evaluated.

  1. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  2. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  3. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  4. The Making of a 3D-Printed, Cable-Driven, Single-Model, Lightweight Humanoid Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexterity robotic hands can (Cummings, 1996 greatly enhance the functionality of humanoid robots, but the making of such hands with not only human-like appearance but also the capability of performing the natural movement of social robots is a challenging problem. The first challenge is to create the hand’s articulated structure and the second challenge is to actuate it to move like a human hand. A robotic hand for humanoid robot should look and behave human like. At the same time, it also needs to be light and cheap for widely used purposes. We start with studying the biomechanical features of a human hand and propose a simplified mechanical model of robotic hands, which can achieve the important local motions of the hand. Then, we use 3D modeling techniques to create a single interlocked hand model that integrates pin and ball joints to our hand model. Compared to other robotic hands, our design saves the time required for assembling and adjusting, which makes our robotic hand ready-to-use right after the 3D printing is completed. Finally, the actuation of the hand is realized by cables and motors. Based on this approach, we have designed a cost-effective, 3D printable, compact, and lightweight robotic hand. Our robotic hand weighs 150 g, has 15 joints, which are similar to a real human hand, and 6 Degree of Freedom (DOFs. It is actuated by only six small size actuators. The wrist connecting part is also integrated into the hand model and could be customized for different robots such as Nadine robot (Magnenat Thalmann et al., 2017. The compact servo bed can be hidden inside the Nadine robot’s sleeve and the whole robotic hand platform will not cause extra load to her arm as the total weight (150 g robotic hand and 162 g artificial skin is almost the same as her previous unarticulated robotic hand which is 348 g. The paper also shows our test results with and without silicon artificial hand skin, and on Nadine robot.

  5. Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193nm optical lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Michael; Salib, Mike; Michaeli, Albert; Krauss, Thomas F

    2006-03-20

    We show the successful fabrication and operation of photonic crystal waveguides on SOI, with lower silicon dioxide cladding remaining, using 193 nm DUV lithography. We demonstrate that 193 nm lithography gives more process latitude, allowing a wider range of periods and hole diameters to be printed, as well as reducing the optical proximity effect to a minimum. The smallest period /hole size variation printed successfully was 280 nm and 150 nm, which is very promising for ambitious future designs. Lowest losses obtained were 14.2 +/- 2.0 dB/cm for a W1 waveguide in a 400 nm lattice with an r/a of 0.25 at a frequency of 0.257 a/lambda, which approaches the best losses reported for air-bridge type W1s.

  6. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  7. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O 2 + , BF 2 + , P + etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF 2 + , over 90% of O 2 + and P + have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He + beam is as high as 440 A/cm 2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O 2 + ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O 2 + ions with the dose of 10 15 cm -2 . The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P

  8. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  9. REAL TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF THE HEATSET OFFSET PRINTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-George RĂCHERU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Because of the high speed and the high volume of the printing press, we have to rely on automation for press control and not just to the printer’s eye. When printing an image that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the finished image will look fuzzy, blurred or "out of register". To help line the colors up correctly, a system of registration is necessary. Therefore, the use of an automated real time quality control system will result in a more consistent color for the customer and less waste for the printer.

  10. Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's application. ... Soft lithography for concentrator photovoltaic CPV - system's application. N.L. Chiromawa, K Ibrahim, M.H. Ali, U.M. Gana, A.O. Musa, N.I. Mannawi, A.A. ... Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Micro-Fresnel lens,Photovoltaic, Solar cells, PMMA, PDMS ...

  11. Alternative lithography strategies for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Main aim of the research has been the development of alternative lithography strategies for the fabrication of complex, flexible electronic devices. Flexible bottom-contact, bottom-gate thin-film transistors were solely patterned with UV nanoimprint lithography on poly(ethylene naphthalate) foil.

  12. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, M V; Spengler, N; Mager, D; Wang, N; Kiss, S Z; Höfflin, J; While, P T; Korvink, J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner. (paper)

  13. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-12-23

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft-lithography, is complex and expensive for producing three-dimensional (3D) structures. The emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive alternative due to its simplicity and low-cost. Recently a handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, these devices invariably use purely two-dimensional (2D) flow structures. Herein we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate simple and low-cost 3D miniaturized fluidic devices for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without need for surface treatment of the channel walls. This is accomplished by varying the channel diameters at the junction, so the inner liquid does not touch the outer walls. This 3D-printed emulsion generator has been successfully tested over a range of conditions. We also formulate and demonstrate, for the first time, uniform scaling laws for the emulsion drop sizes generated in different regimes, by incorporating the dynamic contact angle effects during the drop formation. Magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering.

  14. Moiré Nanosphere Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Wu, Zilong; Rukavina, Michael; Dao, Thang Duy; Ishii, Satoshi; Aono, Masakazu; Nagao, Tadaaki; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-06-23

    We have developed moiré nanosphere lithography (M-NSL), which incorporates in-plane rotation between neighboring monolayers, to extend the patterning capability of conventional nanosphere lithography (NSL). NSL, which uses self-assembled layers of monodisperse micro/nanospheres as masks, is a low-cost, scalable nanofabrication technique and has been widely employed to fabricate various nanoparticle arrays. Combination with dry etching and/or angled deposition has greatly enriched the family of nanoparticles NSL can yield. In this work, we introduce a variant of this technique, which uses sequential stacking of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers to form a bilayer crystal instead of conventional spontaneous self-assembly. Sequential stacking leads to the formation of moiré patterns other than the usually observed thermodynamically stable configurations. Subsequent O2 plasma etching results in a variety of complex nanostructures. Using the etched moiré patterns as masks, we have fabricated complementary gold nanostructures and studied their optical properties. We believe this facile technique provides a strategy to fabricate complex nanostructures or metasurfaces.

  15. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  16. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  17. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %, a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %, and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %. The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH4/NH3 gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Thus, the expensive Si3N4 film deposited by PECVD using SiH4 and NH3 gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  18. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Shun; Cheng, Chin-Lung; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chen, Chi-Cheng

    2013-10-17

    Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB) paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST) of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC) for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %), a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %), and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %). The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH₄/NH₃ gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Thus, the expensive Si₃N₄ film deposited by PECVD using SiH₄ and NH₃ gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  19. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  20. Integration of multiple theories for the simulation of laser interference lithography processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Hsun; Yang, Yin-Kuang; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The periodic structure of laser interference lithography (LIL) fabrication is superior to other lithography technologies. In contrast to traditional lithography, LIL has the advantages of being a simple optical system with no mask requirements, low cost, high depth of focus, and large patterning area in a single exposure. Generally, a simulation pattern for the periodic structure is obtained through optical interference prior to its fabrication through LIL. However, the LIL process is complex and combines the fields of optical and polymer materials; thus, a single simulation theory cannot reflect the real situation. Therefore, this research integrates multiple theories, including those of optical interference, standing waves, and photoresist characteristics, to create a mathematical model for the LIL process. The mathematical model can accurately estimate the exposure time and reduce the LIL process duration through trial and error.

  1. Integration of multiple theories for the simulation of laser interference lithography processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Hsun; Yang, Yin-Kuang; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-24

    The periodic structure of laser interference lithography (LIL) fabrication is superior to other lithography technologies. In contrast to traditional lithography, LIL has the advantages of being a simple optical system with no mask requirements, low cost, high depth of focus, and large patterning area in a single exposure. Generally, a simulation pattern for the periodic structure is obtained through optical interference prior to its fabrication through LIL. However, the LIL process is complex and combines the fields of optical and polymer materials; thus, a single simulation theory cannot reflect the real situation. Therefore, this research integrates multiple theories, including those of optical interference, standing waves, and photoresist characteristics, to create a mathematical model for the LIL process. The mathematical model can accurately estimate the exposure time and reduce the LIL process duration through trial and error.

  2. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  3. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  4. Online & Print

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Berglez

    only daily at the time- run by Blantyre Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Blantyre Printing. 5 Abridged speech made ... of the Ngwazi were: Blantyre Print and Packaging Company Limited, Olivetti (formerly. Gaskells Limited) .... that meet the immediate needs of our industry, communities and country. Secondly, we need to ...

  5. Advanced laser driver for soft x-ray projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L.E.; Beach, R.J.; Dane, C.B.; Reichert, P.; Honig, J.N.; Hackel, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser for use as a driver for a soft x-ray projection lithography system is described. The laser will output 0.5 to 1 J per pulse with about 5 ns pulse width at up to 1.5 kHz repetition frequency. The design employs microchannel-cooled diode laser arrays for optical pumping, zigzag slab energy storage, and a single frequency oscillator injected regenerative amplifier cavity using phase conjugator beam correction for near diffraction limited beam quality. The design and initial results of this laser`s activation experiments will be presented.

  6. Combined electron beam and UV lithography in SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Mironov, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    We present combined electron beam and UV lithography (CEUL) in SU-8 as a fast and flexible lithographic technique for prototyping of functional polymer devices and pattern transfer applications. CEUL is a lithographic technique suitable for defining both micrometer and nanometer scale features...... in a single polymer film on the wafer scale. The height of the micrometer and nanometer scale features is matched within 30 nm. As a pattern transfer application, we demonstrate stamp fabrication and thermal nanoimprint of a 2-dimensional array of 100 nm wide lines with a pitch of 380 nm in connection...

  7. High throughput, high resolution enzymatic lithography process: effect of crystallite size, moisture, and enzyme concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhantong; Ganesh, Manoj; Bucaro, Michael; Smolianski, Igor; Gross, Richard A; Lyons, Alan M

    2014-12-08

    By bringing enzymes into contact with predefined regions of a surface, a polymer film can be selectively degraded to form desired patterns that find a variety of applications in biotechnology and electronics. This so-called "enzymatic lithography" is an environmentally friendly process as it does not require actinic radiation or synthetic chemicals to develop the patterns. A significant challenge to using enzymatic lithography has been the need to restrict the mobility of the enzyme in order to maintain control of feature sizes. Previous approaches have resulted in low throughput and were limited to polymer films only a few nanometers thick. In this paper, we demonstrate an enzymatic lithography system based on Candida antartica lipase B (CALB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) that can resolve fine-scale features, (<1 μm across) in thick (0.1-2.0 μm) polymer films. A Polymer Pen Lithography (PPL) tool was developed to deposit an aqueous solution of CALB onto a spin-cast PCL film. Immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer surface was monitored using fluorescence microscopy by labeling CALB with FITC. The crystallite size in the PCL films was systematically varied; small crystallites resulted in significantly faster etch rates (20 nm/min) and the ability to resolve smaller features (as fine as 1 μm). The effect of printing conditions and relative humidity during incubation is also presented. Patterns formed in the PCL film were transferred to an underlying copper foil demonstrating a "Green" approach to the fabrication of printed circuit boards.

  8. Effects of Single and Blended Coating Pigments on the Inkjet Image Quality of Dye Sublimation Transfer Printed Paper: SiO2, CaCO3, Talc, and Sericite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ching Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects on the image quality of CaCO3, SiO2, talc, and sericite on coated inkjet paper. The papers serve as dye sublimation transfer paper for printing on fabrics. The brightness, smoothness, and contact angle of the coated papers were evaluated. The papers were then printed with a textile color image evaluation test form, and the imprinted images were evaluated with respect to six criteria of the solid ink density, tone value increase, print contrast, ink trapping, grayness, and hue error. The overall printed image quality was correlated with the smoothness and brightness of the coated paper but showed no correlation with the contact angle. For single-pigment-coated papers, CaCO3 produced paper with the best color difference performance and could be substituted for silica. On the other hand, SiO2 was found to be suitable for blending with talc, calcium carbonate, and sericite, and its combination with these materials generally produced better image qualities than silica alone. Talc and sericite, when blended with silica as composite coating pigments, produced better printed image qualities than those as single-pigment-coated papers. The overall image quality ranking suggests that the best performance was achieved with CaCO3-, SiO2/talc-, CaCO3/SiO2-, SiO2/sericite-, and SiO2-coated papers.

  9. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  10. Simulations for printing contacts with near field x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Antony J; Boothroyd, Chris B

    2005-01-01

    In ultra high resolution lithography, sometimes called near field x-ray lithography, Fresnel diffraction is deliberately used to increase resolution: the contraction in current occurring beyond a clear mask feature has, further, important experimentally beneficial effects that were previously overlooked. All the key features of the technique have, by now, been demonstrated and previously reported. The technique is also an enhancement of the most-developed next generation lithography. The enhancement has fundamental advantages, including an increase in mask-wafer Gap (the Gap scales as the square of the width of a clear mask feature); reduced exposure times; more easily fabricated masks; high density prints by multiple exposures; high contrast; elimination of sidebands; reduction in the effects of mask defects, compact masks, etc. We have, previously reported experimental and simulated prints from lines and more complex flag and bridge structures; here we report simulations for symmetrical contacts. More particularly, in the printing of circular features, it is shown that a demagnification factor around 7 can be routinely used to optimize mask-wafer Gap. Although the Gap is significantly extended by using larger clear mask features, finer prints can still be developed

  11. Planar self-aligned imprint lithography for coplanar plasmonic nanostructures fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a cost-efficient nanopatterning technology because of its promising advantages of high throughput and high resolution. However, accurate multilevel overlay capability of NIL required for integrated circuit manufacturing remains a challenge due to the high cost of achieving mechanical alignment precision. Although self-aligned imprint lithography was developed to avoid the need of alignment for the vertical layered structures, it has limited usage in the manufacture of the coplanar structures, such as integrated plasmonic devices. In this paper, we develop a new process of planar self-alignment imprint lithography (P-SAIL) to fabricate the metallic and dielectric structures on the same plane. P-SAIL transfers the multilevel imprint processes to a single-imprint process which offers higher efficiency and less cost than existing manufacturing methods. Such concept is demonstrated in an example of fabricating planar plasmonic structures consisting of different materials. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Spencer, Jeremy; Jander, Albrecht; Nielsen, Jeffrey; Stasiak, James; Kasperchik, Vladek; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-01

    3-D printing processes, which use drop-on-demand inkjet printheads, have great potential in designing and prototyping magnetic materials. Unlike conventional deposition and lithography, magnetic particles in the printing ink can be aligned by an external magnetic field to achieve both high permeability and low hysteresis losses, enabling prototyping and development of novel magnetic composite materials and components, e.g., for inductor and antennae applications. In this work, we report an inkjet printing technique with magnetic alignment capability. Magnetic films with and without particle alignment are printed, and their magnetic properties are compared. In the alignment-induced hard axis direction, an increase in high frequency permeability and a decrease in hysteresis losses are observed. Our results suggest that unique magnetic structures with arbitrary controllable anisotropy, not feasible otherwise, may be fabricated via inkjet printing.

  13. Printed photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems. (paper)

  14. Scalable single point power extraction for compact mobile and stand-alone solar harvesting power sources based on fully printed organic photovoltaic modules and efficient high voltage DC/DC conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Villarejo, José A.; Hösel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns for fully printed polymer solar cells are presented that inherently enable scaling of the power output with single point electrical energy connection is presented. Connection is made to only one end of the printed foil that can be rolled out for light energy harvesting. The power level...... (AM1.5G, 1000 W m−2). As a demonstration we present a scalable fully integrated and compact power unit for mobile applications comprising solar energy harvesting OPV modules, power conversion and storage. Applications possible include electrical charging of mobile devices, illumination using LED lamps...... takes place in a HVDC–DC converter that is tailored specifically for operation with polymer solar cells by regulation on the input side. The system charges a lithium-polymer battery thus enabling storage of 82 Wh for a printed OPV foil measuring 0.305 m×9 m having a nominal power output of at least 15 W...

  15. Functional polymers by two-photon 3D lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infuehr, Robert [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, 1040 Vienna (Austria) and Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Pucher, Niklas; Heller, Christian [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Lichtenegger, Helga [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Volker; Kuna, Ladislav; Haase, Anja [Institute of Nanostructured Materials and Photonics, Joanneum Research, Franz-Pichler-Strasse 30, 8160 Weiz (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    In the presented work, two-photon 3D lithography and selective single-photon photopolymerization in a prefabricated polydimethylsiloxane matrix is presented as an approach with potential applicability of waveguide writing in 3D by two-photon polymerization. Photopolymers based on acrylate chemistry were used in order to evaluate the optical capabilities of the available two-photon system. Several photoinitiators, tailored for two-photon absorption, were tested in a mixture of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate. Best results were obtained with a recently synthesized diynone-based photoinitiator. Feature resolutions in the range of 300 nm were achieved. Due to the cross-conjugated nature of that donor-{pi}-acceptor-{pi}-donor system a high two-photon absorption activity was achieved. Therefore, a resin mixture containing only 0.025 wt% of photoinitiator was practical for structuring by two-photon polymerization. The required initiator content was therefore a factor of 100 lower than in traditional one-photon lithography. The aim of the second part of this work was to fabricate optical waveguides by selectively irradiating a polymer network, which was swollen by a monomer. The monomer was polymerized by conventional single-photon polymerization and the uncured monomer was removed by evaporation at elevated temperatures. This treatment leads to a local change in refractive index. Refractive index changes in the range of {delta}n = 0.01 ({delta}n/n = 0.7%) were achieved, which is sufficient for structuring waveguides for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  17. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  18. Deep-etch x-ray lithography at the ALS: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Brennen, R.A. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fabrication of high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications in fields such as micromechanics, optics, and interconnect technology. Techniques and processes that enable lithography in thick materials differ from the planar technologies used in standard integrated circuit processing. Deep x-ray lithography permits extremely precise and deep proximity printing of a given pattern from a mask into a very thick resist. It requires a source of hard, intense, and well collimated x-ray radiation, as is provided by a synchrotron radiation source. The thick resist microstructures, so produced can be used as templates from which ultrahigh precision parts with high aspect ratios can be mass-produced out of a large variety of materials (metals, plastics, ceramics). This whole series of techniques and processes has been historically referred to as {open_quotes}LIGA,{close_quotes} from the German acronym for lithography, electroforming (Galvanoformung), and plastic molding (Abformung), the first development of the basic LIGA process having been performed at the Nuclear Research Center at Karlsruhe in Germany.

  19. Ion beam figuring for lithography optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Optical lithography is the key technology used for mass manufacturing of today's semiconductor devices. The tremendous development pressure in the semiconductor industry, both in time-to-market and in design quality is best illustrated by "Moore's Law" [G.E. Moore, Cramming more components on electronic circuits, Electronics 38 (1965) [1

  20. Substrate conformal imprint lithography for nanophotonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The field of nano-photonics studies the interaction and control of light with dielectric, semiconductor and metal structures which are comparable in size or smaller than the vacuum wavelength of light. In this thesis we present Substrate Conformal Imprint Lithography (SCIL) as a novel wafer-scale

  1. Helium ion lithography principles and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, E. van der; Maas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments show that Scanning Helium Ion Beam Lithography (SHIBL) with a sub-nanometer beam diameter is a promising alternative fabrication technique for high-resolution nanostructures at high pattern densities. Key principles and critical conditions of the technique are explained. From

  2. Electrostatic mask protection for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, R.; Heerens, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic protection of mask for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) was discussed. Both charged and neutral particles could be prevented from moving towards the mask by choosing a nonuniform electrical field. Benefits of electrostatic protection are that it does not affect the EUV beam and

  3. Digital resonant laser printing: Bridging nanophotonic science and consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Raza, Søren

    2017-01-01

    recently been introduced asa low-cost lithography solution, which allows the fabrication of high-resolution features on optical sub-strates. By exploiting resonant opto-thermal modification of individual nanoscale elements, laser printingcan achieve nanometer-sized resolution. In addition, the concept...... of digital resonant laser printing at thenanoscale supports mass-customization and may therefore convert nanophotonic science into everydayconsumer products....

  4. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Brennan

    Full Text Available 3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture.

  5. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers. PMID:27101171

  6. Molecular self-assembly for biological investigations and nanoscale lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheunkar, Sarawut

    Small, diffusible molecules when recognized by their binding partners, such as proteins and antibodies, trigger enzymatic activity, cell communication, and immune response. Progress in analytical methods enabling detection, characterization, and visualization of biological dynamics at the molecular level will advance our exploration of complex biological systems. In this dissertation, analytical platforms were fabricated to capture membrane-associated receptors, which are essential proteins in cell signaling pathways. The neurotransmitter serotonin and its biological precursor were immobilized on gold substrates coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oligo(ethylene glycol)alkanethiols and their reactive derivatives. The SAM-coated substrates present the biologically selective affinity of immobilized molecules to target native membrane-associated receptors. These substrates were also tested for biospecificity using antibodies. In addition, small-molecule-functionalized platforms, expressing neurotransmitter pharmacophores, were employed to examine kinetic interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors and their associated neurotransmitters. The binding interactions were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance equipped with liquid-flow injection. The interaction kinetics of G-protein-coupled serotonin 1A receptor and 5-hydroxytyptophan-functionalized surfaces were studied in a real-time, label-free environment. Key binding parameters, such as equilibrium dissociation constants, binding rate constants, and dissociative half-life, were extracted. These parameters are critical for understanding and comparing biomolecular interactions in modern biomedical research. By integrating self-assembly, surface functionalization, and nanofabrication, small-molecule microarrays were created for high-throughput screening. A hybrid soft-lithography, called microcontact insertion printing, was used to pattern small molecules at the dilute scales necessary for highly

  7. Single scan parameterization of space-variant point spread functions in image space via a printed array: the impact for two PET/CT scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C; Angelis, G I; Noonan, P J; Jackson, A [Imaging, Genomics and Proteomics, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Price, P [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lionheart, W R [School of Mathematics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J, E-mail: fotis.kotasidis@mmic.man.ac.uk [Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-05-21

    Incorporation of a resolution model during statistical image reconstruction often produces images of improved resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. A novel and practical methodology to rapidly and accurately determine the overall emission and detection blurring component of the system matrix using a printed point source array within a custom-made Perspex phantom is presented. The array was scanned at different positions and orientations within the field of view (FOV) to examine the feasibility of extrapolating the measured point source blurring to other locations in the FOV and the robustness of measurements from a single point source array scan. We measured the spatially-variant image-based blurring on two PET/CT scanners, the B-Hi-Rez and the TruePoint TrueV. These measured spatially-variant kernels and the spatially-invariant kernel at the FOV centre were then incorporated within an ordinary Poisson ordered subset expectation maximization (OP-OSEM) algorithm and compared to the manufacturer's implementation using projection space resolution modelling (RM). Comparisons were based on a point source array, the NEMA IEC image quality phantom, the Cologne resolution phantom and two clinical studies (carbon-11 labelled anti-sense oligonucleotide [{sup 11}C]-ASO and fluorine-18 labelled fluoro-l-thymidine [{sup 18}F]-FLT). Robust and accurate measurements of spatially-variant image blurring were successfully obtained from a single scan. Spatially-variant resolution modelling resulted in notable resolution improvements away from the centre of the FOV. Comparison between spatially-variant image-space methods and the projection-space approach (the first such report, using a range of studies) demonstrated very similar performance with our image-based implementation producing slightly better contrast recovery (CR) for the same level of image roughness (IR). These results demonstrate that image-based resolution modelling within reconstruction is a valid alternative to

  8. Conformal contact and pattern stability of stamps used for soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietsch, Alexander; Michel, Bruno

    2000-10-01

    Patterning in soft lithography techniques such as microcontact printing or light-coupling mask lithography is mediated by surface topographical patterns of elastomeric stamps: intimate contact with the substrate is achieved locally at the protruding areas, whereas a gap remains between the substrate and recessed zones. This principle challenges the properties of the stamp, especially when printing high-resolution or extreme aspect-ratio patterns with high accuracy. On the one hand, the stamp must be soft enough to enable conformal contact with the substrate, which means that it must adapt elastically without leaving voids created by the natural roughness of the substrate. On the other hand, a precise definition of micropatterns requires a rigid material. In this article, we analyze the conditions of elasticity, roughness, and energy of adhesion to establish conformal contact between an elastomer and the target surface. Furthermore, we address questions of replication accuracy and evaluate local elastic deformation induced by normal forces using model calculations for simple pattern geometries. Pressure applied during contact leads to a sagging or collapse of the unsupported areas. We discuss implications on both material and pattern design that allow spontaneous propagation of conformal contact while inhibiting the spreading of collapse.

  9. Nanolithography by scanning probes on calixarene molecular glass resist using mix-and-match lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-07-01

    Going "beyond the CMOS information-processing era," taking advantage of quantum effects occurring at sub-10-nm level, requires novel device concepts and associated fabrication technologies able to produce promising features at acceptable cost levels. Herein, the challenge affecting the lithographic technologies comprises the marriage of down-scaling the device-relevant feature size towards single-nanometer resolution with a simultaneous increase of the throughput capabilities. Mix-and-match lithographic strategies are one promising path to break through this trade-off. Proof-of-concept combining electron beam lithography (EBL) with the outstanding capabilities of closed-loop electric field current-controlled scanning probe nanolithography (SPL) is demonstrated. This combination, whereby also extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is possible instead of EBL, enables more: improved patterning resolution and reproducibility in combination with excellent overlay and placement accuracy. Furthermore, the symbiosis between EBL (EUVL) and SPL expands the process window of EBL (EUVL) beyond the state of the art, allowing SPL-based pre- and post-patterning of EBL (EUVL) written features at critical dimension levels with scanning probe microscopy-based pattern overlay alignment capability. Moreover, we are able to modify the EBL (EUVL) pattern even after the development step. The ultra-high resolution mix-and-match lithography experiments are performed on the molecular glass resist calixarene using a Gaussian e-beam lithography system operating at 10 keV and a home-developed SPL setup.

  10. Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lowell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE, taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster angles to reflect both s- and p-polarized beams for the interference. The wide selection of reflective surface materials and interference angles allow control of the ratio of s- and p-polarizations, and intensity ratio of side-beam to central beam for interference lithography. Photonic bandgap simulations have also indicated that both s and p-polarized waves are sometimes needed in the reflected side beams for maximum photonic bandgap size and certain filling fractions of dielectric inside the photonic crystals. The flexibility of single ROE and single exposure based holographic fabrication of 3D structures was demonstrated with reflective surfaces of ROEs at non-Brewster angles, highlighting the capability of the ROE technique of producing umbrella configurations of side beams with arbitrary angles and polarizations and paving the way for the rapid throughput of various photonic crystal templates.

  11. Imprint lithography with degradable elastomeric polyanhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Shipp, Devon A

    2012-09-26

    A photocurable, degradable polyanhydride cross-linked elastomer that can be used as a stamp in imprint lithography applications has been developed. The degradable stamp materials are based on polyanhydrides synthesized using thiol-ene polymerization. In this study, curing the monomers 4-pentenoic anhydride and pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) on a master mold yields low modulus, elastomeric, degradable polyanhydride polymer stamps that are a negative of the master. These stamps can be then used as a sacrificial template during the fabrication of a replica of the master, and can be readily degraded away from the replica using water. The resultant imprinted materials exhibited excellent uniformity over a large area. Compared with other conventional imprint lithography stamp materials, the thiol-ene polymerized polyanhydrides are degradable, master mold safe, show great release properties, have fast cure rates, are relatively low cost, and can be fabricated onto variety of substrates and materials.

  12. Digital Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Moltchanova, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

  13. Digital Inkjet Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meichun

    2017-01-01

    Digital inkjet textile printing is an emerging technology developed with the rise of the digital world. It offers a possibility to print high-resolution images with unlimited color selection on fabrics. Digital inkjet printing brings a revolutionary chance for the textile printing industry. The history of textile printing shows the law how new technology replaces the traditional way of printing. This indicates the future of digital inkjet textile printing is relatively positive. Differen...

  14. Gallium beam lithography for superconductive structure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to the use of gallium beam lithography to form superconductive structures. Generally, the method includes exposing a surface to gallium to form an implanted region and then removing material adjacent to and/or below that implanted region. In particular embodiments, the methods herein provide microstructures and nanostructures in any useful substrate, such as those including niobium, tantalum, tungsten, or titanium.

  15. Polymer-based optical interconnects using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Arjen; Wiegersma, Sjoukje; Offrein, Bert J.; Duis, Jeroen; Delis, Jos; Ortsiefer, Markus; van Steenberge, Geert; Karpinen, Mikko; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Corbett, Brian

    2013-02-01

    The increasing request for higher data speeds in the information and communication technology leads to continuously increasing performance of microprocessors. This has led to the introduction of optical data transmission as a replacement of electronic data transmission in most transmission applications longer than 10 meters. However, a need remains for optical data transmission for shorter distances inside the computer. This paper gives an overview of the Joint European project FIREFLY, in which new polymer based single mode waveguides are developed for integration with VCSELs, splitters and fibers that will be manufactured using multi-layer nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Innovative polymers, new applications of nano-technology, new methods for optical coupling between components, and the integration of all these new components are the technical ingredients of this ambitious project.

  16. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  17. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-06-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics.

  18. Electron Beam Lithography for nano-patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Khomtchenko, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam lithography is a versatile tool for fabrication of nano-sized patterns. The patterns are generated by scanning a focused beam of high-energy electrons onto a substrate coated with a thin layer of electron-sensitive polymer (resist), i.e. by directly writing custom-made patterns...... in a polymer. Electron beam lithography is a suitable method for nano-sized production, research, or development of semiconductor components on a low-volume level. Here, we present electron beam lithography available at DTU Danchip. We expertize a JEOL 9500FZ with electrons accelerated to an energy of 100ke......V and focused to a beam spot size down to ~5nm. The electron beam can scan across the substrate with a speed of 100MHz and can write areas of 1mm x 1mm without stitching. In order to ensure high-precision patterning, the beam position on the substrate is controlled by a two-stage deflector system and substrates...

