Hoogenboom, J.P.; Hoogenboom, Jacob; van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Hernando Campos, J.; van Hulst, N.F.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.
2005-01-01
We exploit the strong excitonic coupling in a superradiant trimer molecule to distinguish between long-lived collective dark states and photobleaching events. The population and depopulation kinetics of the dark states in a single molecule follow power-law statistics over 5 orders of magnitude in time. This result is consistent with the formation of a radical unit via electron tunneling to a time-varying distribution of trapping sites in the surrounding polymer matrix. We furthermore demonstr...
Orbits in elementary, power-law galaxy bars - 1. Occurrence and role of single loops
Struck, Curtis
2018-05-01
Orbits in galaxy bars are generally complex, but simple closed loop orbits play an important role in our conceptual understanding of bars. Such orbits are found in some well-studied potentials, provide a simple model of the bar in themselves, and may generate complex orbit families. The precessing, power ellipse (p-ellipse) orbit approximation provides accurate analytic orbit fits in symmetric galaxy potentials. It remains useful for finding and fitting simple loop orbits in the frame of a rotating bar with bar-like and symmetric power-law potentials. Second-order perturbation theory yields two or fewer simple loop solutions in these potentials. Numerical integrations in the parameter space neighbourhood of perturbation solutions reveal zero or one actual loops in a range of such potentials with rising rotation curves. These loops are embedded in a small parameter region of similar, but librating orbits, which have a subharmonic frequency superimposed on the basic loop. These loops and their librating companions support annular bars. Solid bars can be produced in more complex potentials, as shown by an example with power-law indices varying with radius. The power-law potentials can be viewed as the elementary constituents of more complex potentials. Numerical integrations also reveal interesting classes of orbits with multiple loops. In two-dimensional, self-gravitating bars, with power-law potentials, single-loop orbits are very rare. This result suggests that gas bars or oval distortions are unlikely to be long-lived, and that complex orbits or three-dimensional structure must support self-gravitating stellar bars.
Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals
Verberk, Rogier; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Orrit, Michel
2002-01-01
We assign the blinking of nanocrystals to electron tunneling towards a uniform spatial distribution of traps. This naturally explains the power-law distribution of off times, and the power-law correlation function we measured on uncapped CdS dots. Capped dots, on the other hand, present extended on
Single heavy flavour baryons using Coulomb plus a power law interquark potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majethiya, A.; Patel, B.; Vinodkumar, P.C.
2008-01-01
Properties of single heavy flavor baryons in a non-relativistic potential model with colour Coulomb plus a power law confinement potential have been studied using a simple variational method. The ground-state masses of single heavy baryons and the mass difference between the J P =3/2 + and J P =1/2 + states are computed using a spin-dependent two-body potential. Using the spin-flavour structure of the constituting quarks and by defining an effective confined mass of the constituent quarks within the baryons, the magnetic moments are computed. The masses and magnetic moments of the single heavy baryons are found to be in accordance with the existing experimental values and with other theoretical predictions. It is found that an additional attractive interaction of the order of -200 MeV is required for the antisymmetric states of Λ Q (Q element of c,b). It is also found that the spin-hyperfine interaction parameters play a decisive role in hadron spectroscopy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Zhuo-Lin; Li Wei-Sheng; Lai Yi-Ming; He Ji-Zhou; Wang Jian-Hui
2015-01-01
We propose a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model that works between two superposed states, employing a single particle confined in an arbitrary power-law trap as the working substance. Applying the superposition principle, we obtain the explicit expressions of the power and efficiency, and find that the efficiency at maximum power is bounded from above by the function: η_+ = θ/(θ + 1), with θ being a potential-dependent exponent. (paper)
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)
Power laws in Ising nanostripes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drzewinski, A.; Sznajd, J.; Szota, K.
2005-01-01
The results of high accuracy density-matrix renormalization-group calculations for infinite Ising stripes of finite widths 100 ≤ L ≤ 400 are presented. It is shown that in the presence of the small external magnetic field the infinite system critical power laws can be observed for L of order hundreds nm. The single power law describes the field dependence of the magnetization or the longitudinal correlation length only on the infinite system critical isotherm independently of the value of L. The approximate power law which describes how the magnetization varies with a distance from the infinite system critical point for several directions in the plane (temperature, external field) is also studied. (author)
Power Laws are Disguised Boltzmann Laws
Richmond, Peter; Solomon, Sorin
Using a previously introduced model on generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics together with some recent results for the solution of generalized Langevin equations, we derive analytically the equilibrium mean field solution for the probability distribution of wealth and show that it has two characteristic regimes. For large values of wealth, it takes the form of a Pareto style power law. For small values of wealth, wGeneralized Lotka-Volterra type of stochastic dynamics. The power law that arises in the distribution function is identified with new additional logarithmic terms in the familiar Boltzmann distribution function for the system. These are a direct consequence of the multiplicative stochastic dynamics and are absent for the usual additive stochastic processes.
Umansky, Moti; Weihs, Daphne
2012-08-01
In many physical and biophysical studies, single-particle tracking is utilized to reveal interactions, diffusion coefficients, active modes of driving motion, dynamic local structure, micromechanics, and microrheology. The basic analysis applied to those data is to determine the time-dependent mean-square displacement (MSD) of particle trajectories and perform time- and ensemble-averaging of similar motions. The motion of particles typically exhibits time-dependent power-law scaling, and only trajectories with qualitatively and quantitatively comparable MSD should be ensembled. Ensemble averaging trajectories that arise from different mechanisms, e.g., actively driven and diffusive, is incorrect and can result inaccurate correlations between structure, mechanics, and activity. We have developed an algorithm to automatically and accurately determine power-law scaling of experimentally measured single-particle MSD. Trajectories can then categorized and grouped according to user defined cutoffs of time, amplitudes, scaling exponent values, or combinations. Power-law fits are then provided for each trajectory alongside categorized groups of trajectories, histograms of power laws, and the ensemble-averaged MSD of each group. The codes are designed to be easily incorporated into existing user codes. We expect that this algorithm and program will be invaluable to anyone performing single-particle tracking, be it in physical or biophysical systems. Catalogue identifier: AEMD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 892 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 572 780 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.11 (2010b) or higher, program
Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom
2014-01-01
suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general...... are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink ([Formula: see text]) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion...
Power law analysis of the human microbiome.
Ma, Zhanshan Sam
2015-11-01
Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Quantum dissipation from power-law memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2012-01-01
A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. Dynamics of open and closed quantum systems with power-law memory is considered. The processes with power-law memory are described by using integration and differentiation of non-integer orders, by methods of fractional calculus. An example of quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is considered. - Highlights: ► A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. ► The generalization of Lindblad equation is considered. ► An exact solution of generalized Lindblad equation for quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is derived.
Power law scaling for rotational energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pritchard, D.E.; Smith, N.; Driver, R.D.; Brunner, T.A.
1979-01-01
We have applied a new scaling law to several sets of rotational energy transfer cross sections. The new law asserts that the square of the T-matrix depends on the amount of energy transferred as a power law. Two different kinds of angular momentum statistics are assumed, one corresponding to m/sub j/ being conserved and the other corresponding to m/sub j/ being completely randomized. Numerical fits are presented which demonstrate that the data follow the power law better than the widely used exponential gap law
Automated image enhancement using power law transformations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We propose a scheme for automating power law transformations which are used for image enhancement. The scheme we propose does not require the user to choose the exponent in the power law transformation. This method works well for images having poor contrast, especially to those images in which the peaks ...
Power series like relation of power law and coupled creep ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
When a solid deforms at high temperature its microstructure may in some sense be altered- holes and cracks may nucleate and grow inside the solid by various mechanism controlled by diffusion and by power law creep or by a combination of these mechanisms. Considering a coupled diffusion power law creep mechanism ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jantzen, R.T.
1988-01-01
The choice of time function for cosmological solutions of gravitational field equations is related to the action of the group of independent scale transformations of the unit of length along orthogonal spatial directions. This is accomplished by the introduction of lapse functions which depend explicitly on the spatial metric in an appropriately defined power-law fashion. The resulting power-law-lapse time gauges are the key to producing nearly all exact solutions of the class of models for which the field equations reduce to ordinary differential equations
New power economy law for electricity and gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, W.
2004-01-01
Since August 4, 2003, the so-called Directives on Speeding up Common Regulations for the Single Market for Electricity and Common Regulations for the Single Market for Gas have been in force (Official Journal of the European Communities L 176/37). These Directives must be translated into national law by July 1, 2004. The national legislative process in Germany for a Power Economy Act adapted accordingly is presented and evaluated. (orig.)
Variational principle for the Pareto power law.
Chakraborti, Anirban; Patriarca, Marco
2009-11-27
A mechanism is proposed for the appearance of power-law distributions in various complex systems. It is shown that in a conservative mechanical system composed of subsystems with different numbers of degrees of freedom a robust power-law tail can appear in the equilibrium distribution of energy as a result of certain superpositions of the canonical equilibrium energy densities of the subsystems. The derivation only uses a variational principle based on the Boltzmann entropy, without assumptions outside the framework of canonical equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two examples are discussed, free diffusion on a complex network and a kinetic model of wealth exchange. The mechanism is illustrated in the general case through an exactly solvable mechanical model of a dimensionally heterogeneous system.
Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2005-01-01
Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...... of gradient hardening are found to delay the onset of localization under plane strain tension, and significantly reduce strain gradients in the localized zone. For plane strain compression gradient hardening is found to increase the load-carrying capacity significantly....
Models of fragmentation with composite power laws
Tavassoli, Z.; Rodgers, G. J.
1999-06-01
Some models for binary fragmentation are introduced in which a time dependent transition size produces two regions of fragment sizes above and below the transition size. In the first model we assume a fixed rate of fragmentation for the largest fragment and two different rates of fragmentation in the two regions of sizes above and below the transition size. The model is solved exactly in the long time limit to reveal stable time-invariant solutions for the fragment size and mass distributions. These solutions exhibit composite power law behaviours; power laws with two different exponents for fragments in smaller and larger regions. A special case of the model with no fragmentation in the smaller size region is also examined. Another model is also introduced which have three regions of fragment sizes with different rates of fragmentation. The similarities between the stable distributions in our models and composite power law distributions from experimental work on shock fragmentation of long thin glass rods and thick clay plates are discussed.
Kant on causal laws and powers.
Henschen, Tobias
2014-12-01
The aim of the paper is threefold. Its first aim is to defend Eric Watkins's claim that for Kant, a cause is not an event but a causal power: a power that is borne by a substance, and that, when active, brings about its effect, i.e. a change of the states of another substance, by generating a continuous flow of intermediate states of that substance. The second aim of the paper is to argue against Watkins that the Kantian concept of causal power is not the pre-critical concept of real ground but the category of causality, and that Kant holds with Hume that causal laws cannot be inferred non-inductively (that he accordingly has no intention to show in the Second analogy or elsewhere that events fall under causal laws). The third aim of the paper is to compare the Kantian position on causality with central tenets of contemporary powers ontology: it argues that unlike the variants endorsed by contemporary powers theorists, the Kantian variants of these tenets are resistant to objections that neo-Humeans raise to these tenets.
Power laws in the information production process Lotkaian informetrics
Egghe, Leo
2005-01-01
Explains many informetric regularities, only based on a decreasing power law as size-frequency function, that is Lotka''s law. This book revives the historical formulation of Alfred Lotka and shows the power of this power law, both in classical aspects of informetrics as well as in applications such as social networks and others.
Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws
Eliazar, Iddo
2013-05-01
This paper presents a comprehensive “renormalization study” of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to “white noise” and to “1/f noise.” Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.
Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws.
Eliazar, Iddo
2013-05-01
This paper presents a comprehensive "renormalization study" of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to "white noise" and to "1/f noise." Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.
Power law load dependence of atomic friction
Fusco, C.; Fasolino, A.
2004-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a tip scanning a graphite surface as a function of the applied load. From the analysis of the lateral forces, we extract the friction force and the corrugation of the effective tip-surface interaction potential. We find both the friction force and potential amplitude to have a power-law dependence on applied load with exponent similar to1.6. We interpret these results as characteristic of sharp undeformable tips in contrast to the case of macr...
Classical orbits in power-law potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L.
1994-01-01
The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λr α has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and bar α, where (α+2)(bar α+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Faure, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given
Power laws and fragility in flow networks.
Shore, Jesse; Chu, Catherine J; Bianchi, Matt T
2013-01-01
What makes economic and ecological networks so unlike other highly skewed networks in their tendency toward turbulence and collapse? Here, we explore the consequences of a defining feature of these networks: their nodes are tied together by flow. We show that flow networks tend to the power law degree distribution (PLDD) due to a self-reinforcing process involving position within the global network structure, and thus present the first random graph model for PLDDs that does not depend on a rich-get-richer function of nodal degree. We also show that in contrast to non-flow networks, PLDD flow networks are dramatically more vulnerable to catastrophic failure than non-PLDD flow networks, a finding with potential explanatory power in our age of resource- and financial-interdependence and turbulence.
The new law on radiation and nuclear power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niittylae, A.
1990-01-01
The Law on Nuclear Energy, which entered into force in 1988, controls the use of nuclear power. The new Law on Radiation is under consideration in the Parliament. The internationally approved main principles on radiation protection are the basis of the law. In the article, these principles and the contents of the law are described
Power Law Distributions in Two Community Currencies
Kichiji, N.; Nishibe, M.
2007-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to highlight certain newly discovered social phenomena that accord with Zipf's law, in addition to the famous natural and social phenomena including word frequencies, earthquake magnitude, city size, income1 etc. that are already known to follow it. These phenomena have recently been discovered within the transaction amount (payments or receipts) distributions within two different Community Currencies (CC) that had been initiated as social experiments. One is a local CC circulating in a specific geographical area, such as a town. The other is a virtual CC used among members who belong to a certain community of interest (COI) on the Internet. We conducted two empirical studies to estimate the economic vitalization effects they had on their respective local economies. The results we found were that the amount of transactions (payments and receipts) of the two CCs was distributed according to a power-law distribution with a unity rank exponent. In addition, we found differences between the two CCs with regard to the shapes of their distribution over a low-transaction range. The result may originate from the difference in methods of issuing CCs or in the magnitudes of the minimum-value unit; however, this result calls for further investigation.
Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.
2013-01-01
Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media
Single-Sex Schools and the Law.
Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.
1999-01-01
Reviews single-sex schools' history and legal status. Explores constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination delineated in five leading cases (in Philadelphia, New York City, Detroit, Mississippi, and Virginia). Due to claims of Equal Protection Clause and/or Title IX violations, such schools are unlikely to proliferate. (20 references)…
Stochastic model of Zipf's law and the universality of the power-law exponent.
Yamamoto, Ken
2014-04-01
We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.
Helmholtz solitons in power-law optical materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Potton, R. J.; Chamorro-Posada, P.
2007-01-01
A nonlinear Helmholtz equation for optical materials with regimes of power-law type of nonlinearity is proposed. This model captures the evolution of broad beams at any angle with respect to the reference direction in a wide range of media, including some semiconductors, doped glasses, and liquid crystals. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented for a generic nonlinearity, within which known Kerr solitons comprise a subset. Three general conservation laws are also reported. Analysis and numerical simulations examine the stability of the Helmholtz power-law solitons. A propagation feature, associated with spatial solitons in power-law media, constituting a class of oscillatory solution, is identified
Visiting Power Laws in Cyber-Physical Networking Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs are made up of various physical systems that are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, exploring universalities in CPNSs for either data or systems is desired in its fundamental theory. This paper is in the aspect of data, aiming at addressing that power laws may yet be a universality of data in CPNSs. The contributions of this paper are in triple folds. First, we provide a short tutorial about power laws. Then, we address the power laws related to some physical systems. Finally, we discuss that power-law-type data may be governed by stochastically differential equations of fractional order. As a side product, we present the point of view that the upper bound of data flow at large-time scaling and the small one also follows power laws.
Resurrecting power law inflation in the light of Planck results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun
2013-01-01
It is well known that a canonical scalar field with an exponential potential can drive power law inflation (PLI). However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such models turns out to be larger than the stringent limit set by recent Planck results. We propose a new model of power law inflation for which the scalar spectra index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the non-gaussianity parameter f NL equil are in excellent agreement with Planck results. Inflation, in this model, is driven by a non-canonical scalar field with an inverse power law potential. The Lagrangian for our model is structurally similar to that of a canonical scalar field and has a power law form for the kinetic term. A simple extension of our model resolves the graceful exit problem which usually afflicts models of power law inflation
Power laws in citation distributions: evidence from Scopus.
Brzezinski, Michal
Modeling distributions of citations to scientific papers is crucial for understanding how science develops. However, there is a considerable empirical controversy on which statistical model fits the citation distributions best. This paper is concerned with rigorous empirical detection of power-law behaviour in the distribution of citations received by the most highly cited scientific papers. We have used a large, novel data set on citations to scientific papers published between 1998 and 2002 drawn from Scopus. The power-law model is compared with a number of alternative models using a likelihood ratio test. We have found that the power-law hypothesis is rejected for around half of the Scopus fields of science. For these fields of science, the Yule, power-law with exponential cut-off and log-normal distributions seem to fit the data better than the pure power-law model. On the other hand, when the power-law hypothesis is not rejected, it is usually empirically indistinguishable from most of the alternative models. The pure power-law model seems to be the best model only for the most highly cited papers in "Physics and Astronomy". Overall, our results seem to support theories implying that the most highly cited scientific papers follow the Yule, power-law with exponential cut-off or log-normal distribution. Our findings suggest also that power laws in citation distributions, when present, account only for a very small fraction of the published papers (less than 1 % for most of science fields) and that the power-law scaling parameter (exponent) is substantially higher (from around 3.2 to around 4.7) than found in the older literature.
Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Dementyev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.
The speed-curvature power law of movements: a reappraisal.
Zago, Myrka; Matic, Adam; Flash, Tamar; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2018-01-01
Several types of curvilinear movements obey approximately the so called 2/3 power law, according to which the angular speed varies proportionally to the 2/3 power of the curvature. The origin of the law is debated but it is generally thought to depend on physiological mechanisms. However, a recent paper (Marken and Shaffer, Exp Brain Res 88:685-690, 2017) claims that this power law is simply a statistical artifact, being a mathematical consequence of the way speed and curvature are calculated. Here we reject this hypothesis by showing that the speed-curvature power law of biological movements is non-trivial. First, we confirm that the power exponent varies with the shape of human drawing movements and with environmental factors. Second, we report experimental data from Drosophila larvae demonstrating that the power law does not depend on how curvature is calculated. Third, we prove that the law can be violated by means of several mathematical and physical examples. Finally, we discuss biological constraints that may underlie speed-curvature power laws discovered in empirical studies.
Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi
2006-01-01
The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes
Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering
Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee;
2011-01-01
We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.
Power-Law Template for Infrared Point-Source Clustering
Addison, Graeme E; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee;
2012-01-01
We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 approx clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C(sup clust)(sub l) varies as l (sub -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, ?(sup Beta)B(?, T(sub eff) ), with a single emissivity index Beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T(sub eff) = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha(sub 150-220) = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.
Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement
Igor Dementyev
2017-01-01
УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties...
Power laws for gravity and topography of Solar System bodies
Ermakov, A.; Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.
2017-12-01
When a spacecraft visits a planetary body, it is useful to be able to predict its gravitational and topographic properties. This knowledge is important for determining the level of perturbations in spacecraft's motion as well as for planning the observation campaign. It has been known for the Earth that the power spectrum of gravity follows a power law, also known as the Kaula rule (Kaula, 1963; Rapp, 1989). A similar rule was derived for topography (Vening-Meinesz, 1951). The goal of this paper is to generalize the power law that can characterize the gravity and topography power spectra for bodies across a wide range of size. We have analyzed shape power spectra of the bodies that have either global shape and gravity field measured. These bodies span across five orders of magnitude in their radii and surface gravities and include terrestrial planets, icy moons and minor bodies. We have found that despite having different internal structure, composition and mechanical properties, the topography power spectrum of these bodies' shapes can be modeled with a similar power law rescaled by the surface gravity. Having empirically found a power law for topography, we can map it to a gravity power law. Special care should be taken for low-degree harmonic coefficients due to potential isostatic compensation. For minor bodies, uniform density can be assumed. The gravity coefficients are a linear function of the shape coefficients for close-to-spherical bodoes. In this case, the power law for gravity will be steeper than the power law of topography due to the factor (2n+1) in the gravity expansion (e.g. Eq. 10 in Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998). Higher powers of topography must be retained for irregularly shaped bodies, which breaks the linearity. Therefore, we propose the following procedure to derive an a priori constraint for gravity. First, a surface gravity needs to be determined assuming typical density for the relevant class of bodies. Second, the scaling coefficient of the
Preinflationary dynamics in loop quantum cosmology: Power-law potentials
Shahalam, M.; Sharma, Manabendra; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Anzhong
2017-12-01
In this paper, we study the preinflationary dynamics for the power-law potential [V (ϕ )∝ϕn] with n consideration and compare our results with the ones obtained previously for different potentials.
Power-law to Power-law Mapping of Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F W; Scully, S T
2007-01-01
We have derived a useful analytic approximation for determining the effect of intergalactic absorption on the γ-ray spectra of TeV blazars the energy range 0.2 TeV γ γ ) is approximately logarithmic. The effect of this energy dependence is to steepen intrinsic source spectra such that a source with an approximate power-law spectral index Γ s is converted to one with an observed spectral index Γ o ≅ Γ s + ΔΓ(z) where ΔΓ(z) is a linear function of z in the redshift range 0.05-0.4. We apply this approximation to the spectra of 7 TeV blazars
Spreading dynamics of power-law fluid droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Zhanpeng; Peng Xiaofeng; Wang Xiaodong; Lee, D-J; Su Ay
2009-01-01
This paper aims at providing a summary of the theoretical models available for non-Newtonian fluid spreading dynamics. Experimental findings and model predictions for a Newtonian fluid spreading test are briefly reviewed. Then how the complete wetting and partial wetting power-law fluids spread over a solid substrate is examined. The possible extension of Newtonian fluid models to power-law fluids is also discussed.
Testing power-law cross-correlations: Rescaled covariance test
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2013-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 10 (2013), 418-1-418-15 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : power-law cross-correlations * testing * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-testing power-law cross-correlations rescaled covariance test.pdf
Stretched exponentials and power laws in granular avalanching
Head, D. A.; Rodgers, G. J.
1999-02-01
We introduce a model for granular surface flow which exhibits both stretched exponential and power law avalanching over its parameter range. Two modes of transport are incorporated, a rolling layer consisting of individual particles and the overdamped, sliding motion of particle clusters. The crossover in behaviour observed in experiments on piles of rice is attributed to a change in the dominant mode of transport. We predict that power law avalanching will be observed whenever surface flow is dominated by clustered motion.
On the universality of power laws for tokamak plasma predictions
Garcia, J.; Cambon, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-02-01
Significant deviations from well established power laws for the thermal energy confinement time, obtained from extensive databases analysis as the IPB98(y,2), have been recently reported in dedicated power scans. In order to illuminate the adequacy, validity and universality of power laws as tools for predicting plasma performance, a simplified analysis has been carried out in the framework of a minimal modeling for heat transport which is, however, able to account for the interplay between turbulence and collinear effects with the input power known to play a role in experiments with significant deviations from such power laws. Whereas at low powers, the usual scaling laws are recovered with little influence of other plasma parameters, resulting in a robust power low exponent, at high power it is shown how the exponents obtained are extremely sensitive to the heating deposition, the q-profile or even the sampling or the number of points considered due to highly non-linear behavior of the heat transport. In particular circumstances, even a minimum of the thermal energy confinement time with the input power can be obtained, which means that the approach of the energy confinement time as a power law might be intrinsically invalid. Therefore plasma predictions with a power law approximation with a constant exponent obtained from a regression of a broad range of powers and other plasma parameters which can non-linearly affect and suppress heat transport, can lead to misleading results suggesting that this approach should be taken cautiously and its results continuously compared with modeling which can properly capture the underline physics, as gyrokinetic simulations.
Contract law and the Digital Single Market: towards a new EU online consumer sales law?
Mańko, R.
2015-01-01
In its Digital Single Market Strategy, unveiled in May 2015, the Commission has promised to come up with a revised proposal for a Common European Sales Law by the end of the year. More indications have been given the Commission in an Inception Impact Assessment, published in July 2015. The debate on
Power-law relaxation in human violent conflicts
Picoli, Sergio; Antonio, Fernando J.; Itami, Andreia S.; Mendes, Renio S.
2017-08-01
We study relaxation patterns of violent conflicts after bursts of activity. Data were obtained from available catalogs on the conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Northern Ireland. We find several examples in each catalog for which the observed relaxation curves can be well described by an asymptotic power-law decay (the analog of the Omori's law in geophysics). The power-law exponents are robust, nearly independent of the conflict. We also discuss the exogenous or endogenous nature of the shocks. Our results suggest that violent conflicts share with earthquakes and other natural and social phenomena a common feature in the dynamics of aftershocks.
Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gottfried Mayer-Kress
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.
Regulatory Powers in Public Procurement Law of Peruvian Administrative Agencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Carlos Morón Urbina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Peruvian law has explicitly recognized regulatory powers to administrative agencies, which allows them to have a preponderant role in the production of rules in public procurement. Although these delegations of legislative authority are positively defined, distortions in the system of legal sources arise when agencies exceed delegated powers or when measures issued by administrative entities are mistaken for regulations. This paper aims to identify regulatory powers of Peruvian administrative agencies, as well as the regulatory measures they issue, and their relation with other sources of law.
POWER-LAW TEMPLATE FOR INFRARED POINT-SOURCE CLUSTERING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Hincks, Adam D.; Page, Lyman A.; Staggs, Suzanne T. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Viero, Marco [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Reese, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Wollack, Edward [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2012-06-20
We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 {approx}< l {approx}< 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 1000 {approx}< l {approx}< 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C{sup clust}{sub l}{proportional_to}l{sup -n} with n = 1.25 {+-} 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, {nu}{sup {beta}} B({nu}, T{sub eff}), with a single emissivity index {beta} = 2.20 {+-} 0.07 and effective temperature T{sub eff} = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be {alpha}{sub 150-220} = 3.68 {+-} 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.
Scaling laws for fractional Brownian motion with power-law clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Malley, Daniel; Cushman, John H; Johnson, Graham
2011-01-01
We study the mean first passage time (MFPT) for fractional Brownian motion (fBm) in a finite interval with absorbing boundaries at each end. Analytical arguments are used to suggest a simple scaling law for the MFPT and numerical experiments are performed to verify its accuracy. The same approach is used to derive a scaling law for fBm with a power-law clock (fBm-plc). The MFPT scaling laws are employed to develop scaling laws for the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) of fBm and fBm-plc. We apply these results to diffusion of a large polymer in a region with absorbing boundaries. (letter)
Power-law creep behavior of a semiflexible chain.
Majumdar, Arnab; Suki, Béla; Rosenblatt, Noah; Alencar, Adriano M; Stamenović, Dimitrije
2008-10-01
Rheological properties of adherent cells are essential for their physiological functions, and microrheological measurements on living cells have shown that their viscoelastic responses follow a weak power law over a wide range of time scales. This power law is also influenced by mechanical prestress borne by the cytoskeleton, suggesting that cytoskeletal prestress determines the cell's viscoelasticity, but the biophysical origins of this behavior are largely unknown. We have recently developed a stochastic two-dimensional model of an elastically joined chain that links the power-law rheology to the prestress. Here we use a similar approach to study the creep response of a prestressed three-dimensional elastically jointed chain as a viscoelastic model of semiflexible polymers that comprise the prestressed cytoskeletal lattice. Using a Monte Carlo based algorithm, we show that numerical simulations of the chain's creep behavior closely correspond to the behavior observed experimentally in living cells. The power-law creep behavior results from a finite-speed propagation of free energy from the chain's end points toward the center of the chain in response to an externally applied stretching force. The property that links the power law to the prestress is the chain's stiffening with increasing prestress, which originates from entropic and enthalpic contributions. These results indicate that the essential features of cellular rheology can be explained by the viscoelastic behaviors of individual semiflexible polymers of the cytoskeleton.