  19. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-20

    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  20. Photoreactive and Metal-Platable Copolymer Inks for High-Throughput, Room-Temperature Printing of Flexible Metal Electrodes for Thin-Film Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yaokang; Li, Kan; Yan, Casey; Wei, Xiaoling; Chen, Lina; Zhen, Hongyu; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-06-01

    Photoreactive and metal-platable copolymer inks are reported for the first time to allow high-throughput printing of high-performance flexible electrodes at room temperature. This new copolymer ink accommodates various types of printing technologies, such as soft lithography molding, screen printing, and inkjet printing. Electronic devices including resistors, sensors, solar cells, and thin-film transistors fabricated with these printed electrodes show excellent electrical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    Maskless Lithography (ML2) is again being considered for use in mainstream CMOS IC manufacturing. Sessions at technical conferences are being devoted to ML2. A multitude of new companies have been formed in the last several years to apply new concepts to breaking the throughput barrier that has in the past prevented ML2 from achieving the cost and cycle time performance necessary to become economically viable, except in rare cases. Has Maskless Lithography's (we used to call it "Direct Write Lithography") time really come? If so, what is the expected impact on the mask manufacturer and does it matter? The lithography tools used today in mask manufacturing are similar in concept to ML2 except for scale, both in throughput and feature size. These mask tools produce highly accurate lithographic images directly from electronic pattern files, perform multi-layer overlay, and mix-n-match across multiple tools, tool types and sites. Mask manufacturers are already accustomed to the ultimate low volume - one substrate per design layer. In order to achieve the economically required throughput, proposed ML2 systems eliminate or greatly reduce some of the functions that are the source of the mask writer's accuracy. Can these ML2 systems meet the demanding lithographic requirements without these functions? ML2 may eliminate the reticle but many of the processes and procedures performed today by the mask manufacturer are still required. Examples include the increasingly complex mask data preparation step and the verification performed to ensure that the pattern on the reticle is accurately representing the design intent. The error sources that are fixed on a reticle are variable with time on an ML2 system. It has been proposed that if ML2 is successful it will become uneconomical to be in the mask business - that ML2, by taking the high profit masks will take all profitability out of mask manufacturing and thereby endanger the entire semiconductor industry. Others suggest that a

  2. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for the Maskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-01-01

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  3. Evaluation of Double Process Lithography (DPL) with bi-layer photo-resist process for contact layer-patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Kevin

    2008-10-01

    Double Process Lithography (DPL) has been widely accepted as a viable printing technique for critical layers at 45nm nodes and below. In addition, DPL technique also allows us to use available process tool-sets with less capability to develop the next node CMOS devices in early research and development stages with additional photo-masks. One practical issue of applying DPL technique is the process crosstalk, which is the impact of the existing etched patterns after the 1st process to the overall lithography performance during the 2nd printing process. In this paper, we evaluated the DPL process for contact holetype patterning with a 193nm silicon-containing bi-layer photo-resist. We explained the bi-layer photoresist process flow and its low process cross-talk characteristics when applied in our DPL process. We also discussed the challenges of printing small contacts in the DPL process. The preliminary experiment results indicated that silicon-containing photo-resist process is a good candidate for DPL process in the contact hole-type of patterns, and it has good characteristics of low process cross-talk. The flexibility of the drydevelop process in bi-layer resist also offered us another way to form small contacts in the substrate film. At the end, we provided some suggestions in contact pattern decomposition algorithm and related exposure-tool alignment strategies for future implementation of DPL technology.

  4. Wafer based mask characterization for double patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, Robert; Bubke, Karsten; Janssen, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Eddy; Fochler, Jörg; Dusa, Mircea; Peters, Jan Hendrik; de Haas, Paul; Connolly, Brid

    2008-04-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) is considered the most acceptable solution for 32nm node lithography. Apart from the obvious drawbacks of additional exposure and processing steps and therefore reduced throughput, DPT possesses a number of additional technical challenges. This relates to exposure tool capability, the actual applied process in the wafer fab but also to mask performance. This paper will focus on the latter. We will report on the performance of a two-reticle set based on a design developed to study the impact of mask global and local placement errors on a DPT dual line process. For 32 nm node lithography using DPT a reticle to reticle overlay contribution target of data resulting from the earlier mentioned reticle set. The reticles contain a 13x19 array of modules comprising various standard overlay features such as ASML overlay gratings and bar-in-bar overlay targets. Furthermore the modules contain split 40nm half pitch DPT features. The reticles have been exposed on an ASML XT:1700i on several wafers in multiple fields. Reticle to reticle overlay contribution has been studied in resist (double exposure) and using the IMEC dual line process (DPT). We will show that the reticle to reticle overlay contribution on the wafer is smaller than 1.5nm (1x). We will compare the wafer data with the reticle data, study the correlation and show that reticle to reticle overlay contribution based single mask registration measurements can be used to qualify the reticle to reticle overlay contribution on wafer.

  5. Plasma sources for EUV lithography exposure tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, Vadim; Moors, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil extremely high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength in the range 13-14 nm, which requires a major re-thinking of state-of-the-art lithography systems operating in the DUV range. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for DUV, should become reflective for EUV. The source specifications are derived from the customer requirements for the complete tool, which are: throughput, cost of ownership (CoO) and imaging quality. The EUVL system is considered as a follow up of the existing DUV based lithography technology and, while improving the feature resolution, it has to maintain high wafer throughput performance, which is driven by the overall CoO picture. This in turn puts quite high requirements on the collectable in-band power produced by an EUV source. Increased, due to improved feature resolution, critical dimension (CD) control requirements, together with reflective optics restrictions, necessitate pulse-to-pulse repeatability, spatial stability control and repetition rates, which are substantially better than those of current optical systems. All together the following aspects of the source specification will be addressed: the operating wavelength, the EUV power, the hot spot size, the collectable angle, the repetition rate, the pulse-to-pulse repeatability and the debris induced lifetime of components

  6. Image-projection ion-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Image-projection ion-beam lithography is an attractive alternative for submicron patterning because it may provide high throughput; it uses demagnification to gain advantages in reticle fabrication, inspection, and lifetime; and it enjoys the precise deposition characteristics of ions which cause essentially no collateral damage. This lithographic option involves extracting low-mass ions (e.g., He + ) from a plasma source, transmitting the ions at low voltage through a stencil reticle, and then accelerating and focusing the ions electrostatically onto a resist-coated wafer. While the advantages of this technology have been demonstrated experimentally by the work of IMS (Austria), many difficulties still impede extension of the technology to the high-volume production of microelectronic devices. We report a computational study of a lithography system designed to address problem areas in field size, telecentricity, and chromatic and geometric aberration. We present a novel ion-column-design approach and conceptual ion-source and column designs which address these issues. We find that image-projection ion-beam technology should in principle meet high-volume-production requirements. The technical success of our present relatively compact-column design requires that a glow-discharge-based ion source (or equivalent cold source) be developed and that moderate further improvement in geometric aberration levels be obtained. Our system requires that image predistortion be employed during reticle fabrication to overcome distortion due to residual image nonlinearity and space-charge forces. This constitutes a software data preparation step, as do correcting for distortions in electron lithography columns and performing proximity-effect corrections. Areas needing further fundamental work are identified

  7. Functionalized SU-8 patterned with X-ray Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Romanato, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of x-ray lithography on SU-8 photoresist doped with the laser dye Rhodamine 6G, while retaining the photoactive properties of the embedded dye. Two kinds of structures are fabricated via soft x-ray lithography and characterized: a laser and in amplified...

  8. 3D Nanofabrication of fluidic components by corner lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burouni, N.

    2014-01-01

    A reproducible wafer-scale method to obtain 3D nanostructures using a low-budget lithography tool is investigated. This method, called corner lithography, explores the conformal deposition and the subsequent timed isotropic etching of a thin film in a 3D shaped silicon template. Moreover, it offers

  9. Bragg reflectors with IR suppression for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Koshelev, K.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The most promi¬sing next generation lithography technology is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). To fulfill the demands of high productivity, EUVL requires high power EUV radiation sources, with a promising technology for such sources being based on the emission of dense plasmas produced by

  10. Thermoplastic microcantilevers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Keller, Stephan Urs; Vig, Asger Laurberg

    2010-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography has been exploited to fabricate micrometre-sized cantilevers in thermoplastic. This technique allows for very well defined microcantilevers and gives the possibility of embedding structures into the cantilever surface. The microcantilevers are fabricated in TOPAS and are up...... to 500 μm long, 100 μm wide, and 4.5 μm thick. Some of the cantilevers have built-in ripple surface structures with heights of 800 nm and pitches of 4 μm. The yield for the cantilever fabrication is 95% and the initial out-of-plane bending is below 10 μm. The stiffness of the cantilevers is measured...

  11. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...

  12. Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Fisker-Bødker, Nis

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradable polymer poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was introduced for the fabrication of micromechanical devices. For this purpose, thin biopolymer films with thickness around 10 μm were spin-coated on silicon substrates. Patterning of microcantilevers is achieved by nanoimprint lithography. A major...... challenge was the high adhesion between PLLA and silicon stamp. Optimized stamp fabrication and the deposition of a 125 nm thick fluorocarbon anti-stiction coating on the PLLA allowed the fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers. Resonance frequency measurements were used to estimate the Young’s modulus...

  13. Fabrication of a printed capacitive air-gap touch sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Hwiwon; Lee, Sangyoon

    2018-05-01

    Unlike lithography-based processes, printed electronics does not require etching, which makes it difficult to fabricate electronic devices with an air gap. In this study, we propose a method to fabricate capacitive air-gap touch sensors via printing and coating. First, the bottom electrode was fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate using roll-to-roll gravure printing with silver ink. Then poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was spin coated to form a sacrificial layer. The top electrode was fabricated on the sacrificial layer by spin coating with a stretchable silver ink. The sensor samples were then put in a tetrabutylammonium (TBAF) bath to generate the air gap by removing the sacrificial layer. The capacitance of the samples was measured for verification, and the results show that the capacitance increases in proportion to the applied force from 0 to 2.5 N.

  14. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  15. Lithography-based fabrication of nanopore arrays in freestanding SiN and graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Yang, Wayne; Dekker, Cees

    2018-04-01

    We report a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of nanopore arrays on freestanding SiN and graphene membranes based on electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By controlling the dose of the single-shot electron-beam exposure, circular nanopores of any size down to 16 nm in diameter can be fabricated in both materials at high accuracy and precision. We demonstrate the sensing capabilities of these nanopores by translocating dsDNA through pores fabricated using this method, and find signal-to-noise characteristics on par with transmission-electron-microscope-drilled nanopores. This versatile lithography-based approach allows for the high-throughput manufacturing of nanopores and can in principle be used on any substrate, in particular membranes made out of transferable two-dimensional materials.

  16. X-ray lithography: Beamline U6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J. P.; Haelbich, R. P.; Warlaumont, J. M.

    Over the last decade there have been remarkable advances in the manufacture of integrated circuits. In 1974, the smallest features being replicated in production were about 4.0 microns wide; by now (1984) they have shrunk to 1.0 microns wide. At this size, however, it has become increasingly difficult to progress to smaller features because of the blurring caused by diffraction of the UV light used to expose the photoresist on the silicon wafers. Although there are techniques being developed to extend conventional optical lithography to smaller dimensions, they are difficult and costly. An alternative approach is to use X-rays, which, because of their much shorter wavelength, promise better resolution than can be obtained by todays's methods. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a system to use synchrotron radiation for X-ray lithography. Synchrotron radiation has two major advantages over conventional X-ray sources: the radiation is collimated, and it is orders of magnitude more intense. It is believed that a storage ring source will allow the best possible resolution with reasonable throughput.

  17. Innovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Bong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters high-aspect-ratio (up to 100:1 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro- and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so.

  18. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were incident on a resist-coated photomask substrate (chrome on quartz plate). The scattering of these electrons causes undesirable resist development energy to accumulate around the patterned areas. This accumulated energy from the scat- tered electron only slightly affects isolated patterns, but significantly more ...

  19. Lithography trends based on projections of the ITRS (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The microelectronic industry has gone through an enormous technical evolution in the last four decades. Both the tech-nological and economic challenges of microelectronics were increasing consistently in the past few years. This paper discusses the future trends in micro- and nano-technologies with special emphasis on lithography. The trends of minia-turization will be sketched with reference to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). After a description of general trends in technology node timing, an overview will be given on the future lithography require-ments and the technical solutions including options for post-optical lithography as, for example, Extreme UV.

  20. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems

  1. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  2. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  3. Photonic integrated circuits: new challenges for lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, Jens; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Prinzen, Andreas; Porschatis, Caroline; Lerch, Holger; Giesecke, Anna Lena

    2016-10-01

    In this work routes towards the fabrication of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and the challenges their fabrication poses on lithography, such as large differences in feature dimension of adjacent device features, non-Manhattan-type features, high aspect ratios and significant topographic steps as well as tight lithographic requirements with respect to critical dimension control, line edge roughness and other key figures of merit not only for very small but also for relatively large features, are highlighted. Several ways those challenges are faced in today's low-volume fabrication of PICs, including the concept multi project wafer runs and mix and match approaches, are presented and possible paths towards a real market uptake of PICs are discussed.

  4. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moelhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Noergaard; Boeggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50x50 μm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 nm. We demonstrate how the EBL system can be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition

  5. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  6. Recent advances in X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrina, F.

    1992-01-01

    We report some significant developments in the area of X-ray technology, in the area of the modeling of image formation, in distortion control and in mask replication. Early simple models have been replaced by complete optical calculations based on physical optics and including all relevant factors. These models provide good agreement with the available experimental results. In the area of mask distortions, the use of finite element analysis models has clarified the roles played by the various sources of stress and explained in greater detail the origin of temperature changes. These progress have paved the way to the optimization of the exposure system and to the achievement of the large exposure latitude potential of X-ray lithography. (author)

  7. Direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fedin, Igor; Zhang, Hao; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-07-01

    Photolithography is an important manufacturing process that relies on using photoresists, typically polymer formulations, that change solubility when illuminated with ultraviolet light. Here, we introduce a general chemical approach for photoresist-free, direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials. The patterned materials can be metals, semiconductors, oxides, magnetic, or rare earth compositions. No organic impurities are present in the patterned layers, which helps achieve good electronic and optical properties. The conductivity, carrier mobility, dielectric, and luminescence properties of optically patterned layers are on par with the properties of state-of-the-art solution-processed materials. The ability to directly pattern all-inorganic layers by using a light exposure dose comparable with that of organic photoresists provides an alternate route for thin-film device manufacturing.

  8. Prototyping of masks, masters, and stamps/molds for soft lithography using an office printer and photographic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng; Wu; Brittain; Whitesides

    2000-07-15

    This paper describes a practical method for the fabrication of photomasks, masters, and stamps/molds used in soft lithography that minimizes the need for specialized equipment. In this method, CAD files are first printed onto paper using an office printer with resolution of 600 dots/in. Photographic reduction of these printed patterns transfers the images onto 35-mm film or microfiche. These photographic films can be used, after development, as photomasks in 1:1 contact photolithography. With the resulting photoresist masters, it is straightforward to fabricate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps/molds for soft lithography. This process can generate microstructures as small as 15 microm; the overall time to go from CAD file to PDMS stamp is 4-24 h. Although access to equipment-spin coater and ultraviolet exposure tool-normally found in the clean room is still required, the cost of the photomask itself is small, and the time required to go from concept to device is short. A comparison between this method and all other methods that generate film-type photomasks has been performed using test patterns of lines, squares, and circles. Three microstructures have also been fabricated to demonstrate the utility of this method in practical applications.

  9. Soft and probe lithography without ink transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Jurriaan; Li, X.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Microcontact printing (mCP) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) are versatile techniques for the creation of patterned surfaces. They commonly employ the transfer of an ink (e.g. a thiol) onto a surface (e.g. a gold-coated substrate) thus forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Resolution of these

  10. Laser interference lithography with highly accurate interferometric alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, Frank J.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo; de Ridder, R.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Lambeck, Paul

    It is shown experimentally that in laser interference lithography, by using a reference grating, respective grating layers can be positioned with high relative accuracy. A 0.001 degree angular and a few nanometers lateral resolution have been demonstrated.

  11. Laser interference lithography with highly accurate interferometric alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, Frank J.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo; de Ridder, R.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Lambeck, Paul

    It is shown experimentally that in laser interference lithography, by using a reference grating, respective grating layers can be positioned with high relative accuracy. A 0.001 angular and a few nanometers lateral resolution have been demonstrated.

  12. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this study we intend to fabricate partially transparent petal (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography on high-energy beam sensitive (HEBS) glass and evaluate its...

  13. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  14. Structural colour printing from a reusable generic nanosubstrate masked for the target image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, M; Jiang, H; Kaminska, B

    2016-01-01

    Structural colour printing has advantages over traditional pigment-based colour printing. However, the high fabrication cost has hindered its applications in printing large-area images because each image requires patterning structural pixels in nanoscale resolution. In this work, we present a novel strategy to print structural colour images from a pixelated substrate which is called a nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is fabricated only once using nanofabrication tools and can be reused for printing a large quantity of structural colour images. It contains closely packed arrays of nanostructures from which red, green, blue and infrared structural pixels can be imprinted. To print a target colour image, the nanosubstrate is first covered with a mask layer to block all the structural pixels. The mask layer is subsequently patterned according to the target colour image to make apertures of controllable sizes on top of the wanted primary colour pixels. The masked nanosubstrate is then used as a stamp to imprint the colour image onto a separate substrate surface using nanoimprint lithography. Different visual colours are achieved by properly mixing the red, green and blue primary colours into appropriate ratios controlled by the aperture sizes on the patterned mask layer. Such a strategy significantly reduces the cost and complexity of printing a structural colour image from lengthy nanoscale patterning into high throughput micro-patterning and makes it possible to apply structural colour printing in personalized security features and data storage. In this paper, nanocone array grating pixels were used as the structural pixels and the nanosubstrate contains structures to imprint the nanocone arrays. Laser lithography was implemented to pattern the mask layer with submicron resolution. The optical properties of the nanocone array gratings are studied in detail. Multiple printed structural colour images with embedded covert information are demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Dramatic Advance in Quality in Flexographic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Richter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The enormous changes in flexography printing in recent years concerning the printing quality achievable cannot generally be ascribed to a single revolutionary invention, but are the result of continuous developments to the complete system. Thus the direct drive technology in all machine types and its associated advantages in terms of printing length corrections has become established since drupa 2000. The race for ever finer raster rolls has also been completed to the benefit of improvements in bowl geometry and in ceramic surfaces. Clearly improved colour transfer behaviour has become feasible as a result. In a closely intermeshed system such as flexography printing this naturally has to have an effect on the printing colours used. Further improvements in bonding agents and pigment concentrations now allow users to print ever thinner colour layers while maintaining all of the required authenticities.Furthermore, it has become possible to reduce additional disturbing characteristics in the UV colour area, such as the unpleasant odour. While the digital imaging of printing plates has primarily been improved in terms of economic efficiency by the use of up to eight parallel laser beams, extreme improvements in the system are noticeable especially in the area of directly engraved printing moulds. Whereas many still dismissed directly engraved polymer plates at the last drupa as a laboratory system, the first installation was recently placed on the market a mere three years later. A further noteworthy innovation of recent years that has reached market maturity is thin sleeve technology, which combines the advantages of a photopolymer plate with a round imaged printing mould. There are no high sleeve costs for each printing mould, except for one-off cost for an adapter sleeve. To conclude, it can be said that although flexography printing has experienced many new features in the time between drupa 2000 and today, it still has enormous potential for

  16. 3-D holographic lithography of organic-inorganic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salauen, M. [LMGP, INPG, UMR 5628, 3, Parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: mathieu.salaun@inpg.fr; Audier, M. [LMGP, INPG, UMR 5628, 3, Parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex (France); Delyon, F.; Duneau, M. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7644, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Fabrications of ordered three-dimensional structures with submicron lattice constants were performed on organic-inorganic hybrids using a holographic lithography technique recently reported in the literature. The possibility of such a patterning has previously been demonstrated from single nanosecond laser pulse irradiation of thin films of epoxy photoresist and mixtures of methacrylate-alkoxy-silane with Zr or Ti alkoxides. In the present work, UV irradiation of similar hybrid resins were carried out through repeated laser pulses of low energy with a twofold objective: (i) to study the interference stability for future chemical gas phase decomposition experiments and (ii) to obtain patterning through large film thickness (e.g. 1 mm). The influence of several parameters on the structuration was examined from observations by scanning electron microscopy and optical diffraction. Many interdependent parameters were considered in different steps of the process, namely (i) hybrid resin preparations with required properties of stability, transparency and viscosity, (ii) film coating on different substrates, (iii) UV irradiation (energy and number of laser pulses), (iv) ultrasonic dissolution of monomer, and (v) sample drying. As results, different structuration resolutions were observed as a function of these parameters. But if the influence of a few parameters was easily understood and controlled, it has also appeared that it was not the case of all of them.

  17. 3-D holographic lithography of organic inorganic hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, M.; Audier, M.; Delyon, F.; Duneau, M.

    2007-12-01

    Fabrications of ordered three-dimensional structures with submicron lattice constants were performed on organic-inorganic hybrids using a holographic lithography technique recently reported in the literature. The possibility of such a patterning has previously been demonstrated from single nanosecond laser pulse irradiation of thin films of epoxy photoresist and mixtures of methacrylate-alkoxy-silane with Zr or Ti alkoxides. In the present work, UV irradiation of similar hybrid resins were carried out through repeated laser pulses of low energy with a twofold objective: (i) to study the interference stability for future chemical gas phase decomposition experiments and (ii) to obtain patterning through large film thickness (e.g. 1 mm). The influence of several parameters on the structuration was examined from observations by scanning electron microscopy and optical diffraction. Many interdependent parameters were considered in different steps of the process, namely (i) hybrid resin preparations with required properties of stability, transparency and viscosity, (ii) film coating on different substrates, (iii) UV irradiation (energy and number of laser pulses), (iv) ultrasonic dissolution of monomer, and (v) sample drying. As results, different structuration resolutions were observed as a function of these parameters. But if the influence of a few parameters was easily understood and controlled, it has also appeared that it was not the case of all of them.

  18. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  19. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  20. High-Throughput Printing Process for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Woo Jin

    Printed electronics is an emerging field for manufacturing electronic devices with low cost and minimal material waste for a variety of applications including displays, distributed sensing, smart packaging, and energy management. Moreover, its compatibility with roll-to-roll production formats and flexible substrates is desirable for continuous, high-throughput production of flexible electronics. Despite the promise, however, the roll-to-roll production of printed electronics is quite challenging due to web movement hindering accurate ink registration and high-fidelity printing. In this talk, I will present a promising strategy for roll-to-roll production using a novel printing process that we term SCALE (Self-aligned Capillarity-Assisted Lithography for Electronics). By utilizing capillarity of liquid inks on nano/micro-structured substrates, the SCALE process facilitates high-resolution and self-aligned patterning of electrically functional inks with greatly improved printing tolerance. I will show the fabrication of key building blocks (e.g. transistor, resistor, capacitor) for electronic circuits using the SCALE process on plastics.

  1. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  2. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  3. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  4. Properites of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Edwards, N V; Madey, T E

    2007-06-25

    The contamination of optical surfaces by irradiation shortens optics lifetime and is one of the main concerns for optics used in conjunction with intense light sources, such as high power lasers, 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron sources or plasma sources used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tools. This paper focuses on properties and surface chemistry of different materials, which as thin layers, could be used as capping layers to protect and extend EUVL optics lifetime. The most promising candidates include single element materials such as ruthenium and rhodium, and oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  5. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO{sub 2} surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Emerging Viruses Department Heinrich Pette Institute, Hamburg 20251 (Germany); Hirtz, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P. [Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Antonio Mas, J. [Laboratorio de Genómica del Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón 28922, Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luis, O. de [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, H. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Physical Institute and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, University of Münster (Germany); and others

    2014-11-15

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO{sub 2} surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates useful for potential biosensor applications.

  6. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have coated phase change materials (PCMs on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  7. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Liu, Nian; Xu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2017-12-01

    We have coated phase change materials (PCMs) on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP) on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  8. Optical properties of a single free standing nanodiamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K W; Wang, C Y [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-15

    We report the techniques for measuring optical properties of a single nanometer-sized diamond. The electron beam (e-beam) lithography defined coordination markers on a silicon wafer provide us a convenient tool for allocating a single nanodiamond immobilized on the surface. By combining a confocal microscope with the e-beam lithography patterned smart substrate, we are able to measure the Raman and photoluminescence spectra from a single nanodiamond with a size less than 100 nm.

  9. Optical properties of a single free standing nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K W; Wang, C Y

    2007-01-01

    We report the techniques for measuring optical properties of a single nanometer-sized diamond. The electron beam (e-beam) lithography defined coordination markers on a silicon wafer provide us a convenient tool for allocating a single nanodiamond immobilized on the surface. By combining a confocal microscope with the e-beam lithography patterned smart substrate, we are able to measure the Raman and photoluminescence spectra from a single nanodiamond with a size less than 100 nm

  10. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  11. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  12. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  13. Hard pellicle study for 157-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Emily Y.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Eschbach, Florence O.; Cotte, Eric P.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.; Okada, Kaname; Kikugawa, Shinya

    2002-07-01

    Identifying a functional pellicle solution for 157-nm lithography remains the most critical issue for mask technology. Developing a hard pellicle system has been a recent focus of study. Fabrication and potential pellicle-induced image placement errors present the highest challenges to the technology for meeting the stringent error budget for manufacturing devices in the 65-nm regime. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive proof-of-concept study on the state-of-art hard pellicle systems, which feature 800-mm thick modified fused silica pellicles and quartz frames. Pellicles were fabricated to ensure optical uniformity and flatness. Typical intrinsic warpage of these pellicles was close to the theoretical limit of 4.0 mm under a gravitational load. Quartz frames had bows less than 1.0 mm. The advantage of quartz frames with matched thermal expansion was demonstrated. An interferometric facility was developed to measure the flatness of the mask and pellicle system before and after pellicle mounting. Depending on the mounting process as well as mounting tool characteristics and techniques, variations were observed from pellicle to pellicle, mount to mount, and mask to mask. A redesign of the mounter and mounting process has significantly improved pellicle flatness. Finite element models were also generated to characterize the relative importance of the principal sources of pellicle-induced photomask distortions. Simulation results provide insightful guidance for improving image quality when employing a hard pellicle.

  14. Fabrication of phosphor micro-grids using proton beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Paolo; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Doyle, Barney Lee; Malmqvist, Klas; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Nilsson, Christer; Kristiansson, Per; Wegden, Marie; Elfman, Mikael; Pallon, Jan; Auzelyte, Vaida

    2005-01-01

    A new nuclear microscopy technique called ion photon emission microscopy or IPEM was recently invented. IPEM allows analysis involving single ions, such as ion beam induced charge (IBIC) or single event upset (SEU) imaging using a slightly modified optical microscope. The spatial resolution of IPEM is currently limited to more than 10 (micro)m by the scattering and reflection of ion-induced photons, i.e. light blooming or spreading, in the ionoluminescent phosphor layer. We are developing a 'Microscopic Gridded Phosphor' (also called Black Matrix) where the phosphor nanocrystals are confined within the gaps of a micrometer scale opaque grid, which limits the amount of detrimental light blooming. MeV-energy proton beam lithography is ideally suited to lithographically form masks for the grid because of high aspect ratio, pattern density and sub-micron resolution of this technique. In brief, the fabrication of the grids was made in the following manner: (1) a MeV proton beam focused to 1.5-2 (micro)m directly fabricated a matrix of pillars in a 15 (micro)m thick SU-8 lithographic resist; (2) 7:1 aspect ratio pillars were then formed by developing the proton exposed area; (3) Ni (Au) was electrochemically deposited onto Cu-coated Si from a sulfamate bath (or buffered CN bath); (4) the SU-8 pillars were removed by chemical etching; finally (5) the metal micro-grid was freed from its substrate by etching the underlying Cu layer. Our proposed metal micro-grids promise an order-of-magnitude improvement in the resolution of IPEM.

  15. Stop Flow Lithography Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of nonspherical composite particles of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA/SiO2 and PEG-DA/Al2O3 with single or multiple vias and the corresponding inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 synthesized using the Stop Flow Lithography (SFL method is reported. Precursor suspensions of PEG-DA, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone, and SiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles were prepared. The precursor suspension flows through a microfluidic device mounted on an upright microscope and is polymerized in an automated process. A patterned photomask with transparent geometric features masks UV light to synthesize the particles. Composite particles with vias were synthesized and corresponding inorganic SiO2 and Al2O3 particles were obtained through polymer burn-off and sintering of the composites. The synthesis of porous inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 with vias and overall dimensions in the range of ~35–90 µm was achieved. BET specific surface area measurements for single via inorganic particles were 56–69 m2/g for SiO2 particles and 73–81 m2/g for Al2O3 particles. Surface areas as high as 114 m2/g were measured for multivia cubic SiO2 particles. The findings suggest that, with optimization, the particles should have applications in areas where high surface area is important such as catalysis and sieving.

  16. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-09-07

    , with EUV not expected in production before the 22-nm half pitch node even finer resolution capabilities are now required from development tools. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET's custom-coherence illuminator allows it to be used with aggressive modified illumination enabling kJ factors as low as 0.25. Noting that the lithographic resolution of an exposure tool is defined as k{sub 1}{lambda}/NA, yielding an ultimate resolution limit of 11 nm. To achieve sub-20-nm aerial-image resolution while avoiding forbidden pitches on Manhattan-geometry features with the centrally-obscured MET optic, a 45-degree oriented dipole pupil fill is used. Figure 1 shows the computed aerial-image contrast as a function of half pitch for a dipole pupil fill optimized to print down to the 19-nm half pitch level. This is achieved with relatively uniform performance at larger dimensions. Using this illumination, printing down to the 20-nm half pitch level has been demonstrated in chemically amplified resists as shown in Fig. 2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool plays a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists. The unique programmable coherence properties of this tool enable it to achieve higher resolution than other EUV projection tools. As presented here, over the past year the tool has been used to demonstrate resist resolutions of 20 half pitch. Although not discussed here, because the Berkeley MET tool is a true projection lithography tool, it also plays a crucial role in advanced EUV mask research. Examples of the work done in this area include defect printability, mask architecture, and phase shift masks.

  17. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ximan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-05-18

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography

  18. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Gonçalves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost.Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement.

  19. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate. (paper)

  20. Transfer printing and patterning of stretchable electrospun film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yongqing; Huang, YongAn, E-mail: yahuang@hust.edu.cn; Yin, Zhouping

    2013-10-01

    Electrospinning is an effective method for nanofiber production, but seldom used in the fabrication of patterned structures directly due to the whipping instability of the electrospinning jet. The whipping instability of electrospinning is adopted to fabricate stretchable patterned film by combination with an improved thermal transfer printing. The electrospun film is composed of small-scale wavy/coiled fibers, which make the patterned film highly stretchable. The optimal process parameters of whipping-based electrospinning are investigated to fabricate electrospun film with uniform and compact wavy/coiled fiber. Then the transfer printing and thermal detachment lithography are studied to generate patterned film, including the pressure, temperature, and peeling-off speed. Finally, the stretchability of the patterned electrospun film is studied through experiment and finite element analysis. It may open a cost-effective and high-throughput way for flexible/stretchable electronics fabrication. - Highlights: • Stretchable nonwoven film with small-scale wavy fibers is fabricated. • The film is transferred and patterned by thermal detachment lithography. • The patterned film is validated with high stretchability.

  1. Transfer printing and patterning of stretchable electrospun film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yongqing; Huang, YongAn; Yin, Zhouping

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective method for nanofiber production, but seldom used in the fabrication of patterned structures directly due to the whipping instability of the electrospinning jet. The whipping instability of electrospinning is adopted to fabricate stretchable patterned film by combination with an improved thermal transfer printing. The electrospun film is composed of small-scale wavy/coiled fibers, which make the patterned film highly stretchable. The optimal process parameters of whipping-based electrospinning are investigated to fabricate electrospun film with uniform and compact wavy/coiled fiber. Then the transfer printing and thermal detachment lithography are studied to generate patterned film, including the pressure, temperature, and peeling-off speed. Finally, the stretchability of the patterned electrospun film is studied through experiment and finite element analysis. It may open a cost-effective and high-throughput way for flexible/stretchable electronics fabrication. - Highlights: • Stretchable nonwoven film with small-scale wavy fibers is fabricated. • The film is transferred and patterned by thermal detachment lithography. • The patterned film is validated with high stretchability

  2. Stencil print applications and progress for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoornstra, J.; Heurtault, B. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes laboratory testing to research the capabilities of stencil printing, as compared to screen printing, with a focus on fine line high aspect ratio printing on crystalline silicon wafer material. Scanning of potential of screen and stencil printing moving to finer fingers shows advantages for stencil printing. Testing of electroformed, laser cut, single and double layer stencils, and using various pastes, demonstrates the need for improved paste rheology. Optimal line definition with an aspect ratio of 0.37 was obtained with single layer stencils with fully open fingers. In a two step process, with a stencil for only fingers, followed by screen print of the busbars, +0.4% efficiency gain was reached for industrial type mc-Si cells.

  3. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using extreme ultraviolet interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ=13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high-power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity [S or best energy (BE)], and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (line width roughness, resolution and sensitivity trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). We present early proof-of-principle results for a multiexposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a "Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist™" (PSCAR™). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV-flood exposure (λ=365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR, and EL high-performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7- and 5-nm logic node [16- and 13-nm half-pitch (HP), respectively] for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12- and 11-nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated

  4. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using EUV interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ = 13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity (S or best energy BE) and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (LRS trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). Here we present early proof-of-principle results for a multi-exposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV flood exposure (λ = 365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR and EL high performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm half-pitch HP, respectively) for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12 nm and 11 nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated was compared to the CAR performance at and

  5. Printing quality control automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeznikova, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    One of the most important problems in the concept of standardizing the process of offset printing is the control the quality rating of printing and its automation. To solve the problem, a software has been developed taking into account the specifics of printing system components and the behavior in printing process. In order to characterize the distribution of ink layer on the printed substrate the so-called deviation of the ink layer thickness on the sheet from nominal surface is suggested. The geometric data construction the surface projections of the color gamut bodies allows to visualize the color reproduction gamut of printing systems in brightness ranges and specific color sectors, that provides a qualitative comparison of the system by the reproduction of individual colors in a varying ranges of brightness.

  6. When lithography meets self-assembly: a review of recent advances in the directed assembly of complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert A.; Menumerov, Eredzhep; Neretina, Svetlana

    2017-07-01

    One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures. With neither self-assembly nor top-down lithographic processes being able to adequately meet this challenge, advancements have often relied on a hybrid strategy that utilizes lithographically-defined features to direct the assembly of nanostructures into organized patterns. While these so-called directed assembly techniques have proven viable, much of this effort has focused on the assembly of periodic arrays of spherical or near-spherical nanostructures comprised of a single element. Work directed toward the fabrication of more complex nanostructures, while still at a nascent stage, has nevertheless demonstrated the possibility of forming arrays of nanocubes, nanorods, nanoprisms, nanoshells, nanocages, nanoframes, core-shell structures, Janus structures, and various alloys on the substrate surface. In this topical review, we describe the progress made in the directed assembly of periodic arrays of these complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured substrates. The review is divided into three broad strategies reliant on: (i) the deterministic positioning of colloidal structures, (ii) the reorganization of deposited metal films at elevated temperatures, and (iii) liquid-phase chemistry practiced directly on the substrate surface. These strategies collectively utilize a broad range of techniques including capillary assembly, microcontact printing, chemical surface modulation, templated dewetting, nanoimprint lithography, and dip-pen nanolithography and

  7. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed-Baker Habhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  8. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habhab, Mohammed-Baker; Ismail, Tania; Lo, Joe Fujiou

    2016-11-23

    Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  9. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  10. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  11. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Functionalized SU-8 patterned with X-ray Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Romanato, F.

    2005-01-01

    spontaneous emission light source that couples out light normal to the chip plane. In addition we examine the influence of the x-ray irradiation on the fluorescence of thin films of dye doped SU-8. The dye embedded in the SU-8 is optically excited during, characterization by an external light source tuned......In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of x-ray lithography on SU-8 photoresist doped with the laser dye Rhodamine 6G, while retaining the photoactive properties of the embedded dye. Two kinds of structures are fabricated via soft x-ray lithography and characterized: a laser and in amplified...

  13. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results.

  14. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  15. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Jong-Joo [Surface Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sangnam-Dong, Changwon-Shi, Kyungnam-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Don [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Sug [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75{sup 0}. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  16. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  17. Nanoimprint lithography for functional polymer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dehu

    2011-07-01

    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors, lasers, and memories. The performance of conjugated polymer devices depends on two major factors: the chain conformation in polymer film and the device architecture. Highly ordered chain structure usually leads to much improved performance by enhancing interchain interaction to facilitate carrier transport. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of organic devices with the nanoimprint lithography. The work begins with the controlling of polymer chain orientation in patterned nanostructures through nanoimprint mold design and process parameter manipulation, and studying the effect of chain ordering on material properties. Then, step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint technique for large-scale continuous manufacturing of conjugated polymer nanostructures is developed. After that, Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern size, temperature, and polymer molecular weight, affects polymer chain configuration. The results indicate that chain orientation in nanoimprinted polymer micro- and nanostructures is highly related to the nanoimprint temperature and the dimensions of the mold structures. The ability to create nanoscale polymer micro- and nanostructures and manipulate their internal chain conformation establishes an original experimental platform that enables studying the properties of functional polymers at the micro- and nanoscale and understanding their fundamental structure-property relationships. In addition to the impact on basic research, the techniques developed in this work are important in applied research and development. Large-area conjugated polymer micro- and

  18. Printing Has a Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Georg Wenke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing will also be done in the future. Printed items meet basic needs and are deeply anchored in people’s habits. Being able to handle and collect printed matter is highly attractive. And paper is now more alive than ever. It is therefore too shortsighted to disclaim the importance of one of the still large economic sectors just because of a few looming-recession instigated market shifts.The exciting aspect of drupa 2004 is: printing will be reinvented, so to speak. Much more printing will be done in the future than at present. On the one hand, people are concentrating on process optimization and automation to ensure this. Measuring and testing, process control and optimization, and linking up "office software" with printing technology will be very central topics at drupa 2004. Electronics and print are not rivals; a symbiosis exists. And printing is high-tech: hardly any other multifaceted sector which has been so successful for centuries is as computerized as the printing industry.A series of "new chapters" in the variety of printing possibilities will be opened at drupa. Talk will be generated by further technical developments, often the connection between paper/cardboard and electronics, the link between the office world and graphics industry, text databases and their link-up to graphic page production tools, and "on the fly" dynamic printing over networks.All of this and more belongs to future potentialities, which are so substantial overall, the outlook is by no means black for the "black art". Like its predecessors, drupa 2004 is also a product trade fair. However, more than ever before in its history, it is also an "information village". The exhibits are useful, because they occasionally make what this means visible.

  19. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-07

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed.

  20. Fabrication of blazed gratings for X-ray spectroscopy using substrate conformal imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jake; Verschuuren, Marc; Lopez, Gerald; Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall

    2017-08-01

    The majority of spectral lines relevant in high energy astrophysics exist at soft X-ray energies, where gratings dominate over microcalorimeters. Next-generation reflection gratings have been identified as a key technology to improve the spectroscopic capabilities of future X-ray observatories. Currently, the grating fabrication process centers on the production of a large-area (72 cm2) master template through techniques in electron-beam lithography, plasma etching and anisotropic wet etching in single-crystal Si. Then, many replicas are produced to populate a grating array, which intercepts and disperses the radiation coming to a focus in a Wolter-I telescope. Of importance is implenting a replication procedure that preserves the fidelity of the master grating template at a low cost. Traditionally, the Si master template has been used to stamp directly into a UV-curable resist coated on a fused silica substrate through the process of nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). Though the high stiffness of Si allows the desired inverse of the original pattern to be imprinted with high resolution, difficulties arise especially when imprinting over a large area. Substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL) is a relatively new commercial process intended to evade these problems. In contrast to UV-NIL, the SCIL process uses a flexible stamp formed from the master template for imprinting. The flexible stamp carries the inverse of the original pattern in a modified silicone rubber, which has increased stiffness compared to standard silicone used in soft lithography processes. This enables the positive of original pattern to be imprinted sequentially with high resolution while confroming to the bow of the substrate and reducing damage due to particulate contaminants. The desired inverse of the original pattern can be imprinted with SCIL by forming a second flexible stamp from the initial flexible stamp. Further, SCIL is compatible with an inorganic imprint resist that has been

  1. Mechanical Properties of Flexographic Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grigaliūnienė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of paper and flexographic prints madewith different anilox rollers were investigated experimentally.Flexographic prints roughness, breaking force and folding resistancevalues were determined. The results showed that foldingresistance is bigger for machine direction prints than for crossmachine direction prints. Flexographic prints on cardboardsfolding resistance values are different for machine direction andcross machine direction. It was determined that roughness offlexographic prints increases with the amount of ink on aniloxroller. Results were explained by the ink water influence.

  2. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  3. Offset Printing, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Ervin; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and a curriculum development specialist, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge about offset printing. The course provides training in offset printing and related…

  4. Inkjet printing of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Abbel, R.; De With, G.; Friedrich, H.

    2014-01-01

    The inkjet printing of graphene is a cost-effective, and versatile deposition technique for both transparent and non-transparent conductive films. Printing graphene on paper is aimed at low-end, high-volume applications, i.e.; in electromagnetic shielding, photovoltaics or, e.g.; as a replacement

  5. Solid state laser driver for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L.E.; Honig, J.; Reichert, P.; Hackel, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    We describe the design and initial performance of a Nd:YAG laser master oscillator/phase conjugated power amplifier as a driver for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design provides 0.5 to 1 joule per pulse with about 5 ns pulse width and excellent beam quality up through 1.5 kHz repetition frequency.

  6. Report on the fifth workshop on synchrotron x ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P.; Godel, J. B.; Brown, G. S.; Liebmann, W.

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel, and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990s. X ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin, and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the exposure tool, that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources.

  7. Polystyrene as a zwitter resist in electron beam lithography based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resist action of polystyrene (w, 2,600,000) towards electroless deposition of gold on Si(100) surface following cross-linking by exposing to a 10 kV electron beam, has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope equipped with electron beam lithography tool. With a low dose of electrons (21 C/cm2), ...

  8. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  9. Structure formation in atom lithography using geometric collimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, T.; Beardmore, J.P.; Fabrie, C.G.C.H.M.; van Lieshout, J.P.; Notermans, R.P.M.J.W.; Sang, R.T.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Van Leeuwen, K.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Atom lithography uses standing wave light fields as arrays of lenses to focus neutral atom beams into line patterns on a substrate. Laser cooled atom beams are commonly used, but an atom beam source with a small opening placed at a large distance from a substrate creates atom beams which are locally

  10. Pattern Definition with DUV-Lithography at DTU Danchip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Matthias; Khomtchenko, Elena; Nyholt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Deep ultra violet (DUV) illumination generated with the help of a KrF laser can be utilized to produce components having sizes of some hundreds of nanometers. This light source with its 248nm wavelength is exploited in the DUV-lithography equipment at DTU Danchip in order to fill the resolution g...

  11. Hard disk drive thin film head manufactured using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel B.; Boonstra, Thomas; Kief, Mark T.; Youtt, Lily; Jayashankar, Sethuraman; Van Dorn, Carolyn; Gentile, Harold; Viswanathan, Sriram; Wang, Dexin; Song, Dion; Hong, Dongsung; Gee, Sung-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The lithographic requirements for the thin film head industry are comparable to the semiconductor industry for certain parameters such as resolution and pattern repeatability. In other aspects such as throughput and defectivity, the requirements tend to be more relaxed. These requirements match well with the strengths and weaknesses reported concerning nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and suggest an alternative approach to optical lithography. We have demonstrated the proof of concept of using NIL patterning, in particular Jet and FlashTM Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) 1 , to build functional thin film head devices with performance comparable to standard wafer processing techniques. An ImprioTM 300 tool from Molecular Imprints, Inc. (MII) was modified to process the AlTiC ceramic wafers commonly used in the thin film head industry. Templates were produced using commercially viable photomask manufacturing processes and the AlTiC wafer process flow was successfully modified to support NIL processing. Future work is identified to further improve lithographic performance including residual layer thickness uniformity, wafer topography, NIL-->NIL overlay, and development of a large imprint field that exceeds what is available in optical lithography.

  12. Fabrication of periodically ordered diamond nanostructures by microsphere lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2587-2592 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CVD growth * diamond * microsphere lithography * selective area deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  13. Deep x-ray lithography based processing for micromechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    Deep x-ray lithography based fabrication provides a means to fabricate microactuators with useful output forces. High energy x-ray exposure provides a tool for fabrication of the next generation of precision engineered components. Device characterization, materials science, an metrology continue to pose challenges at this scale.

  14. Wafer scale coating of polymer cantilever fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Dohn, Søren; Keller, Stephan Urs

    2010-01-01

    Microcantilevers can be fabricated in TOPAS by nanoimprint lithography, with the dimensions of 500 ¿m length 4.5 ¿m thickness and 100 ¿m width. By using a plasma polymerization technique it is possible to selectively functionalize individually cantilevers with a polymer coating, on wafer scale...

  15. Batch fabrication of nanopatterned graphene devices via nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Smistrup, Kristian; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

    2017-01-01

    Previous attempts to tune the electrical properties of large-scale graphene via nanopatterning have led to serious degradation of the key electrical parameters that make graphene a desirable material for electronic devices. We use thermal nanoimprint lithography to pattern wafer-scale graphene...

  16. Receding contact lines: from sliding drops to immersion lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, K.G.; Peters, I.R.; Evangelista, F.; Riepen, M.; Daerr, A.; Limat, L.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    Instabilities of receding contact lines often occur through the formation of a corner with a very sharp tip. These dewetting structures also appear in the technology of Immersion Lithography, where water is put between the lens and the silicon wafer to increase the optical resolution. In this paper

  17. A Fabrication Technique for Nano-gap Electrodes by Atomic Force Microscopy Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Rouhi; Shahrom Mahmud; Hutagalung, S.D.; Kakooei, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple technique is introduced for fabrication of nano-gap electrodes by using nano-oxidation atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography with a Cr/ Pt coated silicon tip. AFM local anodic oxidation was performed on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) surfaces by optimization of desired conditions to control process in contact mode. Silicon electrodes with gaps of sub 31 nm were fabricated by nano-oxidation method. This technique which is simple, controllable, inexpensive and fast is capable of fabricating nano-gap structures. The current-voltage measurements (I-V) of the electrodes demonstrated very good insulating characteristics. The results show that silicon electrodes have a great potential for fabrication of single molecule transistors (SMT), single electron transistors (SET) and the other nano electronic devices. (author)

  18. Vacuum system design for a superconducting X-ray lithography light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A superconducting electron storage ring for X-ray lithography (SXLS) is to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The goal is to design and construct a light source specifically dedicated to X-ray lithography production and which would be used as a prototype in a technology transfer to American industry. The machine will be built in two phases: phase I, a low energy ring (200 MeV, 500 mA) using all room temperature magnets which will be used primarily for low energy injection studies. Phase II will be a full energy machine (690 MeV, 500 mA) where the room temperature 180 0 dipole magnets of phase I will be replaced with superconducting magnets. The machine, with a racetrack shape and a circumference of 8.5 m, is designed to be portable and replaceable as a single unit. This paper will discuss the vacuum system design for both phases; i.e. gas desorption, warm bore vs cold bore, ion trapping, clearing electrodes, and diagnostic instrumentation. (author)

  19. Contacting ZnO Individual Crystal Facets by Direct Write Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nikolay; Volk, János; Erdélyi, Róbert; Lukács, István Endre; Nagata, Takahiro; Sturm, Chris; Grundmann, M

    2016-09-14

    Many advanced electronic devices take advantage of properties developed at the surface facets of grown crystals with submicrometer dimensions. Electrical contacts to individual crystal facets can make possible the investigations of facet-dependent properties such as piezoelectricity in ZnO or III-nitride crystals having noncentrosymmetric structure. However, a lithography-based method for developing contacts to individual crystal facets with submicrometer size has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we study the use of electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), a direct write lithography method, for contacting individual facets of ZnO pillars within an electron microscope. Correlating structural and in situ deposition and electrical data, we examine proximity effects during the EBID and evaluate the process against obtaining electrically insulated contact lines on neighboring and diametrically opposite ZnO facets. Parameters such as incident beam energy geometry and size of the facets were investigated with the view of minimizing unwanted proximity broadening effects. Additionally, we show that the EBID direct write method has the required flexibility, resolution, and minimized proximity deposition for creating prototype devices. The devices were used to observe facet-dependent effects induced by mechanical stress on single ZnO pillar structures.

  20. Exploiting the Oxygen Inhibitory Effect on UV Curing in Microfabrication: A Modified Lithography Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) of microfluidic channels in liquid photopolymers using standard lithography (SL) involves multiple deposition steps and curing by ultraviolet (UV) light for the construction of a microstructure layer. In this work, the conflicting effect of oxygen diffusion and UV curing of liquid polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) is investigated in microfabrication and utilized to reduce the deposition steps and to obtain a monolithic product. The conventional fabrication process is altered to control for the best use of the oxygen presence in polymerization. A novel and modified lithography technique is introduced in which a single step of PUMA coating and two steps of UV exposure are used to create a microchannel. The first exposure is maskless and incorporates oxygen diffusion into PUMA for inhibition of the polymerization of a thin layer from the top surface while the UV rays penetrate the photopolymer. The second exposure is for transferring the patterns of the microfluidic channels from the contact photomask onto the uncured material. The UV curing of PUMA as the main substrate in the presence of oxygen is characterized analytically and experimentally. A few typical elastomeric microstructures are manufactured. It is demonstrated that the obtained heights of the fabricated structures in PUMA are associated with the oxygen concentration and the UV dose. The proposed technique is promising for the RP of molds and microfluidic channels in terms of shorter processing time, fewer fabrication steps and creation of microstructure layers with higher integrity. PMID:25747514

  1. Maskless beam pen lithography based on integrated microlens array and spatial-filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Nazmul; Dinh, Duc-Hanh; Chien, Hung-Liang; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2017-11-01

    A beam pen lithography system is proposed for ultraviolet (UV) patterning of complicated patterns in a maskless manner. The system consists of a single UV light-emitting diode (LED), a double-sided microlens/spatial-filter array (MLSFA), and a motorized x-y stage. The double-sided MLSFA contains a pinhole array sandwiched by two microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are fabricated by an excimer laser micromachining system to achieve accurate and optimized lens profiles obtained from optical simulation. Techniques have been developed in the fabrication processes to guarantee good alignment between the pinhole array and the two microlens arrays. Finally, arrayed UV spots are formed with feature size around 4 to 5 μm. Through mechanical movement of stage and intensity control on the UV LED, a number of complicated patterns are experimentally demonstrated using this type of beam pen lithography. It offers a simple, inexpensive, and portable choice on maskless UV patterning with great potential for future applications.

  2. Reduction of nanowire diameter beyond lithography limits by controlled catalyst dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kerlich, Alexander; Amram, Dor; Gavrilov, Arkady; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Catalyst assisted vapour-liquid-solid is the most common method to realize bottom-up nanowire growth; establishing a parallel process for obtaining nanoscale catalysts at pre-defined locations is paramount for further advancement towards commercial nanowire applications. Herein, the effect of a selective area mask on the dewetting of metallic nanowire catalysts, deposited within lithography-defined mask pinholes, is reported. It was found that thin disc-like catalysts, with diameters of 120-450 nm, were transformed through dewetting into hemisphere-like catalysts, having diameters 2-3 fold smaller; the process was optimized to about 95% yield in preventing catalyst splitting, as would otherwise be expected due to their thickness-to-diameter ratio, which was as low as 1/60. The catalysts subsequently facilitated InP and InAs nanowire growth. We suggest that the mask edges prevent surface migration mediated spreading of the dewetted metal, and therefore induce its agglomeration into a single particle. This result presents a general strategy to diminish lithography-set dimensions for NW growth, and may answer a fundamental challenge faced by bottom-up nanowire technology.

  3. Defect reduction progress in step and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenidis, K.; Maltabes, J.; McMackin, I.; Perez, J.; Martin, W.; Resnick, D. J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective method for the replication of nanometer-scale structures from a template mold. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is unique in its ability to address both resolution and alignment. Recently overlay across a 200 mm wafer of less than 20nm, 3σ has been demonstrated. Current S-FIL resolution and alignment performance motivates the consideration of nano-imprint lithography as Next Generation Lithography (NGL) solution for IC production. During the S-FIL process, a transferable image, an imprint, is produced by mechanically molding a liquid UV-curable resist on a wafer. The novelty of this process immediately raises questions about the overall defectivity level of S-FIL. Acceptance of imprint lithography for CMOS manufacturing will require demonstration that it can attain defect levels commensurate with the requirements of cost-effective device production. This report specifically focuses on this challenge and presents the current status of defect reduction in S-FIL technology and will summarize the result of defect inspections of wafers patterned using S-FIL. Wafer inspections were performed with a KLA Tencor- 2132 (KT-2132) automated patterned wafer inspection tool. Recent results show wafer defectivity to be less 5 cm -2. Mask fabrication and inspection techniques used to obtain low defect template will be described. The templates used to imprint wafers for this study were designed specifically to facilitate automated defect inspection and were made by employing CMOS industry standard materials and exposure tools. A KT-576 tool was used for template defect inspection.

  4. A multimaterial electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, E; Shigeta, K; Kim, Y K; Graf, P G; Hoelzle, D J; Barton, K L; Alleyne, A G; Ferreira, P M; Rogers, J A

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing has emerged as a high-resolution alternative to other forms of direct solution-based fabrication approaches, such as ink-jet printing. This paper discusses the design, integration and operation of a unique E-jet printing platform. The uniqueness lies in the ability to utilize multiple materials in the same overall print-head, thereby enabling increased degrees of heterogeneous integration of different functionalities on a single substrate. By utilizing multiple individual print-heads, with a carrousel indexing among them, increased material flexibility is achieved. The hardware design and system operation for a relatively inexpensive system are developed and presented. Crossover interconnects and multiple fluorescent tagged proteins, demonstrating printed electronics and biological sensing applications, respectively. (paper)

  5. A Vector Printing Method for High-Speed Electrohydrodynamic (EHD Jet Printing Based on Encoder Position Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Huy Phung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrohyrodynamic (EHD jet printing has been widely used in the field of direct micro-nano patterning applications, due to its high resolution printing capability. So far, vector line printing using a single nozzle has been widely used for most EHD printing applications. However, the application has been limited to low-speed printing, to avoid non-uniform line width near the end points where line printing starts and ends. At end points of line vector printing, the deposited drop amount is likely to be significantly large compared to the rest of the printed lines, due to unavoidable acceleration and deceleration. In this study, we proposed a method to solve the printing quality problems by producing droplets at an equally spaced distance, irrespective of the printing speed. For this purpose, an encoder processing unit (EPU was developed, so that the jetting trigger could be generated according to user-defined spacing by using encoder position signals, which are used for the positioning control of the two linear stages.

  6. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  7. Synthesis, transfer printing, electrical and optical properties, and applications of materials composed of self-assembled, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, Cary L.

    Super growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has emerged as a unique method for synthesizing self-assembled, pristine, aligned SWNT materials composed of ultra-long (millimeter-long) nanotubes. This thesis focuses on novel routes of synthesizing such self-assembled SWNTs and the challenges that arise in integrating this material into next-generation applications. First of all, this work provides unique insight into growth termination of aligned SWNTs, emphasizing the mechanism that inhibits the growth of infinitely long nanotubes. Exhaustive real-time growth studies, combined with ex-situ and in-situ TEM characterization emphasizes that Ostwald ripening and subsurface diffusion of catalyst particles play a key role in growth termination. As a result, rational steps to solving this problem can enhance growth, and may ultimately lead to the meter or kilometer-long SWNTs that are necessary for a number of applications. In addition, other novel synthesis routes are discussed, such as the ability to form macroscopic fibrils of SWNTs, called "flying carpets" from 40 nm thick substrates, and the ability to achieve supergrowth of SWNTs that are controllably doped with nitrogen. In the latter case, molecular heterojunctions of doped and undoped sections in a single strand of ultralong SWNTs are demonstrated Secondly, as supergrowth is conducted on alumina coated SiO2 substrates, any applications will require that one can transfer the SWNTs to host surfaces with minimal processing. This work demonstrates a unique contact transfer route by which both patterned arrays of SWNTs, or homogenous SWNT carpets, can be transferred to any host surface. In the first case, the SWNTs are grown vertically aligned, and transferred in patterns of horizontally aligned SWNT. This transfer process relies on simple water-vapor etching of amorphous carbons at the catalyst following growth, and strong van der Waals adhesion of the high surface-area SWNT to host surfaces (gecko effect

  8. Nm-scale diamond-like-carbon (DLC) templates for use in soft lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.S.; Myhra, S.; Brown, C.L.; Watson, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An emerging set of methods known collectively as soft lithography is now being utilised for a large variety of applications including micromolding, microfluidic networks and microcontact printing. In particular stamps and elastomeric elements can be formed by exposure of a polymer to a template. Established lithographic techniques used in the microelectronic industry, such as photolithography, are generally used to fabricate such master templates at the micron scale. In this study we demonstrate the use of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as a template for producing polymer micro/nano stamps and 3D polymer structures. Intricate surface relief patterns can be formed on the DLC surface from lithographic techniques by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the electrical conductivity mode. A number of polymers can be used to transfer patterns. One of the most widely used polymers for pattern transfer has been polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The elastomer is chemically resistant, has a low surface energy and readily conforms to different surface topographies. Obtaining a master is the limiting factor in the production of PDMS replicas. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  9. Flexible small-channel thin-film transistors by electrohydrodynamic lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yajiang; Zhu, Chen; Liu, Jianpeng; Duan, Yongqing; Yi, Zhengran; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Shuai; Huang, YongAn; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-12-14

    Small-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are an essential component of microelectronic devices. With the advent of flexible electronics, the fabrication of OTFTs still faces numerous hurdles in the realization of highly-functional, devices of commercial value. Herein, a concise and efficient procedure is proposed for the fabrication of flexible, small-channel organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) arrays on large-area substrates that circumvents the use of photolithography. By employing a low-cost and high-resolution mechano-electrospinning technology, large-scale micro/nanofiber-based patterns can be digitally printed on flexible substrates (Si wafer or plastic), which can act as the channel mask of TFT instead of a photolithography reticle. The dimensions of the micro/nanochannel can be manipulated by tuning the processing parameters such as the nozzle-to-substrate distance, applied voltage, and fluid supply. The devices exhibit excellent electrical properties with high mobilities (∼0.62 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) and high on/off current ratios (∼2.47 × 10 6 ), and they are able to maintain stability upon being bent from 25 mm to 2.75 mm (bending radius) over 120 testing cycles. This electrohydrodynamic lithography-based approach is a digital, programmable, and reliable alternative for easily fabricating flexible, small-channel OTFTs, which can be integrated into flexible and wearable devices.

  10. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  11. Effect of the STereoLithography file structure on the ear shell production for hearing aids according to DICOM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A technique for producing the ear shell for a hearing aid using DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) image and a 3D printing was studied. It is a new application method, and is an application technique that can improve the safety and infection of hearing aid users and can reduce the production time and process stages. In this study, the effects on the shape surface were examined before and after the printing of the ear shell using a 3D printer based on the values obtained from the raw data of the DICOM images at the volumes of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively. Before the printing, relative relationship was compared with respect to the STL (STereoLithography) file structure; and after the printing, the intervals of the layered structure of the ear shell shape surface were compared by magnifying them using a microscope. For the STL file structure, the numbers of triangular vertices, more than five intersecting points, and maximum intersecting points were large in the order of 0.5 mm, 1.0 m, and 2.0 mm, respectively; and the triangular structure was densely distributed in the order of the bending, angle, and crest regions depending on the sinuosity of the external auditory meatus shape. As for the ear shell shape surface examined by the digital microscope, the interval of the layered structure was thick in the order of 2.0 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm. For the STL surface structure mentioned above, the intersecting STL triangular structure was denser as the sinuosity of the 3D ear shell shape became more irregular and the volume of the raw data decreased.