Power-law thermal model for blackbody sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Grande, N.K.
1979-01-01
The spectral radiant emittance W/sub E/ from a blackbody at a temperature kT for photons at energies E above the spectral peak (2.82144 kT) varies as (kT)/sup E/kT/. This power-law temperature dependence, an approximation of Planck's radiation law, may have applications for measuring the emissivity of sources emitting in the soft x-ray region
Sharing Powers Within Exclusive Competences: Rethinking EU Antitrust Law Enforcement
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter
2016-01-01
Although the establishment of competition rules forms part of the EU’s exclusive competences, the application and enforcement of those rules has always been shared consistently between the EU and its Member States.The sharing of enforcement powers is conceptualised traditionally as a delegation of the exercise of exclusively conferred competences. The Court of Justice of the European Union’s case law in the context of EU antitrust law enforcement nevertheless raises profound questions as to t...
Iranian nuclear power and international law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aivo, G.
2006-01-01
Does the Iranian programme violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)? Iran is a signatory to the NPT and whilst certainly within its rights in developing civil nuclear energy, this is not so for the development of nuclear weapons in order to become a regional power which Iran is already not far from becoming. In the face of diverging opinions among the major interested parties (including the UN, United States, EU, Russia and China), how might this crisis be resolved? (author)
Proposed law concerning the phase-out of nuclear power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
This Government bill that will be presented to the Swedish Parliament, gives the Government the right to revoke the licence of operating a nuclear power plant at a certain time. The operator is given the right to a financial compensation when the licence is revoked, in line with the rules in the expropriation laws. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear installations are not regulated in this law, i.e. the law can not be used when the operating licence is revoked due to safety reasons
Problems of cartel law in license contracts within the power economy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueffer, U.
1992-01-01
First the licence contract is presented as a particularly important instrument of the power economy. In a second step a link is established with cartel law; that is, the special status of the power economy under cartel law and the significance of the licence contract within this context are illuminated. On this basis then, a very controversial complex of problems is entered into: the assessment of so-called expiration clauses in licence contracts, i.e. the legal situation upon expiration of a licence contract. It turns out that qualms about the time value being the takeover price have no legal basis. The fact that they were expressed at all is due to the lack of a synopsis of the relevant subareas of commercial law. Scientific purposes require a synopsis of the commercial law concerned rather than an argument in which each party splits off single aspects of the issue. (orig./HSCH) [de
Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, J.
2012-01-01
Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), 28005-1-28005-6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504; GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010133 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Public procurement * Scaling * Power law Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-exponential and power laws in public procurement markets.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Enwei; Lue Houjun; Hou Shujin; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing
2009-01-01
By systematically analyzing the Swift/XRT light curves detected before 2009 July, we find 19 light curves that monotonously decay as a single power law (SPL) with an index of 1 ∼ 1.7 from tens (or hundreds) of seconds to ∼10 5 s post the gamma-ray burst (GRB) trigger. They are apparently different from the canonical light curves characterized by a shallow-to-normal decay transition. We compare the observations of the prompt gamma rays and the X-rays for these two samples of GRBs (SPL vs. canonical). No statistical difference is found in the prompt gamma-ray properties for the two samples. The X-ray properties of the two samples are also similar, although the SPL sample tends to have a slightly lower neutral hydrogen absorption column for the host galaxies and a slightly larger energy release compared with the canonical sample. The SPL X-ray Telescope (XRT) light curves in the burst frame gradually merge into a conflux, and their luminosities at 10 5 s are normally distributed at log L/ergs s -1 = 45.6 ± 0.5. The normal decay segment of the canonical XRT light curves has the same feature. Similar to the normal decay segment, the SPL light curves satisfy the closure relations and therefore can be roughly explained with external shock models. In the scenario that the X-rays are the afterglows of the GRB fireball, our results indicate that the shallow decay would be due to energy injection into the fireball and the total energy budget after injection for both samples of GRBs is comparable. More intriguing, we find that a prior X-ray emission model proposed by Yamazaki is more straightforward to interpret the observed XRT data. We show that the zero times (T 0 ) of the X-rays are 10 2 -10 5 s prior to the GRB trigger for the canonical sample, and satisfy a log-normal distribution. The negligible T 0 's of the SPL sample are consistent with being the tail of T 0 distributions at low end, suggesting that the SPL sample and the canonical sample may be from a same
Second Law Of Thermodynamics Analysis Of Triple Cycle Power Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheus M. Dwinanto
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Triple cycle power plant with methane as a fuel has been analyzed on the basis of second law of thermodynamics.In this model, ideal Brayton cycle is selected as a topping cycle as it gives higher efficiency at lower pressure ratio comparedintercooler and reheat cycle. In trilple cycle the bottoming cycles are steam Rankine and organic Rankine cycle. Ammoniahas suitable working properties like critical temperature, boiling temperature, etc. Steam cycle consists of a deaerator andreheater. The bottoming ammonia cycle is a ideal Rankine cycle. Single pressure heat recovery steam and ammoniagenerators are selected for simplification of the analysis. The effects of pressure ratio and maximum temperature which aretaken as important parameters regarding the triple cycle are discussed on performance and exergetic losses. On the otherhand, the efficiency of the triple cycle can be raised, especially in the application of recovering low enthalpy content wasteheat. Therefore, by properly combining with a steam Rankine cycle, the ammonia Rankine cycle is expected to efficientlyutilize residual yet available energy to an optimal extent. The arrangement of multiple cycles is compared with combinedcycle having the same sink conditions. The parallel type of arrangement of bottoming cycle is selected due to increasedperformance.
Unobserved heterogeneity in the power law nonhomogeneous Poisson process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asfaw, Zeytu Gashaw; Lindqvist, Bo Henry
2015-01-01
A study of possible consequences of heterogeneity in the failure intensity of repairable systems is presented. The basic model studied is the nonhomogeneous Poisson process with power law intensity function. When several similar systems are under observation, the assumption that the corresponding processes are independent and identically distributed is often questionable. In practice there may be an unobserved heterogeneity among the systems. The heterogeneity is modeled by introduction of unobserved gamma distributed frailties. The relevant likelihood function is derived, and maximum likelihood estimation is illustrated. In a simulation study we then compare results when using a power law model without taking into account heterogeneity, with the corresponding results obtained when the heterogeneity is accounted for. A motivating data example is also given. - Highlights: • Consequences of overlooking heterogeneity in similar repairable systems are studied. • Likelihood functions are established for power law NHPP w/ and w/o heterogeneity. • ML estimators for parameters of power law NHPP with heterogeneity are derived. • A simulation study shows the effects of heterogeneity and its ignorance in models
Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.; Shahalam, M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H 0 (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on i.e. H 0 average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details
Financial power laws: Empirical evidence, models, and mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lux, Thomas; Alfarano, Simone
2016-01-01
Financial markets (share markets, foreign exchange markets and others) are all characterized by a number of universal power laws. The most prominent example is the ubiquitous finding of a robust, approximately cubic power law characterizing the distribution of large returns. A similarly robust feature is long-range dependence in volatility (i.e., hyperbolic decline of its autocorrelation function). The recent literature adds temporal scaling of trading volume and multi-scaling of higher moments of returns. Increasing awareness of these properties has recently spurred attempts at theoretical explanations of the emergence of these key characteristics form the market process. In principle, different types of dynamic processes could be responsible for these power-laws. Examples to be found in the economics literature include multiplicative stochastic processes as well as dynamic processes with multiple equilibria. Though both types of dynamics are characterized by intermittent behavior which occasionally generates large bursts of activity, they can be based on fundamentally different perceptions of the trading process. The present paper reviews both the analytical background of the power laws emerging from the above data generating mechanisms as well as pertinent models proposed in the economics literature.
Extremal dependencies and rank correlations in power law networks
Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.; Jie, Z.
2009-01-01
We analyze dependencies in complex networks characterized by power laws (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical techniques from the extreme value theory and the theory of multivariate regular variation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
Cluster tails for critical power-law inhomogeneous random graphs
van der Hofstad, R.; Kliem, S.; van Leeuwaarden, J.S.H.
2018-01-01
Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299–2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ∈ (3 , 4)
The distance-decay function of geographical gravity model: Power law or exponential law?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yanguang
2015-01-01
Highlights: •The distance-decay exponent of the gravity model is a fractal dimension. •Entropy maximization accounts for the gravity model based on power law decay. •Allometric scaling relations relate gravity models with spatial interaction models. •The four-parameter gravity models have dual mathematical expressions. •The inverse power law is the most probable distance-decay function. -- Abstract: The distance-decay function of the geographical gravity model is originally an inverse power law, which suggests a scaling process in spatial interaction. However, the distance exponent of the model cannot be reasonably explained with the ideas from Euclidean geometry. This results in a dimension dilemma in geographical analysis. Consequently, a negative exponential function was used to replace the inverse power function to serve for a distance-decay function. But a new puzzle arose that the exponential-based gravity model goes against the first law of geography. This paper is devoted for solving these kinds of problems by mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis. New findings are as follows. First, the distance exponent of the gravity model is demonstrated to be a fractal dimension using the geometric measure relation. Second, the similarities and differences between the gravity models and spatial interaction models are revealed using allometric relations. Third, a four-parameter gravity model possesses a symmetrical expression, and we need dual gravity models to describe spatial flows. The observational data of China's cities and regions (29 elements indicative of 841 data points) in 2010 are employed to verify the theoretical inferences. A conclusion can be reached that the geographical gravity model based on power-law decay is more suitable for analyzing large, complex, and scale-free regional and urban systems. This study lends further support to the suggestion that the underlying rationale of fractal structure is entropy maximization. Moreover
The speed-curvature power law in Drosophila larval locomotion.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Gomez-Marin, Alex
2016-10-01
We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints. There are different hypotheses for the origin of the law in primates, one invoking cortical computations, another viscoelastic muscle properties coupled with central pattern generators. Our findings are consistent with the latter view and demonstrate that the law is possible in animals with nervous systems orders of magnitude simpler than in primates. Scaling laws might exist because natural selection favours processes that remain behaviourally efficient across a wide range of neural and body architectures in distantly related species. © 2016 The Authors.
On the power law of passive scalars in turbulence
Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi
2015-11-01
It has long been considered that the moments of the scalar increment with separation distance r obey power law with scaling exponents in the inertial convective range and the exponents are insensitive to variation of pumping of scalar fluctuations at large scales, thus the scaling exponents are universal. We examine the scaling behavior of the moments of increments of passive scalars 1 and 2 by using DNS up to the grid points of 40963. They are simultaneously convected by the same isotropic steady turbulence atRλ = 805 , but excited by two different methods. Scalar 1 is excited by the random scalar injection which is isotropic, Gaussian and white in time at law wavenumber band, while Scalar 2 is excited by the uniform mean scalar gradient. It is found that the local scaling exponents of the scalar 1 has a logarithmic correction, meaning that the moments of the scalar 1 do not obey simple power law. On the other hand, the moments of the scalar 2 is found to obey the well developed power law with exponents consistent with those in the literature. Physical reasons for the difference are explored. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 15H02218 and 26420106, NIFS14KNSS050, HPCI project hp150088 and hp140024, JHPCN project jh150012.
Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greipl, C.
1992-01-01
The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de
Observational constraints on phantom power-law cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeonikhom, Chakkrit; Gumjudpai, Burin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2011-01-01
We investigate phantom cosmology in which the scale factor is a power law, and we use cosmological observations from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and observational Hubble data, in order to impose complete constraints on the model parameters. We find that the power-law exponent is β∼-6.51 -0.25 +0.24 , while the Big Rip is realized at t s ∼104.5 -2.0 +1.9 Gyr, in 1σ confidence level. Providing late-time asymptotic expressions, we find that the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter at the Big Rip remains finite and equal to w DE ∼-1.153, with the dark-energy density and pressure diverging. Finally, we reconstruct the phantom potential.
Power Laws, Scale-Free Networks and Genome Biology
Koonin, Eugene V; Karev, Georgy P
2006-01-01
Power Laws, Scale-free Networks and Genome Biology deals with crucial aspects of the theoretical foundations of systems biology, namely power law distributions and scale-free networks which have emerged as the hallmarks of biological organization in the post-genomic era. The chapters in the book not only describe the interesting mathematical properties of biological networks but moves beyond phenomenology, toward models of evolution capable of explaining the emergence of these features. The collection of chapters, contributed by both physicists and biologists, strives to address the problems in this field in a rigorous but not excessively mathematical manner and to represent different viewpoints, which is crucial in this emerging discipline. Each chapter includes, in addition to technical descriptions of properties of biological networks and evolutionary models, a more general and accessible introduction to the respective problems. Most chapters emphasize the potential of theoretical systems biology for disco...
Dynamic intersectoral models with power-law memory
Tarasova, Valentina V.; Tarasov, Vasily E.
2018-01-01
Intersectoral dynamic models with power-law memory are proposed. The equations of open and closed intersectoral models, in which the memory effects are described by the Caputo derivatives of non-integer orders, are derived. We suggest solutions of these equations, which have the form of linear combinations of the Mittag-Leffler functions and which are characterized by different effective growth rates. Examples of intersectoral dynamics with power-law memory are suggested for two sectoral cases. We formulate two principles of intersectoral dynamics with memory: the principle of changing of technological growth rates and the principle of domination change. It has been shown that in the input-output economic dynamics the effects of fading memory can change the economic growth rate and dominant behavior of economic sectors.