  12. Effect of the STereoLithography file structure on the ear shell production for hearing aids according to DICOM images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Hyeong Gyun

    2017-01-01

    A technique for producing the ear shell for a hearing aid using DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) image and a 3D printing was studied. It is a new application method, and is an application technique that can improve the safety and infection of hearing aid users and can reduce the production time and process stages. In this study, the effects on the shape surface were examined before and after the printing of the ear shell using a 3D printer based on the values obtained from the raw data of the DICOM images at the volumes of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively. Before the printing, relative relationship was compared with respect to the STL (STereoLithography) file structure; and after the printing, the intervals of the layered structure of the ear shell shape surface were compared by magnifying them using a microscope. For the STL file structure, the numbers of triangular vertices, more than five intersecting points, and maximum intersecting points were large in the order of 0.5 mm, 1.0 m, and 2.0 mm, respectively; and the triangular structure was densely distributed in the order of the bending, angle, and crest regions depending on the sinuosity of the external auditory meatus shape. As for the ear shell shape surface examined by the digital microscope, the interval of the layered structure was thick in the order of 2.0 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm. For the STL surface structure mentioned above, the intersecting STL triangular structure was denser as the sinuosity of the 3D ear shell shape became more irregular and the volume of the raw data decreased

  13. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  14. 1D Printing of Recyclable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellucci, Daniel; MacCurdy, Robert; Lipson, Hod

    2017-01-01

    string. Here, we demonstrate a 1D printing system that uses an approach inspired by the ribosome to fabricate a variety of specialized robotic automata from a single string of source material. This proof-ofconcept system involves both a novel manufacturing platform that configures the source material...... using folding and a computational optimization tool that allows designs to be produced from the specification of high-level goals. We show that our 1D printing system is able to produce three distinct robots from the same source material, each of which is capable of accomplishing a specialized...

  15. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... is Rhodamine 6G ClO4. This dye is shown to withstand temperatures up to 240 °C without bleaching, which makes it compatible with the thermal nanoimprint lithography process. The 1.55 µm thick dye-doped PMMA devices are fabricated on a SiO2 substrate, yielding planar waveguiding in the dye-doped PMMA with two...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  16. V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, I.; Nielsen, R.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication of integra...... of integrated optical devices composed of metal V grooves. This method represents an improvement with respect to previous works, where the V grooves were fabricated by direct milling of the metal, in terms of robustness and throughput. © 2007 American Vacuum Society......Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication...

  17. A new lithography of functional plasma polymerized thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-O

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of the resist for the vacuum lithography was carried out by plasma polymerization. The resist manufactured by plasma polymerization is a monomer produced by MMA (Methyl methacrylate). The functional groups of MMA appeared in the PPMMA (Plasma Polymerized Methyl methacrylate) as well, and this was confirmed through an analysis using FT-IR. The polymerization rate increased as a function of the plasma power and decreased as a function of the system pressure. The sensitivity and contrast of the plasma polymerized thin films were 15 μC/cm2 and 4.3 respectively. The size of the pattern manufactured by Vacuum Lithography using the plasma polymerized thin films was 100 nm

  18. XUV free-electron laser-based projection lithography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Free-electron laser sources, driven by rf-linear accelerators, have the potential to operate in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range with more than sufficient average power for high-volume projection lithography. For XUV wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm, such sources will enable the resolution limit of optical projection lithography to be extended from 0.25 {mu}m to 0.05{mu}m and with an adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). Recent developments of a photoinjector of very bright electron beams, high-precision magnetic undulators, and ring-resonator cavities raise our confidence that FEL operation below 100 nm is ready for prototype demonstration. We address the motivation for an XUV FEL source for commercial microcircuit production and its integration into a lithographic system, include reflecting reduction masks, reflecting XUV projection optics and alignment systems, and surface-imaging photoresists. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Conductive polymer nanowire gas sensor fabricated by nanoscale soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-12-01

    Resistive devices composed of one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for the next generation of gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still challenging, which restricts the commercialization of such devices. Here, we report a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive gas sensors by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate, which facilitates device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level, which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with the conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin-film gas sensors, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and a much faster response to gas molecules.

  20. Soft X-ray microscopy and lithography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudat, W.

    1977-12-01

    Considerable progress in the technique microscopy with soft X-ray radiation has been achieved in particular through the application of synchrotron radiation. Various methods which are currently being studied theoretically or already being used practically will be described briefly. Attention is focussed on the method of contact microscopy. Various biological specimens have been investigated by this method with a resolution as good as 100 A. X-ray lithography which in the technical procedure is very similar to contact microscopy gives promise for the fabrication of high quality submicron structures in electronic device production. Important factors limiting the resolution and determining the performance of contact microscopy and X-ray lithography will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Fabrication of Nano-pit Array Using Electron Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryam Alsadat Rad; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the fabrication of nano-pits array pattern using electron beam lithography (EBL). We investigated the effect of different electron beam dosage and acceleration voltage in fabrication nano-pits array pattern and effect of them on dimension of nano-pits. The SEM images have shown effect of the voltage and dosage variation on them and also the proximity effect. (author)

  2. The superconducting x-ray lithography source program at Brookhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G. P.; Heese, R. N.; Vignola, G.; Murphy, J. B.; Godel, J. B.; Hsieh, H.; Galayda, J.; Seifert, A.; Knotek, M. L.

    1989-07-01

    A compact electron storage ring with superconducting dipole magnets, is being developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven. The parameters of the source have been optimized for its future use as an x-ray source for lithography. This first ring is a prototype which will be used to study the operating characteristics of machines of this type with particular attention being paid to low-energy injection and long beam lifetime.

  3. Topology optimization for optical projection lithography with manufacturing uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    to manufacturing without additional optical proximity correction (OPC). The performance of the optimized device is robust toward the considered process variations. With the proposed unified approach, the design for photolithography is achieved by considering the optimal device performance and manufacturability......This article presents a topology optimization approach for micro-and nano-devices fabricated by optical projection lithography. Incorporating the photolithography process and the manufacturing uncertainties into the topology optimization process results in a binary mask that can be sent directly...

  4. Aging effect of AlF3 coatings for 193 nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2018-02-01

    As important part of components for 193 nm lithography, AlF3 coatings deposited by resistive heating method acquire advantages like lower optical loss and higher laser damage threshold, but they also possess some disadvantages like worse stability, which is what aging effect focuses on. AlF3 single-layer coatings were deposited; optical property, surface morphology and roughness, and composition were characterized in different periods. Owing to aging effect, refractive index and extinction coefficient increased; larger and larger roughness caused more and more scattering loss, which was in the same order with absorption at 193.4 nm and part of optical loss; from composition analysis, proportional substitution of AlF3 by alumina may account for changes in refractive index as well as absorption.

  5. Bimetallic structure fabricated by laser interference lithography for tuning surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Hong, M H; Cheung, H W; Zhang, F; Huang, Z Q; Tan, L S; Hor, T S A

    2008-07-07

    Tuning of surface plasmon resonance by gold and silver bimetallic thin film and bimetallic dot array is investigated. Laser interference lithography is applied to fabricate the nanostructures. A bimetallic dot structure is obtained by a lift-off procedure after gold and silver thin film deposition by an electron beam evaporator. Surface plasmon behaviors of these films and nanostructures are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is observed that for gold thin film on quartz substrate, the optical spectral peak is blue shifted when a silver thin film is coated over it. Compared to the plasmon band in single metal gold dot array, the bimetallic nanodot array shows a similar blue shift in its spectral peak. These shifts are both attributed to the interaction between gold and silver atoms. Electromagnetic interaction between gold and silver nanostructures is discussed using a simplified spring model.

  6. Combining retraction edge lithography and plasma etching for arbitrary contour nanoridge fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Jansen, Henri; de Boer, Meint; Berenschot, Erwin; Bouwes, Dominique; Gironès, Miriam; Huskens, Jurriaan; Tas, Niels

    2010-09-01

    Edge lithography in combination with fluorine-based plasma etching is employed to avoid the dependence on crystal orientation in single crystal silicon to create monolithic nanoridges with arbitrary contours. This is demonstrated by using a mask with circular structures and Si etching at cryogenic temperature with SF6+O2 plasma mixtures. Initially, the explored etch recipe was used with Cr as the masking material. Although nanoridges with perfect vertical sidewalls have been achieved, Cr causes severe sidewall roughness due to line edge roughness. Therefore, an SU-8 polymer is used instead. Although the SU-8 pattern definition needs further improvement, we demonstrate the possibility of fabricating Si nanoridges of arbitrary contours providing a width below 50 nm and a height between 25 and 500 nm with smooth surface finish. Artifacts in the ridge profile are observed and are mainly caused by the bird's beak phenomenon which is characteristic for the used LOCOS process.

  7. UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Farizan; Agam, Mohd Arif; Nur, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

  8. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  9. Pixelated source and mask optimization for immersion lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-01-01

    Immersion lithography systems with hyper-numerical aperture (hyper-NA) (NA>1) have become indispensable in nanolithography for technology nodes of 45 nm and beyond. Source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a key technique used to further improve the imaging performance of immersion lithography. Recently, a set of pixelated gradient-based SMO approaches were proposed under the scalar imaging models, which are inaccurate for hyper-NA settings. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based SMO algorithms based on a vector imaging model that is accurate for current immersion lithography. To achieve this goal, an integrative and analytic vector imaging model is first used to formulate the simultaneous SMO (SISMO) and sequential SMO (SESMO) frameworks. A gradient-based algorithm is then exploited to jointly optimize the source and mask. Subsequently, this paper studies and compares the performance of individual source optimization (SO), individual mask optimization (MO), SISMO, and SESMO. Finally, a hybrid SMO (HSMO) approach is proposed to take full advantage of SO, SISMO, and MO, consequently achieving superior performance.

  10. Ga+ beam lithography for nanoscale silicon reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M. D.; Shearn, M. J.; Chhim, B.; Scherer, A.

    2010-06-01

    By using a dry etch chemistry which relies on the highly preferential etching of silicon, over that of gallium (Ga), we show resist-free fabrication of precision, high aspect ratio nanostructures and microstructures in silicon using a focused ion beam (FIB) and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Silicon etch masks are patterned via Ga + ion implantation in a FIB and then anisotropically etched in an ICP-RIE using fluorinated etch chemistries. We determine the critical areal density of the implanted Ga layer in silicon required to achieve a desired etch depth for both a Pseudo Bosch (SF6/C4F8) and cryogenic fluorine (SF6/O2) silicon etching. High fidelity nanoscale structures down to 30 nm and high aspect ratio structures of 17:1 are demonstrated. Since etch masks may be patterned on uneven surfaces, we utilize this lithography to create multilayer structures in silicon. The linear selectivity versus implanted Ga density enables grayscale lithography. Limits on the ultimate resolution and selectivity of Ga lithography are also discussed.

  11. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  12. RET masks for patterning 45nm node contact hole using ArF immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Michael; Chen, J. Fung; Van Den Broeke, Doug; En Tszng, Shih; Shieh, Jason; Hsu, Stephen; Shi, Xuelong

    2006-05-01

    Immersion exposure system with the numerical aperture (NA) greater than unity effectively extends the printing resolution limit without the need of shrinking the exposure wavelength. From the perspective of imaging contact hole mask, we are convinced that a mature ArF immersion exposure system will be able to meet 45nm node manufacturing requirement. However, from a full-chip mask data processing point of view, a more challenging question could be: how to ensure the intended RET mask to best achieve a production worthy solution? At 45nm, we are using one-fourth of the exposure wavelength for the patterning; there is very little room for error. For full-chip, especially for contact hole mask, we need a robust RET mask strategy to ensure sufficient CD control. A production-worthy RET mask technology should have good imaging performance with advanced exposure system; and, it should base on currently available mask blank material and be compatible with the existing mask making process. In this work, we propose a new type of contact hole RET masks that is capable of 45nm node full-chip manufacturing. Three types of potential RET masks are studied. The 1st type is the conventional 6% attenuated PSM (attPSM) with 0-phase Scattering Bars (SB). The 2nd type is to use CPL mask with both 0- and π-phase SB, and their relative placements are based on interference mapping lithography (IML) under optimized illumination. The 3rd type, here named as 6% CPL, can be thought of as a CPL mask type with 6% transmission on the background but with π-phase SB only. Of those three RET masks, 6% CPL mask has the best performance for printing 45nm contact and via masks. To implement 6% CPL for contact and via mask design, we study several critical process steps starting from the illumination optimization, model-based SB OPC, 3D mask effect, quartz etch depth optimization, side-lobe printability verification, and then to the mask making flow. Additionally, we investigate printability for

  13. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  14. 3D-printed mechanochromic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory I; Larsen, Michael B; Ganter, Mark A; Storti, Duane W; Boydston, Andrew J

    2015-01-14

    We describe the preparation and characterization of photo- and mechanochromic 3D-printed structures using a commercial fused filament fabrication printer. Three spiropyran-containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers were each filamentized and used to print single- and multicomponent tensile testing specimens that would be difficult, if not impossible, to prepare using traditional manufacturing techniques. It was determined that the filament production and printing process did not degrade the spiropyran units or polymer chains and that the mechanical properties of the specimens prepared with the custom filament were in good agreement with those from commercial PCL filament. In addition to printing photochromic and dual photo- and mechanochromic PCL materials, we also prepare PCL containing a spiropyran unit that is selectively activated by mechanical impetus. Multicomponent specimens containing two different responsive spiropyrans enabled selective activation of different regions within the specimen depending on the stimulus applied to the material. By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of 3D printing, we also demonstrate rapid modification of a prototype force sensor that enables the assessment of peak load by simple visual assessment of mechanochromism.

  15. Low k1 lithography patterning option for the 90-nm and 65-nm nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Shi, Xuelong; Hsu, Michael; Wampler, Kurt E.; Chen, J. Fung; Yu, Annie; Yang, Samuel C.; Hsieh, Frank

    2003-08-01

    As IC fabrication processes are maturing for the 130nm node, silicon manufacturers are focusing on 90nm device manufacturing at ever-lower k1 factors. Driven by cost savings, many integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) and foundries are working toward patterning critical mask layers of 90nm designs using high numerical aperture KrF exposure tools. The goal of this study is to find out whether KrF can be successfully used instead of ArF for fabricating 90nm devices. This exercise will help to gain learning for the upcoming 65nm node, where the early manufacturing phase will also be carried out at similar k1 near 0.3. For high volume wafer production, the cost and throughput are in favor of using a single exposure PSM technique. For low-volume, the high mask cost of Alt-PSM discourages its use. What are the most sensible KrF lithography patterning options at k1 = 0.3? For single exposure mask solutions at the 90nm node using KrF, there are two leading candidates: 6% attenuated PSM (Att-PSM) and Chromeless Phase Lithography (CPL). In this work, we explored and compared these two options in terms of the best achievable process latitude for patterning poly gate layer. First, we analyzed the diffraction patterns from 6% Att-PSM and CPL mask features and identified the optimum transmission for various pitches. Next, we examined the two options from a mask making perspective, accessing mask manufacturability, phase and transmission error control, defect sources, etc. In this paper, we describe how hybrid CPL can be used as a variable transmission mask to produce the best through pitch imaging performance and a practical implementation method for mask manufacturing.

  16. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  17. Nanoimprint lithography-based plasmonic crystal-surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for point of care testing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Yamada, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS) is known for its high sensitivity toward detection down to single molecule level under optimal conditions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). To excite the SPR for SERS application, nanostructured noble metal supports such as a nanoparticle have been widely used. However, for excitation of SPR for SERS application using noble metal nanoparticle has several disadvantages such as sophisticated fabrication procedure and low reproducibility of SPR excitation efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, in this study, plasmonic crystal (PC)-SERS substrate which has a periodic noble metal nanostructure was successfully fabricated rapidly and cost-effectively based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL).

  18. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  19. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D printing and two-dimensional (2D printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  20. Fabrication of capacitive acoustic resonators combining 3D printing and 2D inkjet printing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-10-14

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  1. Printing at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today’s situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer regis...

  2. CERN printing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  3. Application to printed resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiyanagi, Yoshimi; Uraki, Hisatsugu; Sawamura, Masashi

    1989-01-01

    Most of printed circuit boards are made at present by etching copper foils which are laminated on insulating composite boards of paper/phenol resin or glass nonwoven fabric/epoxy rein. This is called subtractive process, and since this is a wet process, the problem of coping with the pollution due to etching solution, plating solution and others is involved. As the method of solving this problem, attention has been paid to the dry process which forms conductor patterns by screen printing using electro-conductive paste. For such resin substrates, generally polymer thick films (PTF) using thermosetting resin as the binder are used. Also the research on the formation of resistors, condensers and other parts by printing using the technology of cermet thick films (CTF) and PTF is active, and it is partially put in practical use. The problems are the deformation and deterioration of substrates, therefore, as the countermeasures, electron beam hardening type PTF has been studied, and various pastes have been developed. In this paper, electron beam hardening type printed resistors are reported. The features, resistance paste, and a number of the experiments on printed resistors are described. (K.I.)

  4. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  5. Deterministic Integration of Quantum Dots into on-Chip Multimode Interference Beamsplitters Using in Situ Electron Beam Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauber, Peter; Schall, Johannes; Bounouar, Samir; Höhne, Theresa; Park, Suk-In; Ryu, Geun-Hwan; Heindel, Tobias; Burger, Sven; Song, Jin-Dong; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2018-04-11

    The development of multinode quantum optical circuits has attracted great attention in recent years. In particular, interfacing quantum-light sources, gates, and detectors on a single chip is highly desirable for the realization of large networks. In this context, fabrication techniques that enable the deterministic integration of preselected quantum-light emitters into nanophotonic elements play a key role when moving forward to circuits containing multiple emitters. Here, we present the deterministic integration of an InAs quantum dot into a 50/50 multimode interference beamsplitter via in situ electron beam lithography. We demonstrate the combined emitter-gate interface functionality by measuring triggered single-photon emission on-chip with g (2) (0) = 0.13 ± 0.02. Due to its high patterning resolution as well as spectral and spatial control, in situ electron beam lithography allows for integration of preselected quantum emitters into complex photonic systems. Being a scalable single-step approach, it paves the way toward multinode, fully integrated quantum photonic chips.

  6. Evaluation of different substrates for inkjet printing of rasagiline mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Janßen, Eva Maria; Breitenbach, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate applicability of the different model substrates, namely orodispersible films (ODFs), porous copy paper sheets, and water impermeable transparency films (TFs) in preparation of the inkjet-printed drug-delivery systems. Rasagiline mesylate (RM......) was used as a low-dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Flexible doses of the drug in a single unit were obtained by printing several subsequent layers on top of the already printed ones, using an off-the-shelf consumer thermal inkjet (TIJ) printer. The produced drug-delivery systems were subjected...... to microscopic and chemical analysis together with solid-state characterization and content uniformity studies. The results revealed that RM recrystallized on the surface of ODFs and TFs, and the printed crystals were arranged in lines. No drug crystals were detected after printing on the surface of the copy...

  7. Merging Bottom-Up with Top-Down: Continuous Lamellar Networks and Block Copolymer Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian Patrick

    Block copolymer lithography is an emerging nanopatterning technology with capabilities that may complement and eventually replace those provided by existing optical lithography techniques. This bottom-up process relies on the parallel self-assembly of macromolecules composed of covalently linked, chemically distinct blocks to generate periodic nanostructures. Among the myriad potential morphologies, lamellar structures formed by diblock copolymers with symmetric volume fractions have attracted the most interest as a patterning tool. When confined to thin films and directed to assemble with interfaces perpendicular to the substrate, two-dimensional domains are formed between the free surface and the substrate, and selective removal of a single block creates a nanostructured polymeric template. The substrate exposed between the polymeric features can subsequently be modified through standard top-down microfabrication processes to generate novel nanostructured materials. Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of block copolymer self-assembly, continuous two-dimensional materials have not yet been fabricated via this robust technique, which may enable nanostructured material combinations that cannot be fabricated through bottom-up methods. This thesis aims to study the effects of block copolymer composition and processing on the lamellar network morphology of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) and utilize this knowledge to fabricate continuous two-dimensional materials through top-down methods. First, block copolymer composition was varied through homopolymer blending to explore the physical phenomena surrounding lamellar network continuity. After establishing a framework for tuning the continuity, the effects of various processing parameters were explored to engineer the network connectivity via defect annihilation processes. Precisely controlling the connectivity and continuity of lamellar networks through defect engineering and

  8. Computer Security: Printing confidentially

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever hesitated to print a confidential document using CERN printers? Or perhaps you have rushed quickly to the printer after hitting the “print” button in order to avoid someone else getting hold of and reading your document? These times are over now with the new printing infrastructure!   Indeed, many of us regularly print out confidential documents like our salary slips, MARS forms, tendering documents and drafts of preliminary papers. The upcoming CERN data protection policy will require all of us to respect the confidentiality of such documents and, as the word “confidential” implies, access to “confidential” or sensitive documents will be tightly controlled. What can we do about the public printers located in many buildings, floors and shared spaces - accessible not only to CERN staff and users but also to visitors and guests? Some printers are located in the vicinity of restaurants, cafeterias or close to paths taken b...

  9. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  10. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  11. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy

  12. Free-electron laser emission architecture impact on extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV sources have demonstrated ˜125 W at customer sites, establishing confidence in EUV lithography (EUVL) as a viable manufacturing technology. However, for extension to the 3-nm technology node and beyond, existing scanner/source technology must enable higher-NA imaging systems (requiring increased resist dose and providing half-field exposures) and/or EUV multipatterning (requiring increased wafer throughput proportional to the number of exposure passes). Both development paths will require a substantial increase in EUV source power to maintain the economic viability of the technology, creating an opportunity for free-electron laser (FEL) EUV sources. FEL-based EUV sources offer an economic, high-power/single-source alternative to LPP EUV sources. Should FELs become the preferred next-generation EUV source, the choice of FEL emission architecture will greatly affect its operational stability and overall capability. A near-term industrialized FEL is expected to utilize one of the following three existing emission architectures: (1) self-amplified spontaneous emission, (2) regenerative amplifier, or (3) self-seeding. Model accelerator parameters are put forward to evaluate the impact of emission architecture on FEL output. Then, variations in the parameter space are applied to assess the potential impact to lithography operations, thereby establishing component sensitivity. The operating range of various accelerator components is discussed based on current accelerator performance demonstrated at various scientific user facilities. Finally, comparison of the performance between the model accelerator parameters and the variation in parameter space provides a means to evaluate the potential emission architectures. A scorecard is presented to facilitate this evaluation and provides a framework for future FEL design and enablement for EUVL applications.

  13. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  14. Development of 3D printing system for human bone model manufacturing using medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Wang Kyun

    2017-01-01

    The 3D printing selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) method used for bone model production has good precision and resolution, but the printers are expensive and need professional knowledge for operation. The program that converts computed tomography digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) file into STL (stereolithography) file is also expensive so requesting 3D printing companies takes a lot of time and cost, which is why they are not generally utilized in surgery. To produce bone models of fractured patients, the use of 3D imaging conversion program and 3D printing system should be convenient, and the cost of device and operation should be low. Besides, they should be able to produce big size bone models for application to surgery. Therefore, by using an fused deposition modeling (FDM) method 3D printer that uses thermoplastic materials such as DICOM Viewer OsiriX and plastic wires, this study developed 3D printing system for Fracture surgery Patients customized bone model production for many clinics to use for surgery of fracture patients by universalizing with no limit in printing sizes and low maintenance and production cost. It is expected to be widely applied to the overall areas of orthopedics' education, research and clinic. It is also expected to be conveniently used in not only university hospitals but also regular general hospitals

  15. Development of 3D printing system for human bone model manufacturing using medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wang Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chungcheongbuk-do Cheongju Medical Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The 3D printing selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) method used for bone model production has good precision and resolution, but the printers are expensive and need professional knowledge for operation. The program that converts computed tomography digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) file into STL (stereolithography) file is also expensive so requesting 3D printing companies takes a lot of time and cost, which is why they are not generally utilized in surgery. To produce bone models of fractured patients, the use of 3D imaging conversion program and 3D printing system should be convenient, and the cost of device and operation should be low. Besides, they should be able to produce big size bone models for application to surgery. Therefore, by using an fused deposition modeling (FDM) method 3D printer that uses thermoplastic materials such as DICOM Viewer OsiriX and plastic wires, this study developed 3D printing system for Fracture surgery Patients customized bone model production for many clinics to use for surgery of fracture patients by universalizing with no limit in printing sizes and low maintenance and production cost. It is expected to be widely applied to the overall areas of orthopedics' education, research and clinic. It is also expected to be conveniently used in not only university hospitals but also regular general hospitals.

  16. A laser printing based approach for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Hu, M.; Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Lau, W.; Yang, J.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report a study of printing of electronics using an office use laser printer. The proposed method eliminates those critical disadvantages of solvent-based printing techniques by taking the advantages of electroless deposition and laser printing. The synthesized toner acts as a catalyst for the electroless copper deposition as well as an adhesion-promoting buffer layer between the substrate and deposited copper. The easy metallization of printed patterns and strong metal-substrate adhesion make it an especially effective method for massive production of flexible printed circuits. The proposed process is a high throughput, low cost, efficient, and environmentally benign method for flexible electronics manufacturing.

  17. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  18. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  19. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  20. Imbalance aware lithography hotspot detection: a deep learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; Luo, Luyang; Su, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Yu, Bei

    2017-07-01

    With the advancement of very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) technology nodes, lithographic hotspots become a serious problem that affects manufacture yield. Lithography hotspot detection at the post-OPC stage is imperative to check potential circuit failures when transferring designed patterns onto silicon wafers. Although conventional lithography hotspot detection methods, such as machine learning, have gained satisfactory performance, with the extreme scaling of transistor feature size and layout patterns growing in complexity, conventional methodologies may suffer from performance degradation. For example, manual or ad hoc feature extraction in a machine learning framework may lose important information when predicting potential errors in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit masks. We present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that targets representative feature learning in lithography hotspot detection. We carefully analyze the impact and effectiveness of different CNN hyperparameters, through which a hotspot-detection-oriented neural network model is established. Because hotspot patterns are always in the minority in VLSI mask design, the training dataset is highly imbalanced. In this situation, a neural network is no longer reliable, because a trained model with high classification accuracy may still suffer from a high number of false negative results (missing hotspots), which is fatal in hotspot detection problems. To address the imbalance problem, we further apply hotspot upsampling and random-mirror flipping before training the network. Experimental results show that our proposed neural network model achieves comparable or better performance on the ICCAD 2012 contest benchmark compared to state-of-the-art hotspot detectors based on deep or representative machine leaning.

  1. Durable diamond-like carbon templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, L; Ramachandran, S; Nelson, C T; Overzet, L J; Goeckner, M; Lee, G; Hu, W; Lin, M; Willson, C G; Wu, W

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between resist and template during the separation process after nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can cause the formation of defects and damage to the templates and resist patterns. To alleviate these problems, fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs, i.e. tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,tetrahydrooctyl trichlorosilane or FDTS) have been employed as template release coatings. However, we find that the FDTS coating undergoes irreversible degradation after only 10 cycles of UV nanoimprint processes with SU-8 resist. The degradation includes a 28% reduction in surface F atoms and significant increases in the surface roughness. In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were investigated as an alternative material not only for coating but also for direct fabrication of nanoimprint templates. DLC films deposited on quartz templates in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system are shown to have better chemical and physical stability than FDTS. After the same 10 cycles of UV nanoimprints, the surface composition as well as the roughness of DLC films were found to be unchanged. The adhesion energy between the DLC surface and SU-8 is found to be smaller than that of FDTS despite the slightly higher total surface energy of DLC. DLC templates with 40 nm features were fabricated using e-beam lithography followed by Cr lift-off and reactive ion etching. UV nanoimprinting using the directly patterned DLC templates in SU-8 resist demonstrates good pattern transfer fidelity and easy template-resist separation. These results indicate that DLC is a promising material for fabricating durable templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

  2. Printing Non-Euclidean Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Giuseppe; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2017-07-01

    Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions. As an illustration, we obtain an explicit 3D printing protocol for arteries, which guarantees stress uniformity under inhomogeneous loading, and for explosive plants, allowing a complete release of residual elastic energy with a single cut. Interestingly, in both cases reaching the physiological target requires the incompatibility to have a topological (global) component.

  3. Resin Elongation Phenomenon of Polystyrene Nanopillars in Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kosuke; Miyauchi, Akihiro; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the elongation of polystyrene nanopillars formed by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Silicone and perfluoropolyether were used as mold release agents to obtain molds with different adhesion forces against polystyrene to be imprinted. The adhesion force between the resin and release layers was evaluated as a force curve by atomic force microscope with a polystyrene colloid probe. Elongation depended on the aspect ratio of the corresponding microholes on the mold and the adhesion force against the release layer. The conditions under which the elongation occurred exhibited a clear threshold on the stress loaded on the foot area of the nanopillars.

  4. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H.; Bonivert, W.D.; Hruby, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of very high aspect ratio microstructures, as well as ultra-high precision manufacturing is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications. Fields as diverse as micromechanics, robotics, integrated optics, and sensors benefit from this technology. The scale-length of this spatial regime is between what can be achieved using classical machine tool operations and that which is used in microelectronics. This requires new manufacturing techniques, such as the LIGA process, which combines x-ray lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding

  5. Combined e-beam lithography using different energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátký, Stanislav; Kolařík, Vladimír; Horáček, Miroslav; Meluzín, Petr; Král, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 177, JUN (2017), s. 30-34 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : grayscale e-beam lithography * mix and match process * absorbed energy density * resist sensitivity * micro-optical elements Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  6. Energy effective dual-pulse bispectral laser for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Seisyan, R. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Sidorov, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    The power consumption in the two-pulse bispectral primary source could be substantially decreased by replacing the SRS converters from 1.06 μm into 10.6 μm wavelength as the preamplifier cascades in CO2 laser channel at the same efficiency radiation of EUV source. The creation of high volume manufacturing lithography facilities with the technological standard of 10-20 nm is related to the implementation of resist exposure modes with pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Low power consumption of the proposed scheme makes it promising for the creation of LPP EUV sources.

  7. Improvement of Electron Beam Lithography modeling for overdose exposures by using Dill transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaidi, Mohamed; Saib, Mohamed; Tortai, Jean-Hervé; Schiavone, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    In Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), the modeling of the Proximity Effects (PE) is the key to successfully print patterns of different size and density at the desired dimension. Although current PE models are increasingly efficient for nominal process conditions, they do not allow covering a broad exposure dose range, which would be interesting for extending the process window, for instance. This paper shows how to improve the accuracy of the dimension estimations of overexposed patterns by EBL by adding a new term to the existing compact model. This advanced compact model was inspired by the chemical mechanisms that activate the acid generator embedded in the resist during the EBL exposure. Most of the existing compact models use the electronic Aerial Image (E AEI) calculated by the convolution product of the patterns geometry with a Point Spread Function (PSF) and extract pattern contours using a threshold value to model the non-linear resist behavior [1]. Here the patterns contours are simulated using an Acid Aerial Image (A AEI) calculated from the initial E_AEI complemented by the Dill transformation [1]. A strong impact is expected at high exposure doses but no changes should occur on patterns exposed close to their nominal dose. The modeling and calibration capabilities of Inscale® software was used to validate the new model with experimental measurements. Calibration and simulations obtained with both standard model and advanced model were compared on a test design. First it shows that after calibration the PSF of the two models are similar, meaning that physics is consistent for both models. The new advanced model allows maintaining the accuracy at nominal dose but increases the overall accuracy by 62 % for a process window of dose with latitude extended up to 20%.

  8. Laser Integration on Silicon Photonic Circuits Through Transfer Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    silicon transfer printed single wavelength laser . Introduction Silicon has long offered promise as the ultimate platform for realizing compact photonic...the field has faced a big stumbling block: the lack of an integrated laser source. Thus far, silicon-photonics applications have had to rely on...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0019 Laser integration on silicon photonic circuits through transfer printing Gunther Roelkens UNIVERSITEIT GENT VZW Final

  9. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  10. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  11. The DARPA compact Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.; Kalsi, S.; Leung, E.

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. This source is optimized for lithography work for sub-micron high density computer chips, and is about the size of a billiard table (1.5 m x 4.0 m). The machine has a racetrack configuration with two 180 degree bending magnets being designed and built by General Dynamics under a subcontract with Grumman Corporation. The machine will have 18 photon ports which would deliver light peaked at a wave length of 10 Angstroms. Grumman is commercializing the SXLS device and plans to book orders for delivery of industrialized SXLS (ISXLS) versions in 1995. This paper will describe the major features of this device. The commercial machine will be equipped with a fully automated user-friendly control systems, major features of which are already working on a compact warm dipole ring at BNL. This ring has normal dipole magnets with dimensions identical to the SXLS device, and has been successfully commissioned

  12. Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Fan; Liang, Gaofeng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L Jay

    2017-10-24

    In this work, a special hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) metamaterial is investigated for plasmonic lithography of period reduction patterns. It is a type II HMM (ϵ ∥ 0) whose tangential component of the permittivity ϵ ∥ is close to zero. Due to the high anisotropy of the type II epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) HMM, only one plasmonic mode can propagate horizontally with low loss in a waveguide system with ENZ HMM as its core. This work takes the advantage of a type II ENZ HMM composed of aluminum/aluminum oxide films and the associated unusual mode to expose a photoresist layer in a specially designed lithography system. Periodic patterns with a half pitch of 58.3 nm were achieved due to the interference of third-order diffracted light of the grating. The lines were 1/6 of the mask with a period of 700 nm and ∼1/7 of the wavelength of the incident light. Moreover, the theoretical analyses performed are widely applicable to structures made of different materials such as silver as well as systems working at deep ultraviolet wavelengths including 193, 248, and 365 nm.

  13. Fabrication of circular sawtooth gratings using focused UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wujun; Karlsson, Staffan; Danielsson, Mats; Nillius, Peter; Holmberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel micro-fabrication method using focused ultraviolet (UV) light to manufacture three-dimensional sawtooth structures in ultra-thick negative photoresist to fabricate a novel multi-prism x-ray lens. The method uses a lens to shape the UV beam instead of the photomask conventionally used in UV lithography. Benefits of this method include the ability to manufacture sawtooth structures in free form, for example in circular shapes as well as arrays of these shapes, and in resist that is up to 76 μm thick. To verify the method, initially a simple simulation based on Fourier optics was done to predict the exposure energy distribution in the photoresist. Furthermore, circular sawtooth gratings were manufactured in a 76 μm SU-8 resist. The UV lens was fabricated using electron beam lithography and then used to expose the SU-8 with UV light. This paper details the complete developed process, including pre-exposure with an e-beam and cold development, which creates stable sawtooth structures. The measured profile was compared to the ideal sawtooth and the simulation. The main discrepancy was in the smallest feature size, the sawtooth tips, which were wider than the desired structures, as would be expected by simulation. (paper)

  14. Theoretical analysis of the potential for maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2002-07-01

    In order to be practical, maskless lithography schemes are limited as to how small the physical address grid can be. Thus, graybeam techniques are used to create a small virtual address grid while maintaining a large physical address grid. One important consideration for maskless lithography is the impact of these small 'virtual' address grids on image quality. Using simple simulations of aerial image formation as the summation of Gaussian spots and PROLITH simulations of the projection of square pixels, several important conclusions about the use of graybeam are made. Graybeam results in a non-linear variation in edge position with gray level, with the non-linearity increasing with larger physical address grid size. While this edge position deviation from non-linearity can be calibrated out of the writing scheme, the calibration curve is process dependent. One problem with the use of graybeam is the reduction of image quality as expressed by the image log-slope. For the raster scan case of a physical address grid equal to half of the spot size, the worst case graybeam level has an image log-slope at the edge that is 20% less than the best case. For the projection imaging case of a physical address grid equal to the pixel size, the worst case graybeam level has an image log-slope at the edge that is 15% less than the best case.

  15. Scalable, high performance, enzymatic cathodes based on nanoimprint lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Pankratov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we detail high performance, enzymatic electrodes for oxygen bio-electroreduction, which can be easily and reproducibly fabricated with industry-scale throughput. Planar and nanostructured electrodes were built on biocompatible, flexible polymer sheets, while nanoimprint lithography was used for electrode nanostructuring. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports concerning the usage of nanoimprint lithography for amperometric bioelectronic devices. The enzyme (Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on planar (control and artificially nanostructured, gold electrodes by direct physical adsorption. The detailed electrochemical investigation of bioelectrodes was performed and the following parameters were obtained: open circuit voltage of approximately 0.75 V, and maximum bio-electrocatalytic current densities of 18 µA/cm2 and 58 µA/cm2 in air-saturated buffers versus 48 µA/cm2 and 186 µA/cm2 in oxygen-saturated buffers for planar and nanostructured electrodes, respectively. The half-deactivation times of planar and nanostructured biocathodes were measured to be 2 h and 14 h, respectively. The comparison of standard heterogeneous and bio-electrocatalytic rate constants showed that the improved bio-electrocatalytic performance of the nanostructured biocathodes compared to planar biodevices is due to the increased surface area of the nanostructured electrodes, whereas their improved operational stability is attributed to stabilisation of the enzyme inside nanocavities.

  16. Metallic colour filtering arrays manufactured by nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, S.; Brianceau, P.; Chaix, N.; Désières, Y.; Reboud, V.; Argoud, M.

    2012-06-01

    Colour filters using two-dimensional sub wavelength double-breasted rectangular hole, with a 250 nm period, were proposed and manufactured. Using low-cost, wafer scale thermal NanoImprint lithography, a thin metallic aluminium silicon alloy layer was patterned into two dimensional structures onto 200 mm wafer size. Process flow proposed in this paper is fully compatible with IC manufacturing line. A fine tuning of the manufactured design was proposed with arm widths ranging from 30 nm up to 60 nm, and arm lengths ranging from 100 nm up to 240 nm, keeping the period constant at 250 nm. Sub 20 nm resolution 200 mm silicon stamp, with aspect ratio larger than 5 were manufactured using electron beam lithography with proximity correction exposure strategy based on shape modification of the initial design. At the end 864 different patterns were manufactured and etched in thin 40 nm thick aluminium layer. The sub 30 nm resolution metallic patterns were then transfer from silicon wafer to transparent glass wafer to perform optical characterizations. Morphological characterizations and optical measurements of transmission spectra revealed that the optical response were very sensitive to the fine shape of the patterns etched in the metallic layer.

  17. Achieving pattern uniformity in plasmonic lithography by spatial frequency selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaofeng; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Qing; Guo, L. Jay

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the surface roughness of thin films and defects on photomasks are investigated in two representative plasmonic lithography systems: thin silver film-based superlens and multilayer-based hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). Superlens can replicate arbitrary patterns because of its broad evanescent wave passband, which also makes it inherently vulnerable to the roughness of the thin film and imperfections of the mask. On the other hand, the HMM system has spatial frequency filtering characteristics and its pattern formation is based on interference, producing uniform and stable periodic patterns. In this work, we show that the HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its function of spatial frequency selection. The analyses are further verified by an interference lithography system incorporating the photoresist layer as an optical waveguide to improve the aspect ratio of the pattern. It is concluded that a system capable of spatial frequency selection is a powerful method to produce deep-subwavelength periodic patterns with high degree of uniformity and fidelity.

  18. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  19. Fabrication of nanochannels on polyimide films using dynamic plowing lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2017-12-01

    Three distinct polyimide films were analyzed from the point of view of their morphology in order to determine if their surface features can be adapted for applications where surface anisotropy is mandatory. Channels of nanometric dimensions were created on surface of the specimens by using a less common atomic force microscopy (AFM) method, namely Dynamic Plowing Lithography (DPL). The changes generated by DPL procedure were monitored through the surface texture and other functional parameters, denoting the surface orientation degree and also bearing and fluid retention properties. The results revealed that in the same nanolithography conditions, the diamine and dianhydride moieties have affected the characteristics of the nanochannels. This was explained based on the aliphatic/aromatic nature of the monomers and the backbone flexibility. The reported data are of great importance in designing custom nanostructures with enhanced anisotropy on surface of polyimide films for liquid crystal orientation or guided cell growth purposes. At the end, to track the effect of the nanolithography process on the tip sharpness, degradation and contamination, the blind tip reconstruction was performed on AFM probe, before and after lithography experiments, using TGT1 test grating AFM image.

  20. Fabrication of biomimetic dry-adhesion structures through nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P. C.; Chang, N. W.; Suen, Y.; Yang, S. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Components with surface nanostructures suitable for biomimetic dry adhesion have a great potential in applications such as gecko tape, climbing robots, and skin patches. In this study, a nanosphere lithography technique with self-assembly nanospheres was developed to achieve effective and efficient fabrication of dry-adhesion structures. Self-assembled monolayer nanospheres with high regularity were obtained through tilted dip-coating. Reactive-ion etching of the self-assembled nanospheres was used to fabricate nanostructures of different shapes and aspect ratios by varying the etching time. Thereafter, nickel molds with inverse nanostructures were replicated using the electroforming process. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructures were fabricated through a gas-assisted hot-embossing method. The pulling test was performed to measure the shear adhesion on the glass substrate of a sample, and the static contact angle was measured to verify the hydrophobic property of the structure. The enhancement of the structure indicates that the adhesion force increased from 1.2 to 4.05 N/cm2 and the contact angle increased from 118.6° to 135.2°. This columnar structure can effectively enhance the adhesion ability of PDMS, demonstrating the potential of using nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of adhesive structures.

  1. Large area nanoimprint by substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuuren, Marc A.; Megens, Mischa; Ni, Yongfeng; van Sprang, Hans; Polman, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Releasing the potential of advanced material properties by controlled structuring materials on sub-100-nm length scales for applications such as integrated circuits, nano-photonics, (bio-)sensors, lasers, optical security, etc. requires new technology to fabricate nano-patterns on large areas (from cm2 to 200 mm up to display sizes) in a cost-effective manner. Conventional high-end optical lithography such as stepper/scanners is highly capital intensive and not flexible towards substrate types. Nanoimprint has had the potential for over 20 years to bring a cost-effective, flexible method for large area nano-patterning. Over the last 3-4 years, nanoimprint has made great progress towards volume production. The main accelerator has been the switch from rigid- to wafer-scale soft stamps and tool improvements for step and repeat patterning. In this paper, we discuss substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL), which combines nanometer resolution, low patterns distortion, and overlay alignment, traditionally reserved for rigid stamps, with the flexibility and robustness of soft stamps. This was made possible by a combination of a new soft stamp material, an inorganic resist, combined with an innovative imprint method. Finally, a volume production solution will be presented, which can pattern up to 60 wafers per hour.

  2. Integration of plant viruses in electron beam lithography nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose M; Bittner, Alexander M; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the textbook example of a virus, and also of a self-assembling nanoscale structure. This tubular RNA/protein architecture has also found applications as biotemplate for the synthesis of nanomaterials such as wires, as tubes, or as nanoparticle assemblies. Although TMV is, being a biological structure, quite resilient to environmental conditions (temperature, chemicals), it cannot be processed in electron beam lithography (eBL) fabrication, which is the most important and most versatile method of nanoscale structuring. Here we present adjusted eBL-compatible processes that allow the incorporation of TMV in nanostructures made of positive and negative tone eBL resists. The key steps are covering TMV by polymer resists, which are only heated to 50 °C, and development (selective dissolution) in carefully selected organic solvents. We demonstrate the post-lithography biochemical functionality of TMV by selective immunocoating of the viral particles, and the use of immobilized TMV as direct immunosensor. Our modified eBL process should be applicable to incorporate a wide range of sensitive materials in nanofabrication schemes. (paper)

  3. Development of conventional and single-chamber planar solid oxide fuel cells by screen-printing; Developpement de piles a combustible de type SOFC, conventionnelles et mono-chambres, en technologie planaire par serigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, D.

    2005-06-15

    This work is the first of a new research theme of the laboratory in the field of solid oxide planar fuel cells. With his high experience in the sensor field, the objectives were to realize prototypes using a 'low cost' technology like screen-printing, using classical materials in the field of fuel cells, rather than researching new materials having optimum properties which may be damaged during the realisation of the complete fuel cell. These materials are yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) for electrolyte, strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for cathode and a nickel oxide-YSZ cermet (NiO-YSZ) for anode. The first part of the study consists in structural and electrical characterizations of chosen materials, both on dense pellets and on screen-printed layers of YSZ, LSM or NiO-YSZ. These characterizations showed a good adequation of our materials for a fuel cell application. The second part consists in testing realised prototypes on electrolyte support and on anode support with screen-printed electrodes and electrolyte. The weak obtained performances are mainly due to the low functional temperature (800 C), the thickness of the electrolyte support (about 1 mm) and the porosity of the YSZ screen-printed layers. Finally, we tested in the same time an original device in which both electrodes are exposed to a fuel and air mixture. This promising device inspired from the research on potentiometric sensors developed in the team by N. Guillet (2001), avoids the tightness problem encountered with two gaseous chambers. Moreover, the performances obtained are just twice below than those obtained with a conventional fuel cell with two gaseous chambers. (author)

  4. The body printed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    It takes only a few minutes for the NovoGen MMX to print out a chunk of human liver cells. It?s a small chunk, only 4-mm wide and 20 cell layers thick, which wouldn't do much good in a human patient. But at a cellular level, this tiny swatch of machine-made flesh has all the essential ingredients of an original organ: tight hexagons of hepatocytes and fatty stellate cells and endothelial cells gathered into nascent capillaries. It produces cholesterol, albumin, and detoxifying P450 enzymes. After it is printed, the ensemble can survive for almost an entire week?nearly triple the endurance of classic two-dimensional (2-D) liver cultures.

  5. Biomimetic 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydney Gladman, A.; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mahadevan, L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  6. Recent Advances in Extrusion-Based 3D Printing for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placone, Jesse K; Engler, Adam J

    2017-12-28

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has become significantly more commonplace in tissue engineering over the past decade, as a variety of new printing materials have been developed. In extrusion-based printing, materials are used for applications that range from cell free printing to cell-laden bioinks that mimic natural tissues. Beyond single tissue applications, multi-material extrusion based printing has recently been developed to manufacture scaffolds that mimic tissue interfaces. Despite these advances, some material limitations prevent wider adoption of the extrusion-based 3D printers currently available. This progress report provides an overview of this commonly used printing strategy, as well as insight into how this technique can be improved. As such, it is hoped that the prospective report guides the inclusion of more rigorous material characterization prior to printing, thereby facilitating cross-platform utilization and reproducibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Complete data preparation flow for Massively Parallel E-Beam lithography on 28nm node full-field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Aurélien; Browning, Clyde; Brandt, Pieter; Chartoire, Jacky; Bérard-Bergery, Sébastien; Hazart, Jérôme; Chagoya, Alexandre; Postnikov, Sergei; Saib, Mohamed; Lattard, Ludovic; Schavione, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography (MP-EBL) offers a large intrinsic flexibility at a low cost of ownership in comparison to conventional optical lithography tools. This attractive direct-write technique needs a dedicated data preparation flow to correct both electronic and resist processes. Moreover, Data Prep has to be completed in a short enough time to preserve the flexibility advantage of MP-EBL. While the MP-EBL tools have currently entered an advanced stage of development, this paper will focus on the data preparation side of the work for specifically the MAPPER Lithography FLX-1200 tool [1]-[4], using the ASELTA Nanographics Inscale software. The complete flow as well as the methodology used to achieve a full-field layout data preparation, within an acceptable cycle time, will be presented. Layout used for Data Prep evaluation was one of a 28 nm technology node Metal1 chip with a field size of 26x33mm2, compatible with typical stepper/scanner field sizes and wafer stepping plans. Proximity Effect Correction (PEC) was applied to the entire field, which was then exported as a single file to MAPPER Lithography's machine format, containing fractured shapes and dose assignments. The Soft Edge beam to beam stitching method was employed in the specific overlap regions defined by the machine format as well. In addition to PEC, verification of the correction was included as part of the overall data preparation cycle time. This verification step was executed on the machine file format to ensure pattern fidelity and accuracy as late in the flow as possible. Verification over the full chip, involving billions of evaluation points, is performed both at nominal conditions and at Process Window corners in order to ensure proper exposure and process latitude. The complete MP-EBL data preparation flow was demonstrated for a 28 nm node Metal1 layout in 37 hours. The final verification step shows that the Edge Placement Error (EPE) is kept below 2.25 nm

  8. Chemical deinking of prints obtained by non-impact printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bolanca

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of efficiency investi-gation of chemical deinking of non-impact prints, where the principle of electrophotography is used for obtaining the latent image, on which the toner could adhere. The basis of scientific prepositions of deinking flotation and the mechanism for particle separation in the explanation of the results of experiment are given. The optical properties of hand-sheets in relation to the particle separation mechanism, their size, form and structure are discussed.The results obtained by deinking flotation of a mixed sample from the prints of non-impact printing and the conventional offset printing show clearly the influence of the specific characteristic of printing techniques and the chemical composition of toner, i.e. of printing inks on the quality of recycled fibers.

  9. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface modification impact on colloid lithography: Schottky-like defects, dislocation, and ideal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Vasilii; Marchuk, Valentina; Kugaevskiy, Artem; Guselnikova, Olga; Elashnikov, Roman; Miliutina, Elena; Postnikov, Pavel; Svorcik, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2018-03-01

    Nano-spheres lithography is actually considered as a powerful tool to manufacture various periodic structures with a wide potential in the field of nano- and micro-fabrication. However, during self-assembling of colloid microspheres, various defects and mismatches can appear. In this work the size and quality of single-domains of closed-packed polystyrene (PS), grown up on thin Au layers modified by hydrophilic or hydrophobic functional groups via diazonium chemistry was studied. The effects of the surface modification on the quality and single-domain size of polystyrene (PS) microspheres array were investigated and discussed. Modified surfaces were characterized using the AFM and wettability tests. PS colloidal suspension was deposited using the drop evaporation method. Resulted PS microspheres array was characterized using the SEM, AFM and confocal microscopy technique.

  10. Recent trends in print portals and Web2Print applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For quite some time now, the printing business has been under heavy pressure because of overcapacity, dropping prices and the delocalization of the production to low income countries. To survive in this competitive world, printers have to invest in tools that, on one hand, reduce the production costs and, on the other hand, create additional value for their customers (print buyers). The creation of customer portals on top of prepress production systems allowing print buyers to upload their content, approve the uploaded pages based on soft proofs (rendered by the underlying production system) and further follow-up the generation of the printed material, has been illustrative in this respect. These developments resulted in both automation for the printer and added value for the print buyer. Many traditional customer portals assume that the printed products have been identified before they are presented to the print buyer in the portal environment. The products are, in this case, typically entered by the printing organization in a so-called MISi system after the official purchase order has been received from the print buyer. Afterwards, the MIS system then submits the product to the customer portal. Some portals, however, also support the initiation of printed products by the print buyer directly. This workflow creates additional flexibility but also makes things much more complex. We here have to distinguish between special products that are defined ad-hoc by the print buyer and standardized products that are typically selected out of catalogs. Special products are most of the time defined once and the level of detail required in terms of production parameters is quite high. Systems that support such products typically have a built-in estimation module, or, at least, a direct connection to an MIS system that calculates the prices and adds a specific mark-up to calculate a quote. Often, the markup is added by an account manager on a customer by customer basis; in this

  11. Echelle grating for silicon photonics applications: integration of electron beam lithography in the process flow and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschel, Mathias; Letzkus, Florian; Butschke, Jörg; Skwierawski, Piotr; Schneider, Marc; Weber, Marc

    2016-05-01

    We present the technology steps to integrate an Echelle grating in the process flow of silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators or related active devices. The CMOS-compatible process flow on SOI substrates uses a mix of optical i-line lithography and electron beam lithography (EBL). High speed optical data communication depends on wavelength divisions multiplexing and de-multiplexing devices like Echelle gratings. The minimum feature sizes vary from device to device and reach down to 60 nm inside a modulator, while the total area of a single Echelle grating is up to several mm2 of unprocessed silicon. Resist patterning using a variable shape beam electron beam pattern generator allows high resolution. An oxide hard mask is deposited, patterns are structured threefold by EBL and are later transferred to the silicon. We demonstrate a 9-channel multiplexer featuring a 2 dB on-chip loss and an adjacent channel crosstalk better than -22 dB. Additionally a 45-channel Echelle multiplexer is presented with 5 dB on chip loss and a channel crosstalk better than -12 dB. The devices cover an on-chip area of only 0.08 mm2 and 0.5 mm2 with a wavelength spacing of 10.5 nm and 2.0 nm, respectively.

  12. Flexible printed circuit board actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Cha, Youngsu

    2017-12-01

    Out-of-plane actuators are made possible by the breaking of planar symmetry. In this paper, we present a thin-film out-of-plane electrostatic actuator for a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that can be fabricated with a single step of the conventional manufacturing process. No other components are required for actuation except a single sheet of the FPCB, and it works based on the planar asymmetry resulting from asymmetrically patterned top and bottom electrodes on each side of the polyimide film. With the structural asymmetry, the application of a high voltage in the order of kilovolts results in the asymmetry of the electric fields and the body force density, which generates the bending moment that leads to macroscopic deformations. We applied the finite element method to examine the asymmetry induced by the difference in the electrodes. In the experiment, the displacement responses to step input and square wave input of various frequencies were analyzed. It was found that our actuator constitutes an underdamped system, exhibiting resonance characteristics. The maximum oscillatory amplitude was determined at resonance, and the relationship between the displacement and the applied voltage was investigated.

  13. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    emissions assessed to be of possible significant importance are included (e.g. estimated emissions from pigment production) or handled in the sensitivity analysis. The functional unit is 1 ton of sheet feed offset produced printed matter, i.e. printed communication covering books, pamphlets etc. As time......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA’s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  14. Simulation of the effect of incline incident angle in DMD Maskless Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. W.; Zhou, J. Y.; Xiang, L. L.; Wang, B.; Wen, K. H.; Lei, L.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a simulation method for investigation of the intensity fluctuation caused by the inclined incident angle in DMD (digital micromirror device) maskless lithography. The simulation consists of eight main processes involving the simplification of the DMD aperture function and light propagation utilizing the non-parallel angular spectrum method. These processes provide a possibility of co-simulation in the spatial frequency domain, which combines the microlens array and DMD in the maskless lithography system. The simulation provided the spot shape and illumination distribution. These two parameters are crucial in determining the exposure dose in the existing maskless lithography system.

  15. From powerful research platform for industrial EUV photoresist development, to world record resolution by photolithography: EUV interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Fallica, Roberto; Fan, Daniel; Karim, Waiz; Vockenhuber, Michaela; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL, λ = 13.5 nm) has been shown to be a powerful technique not only for academic, but also for industrial research and development of EUV materials due to its relative simplicity yet record high-resolution patterning capabilities. With EUV-IL, it is possible to pattern high-resolution periodic images to create highly ordered nanostructures that are difficult or time consuming to pattern by electron beam lithography (EBL) yet interesting for a wide range of applications such as catalysis, electronic and photonic devices, and fundamental materials analysis, among others. Here, we will show state-of the-art research performed using the EUV-IL tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). For example, using a grating period doubling method, a diffraction mask capable of patterning a world record in photolithography of 6 nm half-pitch (HP), was produced. In addition to the description of the method, we will give a few examples of applications of the technique. Well-ordered arrays of suspended silicon nanowires down to 6.5 nm linewidths have been fabricated and are to be studied as field effect transistors (FETs) or biosensors, for instance. EUV achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL), another interference scheme that utilizes a single grating, was shown to yield well-defined nanoparticles over large-areas with high uniformity presenting great opportunities in the field of nanocatalysis. EUV-IL is in addition, playing a key role in the future introduction of EUV lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM) of semiconductor devices for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm HP, respectively) and beyond while the availability of commercial EUV-tools is still very much limited for research.

  16. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  17. On the integration of memristors with CMOS using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangfei; Tong, W. M.; Wu, W.; Yang, J. J.; Li, X.; Robinett, W.; Cardinali, T.; Cumbie, M.; Ellenson, J. E.; Kuekes, P.; Williams, R. S.

    2009-03-01

    Memristors were vertically integrated with CMOS circuits using nanoimprint lithography (NIL), making a transistor/memeristor hybrid circuit. Several planarization technologies were developed for the CMOS substrates to meet the surface planarity requirement for NIL. Accordingly, different integration schemes were developed and optimized. UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) using a double layer spin-on resists was carried out to pattern the electrodes for memristors. This is the first demonstration of NIL on active CMOS substrates that are fabricated in a CMOS fab. Our work demonstrates that NIL is compatible with commercial IC fabrication process. It was also demonstrated that the memristors are integratable with traditional CMOS to make hybrid circuits without changing the current infrastructure in IC industry.

  18. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alayo, Nerea; Bausells, Joan; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Borrisé, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition. (paper)

  19. Batch fabrication of nanopatterned graphene devices via nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, David M. A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Whelan, Patrick R.; Luo, Birong; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Nielsen, Theodor; Petersen, Dirch H.; Messina, Sara A.; Bøggild, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Previous attempts to tune the electrical properties of large-scale graphene via nanopatterning have led to serious degradation of the key electrical parameters that make graphene a desirable material for electronic devices. We use thermal nanoimprint lithography to pattern wafer-scale graphene on a 4-in. wafer with prefabricated 25 mm2 devices. The nanopatterning process introduces a modest decrease in carrier mobility and only a minor change in residual doping. Due to the rapid fabrication time of approximately 90 min per wafer, this method has potential for large-scale industrial production. The chemiresistive gas sensing response towards NO2 was assessed in humid synthetic air and dry air, with devices showing a response to 50 ppb of NO2 only when nanopatterned.

  20. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-06-22

    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S. The use of PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  1. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline

  2. Lithography cycle time improvements using short-interval scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David; Watson, Scott; Anderson, Michael; Marteney, Steve; Mehr, Ben

    2010-04-01

    Partially and fully automated semiconductor manufacturing facilities around the world have employed automated real-time dispatchers (RTD) as a critical element of their factory management solutions. The success of RTD is attributable to a detailed and extremely accurate data base that reflects the current state of the factory, consistently applied dispatching policies and continuous improvement of these dispatching policies. However, many manufactures are now reaching the benefit limits of pure dispatching-based or other "heuristic-only" solutions. A new solution is needed that combines locally optimized short-interval schedules with RTD policies to target further reductions in product cycle time. This paper describes an integrated solution that employs four key components: 1. real-time data generation, 2. simulation-based prediction, 3. locally optimized short-interval scheduling, and 4. schedule-aware real-time dispatching. The authors describe how this solution was deployed in lithography and wet / diffusion areas, and report the resulting improvements measured.

  3. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  4. Graphene nano-objects tailored by interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alireza; He, Xiang; Ghasemi, Javad; Alaie, Seyed H.; Dawson, Noel M.; Klein, Brianna; Kiesow, Karissa; Wozniak, Douglas; Habteyes, Terefe; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    We propose a facile approach to fabricate graphene nano-objects (GNOs) using interference lithography (IL) and direct self-assembly of nanoparticles. Uniformly spaced parallel photoresist (PR) lines and periodic hole arrays are proposed as an etch mask for producing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), and graphene nanomesh (GNM), respectively. In a different experiment, the PR line arrays are transferred to uniform oxide channels, and silica nanoparticle dispersions with an average size of 10 nm are spun on the patterned surface, leaving a monolayer uniform nanoparticle assembly on the graphene. Following the particle deposition, the graphene is removed in the narrow spacing between the particles, using the O2 plasma etch, leaving ordered graphene quantum dot (GQD) arrays. The IL technique and etch process enables tuning the GNOs dimensions.

  5. Colloidal lithography for fabricating patterned polymer-brush microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We exploit a series of robust, but simple and convenient colloidal lithography (CL approaches, using a microsphere array as a mask or as a guiding template, and combine this with surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP to fabricate patterned polymer-brush microstructures. The advantages of the CL technique over other lithographic approaches for the fabrication of patterned polymer brushes are (i that it can be carried out with commercially available colloidal particles at a relatively low cost, (ii that no complex equipment is required to create the patterned templates with micro- and nanoscale features, and (iii that polymer brush features are controlled simply by changing the size or chemical functionality of the microspheres or the substrate.