COSMOLOGY OF CHAMELEONS WITH POWER-LAW COUPLINGS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.
2011-01-01
In chameleon field theories, a scalar field can couple to matter with gravitational strength and still evade local gravity constraints due to a combination of self-interactions and the couplings to matter. Originally, these theories were proposed with a constant coupling to matter; however, the chameleon mechanism also extends to the case where the coupling becomes field dependent. We study the cosmology of chameleon models with power-law couplings and power-law potentials. It is found that these generalized chameleons, when viable, have a background expansion very close to ΛCDM, but can in some special cases enhance the growth of the linear perturbations at low redshifts. For the models we consider, it is found that this region of the parameter space is ruled out by local gravity constraints. Imposing a coupling to dark matter only, the local constraints are avoided, and it is possible to have observable signatures on the linear matter perturbations.
On heat transfer of weakly compressible power-law flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Botong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper completes a numerical research on steady momentum and heat transfer in power-law fluids in a channel. Weakly compressible laminar fluids are studied with no slip at the walls and uniform wall temperatures. The full governing equations are solved by continuous finite element method. Three thermal conductivity models are adopted in this paper, that is, constant thermal conductivity model, thermal conductivity varying as a function of temperature gradient, and a modified temperature-gradient-dependent thermal conductivity model. The results are compared with each other and the physical characteristics for values of parameters are also discussed in details. It is shown that the velocity curve from the solution becomes straight at higher power-law index. The effects of Reynolds numbers on the dilatant fluid and the pseudo-plastic look similar to each other and their trends can be easily predicted. Furthermore, for different models, the temperature curves also present pseudo-plastic and dilatant properties.
Dynamics of a map with a power-law tail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botella-Soler, V; Ros, J; Oteo, J A
2009-01-01
We analyze a one-dimensional piecewise continuous discrete model proposed originally in studies on population ecology. The map is composed of a linear part and a power-law decreasing piece, and has three parameters. The system presents both regular and chaotic behavior. We study numerically and, in part, analytically different bifurcation structures. Particularly interesting is the description of the abrupt order-to-chaos transition mediated by an attractor made of an infinite number of limit cycles with only a finite number of different periods. It is shown that the power-law piece in the map is at the origin of this type of bifurcation. The system exhibits interior crises and crisis-induced intermittency.
Power-law cross-correlations estimation under heavy tails
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2016-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 1 (2016), s. 163-172 ISSN 1007-5704 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Power-law cross-correlations * Heavy tails * Monte Carlo study Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kristoufek-0472030.pdf
Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scalerandi, M., E-mail: marco.scalerandi@infm.polito.it
2016-01-28
Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities. - Highlights: • Several materials exhibit a nontrivial nonlinear elastic behavior which can be ascribed to different physical sources. • The quantitative nonlinear response is dependent on the type of microstructure present in the material. • A nonlinear indicator could be defined which depends on the excitation energy of the sample. • Assuming a power law dependence, the exponent depends on the microstructure of the material and could evolve in time. • Experimental results on concrete are discussed and a theoretical description is proposed.
Power-law citation distributions are not scale-free.
Golosovsky, Michael
2017-09-01
We analyze time evolution of statistical distributions of citations to scientific papers published in the same year. While these distributions seem to follow the power-law dependence we find that they are nonstationary and the exponent of the power-law fit decreases with time and does not come to saturation. We attribute the nonstationarity of citation distributions to different longevity of the low-cited and highly cited papers. By measuring citation trajectories of papers we found that citation careers of the low-cited papers come to saturation after 10-15 years while those of the highly cited papers continue to increase indefinitely: The papers that exceed some citation threshold become runaways. Thus, we show that although citation distribution can look as a power-law dependence, it is not scale free and there is a hidden dynamic scale associated with the onset of runaways. We compare our measurements to our recently developed model of citation dynamics based on copying-redirection-triadic closure and find explanations to our empirical observations.
Econophysical anchoring of unimodal power-law distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H
2013-01-01
The sciences are abundant with size distributions whose densities have a unimodal shape and power-law tails both at zero and at infinity. The quintessential examples of such unimodal and power-law (UPL) distributions are the sizes of income and wealth in human societies. While the tails of UPL distributions are precisely quantified by their corresponding power-law exponents, their bulks are only qualitatively characterized as unimodal. Consequently, different statistical models of UPL distributions exist, the most popular considering lognormal bulks. In this paper we present a general econophysical framework for UPL distributions termed ‘the anchoring method’. This method: (i) universally approximates UPL distributions via three ‘anchors’ set at zero, at infinity, and at an intermediate point between zero and infinity (e.g. the mode); (ii) is highly versatile and broadly applicable; (iii) encompasses the existing statistical models of UPL distributions as special cases; (iv) facilitates the introduction of new statistical models of UPL distributions and (v) yields a socioeconophysical analysis of UPL distributions. (paper)
Characterizing and predicting the robustness of power-law networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaRocca, Sarah; Guikema, Seth D.
2015-01-01
Power-law networks such as the Internet, terrorist cells, species relationships, and cellular metabolic interactions are susceptible to node failures, yet maintaining network connectivity is essential for network functionality. Disconnection of the network leads to fragmentation and, in some cases, collapse of the underlying system. However, the influences of the topology of networks on their ability to withstand node failures are poorly understood. Based on a study of the response of 2000 randomly-generated power-law networks to node failures, we find that networks with higher nodal degree and clustering coefficient, lower betweenness centrality, and lower variability in path length and clustering coefficient maintain their cohesion better during such events. We also find that network robustness, i.e., the ability to withstand node failures, can be accurately predicted a priori for power-law networks across many fields. These results provide a basis for designing new, more robust networks, improving the robustness of existing networks such as the Internet and cellular metabolic pathways, and efficiently degrading networks such as terrorist cells. - Highlights: • Examine relationship between network topology and robustness to failures. • Relationship is statistically significant for scale-free networks. • Use statistical models to estimate robustness to failures for real-world networks
Power-law distributions for a trapped ion interacting with a classical buffer gas.
DeVoe, Ralph G
2009-02-13
Classical collisions with an ideal gas generate non-Maxwellian distribution functions for a single ion in a radio frequency ion trap. The distributions have power-law tails whose exponent depends on the ratio of buffer gas to ion mass. This provides a statistical explanation for the previously observed transition from cooling to heating. Monte Carlo results approximate a Tsallis distribution over a wide range of parameters and have ab initio agreement with experiment.
2010-07-01
..., the judge (or the Board) will decide the case or make other disposition of it. (10) To make and file... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law judges or to the Board; assignment and powers of settlement judges...
Regularized lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology
Ba, Yan; Wang, Ningning; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qiang; He, Guoqiang
2018-03-01
In this work, a regularized lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is developed for the simulation of immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology. This model is as simple as the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) color-gradient model except that an additional regularization step is introduced prior to the collision step. In the regularization step, the pseudo-inverse method is adopted as an alternative solution for the nonequilibrium part of the total distribution function, and it can be easily extended to other discrete velocity models no matter whether a forcing term is considered or not. The obtained expressions for the nonequilibrium part are merely related to macroscopic variables and velocity gradients that can be evaluated locally. Several numerical examples, including the single-phase and two-phase layered power-law fluid flows between two parallel plates, and the droplet deformation and breakup in a simple shear flow, are conducted to test the capability and accuracy of the proposed color-gradient model. Results show that the present model is more stable and accurate than the BGK color-gradient model for power-law fluids with a wide range of power-law indices. Compared to its multiple-relaxation-time counterpart, the present model can increase the computing efficiency by around 15%, while keeping the same accuracy and stability. Also, the present model is found to be capable of reasonably predicting the critical capillary number of droplet breakup.
Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2013-01-01
In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf’s law, Pareto’s law, and Heaps’ law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences. -- Highlights: ► The large-ensemble asymptotic statistics of rank distributions are explored. ► Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses are applied. ► Associated oligarchy sizes and induced innovation rates are analyzed. ► General elemental statistical connections are established. ► The underlying connections between Zipf’s, Pareto’s and Heaps’ laws are unveiled
Indian English Evolution and Focusing Visible Through Power Laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vineeta Chand
2017-11-01
Full Text Available New dialect emergence and focusing in language contact settings is difficult to capture and date in terms of global structural dialect stabilization. This paper explores whether diachronic power law frequency distributions can provide evidence of dialect evolution and new dialect focusing, by considering the quantitative frequency characteristics of three diachronic Indian English (IE corpora (1970s–2008. The results demonstrate that IE consistently follows power law frequency distributions and the corpora are each best fit by Mandelbrot’s Law. Diachronic changes in the constants are interpreted as evidence of lexical and syntactic collocational focusing within the process of new dialect formation. Evidence of new dialect focusing is also visible through apparent time comparison of spoken and written data. Age and gender-separated sub-corpora of the most recent corpus show minimal deviation, providing apparent time evidence for emerging IE dialect stability. From these findings, we extend the interpretation of diachronic changes in the β coefficient—as indicative of changes in the degree of synthetic/analytic structure—so that β is also sensitive to grammaticalization and changes in collocational patterns.
Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, 14 C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)
Simple inflationary quintessential model. II. Power law potentials
de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya
2016-09-01
The present work is a sequel of our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 93, 084018 (2016)] which depicted a simple version of an inflationary quintessential model whose inflationary stage was described by a Higgs-type potential and the quintessential phase was responsible due to an exponential potential. Additionally, the model predicted a nonsingular universe in past which was geodesically past incomplete. Further, it was also found that the model is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data when running is allowed. But, this model provides a theoretical value of the running which is far smaller than the central value of the best fit in ns , r , αs≡d ns/d l n k parameter space where ns, r , αs respectively denote the spectral index, tensor-to-scalar ratio and the running of the spectral index associated with any inflationary model, and consequently to analyze the viability of the model one has to focus in the two-dimensional marginalized confidence level in the allowed domain of the plane (ns,r ) without taking into account the running. Unfortunately, such analysis shows that this model does not pass this test. However, in this sequel we propose a family of models runs by a single parameter α ∈[0 ,1 ] which proposes another "inflationary quintessential model" where the inflation and the quintessence regimes are respectively described by a power law potential and a cosmological constant. The model is also nonsingular although geodesically past incomplete as in the cited model. Moreover, the present one is found to be more simple compared to the previous model and it is in excellent agreement with the observational data. In fact, we note that, unlike the previous model, a large number of the models of this family with α ∈[0 ,1/2 ) match with both Planck 2013 and Planck 2015 data without allowing the running. Thus, the properties in the current family of models compared to its past companion justify its need for a better cosmological model with the successive
Power-law photoluminescence decay in indirect gap quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Menšík, Miroslav; Král, Karel
2013-01-01
Roč. 111, November (2013), s. 170-174 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10007; GA MŠk LH12186; GA MŠk LH12236; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * indirect gap transition * power-law photoluminescence decay Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BE - Theoretical Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2013
Power-law Exponent in Multiplicative Langevin Equation with Temporally Correlated Noise
Morita, Satoru
2018-05-01
Power-law distributions are ubiquitous in nature. Random multiplicative processes are a basic model for the generation of power-law distributions. For discrete-time systems, the power-law exponent is known to decrease as the autocorrelation time of the multiplier increases. However, for continuous-time systems, it is not yet clear how the temporal correlation affects the power-law behavior. Herein, we analytically investigated a multiplicative Langevin equation with colored noise. We show that the power-law exponent depends on the details of the multiplicative noise, in contrast to the case of discrete-time systems.
Law concerning water and nuclear power station licensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1985-01-01
The competent water authority, within the purview of the legal provisions concerning water is entitled to define a maximum of radioactive contamination of cooling water taken from and re-fed into the Rhine river, and is entitled to make such limit form part of the permit granted to a nuclear power station (here: Biblis B reactor). This right is not overruled by sections 45, 46 of the Rad. Protection Ordinance which determine dose limits (among others also for radioactivity released through waste water), and which state the competent licensing authority under atomic energy law to be entitled to set higher or lower limits by discretion. The provisions of sections 45 ff Rad. Prot. Ordinance are to be interpreted to mean that since the competent authority in accordance with section 46, sub-sections (2) and (5) Rad. Prot. Ordinance is given the right to define maximum acceptable radioactivity release through water discharge, it many also define the lowest limit of contamination and is hence entitled to declare discharged cooling water not to fall under atomic energy law, but rather under the law relating to water management. (orig.) [de
The quick convolution of galaxy profiles, with application to power-law intensity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, M.E.; Sparks, W.B.
1983-01-01
The two-dimensional convolution of a circularly symmetric galaxy model with a Gaussian point-spread function of dispersion σ reduces to a single integral. This is solved analytically for models with power-law intensity distributions and results are given which relate the apparent core radius to σ and the power-law index k. The convolution integral is also simplified for the case of a point-spread function corresponding to a circular aperture. Models of galactic nuclei with stellar density cusps can only be distinguished from alternatives with small core radii if both the brightness and seeing profiles are measured accurately. The results are applied to data on the light distribution at the Galactic Centre. (author)
The p-sphere and the geometric substratum of power-law probability distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vignat, C.; Plastino, A.
2005-01-01
Links between power law probability distributions and marginal distributions of uniform laws on p-spheres in R n show that a mathematical derivation of the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution necessarily passes through power law ones. Results are also given that link parameters p and n to the value of the non-extensivity parameter q that characterizes these power laws in the context of non-extensive statistics
Dense power-law networks and simplicial complexes
Courtney, Owen T.; Bianconi, Ginestra
2018-05-01
There is increasing evidence that dense networks occur in on-line social networks, recommendation networks and in the brain. In addition to being dense, these networks are often also scale-free, i.e., their degree distributions follow P (k ) ∝k-γ with γ ∈(1 ,2 ] . Models of growing networks have been successfully employed to produce scale-free networks using preferential attachment, however these models can only produce sparse networks as the numbers of links and nodes being added at each time step is constant. Here we present a modeling framework which produces networks that are both dense and scale-free. The mechanism by which the networks grow in this model is based on the Pitman-Yor process. Variations on the model are able to produce undirected scale-free networks with exponent γ =2 or directed networks with power-law out-degree distribution with tunable exponent γ ∈(1 ,2 ) . We also extend the model to that of directed two-dimensional simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are generalization of networks that can encode the many body interactions between the parts of a complex system and as such are becoming increasingly popular to characterize different data sets ranging from social interacting systems to the brain. Our model produces dense directed simplicial complexes with power-law distribution of the generalized out-degrees of the nodes.