  6. Micropump and venous valve by micro stereo lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    2000-06-01

    Micro Stereo Lithography (MSL) is a poor man's LIGA for fabricating high aspect ratio MEMS devices in UV curable semiconducting polymers using either two computer-controlled low inertia galvanometric mirrors with the aid of focusing lens or an array of optical fibers. For 3D MEMS devices, the polymers need to have conductive and possibly piezoelectric or ferroelectric properties. Such polymers are being developed at Penn State resulting in microdevices for fluid and drug delivery. Applications may include implanted medical delivery system, artificial heart valves, chemical and biological instruments, fluid delivery in engines, pump coolants and refrigerants for local cooling of electronic components. With the invention of organic thin film transistor, now it is possible to fabricate 3D polymeric MEMS devices with built-in-electronics similar to silicon based microelectronics.

  7. All-inkjet-printed thin-film transistors: manufacturing process reliability by root cause analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowade, Enrico; Ramon, Eloi; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Pedró, Marta; Pallarès, Jofre; Loffredo, Fausta; Villani, Fulvia; Gomes, Henrique L; Terés, Lluís; Baumann, Reinhard R

    2016-09-21

    We report on the detailed electrical investigation of all-inkjet-printed thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays focusing on TFT failures and their origins. The TFT arrays were manufactured on flexible polymer substrates in ambient condition without the need for cleanroom environment or inert atmosphere and at a maximum temperature of 150 °C. Alternative manufacturing processes for electronic devices such as inkjet printing suffer from lower accuracy compared to traditional microelectronic manufacturing methods. Furthermore, usually printing methods do not allow the manufacturing of electronic devices with high yield (high number of functional devices). In general, the manufacturing yield is much lower compared to the established conventional manufacturing methods based on lithography. Thus, the focus of this contribution is set on a comprehensive analysis of defective TFTs printed by inkjet technology. Based on root cause analysis, we present the defects by developing failure categories and discuss the reasons for the defects. This procedure identifies failure origins and allows the optimization of the manufacturing resulting finally to a yield improvement.

  8. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  9. Novel organosilicone materials and patterning techniques for nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Carlos Alberto

    Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) is a high-throughput patterning technique that allows the fabrication of nanostructures with great precision. It has been listed on the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) as a candidate technology for future generation Si chip manufacturing. In nanoimprint Lithography a resist material, e.g. a thermoplastic polymer, is placed in contact with a mold and then mechanically deformed under an applied load to transfer the nano-features on the mold surface into the resist. The success of NIL relies heavily in the capability of fabricating nanostructures on different types of materials. Thus, a key factor for NIL implementation in industrial settings is the development of advanced materials suitable as the nanoimprint resist. This dissertation focuses on the engineering of new polymer materials suitable as NIL resist. A variety of silicone-based polymer precursors were synthesized and formulated for NIL applications. High throughput and high yield nanopatterning was successfully achieved. Furthermore, additional capabilities of the developed materials were explored for a range of NIL applications such as their use as flexible, UV-transparent stamps and silicon compatible etching layers. Finally, new strategies were investigated to expand the NIL potentiality. High throughput, non-residual layer imprinting was achieved with the newly developed resist materials. In addition, several strategies were designed for the precise control of nanoscale size patterned structures with multifunctional resist systems by post-imprinting modification of the pattern size. These developments provide NIL with a new set of tools for a variety of additional important applications.

  10. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  11. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-01-02

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  12. Laser direct writing and inkjet printing for a sub-2 μm channel length MoS2 transistor with high-resolution electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Chung, Seungjun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-10-07

    Patterns formed by the laser direct writing (LDW) lithography process are used either as channels or barriers for MoS2 transistors fabricated via inkjet printing. Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink is printed over patterns formed on top of the MoS2 flakes in order to construct high-resolution source/drain (S/D) electrodes. When positive photoresist is used, the produced grooves are filled with inkjetted Ag ink by capillary forces. On the other hand, in the case of negative photoresist, convex barrier-like patterns are written on the MoS2 flakes and patterns, dividing the printed Ag ink into the S/D electrodes by self-alignment. LDW lithography combined with inkjet printing is applied to MoS2 thin-film transistors that exhibit moderate electrical performance such as mobility and subthreshold swing. However, especially in the linear operation regime, their features are limited by the contact effect. The Y-function method can exclude the contact effect and allow proper evaluation of the maximum available mobility and contact resistance. The presented fabrication methods may facilitate the development of cost-effective fabrication processes.

  13. Laser direct writing and inkjet printing for a sub-2 μm channel length MoS2 transistor with high-resolution electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Chung, Seungjun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2016-10-01

    Patterns formed by the laser direct writing (LDW) lithography process are used either as channels or barriers for MoS2 transistors fabricated via inkjet printing. Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink is printed over patterns formed on top of the MoS2 flakes in order to construct high-resolution source/drain (S/D) electrodes. When positive photoresist is used, the produced grooves are filled with inkjetted Ag ink by capillary forces. On the other hand, in the case of negative photoresist, convex barrier-like patterns are written on the MoS2 flakes and patterns, dividing the printed Ag ink into the S/D electrodes by self-alignment. LDW lithography combined with inkjet printing is applied to MoS2 thin-film transistors that exhibit moderate electrical performance such as mobility and subthreshold swing. However, especially in the linear operation regime, their features are limited by the contact effect. The Y-function method can exclude the contact effect and allow proper evaluation of the maximum available mobility and contact resistance. The presented fabrication methods may facilitate the development of cost-effective fabrication processes.

  14. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yousif

    2011-12-01

    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  15. Efficient DSA-DP hybrid lithography conflict detection and guiding template assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Pan, David Z.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated tremendous potential to reduce cost for multiple patterning with fewer masks, especially for via patterning. DSA is considered as one of the next generation lithography candidates or complementary lithography techniques to extend 193i lithography further for the sub- 7 nm nodes. In this work, we focus on the simultaneous DSA guiding template assignment and decomposition with DSA and double patterning (DSA-DP) hybrid lithography for 7nm technology node. We first analyze the placement error of DSA patterns with different shapes and sizes. We then propose a graph-based approach to reduce the problem size and solve the problem more efficiently without affecting the optimality of the results. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve a 50% reduction in both the number of variables and constraints compared to previous work, which leads to a 50X speed up in runtime.

  16. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed

  17. Wavelength tuning of photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using 248-nm deep UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Wavelength tuning of characteristic features of straight photonic crystal waveguides has been obtained by varying the exposure dose in deep UV lithography. The experimental results agree very well with numerical simulations....

  18. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed.

  19. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  20. Report of the workshop on transferring X-ray Lithography Synchrotron (XLS) technology to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on plans to develop an x-ray synchrotron for use in lithography. The primary concern of the present paper is technology transfer from national laboratories to private industry. (JDH)

  1. Nanoparticle Solutions for Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    techniques. Besides photovoltaic modules and low resolution transistor arrays, specific targeted applications originally include optical, thermal...PET film. Besides sensors and photovoltaic cells , other components which were printed included diodes (as the base system for solar cells and as...to the development of the first new type of transistor functionality in 65 years. Project Overview Printed electronics is an emerging

  2. Noble-metal nanoparticles produced with colloidal lithography: fabrication, optical properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchio, Noelia Laura

    2008-08-15

    In this work, metal nanoparticles produced by nanosphere lithography were studied in terms of their optical properties (in connection to their plasmon resonances), their potential application in sensing platforms - for thin layer sensing and bio-recognition events -, and for a particular case (the nanocrescents), for enhanced spectroscopy studies. The general preparation procedures introduced early in 2005 by Shumaker-Parry et al. to produce metallic nanocrescents were extended to give rise to more complex (isolated) structures, and also, by combining colloidal monolayer fabrication and plasma etching techniques, to arrays of them. The fabrication methods presented in this work were extended not only to new shapes or arrangements of particles, but included also a targeted surface tailoring of the substrates and the structures, using different thiol and silane compounds as linkers for further attachment of, i.e. polyelectrolyte layers, which allow for a controlled tailoring of their nanoenvironment. The optical properties of the nanocrescents were studied with conventional transmission spectroscopy; a simple multipole model was adapted to explain their behaviour qualitatively. In terms of applications, the results on thin film sensing using these particles show that the crescents present an interesting mode-dependent sensitivity and spatial extension. Parallel to this, the penetrations depths were modeled with two simplified schemes, obtaining good agreement with theory. The multiple modes of the particles with their characteristic decay lengths and sensitivities represent a major improvement for particle-sensing platforms compared to previous single resonance systems. The nanocrescents were also used to alter the emission properties of fluorophores placed close to them. In this work, green emitting dyes were placed at controlled distances from the structures and excited using a pulsed laser emitting in the near infrared. The fluorescence signal obtained in this

  3. TNO : The impact of 3-D printing on supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.; Blankers, I.J.; Moolenburgh, E.A.; Posthumus, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is said that 3-D printing, officially known as additive manufacturing, has the potential to become the biggest single disruptive phenomenon to impact global industry since mass production lines were introduced early in the twentieth century. McKinsey Global Institute named 3-D printing as one of

  4. Campanile Near-Field Probes Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography on the Facet of an Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Koshelev, Alexander; Darlington, Thomas P; Borys, Nicholas J; Melli, Mauro; Polyakov, Aleksandr; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Allen, Frances I; Lum, Paul; Wong, Ed; Sassolini, Simone; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P James; Cabrini, Stefano; Munechika, Keiko

    2017-05-10

    One of the major challenges to the widespread adoption of plasmonic and nano-optical devices in real-life applications is the difficulty to mass-fabricate nano-optical antennas in parallel and reproducible fashion, and the capability to precisely place nanoantennas into devices with nanometer-scale precision. In this study, we present a solution to this challenge using the state-of-the-art ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) to fabricate functional optical transformers onto the core of an optical fiber in a single step, mimicking the 'campanile' near-field probes. Imprinted probes were fabricated using a custom-built imprinter tool with co-axial alignment capability with sub optical coupling between the fiber and the imprinted optical transformer. The imprinted optical transformer probe was used in an actual NSOM measurement performing hyperspectral photoluminescence mapping of standard fluorescent beads. The calibration scans confirmed that imprinted probes enable sub-diffraction limited imaging with a spatial resolution consistent with the gap size. This novel nano-fabrication approach promises a low-cost, high-throughput, and reproducible manufacturing of advanced nano-optical devices.

  5. Fabrication of 3D nanostructures by multidirectional UV lithography and predictive structural modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Allen, Mark G; Kim, Cheolbok; Yoon, Yong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and modeling of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by automated multidirectional ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which is a fast, cost-effective, manufacturable fabrication method. Multidirectional UV exposure is performed using a static UV light source equipped with a tilt-rotational substrate holder. A glass substrate with a nanopatterned chrome layer is utilized as both a photomask and a substrate, for which a backside UV exposure scheme is used. For the analytical modeling of the shape of fabricated nanostructures, UV exposure dosage, diffraction and refraction effects, and absorption rate are taken into account. For more accurate process predictive models, a commercially available multiphysics simulation tool is used. The structural shapes predicted from analytical calculation and simulation are compared with the fabricated ones for which various 3D nanoscale test structures are fabricated such as an inclined nanopillar array and a vertical triangular slab. Also, nanostructures with multiple heights are successfully implemented from single layer photoresist by controlling the UV exposure dosage and tilt angles. A tripod embedded horn and a triangular-slab embedded horn are demonstrated. (paper)

  6. Photonic crystal structures on nonflat surfaces fabricated by dry lift-off soft UV nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tangyou; Xu, Zhimou; Xu, Haifeng; Zhao, Wenning; Wu, Xinghui; Liu, Sisi; Ma, Zhichao; He, Jian; Liu, Shiyuan; Peng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The surface nonflatness induced from the material itself or the production atmosphere can lead to serious non-uniformity consequences in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) which is used for providing a low cost and high throughput nano-fabrication process. In this paper, soft UV NIL (SUNIL) processes are used for photonic crystal (PC) pattern transfer of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) with patterned sapphire substrate (PSS). The results reveal a significant incompatibility between the conventional SUNIL and the nonflat p-GaN surface. Ellipse-shaped rather than circle-shaped PC structure is obtained on the p-GaN surface due the deformation of the soft mold in nonflat NIL. A dry lift-off (DLO) SUNIL is proposed to overcome the non-uniformity issue in nonflat NIL as well as the collapse problem of the free-standing pillar-shaped resist in wet lift-off. The photoluminescence enhancements of the LED fabricated by the DLO SUNIL method compared to those with conventional SUNIL and unpatterned LED are 1.41 fold and 3.48 fold, respectively. Further study shows that the DLO SUNIL is applicable in the fabrication of the PC structure with tunable duty cycle via one single initial PC mold. (paper)

  7. One-step sol-gel imprint lithography for guided-mode resonance structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Liu, Longju; Johnson, Michael; C Hillier, Andrew; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-04

    Guided-mode resonance (GMR) structures consisting of sub-wavelength periodic gratings are capable of producing narrow-linewidth optical resonances. This paper describes a sol-gel-based imprint lithography method for the fabrication of submicron 1D and 2D GMR structures. This method utilizes a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to fabricate the grating coupler and waveguide for a GMR device using a sol-gel thin film in a single step. An organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel film was selected as the imprint material because of its relatively high refractive index. The optical responses of several sol-gel GMR devices were characterized, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results of electromagnetic simulations. The influence of processing parameters was investigated in order to determine how finely the spectral response and resonant wavelength of the GMR devices could be tuned. As an example potential application, refractometric sensing experiments were performed using a 1D sol-gel device. The results demonstrated a refractive index sensitivity of 50 nm/refractive index unit. This one-step fabrication process offers a simple, rapid, and low-cost means of fabricating GMR structures. We anticipate that this method can be valuable in the development of various GMR-based devices as it can readily enable the fabrication of complex shapes and allow the doping of optically active materials into sol-gel thin film.

  8. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S

    2014-11-17

    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered.

  9. High speed e-beam lithography for gold nanoarray fabrication and use in nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Trasobares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF technique but not optimized for sub-15 nm dots dimension. This prevents use of this technology for some applications and characterization techniques. Here, we show that the DOTF technique can be used without degradation in dots dimension. In addition, we propose two other techniques. The first one is an advanced conventional technique that goes five times faster than the conventional one. The second one relies on sequences defined before writing which enable versatility in e-beam patterns compared to the DOTF technique with same writing speed. By comparing the four different techniques, we evidence the limiting parameters for the writing speed. Wafer-scale fabrication of such arrays with 50 nm pitch allowed XPS analysis of a ferrocenylalkyl thiol self-assembled monolayer coated gold nanoarray.

  10. Impact of MSD and mask manufacture errors on 45nm-node lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Lihui; Guo, Xuejia; Wang, Xuxia; Yang, Jianhong

    2012-10-01

    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is quite sensitive in 45nm node lithography and beyond, thus, more attentions should be paid on the controlling of CDU. Moving Standard Deviation (MSD) and Mask Manufacture Errors (MMEs) including the Mask Critical Dimension Error (MCDE), Mask Transmittance Error (MTE) and Mask Phase Error (MPE) are the two important factors influencing CDU. The study on the impact of MSD and MMEs is a helpful way to improve the lithographic quality. Previous researches often emphasize on the single impact of MSD or MMEs, however the impact of both of them usually exists simultaneously. The studies on the co-impact of MSD and MMEs are more significant. In this paper, the impact and the cross-talk between MSD and MMEs on Critical Dimension (CD) and Exposure Latitude verse Depth of Focus (EL-DOF) for different pattern under various illumination conditions have been evaluated by simulation, which is carried on PROLITHTM X3 and in-house software IntLitho. And then, the MSD's tolerance with the existence of MMEs is discussed. The simulation results show that CD error caused by the co-existence of MSD and MMEs is not the simple algebraic sum of the individual CD error caused by MSD or MMEs. The CD error becomes more pronounced when the MSD and MMEs interact with each other. The studies on the tolerance reveal that the tolerance of MSD decreases due to MMEs' existence and mainly depends on the mask pattern's pitch.

  11. Fabrication of periodic nanostructures using dynamic plowing lithography with the tip of an atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Yan, Yongda; Geng, Yanquan; Brousseau, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The fabrication of periodic nanostructures with a fine control of their dimensions is performed on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films using an atomic force microscope technique called dynamic plowing lithography (DPL). Different scratching directions are investigated first when generating single grooves with DPL. In particular, the depth, the width and the periodicity of the machined grooves as well the height of the pile-up, formed on the side of the grooves, are assessed. It was found that these features are not significantly affected by the scratching direction, except when processing took place in a direction away from the cantilever probe and parallel to its main axis. For a given scratching direction, arrays of regular grooves are then obtained by controlling the feed, i.e. the distance between two machining lines. A scan-scratch tip trace is also used to reduce processing time and tip wear. However, irregular patterns are created when combining two layers oriented at different angles and where each layer defines an array of grooves. Thus, a ;combination writing; method was implemented to fabricate arrays of grooves with a well-defined wavelength of 30 nm, which was twice the feed value utilized. Checkerboard, diamond-shaped, and hexagonal nanodots were also fabricated. These were obtained by using the combination writing method and by varying the orientation and the number of layers. The density of the nanodots achieved could be as high as 1.9 × 109 nanodots per mm2.

  12. A compact SR light source for x-ray lithography 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A compact synchrotron radiation (SR) light source called AURORA has been developed for industrial use. It is specially designed for X-ray lithography. AURORA consists of a storage ring, injector microtron and SR light beam lines. The storage ring is a superconducting single magnet machine, designed to accelerate a 150 MeV electron beam to 650 MeV and to store as high as 300 mA current. The injector is a racetrack microtron (RTM) producing a pulsed 150 MeV beam. As many as 16 SR light beam channels are available for AURORA. Prototypes of the storage ring and RTM are constructed, and beam commissioning is performed. A hundred and fifty MeV electron beam of a pulsed current 10 μA from the RTM is successfully injected to the ring and accelerated to 600 MeV and 10 mA current stored with a lifetime of more than 20 hours. The half-integer method investigated is shown to work well with the injection efficiency being found to be very high. Improvement of the design is now under way. (N.K.)

  13. Centrifugal Lithography: Self-Shaping of Polymer Microstructures Encapsulating Biopharmaceutics by Centrifuging Polymer Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huisuk; Kim, Suyong; Kang, Geonwoo; Lahiji, Shayan F; Jang, Mingyu; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Jae-Myung; Cho, Sang-Nae; Jung, Hyungil

    2017-10-01

    Polymeric microstructures encapsulating biopharmaceutics must be fabricated in a controlled environment to preserve the biological activity. There is increasing demand for simple methods designed to preserve the biological activity by utilizing the natural properties of polymers. Here, the paper shows that centrifugal lithography (CL) can be used for the fabrication of such microstructures in a single centrifugation, by engineering the self-shaping properties of hyaluronic acid (HA). In this method, HA drops are self-shaped into hourglass-microstructures to produce two dissolving microneedles (DMN), which facilitate transdermal delivery via implantation on the skin. In addition, tuberculin purified protein derivatives are encapsulated into HA DMNs under refrigerated conditions (4 °C) during CL. Therefore, the tuberculin skin test (TST) with the DMNs indicates minimal damage, as opposed to the case of TST with traditional hypodermic needles. These findings on the fabrication of polymeric microstructures with biopharmaceutics may trigger the development of various biomedical devices and therapies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High resolution patterning for flexible electronics via roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Sami; de Riet, Joris; Yakimets, Iryna; Smits, Edsger

    2014-03-01

    Flexible electronics is a growing field and is currently maturing in applications such as displays, smart packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. In order to process on flexible substrates at high throughput and large areas, novel patterning techniques will be essential. Conventional optical lithography is limited in throughput as well as resolution, and requires several alignment steps to generate multi-layered patterns, required for applications such as thin-film transistors. It therefore remains a complex and expensive process. Nanoimprint lithography is an emerging alternative to optical lithography, demonstrating patterning capabilities over a wide range of resolutions, from several microns down to a few nanometres. For display applications, nanoimprint lithography can be used to pattern various layers. Micron sized thin-film transistors for backplane can be fabricated where a self-aligned geometry is used to decrease the number of alignment steps, and increase the overlay accuracy. In addition, nano-structures can be used for optical applications such as anti-reflective surfaces and nano patterned transparent electrodes. Imprint lithography is a fully roll-to-roll compatible process and enables large area and high throughput fabrication for flexible electronics. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and the challenges of large area patterning by roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography, reviewing micron and nano sized structures realized on our roll-to-roll equipment. Nano patterned transparent electrodes, moth-eye antireflective coatings, and multilevel structures will be covered.

  15. Analysis of multi-e-beam lithography for cutting layers at 7-nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yayi; Ye, Tianchun

    2016-10-01

    Technology node scaling to the 7-nm node, self-aligned quadruple patterning plus cutting/blocking is widely adopted as a lithography solution for critical line and space layers. The cutting/blocking process can be done by 193i or EUV lithography. Due to resolution requirements in both X/Y directions, 193i requires two or three exposures to accomplish the cutting/blocking process, and the overlay among the exposures must be controlled very tightly. EUV can accomplish cutting/blocking by one exposure. However, the extremely high cost of EUV tool and mask, together with not so high throughput, appears to suggest that EUV lithography is not a cost-effective solution. From both technical and cost perspectives, we explore the possibility of using multi-e-beam lithography as an alternative solution for 7-nm cutting/blocking layers. First, we analyze design rules, which define resolution and overlay requirements of the cutting/blocking patterns. Then we report the lithography performance data of our leading-edge multi-e-beam tool and compare them with the cutting/blocking requirements. Finally, we do the cost analysis. Our results indicate that multi-e-beam lithography has a cost per wafer per layer advantage if it can commit a resolution of 32-nm half pitch, an overlay of <2.8 nm, and a throughput of 5 to 10 wph.

  16. Jet-printed copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheong Min

    Macroelectronics is a technology for making electronic circuits over very large areas at low cost. Flat panel displays, sensor arrays, and thin film solar cells are examples of macroelectronics. Crucial to the success of this new technology is the development of inexpensive electronic processes, materials, and devices. Direct printing techniques, which eliminate processing steps and save device and process materials, are the key to high volume and high throughput manufacturing. Copper metallization has been receiving increasing attention in both microelectronics and macroelectronics. Copper has high conductivity, density, melting point, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. However, copper is also hard to dry etch. For these reasons we have developed and demonstrated a directly printed copper source/drain metallization technique and applied it to the fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFTs). The maximum process temperature of 200°C is compatible with conventional active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology. In this dissertation, we show the process of depositing copper films by jet printing. We discuss the preparation and the properties of the copper precursor material used in the jet printing. We survey the conversion process from copper precursor to copper under varying processing conditions. The resulting copper film is probed for its physical, electrical, and mechanical properties. To demonstrate the feasibility of the jet printing technique, we print copper source/drain contacts for a-Si:H TFTs. The photolithography-free TFT fabrication process uses the printed xerographic toner technique developed earlier in this laboratory. We show that functional TFTs can be made with printed copper source and drain contacts. The jet printing of copper contacts represents a further step toward an all-printed thin film transistor technology.

  17. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioufas, Peter A; Quayle, Michelle R; Leong, James C; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-09-01

    To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education. Magnetic resonance imaging data of 2 children (8 and 14 months) were segmented, colored, and anonymized, and stereolothographic files were prepared for 3D printing on either multicolor plastic or powder 3D printers and multimaterial 3D printers. Two models were deemed of sufficient quality and anatomical accuracy to print unamended. One data set was further manipulated digitally to artificially extend the length of the cleft. Thus, 3 models were printed: 1 incomplete soft-palate deformity, 1 incomplete anterior palate deformity, and 1 complete cleft palate. All had cleft lip deformity. The single-material 3D prints are of sufficient quality to accurately identify the nature and extent of the deformities. Multimaterial prints were subsequently created, which could be valuable in surgical training. Improvements in the quality and resolution of radiographic imaging combined with the advent of multicolor multiproperty printer technology will make it feasible in the near future to print 3D replicas in materials that mimic the mechanical properties and color of live human tissue making them potentially suitable for surgical training.

  18. Development of Oromucosal Dosage Forms by Combining Electrospinning and Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, Mirja; Kogermann, Karin; Laidmäe, Ivo; Meos, Andres; Preis, Maren; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Sandler, Niklas

    2017-03-06

    Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning. The solid state analysis of the electrospun substrates showed that PRX was in an amorphous state within the fibers. Furthermore, the results indicated the entrapment and solidification of the dissolved LH within the fibrous gelatin matrix. The printed drug amount (2-3 mg) was in good correlation with the theoretical dose calculated based on the printing parameters. However, a noticeable degradation of the printed LH was detected after a few months. An immediate release (over 85% drug release after 8 min) of both drugs from the printed dosage forms was observed. In conclusion, the prepared electrospun gelatin scaffolds were shown to be suitable substrates for inkjet printing of oromucosal formulations. The combination of electrospinning and inkjet printing allowed the preparation of a dual drug system.

  19. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.

    2014-07-01

    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error

  20. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine.

  1. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sung Woong; Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them

  2. Two-component additive manufacturing of nanothermite structures via reactive inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Allison K.; Isik, Tugba; Ortalan, Volkan; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven F.; Chiu, George T.-C.; Rhoads, Jeffrey F.

    2017-11-01

    With an eye towards improving the safety of the deposition of energetic materials while broadening the scope of materials compatible with inkjet printing, this work demonstrates the use of combinatorial inkjet printing for the deposition of energetic materials. Two largely inert colloidal suspensions of nanoaluminum and nanocopper (II) oxide in dimethylformamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone were sequentially deposited on a substrate using piezoelectric inkjet printing. The materials were deposited in such a way that the aluminum and copper (II) oxide droplets were adjacent, and overlapping, to allow for in situ mixing of the components. The alternating deposition was repeated to create a sample with multiple layers of energetic materials. Energetic performance was subsequently tested on samples printed with 3, 5, and 7 layers of materials using a spark igniter. This ignition event was observed with a high speed camera and compared to representative samples printed with pre-mixed nanothermite. High speed thermal imaging supported a conclusion that the maximum reaction temperature of comparable samples printed with the dual nozzle technique was nominally 200 K less than the samples printed with a single nozzle. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images confirmed a claim that the material constituents were comparably mixed with the single and dual nozzle techniques. This work proves the feasibility of reactive inkjet printing as a means for depositing energetic materials from two largely inert suspensions. In doing so, it opens the doors for safer material handling and the development of a wide array of energetic materials that were previously deemed incompatible with inkjet printing.

  3. A New 3D Printing Strategy by Harnessing Deformation, Instability, and Fracture of Viscoelastic Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2018-02-01

    Direct ink writing (DIW) has demonstrated great potential as a multimaterial multifunctional fabrication method in areas as diverse as electronics, structural materials, tissue engineering, and soft robotics. During DIW, viscoelastic inks are extruded out of a 3D printer's nozzle as printed fibers, which are deposited into patterns when the nozzle moves. Hence, the resolution of printed fibers is commonly limited by the nozzle's diameter, and the printed pattern is limited by the motion paths. These limits have severely hampered innovations and applications of DIW 3D printing. Here, a new strategy to exceed the limits of DIW 3D printing by harnessing deformation, instability, and fracture of viscoelastic inks is reported. It is shown that a single nozzle can print fibers with resolution much finer than the nozzle diameter by stretching the extruded ink, and print various thickened or curved patterns with straight nozzle motions by accumulating the ink. A quantitative phase diagram is constructed to rationally select parameters for the new strategy. Further, applications including structures with tunable stiffening, 3D structures with gradient and programmable swelling properties, all printed with a single nozzle are demonstrated. The current work demonstrates that the mechanics of inks plays a critical role in developing 3D printing technology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Printed glycan array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shilova, Nadezhda; Navakouski, Maxim; Khasbiullina, Nailya

    2012-01-01

    Using printed glycan array (PGA) we compared the results of antibody profiling in undiluted, moderately (1:15) and highly (1:100) diluted human blood serum. Undiluted serum is suitable for studying blood as a tissue in its native state, whereas to study the serum of newborns or small animals one...... usually has to dilute the starting material in order to have sufficient volume for PGA experimentation. The PGA used in this study allows for the use of whole serum without modifications to the protocol, and the background is surprisingly low. Antibodies profiles observed in undiluted serum versus 1......:15 dilution were similar, with only a limited number of new signals identified in the undiluted serum. However, unexpected irregularities were found when IgG and IgM are measured separately, namely, at a 1:15 dilution more intensive IgG signals for many glycans are observed. We believe that in conditions...

  5. Evaluation of EUV resist performance using interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, E.; Yildirim, O.; Verspaget, C.; Tsugama, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Rispens, G.; Ekinci, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) stands as the most promising solution for the fabrication of future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, the successful introduction of EUVL into the extremely competitive and stringent high-volume manufacturing (HVM) phase remains uncertain partly because of the still limiting performance of EUV resists below 16 nm half-pitch (HP) resolution. Particularly, there exists a trade-off relationship between resolution (half-pitch), sensitivity (dose) and line-edge roughness (LER) that can be achieved with existing materials. This trade-off ultimately hampers their performance and extendibility towards future technology nodes. Here we present a comparative study of highly promising chemically amplified resists (CARs) that have been evaluated using the EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). In this study we have focused on the performance qualification of different resists mainly for 18 nm and 16 nm half-pitch line/space resolution (L/S = 1:1). Among the most promising candidates tested, there are a few choices that allow for 16 nm HP resolution to be achieved with high exposure latitude (up to ~ 33%), low LER (down to 3.3 nm or ~ 20% of critical dimension CD) and low dose-to-size (or best-energy, BE) < 41 mJ/cm2 values. Patterning was even demonstrated down to 12 nm HP with one of CARs (R1UL1) evaluated for their extendibility beyond the 16 nm HP resolution. 11 nm HP patterning with some pattern collapse and well resolved patterns down 12 nm were also demonstrated with another CAR (R15UL1) formulated for 16 nm HP resolution and below. With such resist it was possible even to obtain a small process window for 14 nm HP processing with an EL ~ 8% (BE ~ 37 mJ/cm2, LER ~ 4.5 nm). Though encouraging, fulfilling all of the requirements necessary for high volume production, such as high resolution, low LER, high photon

  6. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  7. Amine control for DUV lithography: identifying hidden sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkovich, Oleg P.; Larson, Carl E.

    2000-06-01

    The impact of airborne basic molecular contamination (MB) on the performance of chemically amplified (CA) resist systems has been a long standing problem. Low ppb levels of MB may be sufficient for robust 0.25 micrometer lithography with today's advanced CA resist systems combined with adequate chemical air filtration. However, with minimum CD targets heading below 150 nm, the introduction of new resist chemistries for Next Generation Lithography, and the trend towards thinner resists, the impact of MB at low and sub-ppb levels again becomes a critical manufacturing issue. Maximizing process control at aggressive feature sizes requires that the level of MB be maintained below a certain limit, which depends on such parameters as the sensitivity of the CA resist, the type of production tools, product mix, and process characteristics. Three approaches have been identified to reduce the susceptibility of CA resists to MB: effective chemical air filtration, modifications to resist chemistry/processing and cleanroom protocols involving MB monitoring and removal of MB sources from the fab. The final MB concentration depends on the effectiveness of filtration resources and on the total pollution originating from different sources in and out of the cleanroom. There are many well-documented sources of MB. Among these are: ambient air; polluted exhaust from other manufacturing areas re-entering the cleanroom through make-up air handlers; manufacturing process chemicals containing volatile molecular bases; certain cleanroom construction materials, such as paint and ceiling tiles; and volatile, humidifier system boiler additives (corrosion inhibitors), such as morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and dimethylaminoethanol. However, there is also an indeterminate number of other 'hidden' pollution sources, which are neither obvious nor well-documented. None of these sources are new, but they had little impact on earlier semiconductor manufacturing processes because the contamination

  8. Innovative Technologies for Maskless Lithography and Non-Conventional Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Willson, U of Texas , TX 78713-7159 willson @che.utexas.edu Jean J. M. Frechet, UC Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 frechet...Andrew R. Neureuther, “High-sensitivity interferometric schemes for ML2 micromirror calibrations,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 6151, 615112, Mar 2006. Significant...matrix projection printing masks, Mosong Cheng, Texas , A&M, on intermediate near-field plasmonic lens, and Harry Sewell, ASML, on plasmon effects

  9. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  10. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  11. Modular EUV Source for the next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublemontier, O.; Rosset-Kos, M.; Ceccotti, T.; Hergott, J.F.; Auguste, Th.; Normand, D.; Schmidt, M.; Beaumont, F.; Farcage, D.; Cheymol, G.; Le Caro, J.M.; Cormont, Ph.; Mauchien, P.; Thro, P.Y.; Skrzypczak, J.; Muller, S.; Marquis, E.; Barthod, B.; Gaurand, I.; Davenet, M.; Bernard, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present work, performed in the frame of the EXULITE project, was dedicated to the design and characterization of a laser-plasma-produced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source prototype at 13.5 nm for the next generation lithography. It was conducted in cooperation with two laboratories from CEA, ALCATEL and THALES. One of our approach originalities was the laser scheme modularity. Six Nd:YAG laser beams were focused at the same time on a xenon filament jet to generate the EUV emitting plasma. Multiplexing has important industrial advantages and led to interesting source performances in terms of in-band power, stability and angular emission properties with the filament jet target. A maximum conversion efficiency (CE) value of 0.44% in 2π sr and 2% bandwidth was measured, which corresponds to a maximum in band EUV mean power of 7.7 W at a repetition rate of 6 kHz. The EUV emission was found to be stable and isotropic in these conditions. (authors)

  12. New data postprocessing for e-beam projection lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Kamijo, Koichi; Kojima, Shinichi; Minami, Hideyuki; Okino, Teruaki

    2001-08-01

    In electron beam projection lithography (EPL), one of the most crucial tasks is to develop a data post-processing system, namely, a specific tool to expose a faithful pattern for every subfield on the wafer based on the pattern layout data. This system includes two basic flows. The 1st flow is common for reticle fabrication, and the 2nd flow is unique for EPL. During the 2nd flow, based on the LSI pattern data, electron optics space-charge effect correction will be automatically and rapidly executed and output to the EPL system in order to adjust parameters such as focus, magnification, rotation and astigmatism. In addition, this system should perform such tasks as segmentations of subfields (including complementary division), arrangement of stripes and reticlets, and alignment mark insertion. For proximity effect correction, we will first use a pattern shape modulation first. Shape modification at stitching boundaries is also investigated. In summary, to achieve conformable EPL delivery to customers, a new data post- processing system is developed in collaboration with some suppliers.

  13. Fabrication of Periodic Gold Nanocup Arrays Using Colloidal Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  14. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The purpose of those models is to be able to predict the deformation and stretch of the flexixble stamps in order to take that into account when designing the plan...... 2D silicon master used in the NIL process. Two different manufacturing processes are investigated; (i) Embossing of an electroplated nickel foil into a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) polymer resist on a double-curved surface, (ii) NIL of a flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stamps...... into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. Challenges comprise several non-linear phenomena. First of all geometrical non-linearities arising from the inherent large strains and deformations during the process are modelled. Then, the constitutive behaviors of the nickel foil and the PTFE polymer during...... deformation are addressed. This is achieved by a general elasto-plastic description for the nickel foil and a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for the PTFE material, in which the material parameters are found. Last, the contact conditions between the deforming stamp and the injection moulding tool insert...

  15. Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Periodic Arrays of Nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juremi, Nor Rashidah Md; Mustafa, Ubaidillah; Agam, Mohd Arif; Nur, Hadi

    2011-05-01

    Polystyrene nanosphere (PSNs) with 500 nm in diameter can be shrunk when exposed to reactive ion etching (RIE) in various gases mixture (Ar, O2 and Ar/ O2) with varied duration of exposure time (5-25 s). These etched PSNs will act as lithography mask to fabricate periodic nanohole arrays (PNHAs), where the lift-off of the PSNs will left the substrate surface with thin layer films of deposited Pt or Au with periodic nanoholes scattered on the substrate surface. We plotted the average diameter of the etched PSNs, later sputtered with 75.0 nm of Pt, used as lithographic mask to fabricate PNHAs with sizes ranging from 200-400 nm. Reducing the diameter of PSNs by means increased the gap between the PSNs will affect the amount of deposited Pt on the Si substrate, thus controlling the nanoholes size. PSNs were acting as nano-templates which after removal process such as by sonicating the sample in organic solvent, can be useful in fabricating PNHAs that can be used as optical and catalysts research. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to characterize the PSNs and PNHAs.

  16. Injection Compression Molding of Replica Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a breakthrough in the cost and durability of molds for nanoimprint lithography (NIL, replica molds are fabricated by injection compression molding (ICM. ICM is commonly used for optical disks such as DVDs or Blu-ray disks and is also a practical fabrication method for nanostructures. In this paper, I successfully demonstrated the fabrication of cycloolefin polymer replica molds with structures smaller than 60 nm by ICM. Furthermore, ultraviolet (UV-NIL using these replica molds was demonstrated. UV-cured resist was replicated over an area of 60 mm diameter. The degree of replication by UV-NIL in the first usage of each replica mold had good repeatability. Because ICM is a high-throughput, low-cost process, the replica mold can be disposed of after a certain time for UV-NIL. This method leads to a high-integrity UV-NIL process of patterned media because multiple large-area replica molds can be fabricated simultaneously.

  17. Superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays fabricated by a scalable colloidal lithography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothary, Pratik; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Gu, Zhuxiao; Leo, Sin-Yen; Jiang, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Here we report an unconventional colloidal lithography approach for fabricating a variety of periodic polymer nanostructures with tunable geometries and hydrophobic properties. Wafer-sized, double-layer, non-close-packed silica colloidal crystal embedded in a polymer matrix is first assembled by a scalable spin-coating technology. The unusual non-close-packed crystal structure combined with a thin polymer film separating the top and the bottom colloidal layers render great versatility in templating periodic nanostructures, including arrays of nanovoids, nanorings, and hierarchical nanovoids. These different geometries result in varied fractions of entrapped air in between the templated nanostructures, which in turn lead to different apparent water contact angles. Superhydrophobic surfaces with >150° water contact angles and <5° contact angle hysteresis are achieved on fluorosilane-modified polymer hierarchical nanovoid arrays with large fractions of entrapped air. The experimental contact angle measurements are complemented with theoretical predictions using the Cassie's model to gain insights into the fundamental microstructure-dewetting property relationships. The experimental and theoretical contact angles follow the same trends as determined by the unique hierarchical structures of the templated periodic arrays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of fluorinated dissolution inhibitors for 157-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Alyssandrea H.; Houlihan, Francis M.; Seger, Larry; Chang, Chun; Ober, Christopher K.

    2003-06-01

    Fluorinated diesters were synthesized and evaluated as dissolution inhibitors (DIs) for 157 nm lithography. The results of dissolution rate measurements, exposure studies, and etching experiments on blends of fluorinated polymers containing these dissolution inhibitors are reported. It was shown that the DIs effectively slow the dissolution rate of the matrix polymer, poly(hexafluorohydroxyisopropyl styrene) (PHFHIPS). Etching studies show that they enhance the plasma etch resistance of poly(methyl methacrylate) using tetrafluoromethane plasma. Addition of the best performing dissolution inhibitor, cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid bis-(1-cyclohexyl-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methyl-ethyl) ester) (FCDE1) to candidate 157 nm photoresist polymers, Duvcor and poly(hexafluorohydroxyisopropyl styrene)-co-poly(t-butyl methacrylate) [pPHFHIPS-co-pt-BMA], improves the imaging behavior of these polymers. Our attempts to elucidate the mechanism of dissolution inhibition for this series of compounds will be discussed. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies in conjunction with dissolution rate measurements performed on a series of DI analogues suggest a mechanism based on hydrogen bonding.

  19. Thermo-curable epoxy systems for nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have used solvent-free thermo-curable epoxy systems for low-pressure and moderate-temperature nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The curing kinetic parameters and conversion of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin with different ambient-cure 930 and 954 hardeners were studied by the isothermal DSC technique. They are useful for the study of epoxy resins in the imprinting application. The DGEBA/930 and DGEBA/954 epoxy resists can be imprinted to obtain high-density nano- and micro-scale patterns on a flexible indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (ITO/PET) substrate. The DGEBA/930 epoxy resin is not only suitable for resist material, but also for plastic mold material. Highly dense nanometer patterns can be successfully imprinted using a UV-curable resist from the DGEBA/930 epoxy mold. Using the replicated DGEBA/930 epoxy mold instead of the expensive master can prevent brittle failure of the silicon molds in the NIL

  20. Behavior of printable formulations of loperamide and caffeine on different substrates--effect of print density in inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Palo, Mirja

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the current work was to study the applicability of precision inkjet printing in fabrication of personalized doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) and caffeine (CAF) were used as model compounds. Different doses of the drugs in a single...

  1. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  2. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  3. Keeping the Classics in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of science fiction titles in print and discusses the value of science fiction as a literary form. Specific titles are included, and the need for formats designed for permanent preservation in libraries is discussed. (EAM)

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Inspecting the quality of printed texts has its own importance in many industrial applications. To do so, this paper proposes a grading system which evaluates the performance of the printing task using some quality measures for each character and symbols. The purpose of these grading system is two......-folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...... has been tested on images from a real industrial environment and the obtained results are promising....

  6. The Printing Industry Presses on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    The printing and graphic arts industry has been transformed, not replaced, by new technologies. The coming decades hold challenging opportunities for those entering the field of graphic communications and for those educating this new work force. (JOW)

  7. Feasibility of fabricating personalized 3D-printed bone grafts guided by high-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Abigail L.; Newman, Benjamin T.; Khalid, Arbab; Teter, Olivia M.; Kobe, Elizabeth A.; Shukurova, Malika; Shinde, Rohit; Sipzner, Daniel; Pignolo, Robert J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2017-03-01

    Current methods of bone graft treatment for critical size bone defects can give way to several clinical complications such as limited available bone for autografts, non-matching bone structure, lack of strength which can compromise a patient's skeletal system, and sterilization processes that can prevent osteogenesis in the case of allografts. We intend to overcome these disadvantages by generating a patient-specific 3D printed bone graft guided by high-resolution medical imaging. Our synthetic model allows us to customize the graft for the patients' macro- and microstructure and correct any structural deficiencies in the re-meshing process. These 3D-printed models can presumptively serve as the scaffolding for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) engraftment in order to facilitate bone growth. We performed highresolution CT imaging of a cadaveric human proximal femur at 0.030-mm isotropic voxels. We used these images to generate a 3D computer model that mimics bone geometry from micro to macro scale represented by STereoLithography (STL) format. These models were then reformatted to a format that can be interpreted by the 3D printer. To assess how much of the microstructure was replicated, 3D-printed models were re-imaged using micro-CT at 0.025-mm isotropic voxels and compared to original high-resolution CT images used to generate the 3D model in 32 sub-regions. We found a strong correlation between 3D-printed bone volume and volume of bone in the original images used for 3D printing (R2 = 0.97). We expect to further refine our approach with additional testing to create a viable synthetic bone graft with clinical functionality.

  8. Printed heater on LTCC substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Karhu, A. (Anssi)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this bachelor thesis different kinds of printed heaters are discussed, with main attention put on low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) based ones. Other types of printed heaters structures include thick-film, thin-film and micro heaters. LTCC is found to have very good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability and stability, and furthermore the possibility of making three dimensioal (3D) microst...

  9. Kaleidoscope – Printed Textiles by Neil Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    One man show at Rochester Art Gallery. In the Kaleidoscope series, Neil Bottle explores the relationship between digital textile printing and craft printing techniques and how these seemingly opposing practices can coexist. A combination of the latest cutting-edge digital print techniques such as dye sublimation combined with craft traditions such as screen printing, discharge printing, pleating and shibori have been developed in the work. The Kaleidoscope series of wallhangings is pr...

  10. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  11. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  12. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  13. OML: optical maskless lithography for economic design prototyping and small-volume production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Bleeker, Arno; Hintersteiner, Jason; Troost, Kars; Freyer, Jorge; van der Mast, Karel

    2004-05-01

    The business case for Maskless Lithography is more compelling than ever before, due to more critical processes, rising mask costs and shorter product cycles. The economics of Maskless Lithography gives a crossover volume from Maskless to mask-based lithography at surprisingly many wafers per mask for surprisingly few wafers per hour throughput. Also, small-volume production will in many cases be more economical with Maskless Lithography, even when compared to "shuttle" schemes, reticles with multiple layers, etc. The full benefit of Maskless Lithography is only achievable by duplicating processes that are compatible with volume production processes on conventional scanners. This can be accomplished by the integration of pattern generators based on spatial light modulator technology with state-of-the-art optical scanner systems. This paper reports on the system design of an Optical Maskless Scanner in development by ASML and Micronic: small-field optics with high demagnification, variable NA and illumination schemes, spatial light modulators with millions of MEMS mirrors on CMOS drivers, a data path with a sustained data flow of more than 250 GPixels per second, stitching of sub-fields to scanner fields, and rasterization and writing strategies for throughput and good image fidelity. Predicted lithographic performance based on image simulations is also shown.

  14. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  15. Molding Inkjetted Silver on Nanostructured Surfaces for High-Throughput Structural Color Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Alan, Sheida; Shahbazbegian, Haleh; Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-11-22

    Inkjet printing of silver ink has been widely used to print conductive patterns in flexible electronic devices, and the printed patterns are commonly known to be colorless. We demonstrate that by printing a single type of ordinary silver nanoparticle ink on top of a substrate patterned with polymer nanostructures, the printed silver is molded by the nanostructures and gains robust structural colors. The colors are tunable by varying the geometries of nanostructures, and a broad range of visual colors can be achieved by mixing the red, green, and blue colors displayed from silver dots printed on different nanostructures. Such mechanism can enable full-color, scalable, high-throughput, versatile, and cost-effective printing of structural color images for regular publishing and displaying purposes. In experiments, we implemented a transparent polymer substrate patterned with diffractive nanostructure arrays to print full-color images. The printed images display color-shifting optically variable effects useful for security and authentication applications that demand customizable anticounterfeiting features.

  16. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  17. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  18. Properties and Printability of Inkjet and Screen-Printed Silver Patterns for RFID Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, José F.; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Briand, Danick; Ruan, Jason J.; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Carvajal, Miguel A.; Capitán-Vallvey, L. F.; de Rooij, Nico F.; Palma, Alberto J.

    2014-02-01

    We report the modeling, and geometrical and electrical characterization, of inkjet and screen-printed patterns on different polymeric substrates for use as antennas in radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. We compared the physical and electrical characteristics of two silver nanoparticle-based commercial inkjet-printable inks and one screen-printable silver paste, when deposited on polyimide (PI), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyetherimide (PEI) substrates. First, the thickness of the inkjet-printed patterns was predicted by use of an analytical model based on printing conditions and ink composition. The predicted thickness was confirmed experimentally, and geometrical characterization of the lines was completed by measuring the root-mean-square roughness of the patterns. Second, direct-current electrical characterization was performed to identify the printing conditions yielding the lowest resistivity and sheet resistance. The minimum resistivity for the inkjet-printing method was 8.6 ± 0.8 μΩ cm, obtained by printing four stacked layers of one of the commercial inks on PEI, whereas minimum resistivity of 44 ± 7 μΩ cm and 39 ± 4 μΩ cm were obtained for a single layer of screen-printed ink on polyimide (PI) with 140 threads/cm mesh and 90 threads/cm mesh, respectively. In every case, these minimum values of resistivity were obtained for the largest tested thickness. Coplanar waveguide transmission lines were then designed and characterized to analyze the radio-frequency (RF) performance of the printed patterns; minimum transmission losses of 0.0022 ± 0.0012 dB/mm and 0.0016 ± 0.0012 dB/mm measured at 13.56 MHz, in the high-frequency (HF) band, were achieved by inkjet printing on PEI and screen printing on PI, respectively. At 868 MHz, in the ultra-high-frequency band, the minimum values of transmission loss were 0.0130 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for inkjet printing on PEI and 0.0100 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for screen printing on PI. Although the

  19. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  20. All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark W.; Maxwell, Brian E.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Hibbs, Michael S.; Eriksen, Lynn M.; Palmateer, Susan C.; Forte, Anthony R.

    1995-06-01

    We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all-dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225-micrometers and 0.200-micrometers line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-micrometers features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

  1. Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    This review concentrates on the applications of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and hot embossing for the fabrications of nanolectronic devices, nanophotonic metamaterials and other nanostructures. Technical challenges and solutions in NIL such as nanofabrication of templates, removal of residual resist, pattern displacement in thermal NIL arising from thermal expansion are first discussed. In the nanofabrication of templates, dry etch in plasma for the formation of multi-step structures and ultra-sharp tip arrays in silicon, nanophotonic chiral structures with high aspect ratio in SiC are demonstrated. A bilayer technique for nondestructive removal of residual resist in thermal NIL is described. This process is successfully applied for the fabrication of T-shape gates and functional high electron mobility transistors. However, pattern displacement intrinsically existing in thermal NIL/hot embossing owing to different thermal expansions in the template and substrate, respectively, limits its further development and scale-up. Low temperature even room temperature NIL (RTNIL) was then proposed on HSQ, trying to eliminate the pattern distortion by avoiding a thermal loop in the imprint. But, considerable pressure needed in RTNIL turned the major attentions to the development of UV-curing NIL in UV-curable monomers at low temperature. A big variety of applications by low-temperature UV-curing NIL in SU-8 are described, including high-aspect-ratio phase gratings, tagging technology by nanobarcode for DNA sequencing, nanofluidic channels, nanophotonic metamaterials and biosensors. Hot embossing, as a parallel technique to NIL, was also developed, and its applications on ferroelectric polymers as well as metals are reviewed. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize that this review is mainly attempted to review the applications of NIL/embossing instead of NIL technique advances.

  2. Electron-beam-lithography (EBL)-engineered nanostructures for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Wickenden, Alma E.

    2004-12-01

    Surface-Enhanced-Raman-Scattering (SERS) is potentially a very sensitive spectroscopic technique for the detection of biological agents (i.e., proteins, viruses or bacteria). However, since initial reports, its utility has not been realized. Its limited acceptance as a routine analysis technique for biological agents is largely due to the lack of reproducible SERS-active substrates. Most established SERS substrate fabrication schemes are based on self-assembly of the metallic (typically, Au, Ag, Pt, Pd or Cu) particles responsible for enhancement. Further, these protocols do not lend themselves to the stringent control over the enhancing feature shape, size, and placement on a nanometer scale. SERS can be made a more robust and attractive spectroscopic technique for biological agents by developing quantifiable, highly sensitive, and highly selective SERS-active substrates. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), a semiconductor fabrication technique, can be utilized to address many of the obstacles which have limited the broad acceptance of SERS. Specifically, EBL can be employed to precisely control the shape, size and position (on a nanometer scale) of the SERS substrate enhancing features. Since Ashkin's seminal work in the early 1970s, the optical trapping phenomenon has been broadly accepted as a powerful tool to study micrometer-scale biological particles. Recently, research in our laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to combine the Optical Trapping phenomenon and SERS to develop a high sensitivity spectroscopic technique for the detection of individual bacterial spores. Highly reproducible SERS-active substrates fabricated using EBL have been utilized with this novel spectroscopic technique to investigate the utility of SERS technique for the spectral discrimination of bacterial spores. The SERS substrate fabrication methodology, substrate reproducibility and SERS spectral reproducibility will be discussed.

  3. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-05-24

    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (inks. Low surface roughness, submicron thicknesses, and line widths as narrow as 41 μm outperform commercial ink benchmarks based on flakes or nanoparticles. These traces are mechanically robust to flexing and creasing (less than 10% change in resistance) and bind strongly to epoxy-based adhesives. Thin traces are remarkably conformal, enabling fully printed metal-insulator-metal band-pass filters. The versatility of the molecular ink platform enables an aerosol jet-compatible ink that yields conductive features on glass with 2× bulk resistivity and strong adhesion to various plastic substrates. An inkjet formulation is also used to print top source/drain contacts and demonstrate printed high-mobility thin film transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. TFTs with mobility values of ∼25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratios >10 4 were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  4. 3D Printing of Ultratough Polyion Complex Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengbo; Cheng, Libo; Yin, Jun; Wu, Zi Liang; Qian, Jin; Fu, Jianzhong; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-11-16

    Polyion complex (PIC) hydrogels have been proposed as promising engineered soft materials due to their high toughness and good processability. In this work, we reported manufacturing of complex structures with tough PIC hydrogels based on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The strategy relies on the distinct strength of ionic bonding in PIC hydrogels at different stages of printing. In concentrated saline solution, PIC forms viscous solution, which can be directly extruded out of a nozzle into water, where dialyzing out of salt and counterions results in sol-gel transition to form tough physical PIC gel with intricate structures. The printability of PIC solutions was systematically investigated by adjusting the PIC material formula and printing parameters in which proper viscosity and gelation rate were found to be key factors for successful 3D printing. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to printed single fibers and multilayer grids, both exhibiting distinct yet controllable strength and toughness. More complex 3D structures with negative Poisson's ratio, gradient grid, and material anisotropy were constructed as well, demonstrating the flexible printability of PIC hydrogels. The methodology and capability here provide a versatile platform to fabricate complex structures with tough PIC hydrogels, which should broaden the use of such materials in applications such as biomedical devices and artificial tissues.

  5. Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamgaye, V. P.; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ˜100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

  6. Dynamics of radical ions of fluorinated polymer for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Naoya; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2015-07-01

    To realize extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for mass production of semiconductor devices, enhancements of performance of chemically amplified resist have been still important issue. In EUV resist, radiation chemical reactions occur after irradiations of the EUV light. Dynamics of chemical intermediates of EUV resist after exposure to the ionizing radiations is important for understanding new resist design. Fluorinated resists have been developed for ArF, F2, and EUV lithography. Fluorinated polymers are effective to enhance the sensitivity of the EUV resist because F atom has higher absorptivity of EUV photons. However, the fluorination effect on the radiation chemical reactions in the resist has not been clarified in detail. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of radical ions of fluorinated polymers (FPs) by pulse radiolysis method and quantum chemical calculations to clarify the reaction mechanism for EUV lithography.

  7. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A.; White, D.L.; Wood, O.R. II

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130 Angstrom photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible

  8. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization. (LEW)

  9. DWDM laser arrays fabricated using thermal nanoimprint lithography on Indium Phosphide substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, K.; Nørregaard, J.; Mironov, A.

    2013-01-01

    by including a lambda quarter shift at the center of the grating. The need for phase shifts and multiple wavelengths eliminates some lithography methods such as holography. Typically, these lasers are produced by e-beam lithography (EBL). We present a production method based on thermal nanoimprint lithography...... (T-NIL), which is potentially less costly and faster than EBL. NIL Technology and NeoPhotonics designed a stamp with the structures shown in Figure 1. The stamp was fabricated using EBL and dry etching. The line width on the stamp was 40 nm to accommodate for line broadening in subsequent processing....... The fabricated lasers were cleaved and measured. Laser arrays exhibited >40mW optical power in all 12 channels. Figure 3 shows the overlaid spectra of a 12-channel array laser chip with uniform (~3nm) wavelength spacing and good sidemode suppression....

  10. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization

  11. Investigation of Glass Polycapillaries for Use in Proximity X-Ray Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzko, Ira L.

    There is predicted growth of the micro-electronics industry in the 1990's and into the early 21^{st} century. In order for manufacturers of IC's to stay competitive in this vast global market, devices will have to be faster, more sophisticated, and more capable. According to the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors by The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), feature sizes in device structures are required to decrease in size in order for these goals to be realized. Presently, manufacturers use lithography with deep-ultra-violet (DUV) ^{1,2} wavelengths to produce circuit features of 0.30 μm and below. Because the wavelength of radiation used is of the same size as the features, diffraction phenomenon has become a limiting factor. Industry must therefore choose a new lithographic technique that can overcome the difficulties caused by these relatively large wavelengths. Although, some techniques have the ability to produce feature sizes of 0.2 μm and below, such as electron -beam lithography, ion-beam lithography, synchrotron-x-ray lithography, and even some optical techniques, they have not all developed an economically feasible method of mass producing device structures with a variety of geometries ^{3,4,5}. One such technique, point source x-ray lithography (PXRL), using considerably smaller wavelengths than those used by the current state of the art, could assist optical lithography in economically producing future generations of IC's. The characteristics of an x-ray field needed for x-ray lithography (XRL) is critically important to the manufacturing process. The beam must have control over the divergences produced by the finite-wafer-mask distance and the finite source size, the dose must be uniform throughout the field of exposure, the wavelength must be such as to prevent device damage and to maximize the interaction with the photo-resist, and there must be enough intensity to minimize exposure time. Point-source-x-ray-lithography system

  12. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  13. Exploring proximity effects and large depth of field in helium ion beam lithography: large-area dense patterns and tilted surface exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatabø, Ranveig; Agarwal, Akshay; Hobbs, Richard; Greve, Martin Møeller; Holst, Bodil; Berggren, Karl K

    2018-04-13

    Helium ion beam lithography (HIL) is an emerging nanofabrication technique. It benefits from a reduced interaction volume compared to that of an electron beam of similar energy, and hence reduced long-range scattering (proximity effect), higher resist sensitivity and potentially higher resolution. Furthermore, the small angular spread of the helium ion beam gives rise to a large depth of field. This should enable patterning on tilted and curved surfaces without the need of any additional adjustments, such as laser-auto focus. So far, most work on helium ion beam lithography has been focused on exploiting the reduced proximity effect to reach single-digit nanometer resolution, and has thus been concentrated on single-pixel exposures over small areas. Here we explore two new areas of application. Firstly, we investigate the proximity effect in large area exposures and demonstrate HIL's capabilities in fabricating precise high-density gratings on large planar surfaces (100 µm × 100 µm, with pitch down to 35 nm). Secondly, we exploit the large depth of field by making the first HIL patterns on tilted surfaces (sample stage tilted 45◦). We demonstrate a depth of field greater than 100 µm for a resolution of about 20 nm. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mask contribution on CD and OVL errors budgets for double patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, I.; Lapeyre, C.; Barnola, S.; Connolly, B.; Ploss, R.; Nakagawa, K.; Buck, P.; McCallum, M.

    2009-01-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) is now considered as the mainstream technology for 32 nm node lithography. The main DPT processes have been developed according targeted applications: spacer and pitch splitting either by dual line or dual trench approaches. However, the successful implementation of DPT requires overcoming certain technical challenges in terms of exposure tool capability, process integration, mask performance and finally metrology (1, 2). For pitch splitting process, the mask performance becomes critical as the technique requires a set of two masks (3). This paper will focus on the mask impact to the global critical dimension (CD) and overlay (OVL) errors for DPT. The mask long-distance and local off target CD variation and image placement were determined on DP features at 180 nm and 128 nm pitches, dedicated to 45 nm and 32 nm nodes respectively. The mask data were then compared to the wafer CD and OVL results achieved on same DP patterns. Edge placement errors have been programmed on DP like-structures on reticle in order to investigate the offsets impact on CD and image placement. The CD lines increases with asymmetric spaces adjacent to the drawn lines for offsets higher than 12 nm, and then have been compared to the corresponding density induced by individual dense and sparse symmetric edges and have been correlated to the simulated prediction. The single reticle trans-X offsets were then compared to the impact on CD by OVL errors in the double patterning strategy. Finally, the pellicle-induced reticle distortions impact on image placement errors was investigated (4). The mechanical performance of pellicle was achieved by mask registration measurements before and after pellicle removal. The reticle contribution to the overall wafer CD and OVL errors budgets were addressed to meet the ITRS requirements.