Power law distributions of patents as indicators of innovation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dion R J O'Neale
Full Text Available The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan and 2.37 (Poland. We suggest that this exponent is a useful new metric for studying innovation. Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as research and development intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in less advanced countries.
The power of a single trajectory
Schnellbächer, Nikolas D.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.
2018-03-01
Random walks are often evaluated in terms of their mean squared displacements, either for a large number of trajectories or for one very long trajectory. An alternative evaluation is based on the power spectral density, but here it is less clear which information can be extracted from a single trajectory. For continuous-time Brownian motion, Krapf et al now have mathematically proven that the one property that can be reliably extracted from a single trajectory is the frequency dependence of the ensemble-averaged power spectral density (Krapf et al 2018 New J. Phys. 20 023029). Their mathematical analysis also identifies the appropriate frequency window for this procedure and shows that the diffusion coefficient can be extracted by averaging over a small number of trajectories. The authors have verified their analytical results both by computer simulations and experiments.
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.; Samtaney, R.
2014-01-01
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo ["Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer," Appl. Mech. Rev. 50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Reθ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.
Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective
Cheng, W.
2014-01-29
The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo [“Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer,” Appl. Mech. Rev.50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Re θ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.
Zhao, Kai; Musolesi, Mirco; Hui, Pan; Rao, Weixiong; Tarkoma, Sasu
2015-03-01
Human mobility has been empirically observed to exhibit Lévy flight characteristics and behaviour with power-law distributed jump size. The fundamental mechanisms behind this behaviour has not yet been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to explain the Lévy walk behaviour observed in human mobility patterns by decomposing them into different classes according to the different transportation modes, such as Walk/Run, Bike, Train/Subway or Car/Taxi/Bus. Our analysis is based on two real-life GPS datasets containing approximately 10 and 20 million GPS samples with transportation mode information. We show that human mobility can be modelled as a mixture of different transportation modes, and that these single movement patterns can be approximated by a lognormal distribution rather than a power-law distribution. Then, we demonstrate that the mixture of the decomposed lognormal flight distributions associated with each modality is a power-law distribution, providing an explanation to the emergence of Lévy Walk patterns that characterize human mobility patterns.
Comment on "Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it".
Bernstein, Noam
2012-08-01
Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the "back-to-front" strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Disobeying Power Laws: Perils for Theory and Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Christopher Crawford
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The “norm of normality” is a myth that organization design scholars should believe only at their peril. In contrast to the normal (bell-shaped distribution with independent observations and linear relationships assumed by Gaussian statistics, research shows that nearly every input and outcome in organizational domains is power-law (Pareto distributed. These highly skewed distributions exhibit unstable means, unlimited variance, underlying interdependence, and extreme outcomes that disproportionally influence the entire system, making Gaussian methods and assumptions largely invalid. By developing more focused research designs and using methods that assume interdependence and potentially nonlinear relationships, organization design scholars can develop theories that more closely depict empirical reality and provide more useful insights to practitioners and other stakeholders.
Backreaction of Cosmological Fluctuations during Power-Law Inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marozzi, G.
2007-01-01
We study the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of cosmological scalar fluctuations during the slow-rollover regime for power-law inflation and find that it is characterized by a negative energy density at the leading order, with the same time behavior as the background energy. The average expansion rate appears decreased by the backreaction of the effective energy of cosmological fluctuations, but this value is comparable with the energy of the background only if inflation starts at a Planckian energy. We also find that, for this particular model, the first- and second-order inflaton fluctuations are decoupled and satisfy the same equation of motion. To conclude, the fourth-order adiabatic expansion for the inflaton scalar field is evaluated for a general potential V(φ)
Maxwell's Demon at work: Two types of Bose condensate fluctuations in power-law traps.
Grossmann, S; Holthaus, M
1997-11-10
After discussing the idea underlying the Maxwell's Demon ensemble, we employ this ensemble for calculating fluctuations of ideal Bose gas condensates in traps with power-law single-particle energy spectra. Two essentially different cases have to be distinguished. If the heat capacity is continuous at the condensation point, the fluctuations of the number of condensate particles vanish linearly with temperature, independent of the trap characteristics. In this case, microcanonical and canonical fluctuations are practically indistinguishable. If the heat capacity is discontinuous, the fluctuations vanish algebraically with temperature, with an exponent determined by the trap, and the micro-canonical fluctuations are lower than their canonical counterparts.
One loop back reaction on power law inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramo, L.R.; Woodard, R.P.
1999-01-01
We consider quantum-mechanical corrections to a homogeneous, isotropic, and spatially flat geometry whose scale factor expands classically as a general power of the comoving time. The effects of both gravitons and the scalar inflaton are computed at one loop using the manifestly causal formalism of Schwinger [J. Math. Phys. 2, 407 (1961); Particles, Sources and Fields (Addison, Wesley, Reading, MA, 1970)] with the Feynman rules recently developed by Iliopoulos et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 534, 419 (1998)]. We find no significant effect, in marked contrast to the result obtained by Mukhanov and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1624 (1998); Phys. Rev. D 56, 3248 (1997)] for chaotic inflation based on a quadratic potential. By applying the canonical technique of Mukhanov and co-workers to the exponential potentials of power law inflation, we show that the two methods produce the same results, within the approximations employed, for these backgrounds. We therefore conclude that the shape of the inflaton potential can have an enormous impact on the one loop back reaction. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Quantum healing of classical singularities in power-law spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helliwell, T M [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Konkowski, D A [Department of Mathematics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)
2007-07-07
We study a broad class of spacetimes whose metric coefficients reduce to powers of a radius r in the limit of small r. Among these four-parameter 'power-law' metrics, we identify those parameters for which the spacetimes have classical singularities as r {yields} 0. We show that a large set of such classically-singular spacetimes is nevertheless non-singular quantum mechanically, in that the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint, so that the evolution of quantum wave packets lacks the ambiguity associated with scattering off singularities. Using these metrics, the broadest class yet studied to compare classical with quantum singularities, we explore the physical reasons why some that are singular classically are 'healed' quantum mechanically, while others are not. We show that most (but not all) of the remaining quantum-mechanically singular spacetimes can be excluded if either the weak energy condition or the dominant energy condition is invoked, and we briefly discuss the effect of this work on the strong cosmic censorship conjecture.
Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter
2008-08-01
Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.
Featuring Control Power: Corporate Law and Economics Revisited
A.M. Pacces (Alessio)
2008-01-01
textabstractThis dissertation reappraises the existing framework for economic analysis of corporate law. The standard approach to the legal foundations of corporate governance is based on the ‘law matters’ thesis, according to which corporate law promotes separation of ownership and control by
The end of nuclear power? The conflict of politics, ecology and law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strassburg, W.
1999-01-01
The German federal government's demand to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power is examined under aspects of constitutional law. Constitutional barriers allow the peaceful use of nuclear power to be discontinued without any compensation only in the distant future. A general restriction of the useful life of plants does not constitute a modification of ownership rights but deprivation, i.e., expropriation. In this politically desired opt-out, the government also must bear in mind that the constitution protects not only the property but also the freedom to exercise their profession (Article 12, para. 1, German Basic Law) of all those who have been committed to this industry for decades. Also a national ban on reprocessing with transborder effects violates existing law, counteracting the requirement of a free exchange of goods and services within the single European market. Moreover, the existing reprocessing contracts with foreign companies may be terminated unilaterally only subject to indemnification, as they constitute obligations under international law, unless German customers were to exercise their contractual right to cancel. In addition, it is to be feared that discontinuation of the peaceful uses of nuclear power manifests itself in the absence of provisions for the back end of the fuel cycle. Prolonging the exploration of repositories and, consequently, relying more and more heavily on interim stores, is bound to raise the question of the evidence of spent fuel and waste management in these latter facilities. In the absence of sufficient proof of waste management provisions in interim stores, the accusation could be leveled that it was not certain whether these interim stores were not turning into final stores. (orig.) [de
Single-Sex Schools, the Law, and School Reform.
Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.
1999-01-01
Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokhari A H; Zaman F D; Fakhar K; Kara A H
2011-01-01
First, we studied the invariance properties of the Kadomstev—Petviashvili equation with power law nonlinearity. Then, we determined the complete class of conservation laws and stated the corresponding conserved densities which are useful in finding the conserved quantities of the equation. The point symmetry generators were also used to reduce the equation to an exact solution and to verify the invariance properties of the conserved flows. (general)
Kumar, Jagadish; Ananthakrishna, G
2018-01-01
Scale-invariant power-law distributions for acoustic emission signals are ubiquitous in several plastically deforming materials. However, power-law distributions for acoustic emission energies are reported in distinctly different plastically deforming situations such as hcp and fcc single and polycrystalline samples exhibiting smooth stress-strain curves and in dilute metallic alloys exhibiting discontinuous flow. This is surprising since the underlying dislocation mechanisms in these two types of deformations are very different. So far, there have been no models that predict the power-law statistics for discontinuous flow. Furthermore, the statistics of the acoustic emission signals in jerky flow is even more complex, requiring multifractal measures for a proper characterization. There has been no model that explains the complex statistics either. Here we address the problem of statistical characterization of the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of the Portevin-Le Chatelier bands. Following our recently proposed general framework for calculating acoustic emission, we set up a wave equation for the elastic degrees of freedom with a plastic strain rate as a source term. The energy dissipated during acoustic emission is represented by the Rayleigh-dissipation function. Using the plastic strain rate obtained from the Ananthakrishna model for the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we compute the acoustic emission signals associated with the three Portevin-Le Chatelier bands and the Lüders-like band. The so-calculated acoustic emission signals are used for further statistical characterization. Our results show that the model predicts power-law statistics for all the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of Portevin-Le Chatelier bands with the exponent values increasing with increasing strain rate. The calculated multifractal spectra corresponding to the acoustic emission signals associated with the three band types have a maximum
Universal correlations and power-law tails in financial covariance matrices
Akemann, G.; Fischmann, J.; Vivo, P.
2010-07-01
We investigate whether quantities such as the global spectral density or individual eigenvalues of financial covariance matrices can be best modelled by standard random matrix theory or rather by its generalisations displaying power-law tails. In order to generate individual eigenvalue distributions a chopping procedure is devised, which produces a statistical ensemble of asset-price covariances from a single instance of financial data sets. Local results for the smallest eigenvalue and individual spacings are very stable upon reshuffling the time windows and assets. They are in good agreement with the universal Tracy-Widom distribution and Wigner surmise, respectively. This suggests a strong degree of robustness especially in the low-lying sector of the spectra, most relevant for portfolio selections. Conversely, the global spectral density of a single covariance matrix as well as the average over all unfolded nearest-neighbour spacing distributions deviate from standard Gaussian random matrix predictions. The data are in fair agreement with a recently introduced generalised random matrix model, with correlations showing a power-law decay.
Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes
Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-12-01
For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.
Cluster Tails for Critical Power-Law Inhomogeneous Random Graphs
van der Hofstad, Remco; Kliem, Sandra; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S. H.
2018-04-01
Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299-2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ \\in (3,4), the sequence of clusters ordered in decreasing size and multiplied through by n^{-(τ -2)/(τ -1)} converges as n→ ∞ to a sequence of decreasing non-degenerate random variables. Here, we study the tails of the limit of the rescaled largest cluster, i.e., the probability that the scaling limit of the largest cluster takes a large value u, as a function of u. This extends a related result of Pittel (J Combin Theory Ser B 82(2):237-269, 2001) for the Erdős-Rényi random graph to the setting of rank-1 inhomogeneous random graphs with infinite third moment degrees. We make use of delicate large deviations and weak convergence arguments.
Power-law forgetting in synapses with metaplasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, A; Luck, J M
2011-01-01
The idea of using metaplastic synapses to incorporate the separate storage of long- and short-term memories via an array of hidden states was put forward in the cascade model of Fusi et al. In this paper, we devise and investigate two models of a metaplastic synapse based on these general principles. The main difference between the two models lies in their available mechanisms of decay, when a contrarian event occurs after the build-up of a long-term memory. In one case, this leads to the conversion of the long-term memory to a short-term memory of the opposite kind, while in the other, a long-term memory of the opposite kind may be generated as a result. Appropriately enough, the response of both models to short-term events is not affected by this difference in architecture. On the contrary, the transient response of both models, after long-term memories have been created by the passage of sustained signals, is rather different. The asymptotic behaviour of both models is, however, characterised by power-law forgetting with the same universal exponent
Reciprocity and the Emergence of Power Laws in Social Networks
Schnegg, Michael
Research in network science has shown that many naturally occurring and technologically constructed networks are scale free, that means a power law degree distribution emerges from a growth model in which each new node attaches to the existing network with a probability proportional to its number of links (= degree). Little is known about whether the same principles of local attachment and global properties apply to societies as well. Empirical evidence from six ethnographic case studies shows that complex social networks have significantly lower scaling exponents γ ~ 1 than have been assumed in the past. Apparently humans do not only look for the most prominent players to play with. Moreover cooperation in humans is characterized through reciprocity, the tendency to give to those from whom one has received in the past. Both variables — reciprocity and the scaling exponent — are negatively correlated (r = -0.767, sig = 0.075). If we include this effect in simulations of growing networks, degree distributions emerge that are much closer to those empirically observed. While the proportion of nodes with small degrees decreases drastically as we introduce reciprocity, the scaling exponent is more robust and changes only when a relatively large proportion of attachment decisions follow this rule. If social networks are less scale free than previously assumed this has far reaching implications for policy makers, public health programs and marketing alike.