  15. A low cost high resolution pattern generator for electron-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennelli, G.; D'Angelo, F.; Piotto, M.; Barillaro, G.; Pellegrini, B.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, very low cost pattern generator for electron-beam lithography is presented. When it is applied to a scanning electron microscope, the system allows a high precision positioning of the beam for lithography of very small structures. Patterns are generated by a suitable software implemented on a personal computer, by using very simple functions, allowing an easy development of new writing strategies for a great adaptability to different user necessities. Hardware solutions, as optocouplers and battery supply, have been implemented for reduction of noise and disturbs on the voltages controlling the positioning of the beam

  16. Sub-Rayleigh lithography using high flux loss-resistant entangled states of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Shamir; Afek, Itai; Israel, Yonatan; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron

    2012-09-07

    Quantum lithography achieves phase superresolution using fragile, experimentally challenging entangled states of light. We propose a scalable scheme for creating features narrower than classically achievable with reduced use of quantum resources and, consequently, enhanced resistance to loss. The scheme is an implementation of interferometric lithography using a mixture of a spontaneous parametric down-converted entangled state with intense classical coherent light. We measure coincidences of up to four photons mimicking multiphoton absorption. The results show a narrowing of the interference fringes of up to 30% with respect to the best analogous classical scheme using only 10% of the nonclassical light required for creating NOON states.

  17. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  18. Shaped e-beam lithography integration work for advanced ASIC manufacturing: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Laurent; Charpin, Murielle; LaPlanche, Yves; Henry, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    For the sub-90 nm node integrated circuits design rules, ITRS forecasts require minimal gate line width down to 55-35 nm. To reach such aggressive targets, most advanced optical lithography tools combined with all reticle enhancement techniques will be requested inducing important manufacturing cost and mask cycle time increase. In order to address prototyping market and reduce fabrication cost, shaped electron beam lithography may represent a technological alternative for cost reduction due to its high resolution and potential throughput capabilities. This paper is focused on the integration of this technology in standard ASIC plant, including resist process and overlay capabilities.

  19. Simultaneous fabrication of line defects-embedded periodic lattice by topographically assisted holographic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ki Seok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have demonstrated simultaneous fabrication of designed defects within a periodic structure. For rapid fabrication of periodic structures incorporating nanoscale line-defects at large area, topographically assisted holographic lithography (TAHL technique, combining the strength of hologram lithography and phase-shift interference, was proposed. Hot-embossing method generated the photoresist patterns with vertical side walls which enabled phase-shift mask effect at the edge of patterns. Embossing temperature and relief height were crucial parameters for the successful TAHL process. Periodic holes with a diameter of 600 nm at a 1 μm-pitch incorporating 250 nm wide line-defects were obtained simultaneously.

  20. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  1. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  3. Res Jan 08 Print

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or more cultures could be sampled using sterile tooth picks, conidia smeared on pieces of sterile filter paper ... type of as many as 50 unknowns on a single Petridish culture of the fluffy mutant (just as a chemist does ... by furfural produced from burned hemicellulose in plant tissue. A puzzle had been solved. Dave Jacobson ...

  4. Discharge plasmas as EUV Sources for Future Micro Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruecken, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Future extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will require very high radiation intensities in a narrow wavelength range around 13.5 nm, which is most efficiently emitted as line radiation by highly ionized heavy particles. Currently the most intense EUV sources are based on xenon or tin gas discharges. After having investigated the limits of a hollow cathode triggered xenon pinch discharge Philips Extreme UV favors a laser triggered tin vacuum spark discharge. Plasma and radiation properties of these highly transient discharges will be compared. Besides simple MHD-models the ADAS software package has been used to generate important atomic and spectral data of the relevant ion stages. To compute excitation and radiation properties, collisional radiative equilibria of individual ion stages are computed. For many lines opacity effects cannot be neglected. In the xenon discharges the optical depths allow for a treatment based on escape factors. Due to the rapid change of plasma parameters the abundancies of the different ionization stages must be computed dynamically. This requires effective ionization and recombination rates, which can also be supplied by ADAS. Due to very steep gradients (up to a couple orders of magnitude per mm) the plasma of tin vacuum spark discharges is very complicated. Therefore we shall describe here only some technological aspects of our tin EUV lamp: The electrode system consists of two rotating which are pulled through baths of molten tin such that a tin film remains on their surfaces. With a laser pulse some tin is ablated from one of the wheels and travels rapidly through vacuum towards the other rotating wheel. When the tin plasma reaches the other electrodes it ignites and the high current phase starts, i.e. the capacitor bank is unloaded, the plasma is pinched and EUV is radiated. Besides the good spectral properties of tin this concept has some other advantages: Erosion of electrodes is no severe problem as the tin film is

  5. Influence of cell printing on biological characters of chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Miao; Gao, Xiaoyan; Hou, Yikang; Shen, Congcong; Xu, Yourong; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Hengjian; Xu, Haisong; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    To establish a two-dimensional biological printing technique of chondrocytes and compare the difference of related biological characters between printed chondrocytes and unprinted cells so as to control the cell transfer process and keep cell viability after printing. Primary chondrocytes were obtained from human mature and fetal cartilage tissues and then were regularly sub-cultured to harvest cells at passage 2 (P2), which were adjusted to the single cell suspension at a density of 1×10(6)/mL. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: experimental group P2 chondrocytes were transferred by rapid prototype biological printer (driving voltage value 50 V, interval in x-axis 300 μm, interval in y-axis 1500 μm). Afterwards Live/Dead viability Kit and flow cytometry were respectively adopted to detect cell viability; CCK-8 Kit was adopted to detect cell proliferation viability; immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR was employed to identify related markers of chondrocytes; control group steps were the same as the printing group except that cell suspension received no printing. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses showed that there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group in terms of cell viability. After 7-day in vitro culture, control group exhibited higher O.D values than experimental group from 2nd day to 7th day but there was no distinct difference between these two groups (P>0.05). Inverted microscope observation demonstrated that the morphology of these two groups had no significant difference either. Similarly, Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays also showed that there was no significant difference in the protein and gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan between these two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Cell printing has no distinctly negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and phenotype of chondrocytes. Biological printing technique may provide a novel approach

  6. Fingerprint + Iris = IrisPrint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Asem; Ross, Arun

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating a biometric image from two different traits. Specifically, we focus on generating an IrisPrint that inherits its structure from a fingerprint image and an iris image. To facilitate this, the continuous phase of the fingerprint image, characterizing its ridge flow, is first extracted. Next, a scheme is developed to extract "minutiae" from an iris image. Finally, an IrisPrint, that resembles a fingerprint, is created by mixing the ridge flow of the fingerprint with the iris minutiae. Preliminary experiments suggest that the new biometric image (i.e., IrisPrint) (a) can potentially be used for authentication by an existing fingerprint matcher, and (b) can potentially conceal and preserve the privacy of the original fingerprint and iris images.

  7. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-08-11

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.

  8. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  9. Printing of the year book, carton boxes and printed envelopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-01-18

    Jan 18, 2018 ... or CD and the printed material in good condition and to the satisfaction of IASC. No partial job will be accepted for payment. Place of delivery of the books is the Indian Academy of Sciences premises (Stores). The softcopy to be collected within two days after intimation of award of contract telephonically or.

  10. Double curved concrete printing : Printing on non-planar surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Borg Costanzi, C.; Bos, Freek; Ahmed, Z; Wolfs, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is no secret that there have been some great advances in the realm of concrete additive manufacturing. However, one of the major drawbacks of this fabrication technique is that the elements must be self-supporting during printing. While most other additive manufacturing materials can overcome

  11. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  12. Printed Thin Film Transistors: Research from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sichao; Sun, Jia; Yang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have experienced tremendous development during the past decades and show great potential applications in flat displays, sensors, radio frequency identification tags, logic circuit, and so on. The printed TFTs are the key components for rapid development and commercialization of printed electronics. The researchers in China play important roles to accelerate the development and commercialization of printed TFTs. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the research progress of printed TFTs on rigid and flexible substrates from China. The review will focus on printing techniques of TFTs, printed TFTs components including semiconductors, dielectrics and electrodes, as well as fully-printed TFTs and printed flexible TFTs. Furthermore, perspectives on the remaining challenges and future developments are proposed as well.

  13. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  14. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  15. Comparing Microfluidic Performance of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Niall P; Cabot, Joan M; Smejkal, Petr; Guijt, Rosanne M; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C

    2017-04-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a potential revolutionary technology for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. A direct experimental comparison of the three 3D printing technologies dominating microfluidics was conducted using a Y-junction microfluidic device, the design of which was optimized for each printer: fused deposition molding (FDM), Polyjet, and digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA). Printer performance was evaluated in terms of feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass manufacturing; laminar flow was studied to assess their suitability for microfluidics. FDM was suitable for microfabrication with minimum features of 321 ± 5 μm, and rough surfaces of 10.97 μm. Microfluidic devices >500 μm, rapid mixing (71% ± 12% after 5 mm, 100 μL/min) was observed, indicating a strength in fabricating micromixers. Polyjet fabricated channels with a minimum size of 205 ± 13 μm, and a surface roughness of 0.99 μm. Compared with FDM, mixing decreased (27% ± 10%), but Polyjet printing is more suited for microfluidic applications where flow splitting is not required, such as cell culture or droplet generators. DLP-SLA fabricated a minimum channel size of 154 ± 10 μm, and 94 ± 7 μm for positive structures such as soft lithography templates, with a roughness of 0.35 μm. These results, in addition to low mixing (8% ± 1%), showed suitability for microfabrication, and microfluidic applications requiring precise control of flow. Through further discussion of the capabilities (and limitations) of these printers, we intend to provide guidance toward the selection of the 3D printing technology most suitable for specific microfluidic applications.

  16. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-04-13

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  17. Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....

  18. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  19. High Excitation Efficiency of Channel Plasmon Polaritons in Tailored, UV-Lithography-Defined V-Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate >50% conversion of light to V-groove channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) via compact waveguide-termination mirrors. Devices are fabricated using UV-lithography and crystallographic silicon etching. The V-shape is tailored by thermal oxidation to support confined CPPs....

  20. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-01-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. Combination photo and electron beam lithography with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaugh, Daniel J.; Pandya, Sneha G.; Wright, Jason T.; Kaya, Savas; Rahman, Faiz

    2017-11-01

    We describe techniques for performing photolithography and electron beam lithography in succession on the same resist-covered substrate. Larger openings are defined in the resist film through photolithography whereas smaller openings are defined through conventional electron beam lithography. The two processes are carried out one after the other and without an intermediate wet development step. At the conclusion of the two exposures, the resist film is developed once to reveal both large and small openings. Interestingly, these techniques are applicable to both positive and negative tone lithographies with both optical and electron beam exposure. Polymethyl methacrylate, by itself or mixed with a photocatalytic cross-linking agent, is used for this purpose. We demonstrate that such resists are sensitive to both ultraviolet and electron beam irradiation. All four possible combinations, consisting of optical and electron beam lithographies, carried out in positive and negative tone modes have been described. Demonstration grating structures have been shown and process conditions have been described for all four cases.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Three Dimensional Photonic Crystals Generated by Multibeam Interference Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Multibeam interference lithography is investigated as a manufacturing technique for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates. In this research, optimization of the optical setup and the photoresist initiation system leads to a significant improvement of the optical quality of the crystal, as characterized by normal incidence optical…

  3. Selective Etching via Soft Lithography of Conductive Multilayered Gold Films with Analysis of Electrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment is designed to expose undergraduate students to the process of selective etching by using soft lithography and the resulting electrical properties of multilayered films fabricated via self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. Students fabricate a conductive film of gold on glass, apply a patterned resist using a polydimethylsiloxane…

  4. Report of the fifth workshop on synchrotron x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Godel, J.B.; Brown, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990's. X-ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x-ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x-ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the ''Exposure Tool,'' that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x-ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources

  5. Preparation of Octadecyltrichlorosilane Nanopatterns Using Particle Lithography: An Atomic Force Microscopy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Zachary L.; Saner, ChaMarra K.; Garno, Jayne C.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments are described that involve undergraduates learning concepts of nanoscience and chemistry. Students prepare nanopatterns of organosilane films using protocols of particle lithography. A few basic techniques are needed to prepare samples, such as centrifuging, mixing, heating, and drying. Students obtain hands-on skills with nanoscale…

  6. Spectral purification and infrared light recycling in extreme ultraviolet lithography sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, M.; van Goor, F. A.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a novel collector mirror for laser produced plasma (LPP) light sources to be used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The design prevents undesired infrared (IR) drive laser light, reflected from the plasma, from reaching the exit of the light source. This results in a

  7. Mask writing time explosion and its effect on CD control in e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Min, Seong Jun; Kim, Hee Bom; Kim, Byung Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku

    2010-05-01

    As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the extreme control of CD uniformity and MTT is needed for mask fabrication with e-beam lithography. And because of huge shot density of data, the writing time of e-beam lithography for mask fabrication will be increased rapidly in future design node. The beam drift caused by charging of optic system and current density drift can affect the beam size, position and exposure dose stability. From the empirical data, those are the function of writing time. Although e-beam lithography tool has the correction function which can be applied during writing, there are remained errors after correction which result in CD uniformity error. According to the writing time increasing, the residual error of correction will be more important and give the limit of CD uniformity and MTT. In this study, we study the beam size and exposure dose error as a function of time. Those are mainly caused by charging and current density drift. And we present the predicted writing time of e-beam lithography below 32nm node and estimate its effect on CD control error. From the relation between writing time and CD control error, we achieve the limit of CD uniformity with e-beam mask writer. And we suggest the method to achieve required CD uniformity at 22nm node and beyond.

  8. Report of the fifth workshop on synchrotron x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Godel, J.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Brown, G.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Liebmann, W. (Suss (Karl) America, Essex Junction, VT (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990's. X-ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x-ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x-ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the Exposure Tool,'' that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x-ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources.

  9. Latex particle template lift-up guided gold wire-networks via evaporation lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2014-01-01

    We describe a hybrid methodology that combines a two dimensional (2D) monolayer of latex particles (with a pitch size down to 1 μm) prepared by horizontal dry deposition, lift-up of a 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography to fabricate metal micro- and nano wire-networks. This journal is

  10. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU at post etch step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Tristan, John; Lee, Joungchel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Wei, Hong; Wang, Lester; Li, Chen; Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Kim, Jeong Soo; Ramanathan, Vidya; Yap, LipKong; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Golotsvan, Anna; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Pierson, Bill

    2014-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment, automated control of critical dimension (CD) within wafer has become a requirement. Current control methods to improve CD uniformity (CDU) generally rely upon the use of field by field exposure corrections via factory automation or through scanner sub-recipe. Such CDU control methods are limited to lithography step and cannot be extended to etch step. In this paper, a new method to improve CDU at post etch step by optimizing exposure at lithography step is introduced. This new solution utilizes GLOBALFOUNDRIES' factory automation system and KLA-Tencor's K-T Analyzer as the infrastructure to calculate and feed the necessary field by field level exposure corrections back to scanner, so as to achieve the optimal CDU at post etch step. CD at post lithography and post etch steps are measured by scatterometry metrology tools respectively and are used by K-T Analyzer as the input for correction calculations. This paper will explain in detail the philosophy as well as the methodology behind this novel CDU control solution. In addition, applications and use cases will be reviewed to demonstrate the capability and potential of this solution. The feasibility of adopting this solution in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment will be discussed as well.

  11. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  12. High-quality global hydrogen silsequioxane contact planarization for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, Boris; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a novel global contact planarization technique based on the spin-on-glass material hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) and demonstrate its excellent performance on patterns of 70 nm up to several microns generated by UV-based nanoimprint lithography. The HSQ layer (∼165 nm) is spin

  13. Computational aspects of optical lithography extension by directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kafai; Liu, Chi-chun; Pitera, Jed; Dechene, Daniel J.; Schepis, Anthony; Abdallah, Jassem; Tsai, Hsinyu; Guillorn, Mike; Cheng, Joy; Doerk, Gregory; Tjio, Melia; Rettner, Charles; Odesanya, Olalekan; Ozlem, Melih; Lafferty, Neal

    2013-04-01

    EUV insertion timing for High Volume Manufacturing is still an uncertainty due to source power and EUV mask infrastructure limitations. Directed Self Assembly (DSA) processes offer the promise of providing alternative ways to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for use in the 10nm node and beyond. The goal of this paper is to look into the technical prospect of DSA technology, particularly in the computational and DFM area. We have developed a prototype computational patterning toolset in-house to enable an early Design -Technology Co-Optimization to study the feasibility of using DSA in patterning semiconductor devices and circuits. From this toolset we can identify the set of DSA specific design restrictions specific to a DSA process and plan to develop a novel full chip capable computational patterning solution with DSA. We discuss the DSA Computational Lithography (CL) infrastructure using the via and fin layers as examples. Early wafer data is collected from the DSA testmask that was built using these new toolsets. Finally we discuss the DSA ecosystem requirements for enabling DSA lithography and propose how EDA vendors can play a role in making DSA Lithography (DSAL) a full-chip viable technology for multiple process layers.

  14. Fabrication of Pt nanowires with a diffraction-unlimited feature size by high-threshold lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Ziang; Yu, Miao; Song, Zhengxun; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Le; Peng, Kuiqing

    2015-01-01

    Although the nanoscale world can already be observed at a diffraction-unlimited resolution using far-field optical microscopy, to make the step from microscopy to lithography still requires a suitable photoresist material system. In this letter, we consider the threshold to be a region with a width characterized by the extreme feature size obtained using a Gaussian beam spot. By narrowing such a region through improvement of the threshold sensitization to intensity in a high-threshold material system, the minimal feature size becomes smaller. By using platinum as the negative photoresist, we demonstrate that high-threshold lithography can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with a scalable resolution along the axial direction of the linewidth from the micro- to the nanoscale using a nanosecond-pulsed laser source with a wavelength λ 0  = 1064 nm. The minimal feature size is only several nanometers (sub λ 0 /100). Compared with conventional polymer resist lithography, the advantages of high-threshold lithography are sharper pinpoints of laser intensity triggering the threshold response and also higher robustness allowing for large area exposure by a less-expensive nanosecond-pulsed laser

  15. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  16. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    productively employed 3D printers in concept visualization and limited production prototyping for destructive testing applications. In 2015, EXWC printed...49 Figure 43: Autodesk Print Studio produces organic support...52 Figure 46: This Rope Cleat screenshot from Autodesk Print Studio shows alternating linear infill pattern and organic-type support

  17. The Use of 3D Printing in the Development of Gaseous Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, Sam; Steer, Chris; Thompson, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Fused Deposition Modelling has been used to produce a small, single wire, Iarocci-style drift tube to demonstrate the feasibility of using the Additive Manufacturing technique to produce cheap detectors, quickly. Recent technological developments have extended the scope of Additive Manufacturing, or 3D printing, to the possibility of fabricating Gaseous Radiation Detectors, such as Single Wire Proportional Counters and Time Projection Chambers. 3D printing could allow for the production of customisable, modular detectors; that can be easily created and replaced and the possibility of printing detectors on-site in remote locations and even for outreach within schools. The 3D printed drift tube was printed using Polylactic acid to produce a gas volume in the shape of an inverted triangular prism; base length of 28 mm, height 24.25 mm and tube length 145 mm. A stainless steel anode wire was placed in the centre of the tube, mid-print. P5 gas (95% Argon, 5% Methane) was used as the drift gas and a circuit was built to capacitively decouple signals from the high voltage. The signal rate and average pulse height of cosmic ray muons were measured over a range of bias voltages to characterise and prove correct operation of the printed detector.

  18. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal-insulator-metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Catalytic microcontact printing without ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Péter, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    A novel microcontact printing technique is described that does not require ink. Patterns were created by direct contact of oxidized PDMS stamps with silyl ether-derivatized, acid-labile SAMs on gold. The surface of the stamps was oxidized by oxygen plasma to give a layer of silicon oxide. These

  20. Microcontact printing: limitations and achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perl, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Microcontact printing (µCP) offers a simple and low-cost surface patterning methodology with high versatility and sub-micrometer accuracy. The process has undergone a spectacular evolution since its invention, improving its capability to form sub-100 nm SAM patterns of various polar and apolar

  1. The Power of the Print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The print has a long-standing tradition of carrying a political message. This can be seen in the works of artists from the German Expressionists, like Kathe Kollwitz and Emil Nolde, to Mexican printmakers like Jose Posada and Leopoldo Mendez. Whether it was during the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the War in Iraq, or the 2008 presidential election,…

  2. Tender for printing annual report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Negative/Positive or CD and the printed material in good condition and to the satisfaction of. IASc. No partial job will be accepted for payment. In case there is any increase or decrease in number of pages, accordingly the payment will be released on pro-rata basis. 10) Place of delivery of the books is the Indian Academy of ...

  3. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  4. Printing in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapantelakis, Athanasios; Delvic, Alisa; Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Khamit, Saltanat

    Document printing has long been considered an indispensable part of the workspace. While this process is considered trivial and simple for environments where resources are ample (e.g. desktop computers connected to printers within a corporate network), it becomes complicated when applied in a mobile

  5. High-performance printed carbon nanotube thin-film transistors array fabricated by a nonlithography technique using hafnium oxide passivation layer and mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-12-01

    The large-scale application of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) for printed electronics requires scalable, repeateable, as well as noncontaminating assembly techniques. Previously explored nanotube deposition methods include serial methods such as inkjet printing and parallel methods such as spin-coating with photolithography. The serial methods are usually slow, whereas the photolithography-related parallel methods result in contamination of the nanotubes. In this paper, we report a reliable clean parallel method for fabrication of arrays of carbon nanotube-based field effect transistors (CNTFETs) involving shadow mask patterning of a passivating layer of Hafnium oxide (HfO(2)) over the nanotube (CNT) active channel regions and plasma etching of the unprotected nanotubes. Pure (99%) semiconducting SWCNTs are first sprayed over the entire surface of a wafer substrate followed by a two-step shadow masking procedure to first deposit metal electrodes and then a HfO(2) isolation/passivation layer over the device channel region. The exposed SWCNT network outside the HfO(2) protected area is removed with oxygen plasma etching. The HfO(2) thus serves as both the device isolation mask during the plasma etching and as a protective passivating layer in subsequent use. The fabricated devices on SiO(2)/Si substrate exhibit good device performance metrics, with on/off ratio ranging from 1 × 10(1) to 3 × 10(5) and mobilities of 4 to 23 cm(2)/(V s). The HfO(2)/Si devices show excellent performance with on/off ratios of 1 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(4) and mobilities of 8 to 56 cm(2)/(V s). The optimum devices (on HfO(2)/Si) have an on/off ratio of 1 × 10(4) and mobility as high as 46 cm(2)/(V s). This HfO(2)-based patterning method enables large scale fabrication of CNTFETs with no resist residue or other contamination on the device channel. Further, shadow masking circumvents the need for expensive and area-limited lithography patterning process. The device

  6. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2017-04-12

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid:glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements.

  7. Innovation-Prototype. Making hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Rațiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Rackov, M.

    2018-01-01

    Start 3D printing allows hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates to be obtained from a single technological process without requiring further post-production operations. 3D printing with innovative materials in a rich colour range has several advantages such as: time-saving, cost is the same for any type of plate and its reported just to volume, fast and impossible realization of hydraulic and/or pneumatic links compared to traditional and high accuracy technologies.

  8. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    A structured optical fibre is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fibre manufacture.

  9. Selecting suitable enclosures for digitally printed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Rima, L

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that storage enclosures considered safe for traditionally printed images and documents are suitable for modern, digitally printed materials. In this project, a large variety of digital print types were tested using a modified version of the ISO 18916 Imaging materials-Processed imaging materials-Photographic activity test for enclosure materials standard to assess the risk to digital prints by paper enclosures known to be inert or reactive with traditional photographic prints. The types of enclosures tested included buffered and non-buffered cotton papers, and groundwood paper. In addition, qualitative filter paper that had been wetted and dried with either an acidic or basic solution was also tested to determine the effects of enclosure pH on digitally printed materials. It was determined that, in general, digital prints tended to be less reactive with various enclosure types than traditional prints. Digital prints were most sensitive to paper that contained groundwood. The enclosure reactivity test results were then integrated with previous published work on the tendencies of various enclosure types to abrade, ferrotype, or block to digital prints in order to create a comprehensive set of recommendations for digital print storage enclosures.

  10. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  11. PRINTING TECHNIQUES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Witold; Kurek, Mateusz; Lyszczarz, Ewelina; Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years there has been a huge progress in a development of printing techniques and their application in pharmaceutical sciences and particularly in the pharmaceutical technology. The variety of printing methods makes it necessary to systemize them, explain the principles of operation, and specify the possibilities of their use in pharmaceutical technology. This paper aims to review the printing techniques used in a drug development process. The growing interest in 2D and 3D printing methods results in continuously increasing number of scientific papers. Introduction of the first printed drug Spritam@ to the market seems to be a milestone of the 3D printing development. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to show the latest achievements of the researchers in the field of the printing medicines.

  12. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  13. 3D-BioPrinting: The future of Red Biotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crupi, Annunziata; Teodori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Every day Science moves little steps forward, contributing to the progress of our society. Sometimes, however, a single invention revolutionizes the world. Indeed, the invention of woodblock printing and development of industrial-scale printing-press in the 15. century have changed our society. 3D-printing is now boosting another revolution. The production of custom-made objects from a virtual model will trigger a rapid development of a more versatile, less expensive manufacturing sector for the on-demand market. The real revolution, however, is represented by 3D-printing in biomedicine. 3D-bioprinting represents the future of the Red-Biotech. This technology, indeed, will be able to build ex-novo organs using biocompatible materials and human cells; replace the allograft transplants, eliminating waiting lists that often make the difference between life and death; and provide more predictive, less expensive experimental models, replacing animal tests. The high innovation content of this technology, can make the difference between being obsolete and new [it

  14. Open-Source-Based 3D Printing of Thin Silica Gel Layers in Planar Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichou, Dimitri; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2017-02-07

    On the basis of open-source packages, 3D printing of thin silica gel layers is demonstrated as proof-of-principle for use in planar chromatography. A slurry doser was designed to replace the plastic extruder of an open-source Prusa i3 printer. The optimal parameters for 3D printing of layers were studied, and the planar chromatographic separations on these printed layers were successfully demonstrated with a mixture of dyes. The layer printing process was fast. For printing a 0.2 mm layer on a 10 cm × 10 cm format, it took less than 5 min. It was affordable, i.e., the running costs for producing such a plate were less than 0.25 Euro and the investment costs for the modified hardware were 630 Euro. This approach demonstrated not only the potential of the 3D printing environment in planar chromatography but also opened new avenues and new perspectives for tailor-made plates, not only with regard to layer materials and their combinations (gradient plates) but also with regard to different layer shapes and patterns. As such an example, separations on a printed plane layer were compared with those obtained from a printed channeled layer. For the latter, 40 channels were printed in parallel on a 10 cm × 10 cm format for the separation of 40 samples. For producing such a channeled plate, the running costs were below 0.04 Euro and the printing process took only 2 min. All modifications of the device and software were released open-source to encourage reuse and improvements and to stimulate the users to contribute to this technology. By this proof-of-principle, another asset was demonstrated to be integrated into the Office Chromatography concept, in which all relevant steps for online miniaturized planar chromatography are performed by a single device.

  15. Use of the optical lithography in the development of disposable carbon based electrodes - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.11915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, carbon-based electrodes for disposable use were constructed using the technique of optical lithography. The process consisted in the irradiation of UV light on a layer of photosensitive resin (SU-8 50 deposited on a substrate of PVC. The pattern obtained electrode was filled with carbon paste. The electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetric using the reversible system Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- in KCl 0.1 mol L-1 and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The electrodes showed an E°’ = ½ (Epa + Epc » 229 (± 2 mV vs SCE (n = 4, with DEp » 235 (± 14 mV (n = 4. Other studies showed a linear behavior of the peak current (Ip both anode and cathode with v1/2, probably due to diffuse contribution and/or electron transfer kinetics of the reaction. These parameters are in accordance to with those obtained for screen-printed electrode described in the literature. The good results obtained show the suitability of the electrodes for analytical applications such as development of sensors.  

  16. An analysis of printing conditions for wavefront overlapping printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakunami, K.; Oi, R.; Okui, M.; Senoh, T.

    2017-03-01

    Wavefront printing for a digitally-designed hologram has got attentions recently. In this printing, a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used for displaying a hologram data and the wavefront is reproduced by irradiating the hologram with a reference light the same way as electronic holography. However, a pixel count of current SLM devices is not enough to display an entire hologram data. To generate a practical digitally-designed hologram, the entire hologram data is divided into a set of sub-hologram data and wavefront reproduced by each sub-hologram is sequentially recorded in tiling manner by using X-Y motorized stage. Due to a lack of positioning an accuracy of X-Y motorized stage and the temporal incoherent recording, phase continuity of recorded/reproduced wavefront is lost between neighboring subholograms. In this paper, we generate the holograms that have different size of sub-holograms with an overlap or nonoverlap, and verify the size of sub-holograms effect on the reconstructed images. In the result, the reconstructed images degrade with decreasing the size of sub-holograms and there is little or no degradation of quality by the wavefront printing with the overlap.

  17. Visible Light Photoinitiator for 3D-Printing of Tough Methacrylate Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyrer, Bernhard; Neubauer, Philipp; Liska, Robert; Stampfl, Jürgen

    2017-12-19

    Lithography-based additive manufacturing was introduced in the 1980s, and is still the method of choice for printing accurate plastic parts with high surface quality. Recent progress in this field has made tough photopolymer resins and cheap LED light engines available. This study presents the influence of photoinitiator selection and post-processing on the thermomechanical properties of various tough photopolymers. The influence of three photoinitiators (Ivocerin, BAPO, and TPO-L) on the double-bond conversion and mechanical properties was investigated by mid infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. It was found that 1.18 wt % TPO-L would provide the best overall results in terms of double-bond conversion and mechanical properties. A correlation between double-bond conversion, yield strength, and glass transition temperature was found. Elongation at break remained high after post-curing at about 80-100%, and was not influenced by higher photoinitiator concentration. Finally, functional parts with 41 MPa tensile strength, 82% elongation at break, and 112 °C glass transition temperature were printed on a 405 nm DLP (digital light processing) printer.

  18. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  19. Estimation and control of large-scale systems with an application to adaptive optics for EUV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haber, A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) lithography is a new technology for production of integrated circuits. In EUV lithographic machines, optical elements are heated by absorption of exposure energy. Heating induces thermoelastic deformations of optical elements and consequently, it creates wavefront

  20. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.