Consistency relation in power law G-inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2014-01-01
In the standard inflationary scenario based on a minimally coupled scalar field, canonical or non-canonical, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar perturbations ensures the following consistency relation: r ≤ −8n T , where r is the tensor-to-scalar-ratio and n T is the spectral index for tensor perturbations. However, recently, it has been demonstrated that this consistency relation could be violated in Galilean inflation models even in the absence of superluminal propagation of scalar perturbations. It is therefore interesting to investigate whether the subluminal propagation of scalar field perturbations impose any bound on the ratio r/|n T | in G-inflation models. In this paper, we derive the consistency relation for a class of G-inflation models that lead to power law inflation. Within these class of models, it turns out that one can have r > −8n T or r ≤ −8n T depending on the model parameters. However, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar field perturbations, as required by causality, restricts r ≤ −(32/3) n T
Mutually cooperative epidemics on power-law networks
Cui, Peng-Bi; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio
2017-08-01
The spread of an infectious disease can, in some cases, promote the propagation of other pathogens favoring violent outbreaks, which cause a discontinuous transition to an endemic state. The topology of the contact network plays a crucial role in these cooperative dynamics. We consider a susceptible-infected-removed-type model with two mutually cooperative pathogens: An individual already infected with one disease has an increased probability of getting infected by the other. We present a heterogeneous mean-field theoretical approach to the coinfection dynamics on generic uncorrelated power-law degree-distributed networks and validate its results by means of numerical simulations. We show that, when the second moment of the degree distribution is finite, the epidemic transition is continuous for low cooperativity, while it is discontinuous when cooperativity is sufficiently high. For scale-free networks, i.e., topologies with diverging second moment, the transition is instead always continuous. In this way we clarify the effect of heterogeneity and system size on the nature of the transition, and we validate the physical interpretation about the origin of the discontinuity.
The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stubbe, C.
1989-01-01
The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.) [de
The Normalising Power of Marriage Law: An Irish Genealogy, 1945 – 2010
McGowan, Deirdre
2015-01-01
Marriage law is often conceptualised as an instrument of power that illegitimately imposes the will of the State on its citizens. Paradoxically, marriage law is also offered as a route to liberation. In this thesis, I question the efficacy of this type of analysis by investigating the actual power effects of marriage law. Using Michel Foucault’s concepts of bio-power and government, and his genealogical approach to history, I identify the role played by marriage law in governing the social do...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment
2001-07-01
The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.
A recommended procedure for estimating the cosmic-ray spectral parameter of a simple power law
Howell, L W
2002-01-01
A simple power law model with single spectral index alpha sub 1 is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10 sup 1 sup 3 eV. Two procedures for estimating alpha sub 1 --the method of moments and maximum likelihood (ML)--are developed and their statistical performance are compared. The ML procedure is shown to be the superior approach and is then generalized for application to real cosmic-ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution and inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic-ray detector as they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives.
Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao
2010-07-01
In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)
Uniformity measure for power-law mass spectrum in nuclear fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wislicki, W.
1992-11-01
Description is given in terms of the Renyi entropy and the uniformity for the canonical ensemble, the grand canonical ensemble and the power-law probability measures. The study is presented of the power-law spectra of cluster masses observed in nuclear interactions in the vicinity of the liquid-gas transition point. 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saecker, F.J.; Busche, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer deutsches und europaeisches Wirtschaft-, Wettbewerbs- und Energierecht
1998-01-01
With the EU Directive 96/92/EC, effective since 19 February 1997, for establishment of the Internal Market for electricity, the European Union made an important second step forward towards building the Internal Market for electricity. Already in 1990, the directive on electric power transmission systems and rights had become effective, as well as the directive governing transparency in energy pricing. The article here discusses legal problems involved in finding consensus about a common system of access to transmission lines so as to ensure evolution of the intended competition-oriented market for electricity. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Mit der Elektrizitaetsbinnenmarkt-Richtlinie 92/92, die nach laengeren Geburtswehen am 19. Februar 1997 in Kraft trat, ist in der Europaeischen Union der zweite Schritt auf dem Weg zur Vollendung des Strombinnenmarktes vollzogen worden. Bereits im Jahre 1990 waren in einem ersten Schritt die sog. Transitrichtlinie und die Transparenzrichtlinie erlassen worden. Der Beitrag gibt eine Analyse der Probleme und moeglichen Loesungen aus rechtlicher Sicht in dem Bemuehen, eine gemeinsame Regelung des Zugangs zu den Uebertragungsnetzen zu etablieren, die der Entwicklung des wettbewerbsorientierten Elektrizitaets-Binnenmarktes gerecht wird. (orig./CB)
Mobile user forecast and power-law acceleration invariance of scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jin-Li; Guo Zhao-Hua; Liu Xue-Jiao
2011-01-01
This paper studies and predicts the number growth of China's mobile users by using the power-law regression. We find that the number growth of the mobile users follows a power law. Motivated by the data on the evolution of the mobile users, we consider scenarios of self-organization of accelerating growth networks into scale-free structures and propose a directed network model, in which the nodes grow following a power-law acceleration. The expressions for the transient and the stationary average degree distributions are obtained by using the Poisson process. This result shows that the model generates appropriate power-law connectivity distributions. Therefore, we find a power-law acceleration invariance of the scale-free networks. The numerical simulations of the models agree with the analytical results well. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
On the structure and phase transitions of power-law Poissonian ensembles
Eliazar, Iddo; Oshanin, Gleb
2012-10-01
Power-law Poissonian ensembles are Poisson processes that are defined on the positive half-line, and that are governed by power-law intensities. Power-law Poissonian ensembles are stochastic objects of fundamental significance; they uniquely display an array of fractal features and they uniquely generate a span of important applications. In this paper we apply three different methods—oligarchic analysis, Lorenzian analysis and heterogeneity analysis—to explore power-law Poissonian ensembles. The amalgamation of these analyses, combined with the topology of power-law Poissonian ensembles, establishes a detailed and multi-faceted picture of the statistical structure and the statistical phase transitions of these elemental ensembles.
Do wealth distributions follow power laws? Evidence from ‘rich lists’
Brzezinski, Michal
2014-07-01
We use data on the wealth of the richest persons taken from the 'rich lists' provided by business magazines like Forbes to verify if the upper tails of wealth distributions follow, as often claimed, a power-law behaviour. The data sets used cover the world's richest persons over 1996-2012, the richest Americans over 1988-2012, the richest Chinese over 2006-2012, and the richest Russians over 2004-2011. Using a recently introduced comprehensive empirical methodology for detecting power laws, which allows for testing the goodness of fit as well as for comparing the power-law model with rival distributions, we find that a power-law model is consistent with data only in 35% of the analysed data sets. Moreover, even if wealth data are consistent with the power-law model, they are usually also consistent with some rivals like the log-normal or stretched exponential distributions.
Medical inspection according to the new nuclear power law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ligteringen, J.
1982-01-01
Industrial medicine is an underdeveloped discipline in the Netherlands. The author surveys the discrepancies between the laws regulating health protection by medical inspection, reporting and evaluation, and the laws concerning these points when work with radioactive materials or apparatuses producing ionising radiations is involved. Points to be cleared up are presented. (Auth.)
Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths
Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.
2002-12-01
Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.
Empirical Scaling Laws of Neutral Beam Injection Power in HL-2A Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Jian-Yong; Wei Hui-Ling; Liu He; Yang Xian-Fu; Zou Gui-Qing; Yu Li-Ming; Li Qing; Luo Cui-Wen; Pan Yu-Dong; Jiang Shao-Feng; Lei Guang-Jiu; Li Bo; Rao Jun; Duan Xu-Ru
2015-01-01
We present an experimental method to obtain neutral beam injection (NBI) power scaling laws with operating parameters of the NBI system on HL-2A, including the beam divergence angle, the beam power transmission efficiency, the neutralization efficiency and so on. With the empirical scaling laws, the estimating power can be obtained in every shot of experiment on time, therefore the important parameters such as the energy confinement time can be obtained precisely. The simulation results by the tokamak simulation code (TSC) show that the evolution of the plasma parameters is in good agreement with the experimental results by using the NBI power from the empirical scaling law. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pu Qiurong; Chen Yuan
2013-01-01
Green's function method is applied to investigate the two-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the exchange and single-ion anisotropies. In the presence of the magnetic field, the effects of the anisotropies and field on the thermodynamic properties are obtained within the random phase approximation combining with Anderson-Callen approximation. The field-induced laws are found for the thermodynamic properties. Field dependences of heights of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum fit well to power laws. The linear increase at high fields is shown for positions of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum. A power law at low fields occurs for the position of the susceptibility maximum. At the positions of the maxima, the magnetization and internal energy display the power-law increase and linear decrease with the field, respectively. The exponents of the power laws are dependent of the anisotropies, as well as the slopes of the linear laws. Our results do not support the 2/3 power law which was obtained by the Landau theory.
Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-01-01
Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars
Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il
2015-04-15
Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.
Pardimin, H.; Arcana, N.
2018-01-01
Many types of research in the field of mathematics education apply the Quasi-Experimental method and statistical analysis use t-test. Quasi-experiment has a weakness that is difficult to fulfil “the law of a single independent variable”. T-test also has a weakness that is a generalization of the conclusions obtained is less powerful. This research aimed to find ways to reduce the weaknesses of the Quasi-experimental method and improved the generalization of the research results. The method applied in the research was a non-interactive qualitative method, and the type was concept analysis. Concepts analysed are the concept of statistics, research methods of education, and research reports. The result represented a way to overcome the weaknesses of quasi-Experiments and T-test. In addition, the way was to apply a combination of Factorial Design and Balanced Design, which the authors refer to as Factorial-Balanced Design. The advantages of this design are: (1) almost fulfilling “the low of single independent variable” so no need to test the similarity of the academic ability, (2) the sample size of the experimental group and the control group became larger and equal; so it becomes robust to deal with violations of the assumptions of the ANOVA test.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Granucci Francesca
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density oligonucleotide microarray technology enables the discovery of genes that are transcriptionally modulated in different biological samples due to physiology, disease or intervention. Methods for the identification of these so-called "differentially expressed genes" (DEG would largely benefit from a deeper knowledge of the intrinsic measurement variability. Though it is clear that variance of repeated measures is highly dependent on the average expression level of a given gene, there is still a lack of consensus on how signal reproducibility is linked to signal intensity. The aim of this study was to empirically model the variance versus mean dependence in microarray data to improve the performance of existing methods for identifying DEG. Results In the present work we used data generated by our lab as well as publicly available data sets to show that dispersion of repeated measures depends on location of the measures themselves following a power law. This enables us to construct a power law global error model (PLGEM that is applicable to various Affymetrix GeneChip data sets. A new DEG identification method is therefore proposed, consisting of a statistic designed to make explicit use of model-derived measurement spread estimates and a resampling-based hypothesis testing algorithm. Conclusions The new method provides a control of the false positive rate, a good sensitivity vs. specificity trade-off and consistent results with varying number of replicates and even using single samples.
Power-law modulation of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a monomial potential
Huang, Qing-Guo; Pi, Shi
2018-04-01
The effects of heavy fields modulate the scalar power spectrum during inflation. We analytically calculate the modulations of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a separable monomial potential, i.e. V(phi)~ phin. In general the modulation is characterized by a power-law oscillation which is reduced to the logarithmic oscillation in the case of n=2.
Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system
Isomorphs in the phase diagram of a model liquid without inverse power law repulsion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veldhorst, Arnold Adriaan; Bøhling, Lasse; Dyre, J. C.
2012-01-01
scattering function are calculated. The results are shown to reflect a hidden scale invariance; despite its exponential repulsion the Buckingham potential is well approximated by an inverse power-law plus a linear term in the region of the first peak of the radial distribution function. As a consequence...... the dynamics of the viscous Buckingham liquid is mimicked by a corresponding model with purely repulsive inverse-power-law interactions. The results presented here closely resemble earlier results for Lennard-Jones type liquids, demonstrating that the existence of strong correlations and isomorphs does...... not depend critically on the mathematical form of the repulsion being an inverse power law....
Blinking in quantum dots: The origin of the grey state and power law statistics
Ye, Mao; Searson, Peter C.
2011-09-01
Quantum dot (QD) blinking is characterized by switching between an “on” state and an “off” state, and a power-law distribution of on and off times with exponents from 1.0 to 2.0. The origin of blinking behavior in QDs, however, has remained a mystery. Here we describe an energy-band model for QDs that captures the full range of blinking behavior reported in the literature and provides new insight into features such as the gray state, the power-law distribution of on and off times, and the power-law exponents.
Seepage Characteristics Study on Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meijuan Yun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present fractal models for the flow rate, velocity, effective viscosity, apparent viscosity, and effective permeability for power-law fluid based on the fractal properties of porous media. The proposed expressions realize the quantitative description to the relation between the properties of the power-law fluid and the parameters of the microstructure of the porous media. The model predictions are compared with related data and good agreement between them is found. The analytical expressions will contribute to the revealing of physical principles for the power-law fluid flow in porous media.
Stable power laws in variable economies; Lotka-Volterra implies Pareto-Zipf
Solomon, S.; Richmond, P.
2002-05-01
In recent years we have found that logistic systems of the Generalized Lotka-Volterra type (GLV) describing statistical systems of auto-catalytic elements posses power law distributions of the Pareto-Zipf type. In particular, when applied to economic systems, GLV leads to power laws in the relative individual wealth distribution and in market returns. These power laws and their exponent α are invariant to arbitrary variations in the total wealth of the system and to other endogenously and exogenously induced variations.
Power Laws in Stochastic Processes for Social Phenomena: An Introductory Review
Kumamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Kamihigashi, Takashi
2018-03-01
Many phenomena with power laws have been observed in various fields of the natural and social sciences, and these power laws are often interpreted as the macro behaviors of systems that consist of micro units. In this paper, we review some basic mathematical mechanisms that are known to generate power laws. In particular, we focus on stochastic processes including the Yule process and the Simon process as well as some recent models. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the mathematical details of their mechanisms in a self-contained manner.
Farrand, Benjamin
2014-01-01
In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...
Power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezazadeh, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan,Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, A. [Research Institute for Astronomy Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM),P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan,Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-01-21
We study inflation in the framework of f(T)-gravity in the presence of a canonical scalar field. After reviewing the basic equations governing the background cosmology in f(T)-gravity, we turn to study the cosmological perturbations and obtain the evolutionary equations for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Solving those equations, we find the power spectra for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Then, we consider a power-law f(T) function and investigate the inflationary models with the power-law and intermediate scale factors. We see that in contrast with the standard inflationary scenario based on the Einstein gravity, the power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity can be compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015 at 68% CL. We find that in our f(T) setting, the potentials responsible for the both power-law and intermediate inflationary models have the power-law form V(ϕ)∝ϕ{sup m} but the power m is different for them. Therefore, we can refine some of power-law inflationary potentials in the framework of f(T)-gravity while they are disfavored by the observational data in the standard inflationary scenario. Interestingly enough, is that the self-interacting quartic potential V(ϕ)∝ϕ{sup 4} which has special reheating properties, can be consistent with the Planck 2015 data in our f(T) scenario while it is ruled out in the standard inflationary scenario.
Power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezazadeh, K.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Karami, K.
2016-01-01
We study inflation in the framework of f(T)-gravity in the presence of a canonical scalar field. After reviewing the basic equations governing the background cosmology in f(T)-gravity, we turn to study the cosmological perturbations and obtain the evolutionary equations for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Solving those equations, we find the power spectra for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Then, we consider a power-law f(T) function and investigate the inflationary models with the power-law and intermediate scale factors. We see that in contrast with the standard inflationary scenario based on the Einstein gravity, the power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity can be compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015 at 68% CL. We find that in our f(T) setting, the potentials responsible for the both power-law and intermediate inflationary models have the power-law form V(ϕ)∝ϕ m but the power m is different for them. Therefore, we can refine some of power-law inflationary potentials in the framework of f(T)-gravity while they are disfavored by the observational data in the standard inflationary scenario. Interestingly enough, is that the self-interacting quartic potential V(ϕ)∝ϕ 4 which has special reheating properties, can be consistent with the Planck 2015 data in our f(T) scenario while it is ruled out in the standard inflationary scenario.
Non-thermal Power-Law Distributions in Solar and Space Plasmas
Oka, M.; Battaglia, M.; Birn, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Effenberger, F.; Eriksson, E.; Fletcher, L.; Hatch, S.; Imada, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Kuhar, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Miyoshi, Y.; Retino, A.
2017-12-01
Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies in solar and space plasma environments. While energy spectra of accelerated particles often exhibit a power-law and are characterized by the power-law index δ, it remains unclear how particles are accelerated to high energies and how δ is determined. Here, we review previous observations of the power-law index δ in a variety of different plasma environments with a particular focus on sub-relativistic electrons. It appears that in regions more closely related to magnetic reconnection (such as the "above-the-looptop" solar hard X-ray source and the plasma sheet in Earth's magnetotail), the spectra are typically soft (δ> 4). This is in contrast to the typically hard spectra (δuniform in the plasma sheet, while power-law distributions still exist even in quiet times. The role of magnetotail reconnection in the electron power-law formation could therefore be confounded with these background conditions. Because different regions have been studied with different instrumentations and methodologies, we point out a need for more systematic and coordinated studies of power-law distributions for a better understanding of possible scaling laws in particle acceleration as well as their universality.
A common mode of origin of power laws in models of market and earthquake
Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2007-07-01
We show that there is a common mode of origin for the power laws observed in two different models: (i) the Pareto law for the distribution of money among the agents with random-saving propensities in an ideal gas-like market model and (ii) the Gutenberg-Richter law for the distribution of overlaps in a fractal-overlap model for earthquakes. We find that the power laws appear as the asymptotic forms of ever-widening log-normal distributions for the agents’ money and the overlap magnitude, respectively. The identification of the generic origin of the power laws helps in better understanding and in developing generalized views of phenomena in such diverse areas as economics and geophysics.
Congress's Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rosenberg, Morton; Tatelman, Todd B
2007-01-01
...), and/or to remove the obstruction (civil contempt). Although arguably any action that directly obstructs the effort of Congress to exercise its constitutional powers may constitute a contempt, in the last 70 years the contempt power...
Evaluation of 'period-generated' control laws for the time-optimal control of reactor power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, J.A.
1988-01-01
Time-Optimal control of neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. These laws are designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws'. Relative to time-optimal response, they function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The results of a systematic evaluation of these laws are presented. The behavior of each term in the control laws is shown and the capability of these laws to control properly the reactor power is demonstrated. Factors affecting the implementation of these laws, such as the prompt neutron lifetime and the differential reactivity worth of the actuators, are discussed. Finally, the results of an experimental study in which these laws were used to adjust the power of the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor are shown. The information presented should be of interest to those designing high performance control systems for test, spacecraft, or, in certain instances, commercial reactors
Mapping the Power of Law Professors: The Role of Scientific and Social Capital
Bühlmann, Felix; Benz, Pierre; Mach, André; Rossier, Thierry
2017-01-01
As a scientific discipline and profession, law has been for centuries at the heart of social and political power of many Western societies. Professors of law, as influential representatives of the profession, are important powerbrokers between academia, politics and the corporate world. Their influence is based on scientific reputation,…
Converging cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic shock collapse onto a power-law-varying line current
Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.
2016-01-01
We investigate the convergence behaviour of a cylindrical, fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave in a neutrally ionized gas collapsing onto an axial line current that generates a power law in time, azimuthal magnetic field. The analysis is done
Power-law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona
Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritsky, V. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.
2018-01-01
Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.
Exploring the effect of power law social popularity on language evolution.
Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan
2014-01-01
We evaluate the effect of a power-law-distributed social popularity on the origin and change of language, based on three artificial life models meticulously tracing the evolution of linguistic conventions including lexical items, categories, and simple syntax. A cross-model analysis reveals an optimal social popularity, in which the λ value of the power law distribution is around 1.0. Under this scaling, linguistic conventions can efficiently emerge and widely diffuse among individuals, thus maintaining a useful level of mutual understandability even in a big population. From an evolutionary perspective, we regard this social optimality as a tradeoff among social scaling, mutual understandability, and population growth. Empirical evidence confirms that such optimal power laws exist in many large-scale social systems that are constructed primarily via language-related interactions. This study contributes to the empirical explorations and theoretical discussions of the evolutionary relations between ubiquitous power laws in social systems and relevant individual behaviors.
Power-Law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona
Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.; Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritskiy, V. M.
2018-01-01
Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.
The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C B
2004-01-01
The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality is investigated by treating the variation of the number of active sites in the system as a stochastic process. An avalanche is then regarded as a first-return random-walk process in a one-dimensional lattice. Power-law distributions of the lifetime and spatial size are found when the random walk is unbiased with equal probability to move in opposite directions. This shows that power-law distributions in self-organized criticality may be caused by the balance of competitive interactions. At the mean time, the mean spatial size for avalanches with the same lifetime is found to increase in a power law with the lifetime. (letter to the editor)
Tunable power law in the desynchronization events of coupled chaotic electronic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Gilson F. de; Lorenzo, Orlando di; Chevrollier, Martine; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Oriá, Marcos; Souza Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de
2014-01-01
We study the statistics of the amplitude of the synchronization error in chaotic electronic circuits coupled through linear feedback. Depending on the coupling strength, our system exhibits three qualitatively different regimes of synchronization: weak coupling yields independent oscillations; moderate to strong coupling produces a regime of intermittent synchronization known as attractor bubbling; and stronger coupling produces complete synchronization. In the regime of moderate coupling, the probability distribution for the sizes of desynchronization events follows a power law, with an exponent that can be adjusted by changing the coupling strength. Such power-law distributions are interesting, as they appear in many complex systems. However, most of the systems with such a behavior have a fixed value for the exponent of the power law, while here we present an example of a system where the exponent of the power law is easily tuned in real time
Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.
El Boustani, Sami; Marre, Olivier; Béhuret, Sébastien; Baudot, Pierre; Yger, Pierre; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain; Frégnac, Yves
2009-09-01
Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m) activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m) reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population signals measured
Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sami El Boustani
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)
Around power law for PageRank components in Buckley-Osthus model of web graph
Gasnikov, Alexander; Zhukovskii, Maxim; Kim, Sergey; Noskov, Fedor; Plaunov, Stepan; Smirnov, Daniil
2017-01-01
In the paper we investigate power law for PageRank components for the Buckley-Osthus model for web graph. We compare different numerical methods for PageRank calculation. With the best method we do a lot of numerical experiments. These experiments confirm the hypothesis about power law. At the end we discuss real model of web-ranking based on the classical PageRank approach.
Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang-Bao Tian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid. In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
Wei, H. L.; Billings, S. A.
2009-09-01
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, H.L., E-mail: w.hualiang@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, the University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Billings, S.A., E-mail: s.billings@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, the University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2009-09-07
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Mixed-correlated ARFIMA processes for power-law cross-correlations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2013-01-01
Roč. 392, č. 24 (2013), s. 6484-6493 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : power-law cross-correlations * long - term memory * econophysics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.722, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-mixed-correlated arfima processes for power-law cross-correlations.pdf
Fractal approach towards power-law coherency to measure cross-correlations between time series
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2017-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 193-200 ISSN 1007-5704 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : power- law coherency * power- law cross-correlations * correlations Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/kristoufek-0473066.pdf
Electrohydrodynamic stability of two stratified power law liquid in couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eldabe, N.T.
1988-01-01
Consideration is given to the stability of the flow of two power law liquids under the influence of normal electric field between two infinite parallel planes when one of the planes moves with constant velocity in its own plane. It is found that the electric fields have a dramatic effect and can be chosen to stabilize or destabilize the flow. The effects of the power law parameters on the problem are examinated
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, H.L.; Billings, S.A.
2009-01-01
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.
Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marković, Dimitrije, E-mail: markovic@cbs.mpg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Biomagnetic Center, Hans Berger Clinic for Neurology, University Hospital Jena, Jena (Germany); Gros, Claudius, E-mail: gros@itp.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)
2014-03-01
Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real
Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius
2014-01-01
Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real
Schneider, Elizabeth M.
2010-01-01
I am pleased to be part of this symposium to celebrate the life and work of Peter Bachrach. Although my focus is the relevance of Peter's ideas of power to law, I want to begin with some personal comments as well as raise some final thoughts, drawing on others' contributions. Like so many of Peter's other students, I adored him. Peter's joy in…
Cockmartin, L; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W
2013-08-01
-phantom coincided with the patient curves for Siemens but was lower for the Hologic system. Close agreement of doses for all three phantoms with patient doses was found. Power law parameters of the phantoms were close to those of the patients but no single phantom matched in terms of both magnitude (κ) and texture (β) for the x-ray systems in this work. PS analysis of structured phantoms is feasible and this methodology can be used to suggest improvements in phantom design.
Evapotranspiration Power Law in Self-Organized and Human-Managed Ecosystems
Zeng, R.; Cai, X.
2017-12-01
Natural systems display a profound degree of self-organization, often apparent even to the untrained eye. However, in this age of increased coupling among human and natural systems, it is unclear to what degree natural organization principles continue to govern human-managed landscapes. Here we present an emerging characteristic of terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET), one of the key components of the water cycle and energy budget, adhered to by both naturally organized and intensively managed landscapes. We find that ET variance and ET mean for ecosystems throughout the world with diverse climate conditions, vegetation structures, and land covers and land uses organize themselves according to a specific power law curve. From multi-source observations, the ET power law curve stands true through varying spatial scales, from field to region. Moreover, a phenomenon of similar ecosystems gravitating toward particular segments of the power law curve, suggests that the feature of self-optimization of ecosystems establishes the ET power law together with climatic conditions. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that landscapes persistently follow the power law curve even upon human-induced transition from rain-fed to irrigated agriculture in the American High Plains and from wetland to agricultural land in American Midwest. As such, the ET power law can be an informative tool for predicting consequences of anthropogenic disturbances to the hydrologic cycle and understanding constraints to sustainable land use.
On the dynamics of the power law inflation due to an exponential potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokohama, Jun'ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Tokyo Univ.
1988-01-01
The power law inflationary universe model induced by a scalar field with an exponential potential is studied. A dissipation term due to particle creation is introduced in the inflation's classical equation of motion. It is shown that the power index of the inflation increases prominently with an adequate viscosity. Consequently, even in theories with a rather steep exponential such as some supergravity or superstring models, it turns out that a 'realistic' power law inflation (with a power index p> or approx.10) is possible. (orig.)
Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiulin, Du
2013-01-01
Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law κ-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law κ-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the κ-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter κ→∞ they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution
Problems and legislative remedies of the parallel law systems in Japan for nuclear power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irie, Kazutomo
2011-01-01
There are two established laws governing nuclear power reactors in Japan. One is the Electricity Utilities Industry Law, which regulates the nuclear power reactors, and the other is the so-called 'Reactor Regulation Law', which dually regulates the reactors in some phases. When a graded approach on the regulation of nuclear reactors was adopted, it extended over these two laws and was legislatively imperfect. Such imperfection created problems from the beginning. Also, the original regulatory structures presented by these laws had become obscure during the operation process of the graded regulation. The situation becomes further complicated by the revision of these laws in recent years. It appears that the trait of the regulatory procedural structure of the Electricity Utilities Industry Law has been weakened. As there is a pressing need to review the entire regulatory structure and to propose a unified regulatory system by combining these laws, this paper examines the merits and demerits of combining these laws under a unified regulation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrmann, B.J.; Schweers, E.
2007-07-01
The book under consideration is an actual collection of important laws and regulations according to the amended power economy law. It is the 7th edition and contains components of the European and national cartel law. Furthermore, the power economy law, the regulations of mains access, and the regulations of mains fee are revised editorial. The book consist of four main chapters: (a) General energy law; (b) Bylaws to energy economical laws; (c) Law of privileged energy supports; (d) cartel law.
Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sibatov, R T, E-mail: ren_sib@bk.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, 432000, 42 Leo Tolstoy Street, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)
2011-08-01
A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.
Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sibatov, R T
2011-01-01
A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.
Iwamatsu, Masao
2017-07-01
The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids, both shear-thickening and shear-thinning liquids, that completely wet a spherical substrate is theoretically investigated in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. The crater-shaped droplet model with the wedge-shaped meniscus near the three-phase contact line is used to calculate the viscous dissipation near the contact line. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the equation that governs the evolution of the contact line. The time evolution of the dynamic contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ∼t^{-α} with the spreading exponent α, which is different from Tanner's law for Newtonian liquids and those for non-Newtonian liquids on a flat substrate. Furthermore, the line-tension dominated spreading, which could be realized on a spherical substrate for late-stage of spreading when the contact angle becomes low and the curvature of the contact line becomes large, is also investigated.
Practical experience with second law power plant monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, F.D.; Horn, K.F.
1992-01-01
This article discusses the use of an ultimate performance monitoring technique derived from Second Law concepts. Other techniques and their methods have been reported. If electricity is to be produced with the minimum of unproductive consumption of fuel - then fundamental thermodynamic losses must be understood on a system bases. Such understanding cuts across vendor curves, plant design, fuels, etc. Thermal losses in a nuclear unit are comparable at a prime facia level to losses at any other thermal system. They are what we must minimize in the production of electricity, no manner the method of that production. The Second Law offers the only foundation for the study of such losses, and thus affords the bases for a true and ultimate indicator of system performance. From such a foundation, a parameter is needed to tell us specifically what components are thermodynamically responsible for fuel consumption given either their direct creation of electricity or their contribution to thermodynamic losses. The Fuel Consumption Index, discussed in this article, is this parameter. It can be used for thermodynamic system design, monitoring, diagnosing problems, and economic dispatching. It tells us why fuel is being consumed; consumed by a nuclear plant, trash burner, a 40 year-old fossil plant, etc
Power law scaling in synchronization of brain signals depends on cognitive load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Luis ePerez Velazquez
2014-05-01
Full Text Available As it has several features that optimize information processing, it has been proposed that criticality governs the dynamics of nervous system activity. Indications of such dynamics have been reported for a variety of in vitro and in vivo recordings, ranging from in vitro slice electrophysiology to human functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, there still remains considerable debate as to whether the brain actually operates close to criticality or in another governing state such as stochastic or oscillatory dynamics. A tool used to investigate the criticality of nervous system data is the inspection of power-law distributions. Although the findings are controversial, such power-law scaling has been found in different types of recordings. Here, we studied whether there is a power law scaling in the distribution of the phase synchronization derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings during executive function tasks performed by children with and without autism. Characterizing the brain dynamics that is different between autistic and non-autistic individuals is important in order to find differences that could either aid diagnosis or provide insights as to possible therapeutic interventions in autism. We report in this study that power law scaling in the distributions of a phase synchrony index is not very common and its frequency of occurrence is similar in the control and the autism group. In addition, power law scaling tends to diminish with increased cognitive load (difficulty or engagement in the task. There were indications of changes in the probability distribution functions for the phase synchrony that were associated with a transition from power law scaling to lack of power law (or vice versa, which suggests the presence of phenomenological bifurcations in brain dynamics associated with cognitive load. Hence, brain dynamics may fluctuate between criticality and other regimes depending upon context and behaviours.
Relation of the second law of thermodynamics to the power conversion of energy fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yater, J.C.
1979-01-01
The relation of the second law of thermodynamics to the power conversion of fluctuation energy is analyzed using the master equation of the model for the conversion circuit. The performance equation for independent particles shows that the power-conversion performance is given by the second law both for classical and quantum-effect diodes. The relation of the second law to power-conversion models based on the theoretical and experimental results for diode performance for interacting particles exhibiting many-body, multiparticle, or other anomalous and excess-current effects is examined. The performance equations are derived from the master equation for models for interacting particles to determine the conditions required by the second law for power conversion. These conditions are given in terms of the distribution throughout the power-conversion circuit for all the parameters that determine the particle and multiparticle barrier-crossing probability such as the effective mass and spectral density functions. Circuits for spectroscopic measurements for power-conversion circuits with interacting particles are noted. Using selected experimental values for the diode nonlinearity factors in these circuits, open circuit voltages are computed that are not predicted by the second law of thermodynamics
Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply. 2. rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuhlmacher, Gerd; Stappert, Holger; Jansen, Guido
2015-01-01
Now appearing in its second edition, this book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal framework governing the energy sector. It provides readily understandable coverage, across the relevant subfields of law, of the legal regulations applicable to any manner of activity in the energy sector along with a wealth of practical advice on the interpretation and application of legal provisions. The content has been thoroughly revised, updated to reflect the current status of legislation and supplemented with numerous chapters. The 2014 amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) and its practical impact have also been taken into account. The following topics are covered amongst others: unbundling of network operation; connection and access to networks and metering; network charges and incentive regulation; easement contracts; energy supply and basic services; energy and electricity taxes; cartel law, law on operating aids, procurement law; energy trade OTC and at exchanges; energy trade surveillance law; fuel production and fracking; conventional and nuclear power production; renewable energy production (including offshore production); energy storage and power-to-gas; transmission line construction; climate protection (including the 2014 EEG, emission trade and the Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy in the Heat Sector); cogeneration law, district heating and contracting; and investment protection.
The power of law : Spinoza’s contribution to legal theory
Gribnau, J.L.M.
1995-01-01
Spinoza’s legal theoretical ideas are based on psychological and sociological regularities in human behaviour of knowledge. His naturalistic and descriptive approach of the relationship between law and power shows that the exercise of state power on that basis - within the constitutional constraints
Judicial law-making: Unlocking the creative powers of judges in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... the creative powers of judges in terms of Section 39(2) of the constitution. ... that judges do indeed have a law-making function in the process of interpretation. ... The article examines the extent to which the judiciary can use this power in a ...
Huang, Y.; Song, Q. W.; Tan, B. L.
2018-04-01
It is first proposed a theoretical scaling law respectively for the coronal magnetic field strength B and electron power-law index δ versus frequency and coronal height in solar microwave burst sources. Based on the non-thermal gyro-synchrotron radiation model (Ramaty in Astrophys. J. 158:753, 1969), B and δ are uniquely solved by the observable optically-thin spectral index and turnover (peak) frequency, the other parameters (plasma density, temperature, view angle, low and high energy cutoffs, etc.) are relatively insensitive to the calculations, thus taken as some typical values. Both of B and δ increase with increasing of radio frequency but with decreasing of coronal height above photosphere, and well satisfy a square or cubic logarithmic fitting.
Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions.
Ruppeiner, George
2005-07-01
A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy gamma r(-alpha) . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit alpha-->infinity corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (alpha>3) and repulsive (gamma>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given alpha>3 , gamma>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b (rho T(-3/alpha) ) , where rho is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for rho T(-3/alpha) , related to gamma via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 33.7913 a phase transition is required to go between these regimes; (7) for any alpha>3 we may include a first-order phase transition, which is expected from computer simulations; and (8) if alpha-->infinity, the density approaches a finite value as the pressure increases to infinity, with the pressure diverging logarithmically in the density difference.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aude Merlin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – You worked as a lawyer on the Budanov case, and you created the Rule of Law Institute. How long since this institute was created?Stanislav Markelov: About two years.PIPSS.ORG – Who is the founder of the institute?Stanislav Markelov: I am.PIPSS.ORG – In which regions of Russia is this institute active? How many regions have branches? Stanislav Markelov: If I’m not mistaken, there are branches in 22 regions of Russia, and in other CIS countries: Belarus and Ukraine.PIPSS.ORG – What ...
Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M.P.
2013-01-01
Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby and Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: r LD = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys
Predicting the long tail of book sales: Unearthing the power-law exponent
Fenner, Trevor; Levene, Mark; Loizou, George
2010-06-01
The concept of the long tail has recently been used to explain the phenomenon in e-commerce where the total volume of sales of the items in the tail is comparable to that of the most popular items. In the case of online book sales, the proportion of tail sales has been estimated using regression techniques on the assumption that the data obeys a power-law distribution. Here we propose a different technique for estimation based on a generative model of book sales that results in an asymptotic power-law distribution of sales, but which does not suffer from the problems related to power-law regression techniques. We show that the proportion of tail sales predicted is very sensitive to the estimated power-law exponent. In particular, if we assume that the power-law exponent of the cumulative distribution is closer to 1.1 rather than to 1.2 (estimates published in 2003, calculated using regression by two groups of researchers), then our computations suggest that the tail sales of Amazon.com, rather than being 40% as estimated by Brynjolfsson, Hu and Smith in 2003, are actually closer to 20%, the proportion estimated by its CEO.
Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar
2018-03-01
In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.
Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control
Liu, Baolian; Ding, Zujun; Zhao, Huanyu; Jin, Defei
2014-01-01
The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabbrini, Federico
2014-01-01
In May 2014, 26 Member States of the EU concluded an intergovernmental agreement on the transfer and mutualization of contribution to the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). This international treaty constitutes a core component of the second pillar of the European Banking Union – the Single Resolution...... Mechanism, to wind down failing banks in the Euro-zone – and complements an EU regulation adopted by the European Parliament and the Council creating the SRF. This article critically analyses the choice to use international law to adopt the rules on transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF....... Moreover, as the article explains, resort to international law is unsound from a policy point of view. The use of an international treaty to regulate the transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF opens the door for national courts’ review of the agreement – a prospect which contrasts...
Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information
Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming
2015-12-01
The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.
Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.
Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming
2015-12-01
The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.
Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E
2016-02-29
Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.
Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travesset, Alex
2014-01-01
An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed
The rate coefficients of unimolecular reactions in the systems with power-law distributions
Yin, Cangtao; Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin
2014-08-01
The rate coefficient formulae of unimolecular reactions are generalized to the systems with the power-law distributions based on nonextensive statistics, and the power-law rate coefficients are derived in the high and low pressure limits, respectively. The numerical analyses are made of the rate coefficients as functions of the ν-parameter, the threshold energy, the temperature and the number of degrees of freedom. We show that the new rate coefficients depend strongly on the ν-parameter different from one (thus from a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution). Two unimolecular reactions, CH3CO→CH3+CO and CH3NC→CH3CN, are taken as application examples to calculate their power-law rate coefficients, which obtained with the ν-parameters slightly different from one can be exactly in agreement with all the experimental studies on these two reactions in the given temperature ranges.
Power Law Distributions in the Experiment for Adjustment of the Ion Source of the NBI System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Xiaopu; Hu Chundong
2005-01-01
The experiential adjustment process in an experiment on the ion source of the neutral beam injector system for the HT-7 Tokamak is reported in this paper. With regard to the data obtained in the same condition, in arranging the arc current intensities of every shot with a decay rank, the distributions of the arc current intensity correspond to the power laws, and the distribution obtained in the condition with the cryo-pump corresponds to the double Pareto distribution. Using the similar study method, the distributions of the arc duration are close to the power laws too. These power law distributions are formed rather naturally instead of being the results of purposeful seeking
Two-phase flow in porous media: power-law scaling of effective permeability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groeva, Morten; Hansen, Alex, E-mail: Morten.Grova@ntnu.no, E-mail: Alex.Hansen@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2011-09-15
A recent experiment has reported power-law scaling of effective permeability of two-phase flow with respect to capillary number for a two-dimensional model porous medium. In this paper, we consider the simultaneous flow of two phases through a porous medium under steady-state conditions, fixed total flow-rate and saturation, using a two-dimensional network simulator. We obtain power-law exponents for the scaling of effective permeability with respect to capillary number. The simulations are performed both for viscosity matched fluids and for a high viscosity ratio resembling that of air and water. Good power-law behaviour is found for both cases. Different exponents are found, depending on saturation.
On Origin of Power-Law Distributions in Self-Organized Criticality from Random Walk Treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Xiaofeng; Deng Zongwei; Yang Chunbin
2008-01-01
The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality is investigated by treating the variation of the number of active sites in the system as a stochastic process. An avalanche is then regarded as a first-return random walk process in a one-dimensional lattice. We assume that the variation of the number of active sites has three possibilities in each update: to increase by 1 with probability f 1 , to decrease by 1 with probability f 2 , or remain unchanged with probability 1-f 1 -f 2 . This mimics the dynamics in the system. Power-law distributions of the lifetime are found when the random walk is unbiased with equal probability to move in opposite directions. This shows that power-law distributions in self-organized criticality may be caused by the balance of competitive interactions.
Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto
2015-01-01
We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties. (paper)
Non-power law behavior of the radial profile of phase-space density of halos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popolo, A. Del
2011-01-01
We study the pseudo phase-space density, ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), of ΛCDM dark matter halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM), by using the model introduced in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay. We examine the radial dependence of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) over 9 orders of magnitude in radius for structures on galactic and cluster of galaxies scales. We find that ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) is approximately a power-law only in the range of halo radius resolved by current simulations (down to 0.1% of the virial radius) while it has a non-power law behavior below the quoted scale, with inner profiles changing with mass. The non-power-law behavior is more evident for halos constituted both of dark matter and baryons while halos constituted just of dark matter and with angular momentum chosen to reproduce a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile, are characterized by an approximately power-law behavior. The results of the present paper lead to conclude that density profiles of the NFW type are compatible with a power-law behavior of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), while those flattening to the halo center, like those found in Del Popolo (2009) or the Einasto profile, or the Burkert profile, cannot produce radial profile of the pseudo-phase-space density that are power-laws at all radii. The results argue against universality of the pseudo phase-space density and as a consequence argue against universality of density profiles constituted by dark matter and baryons as also discussed in Del Popolo (2009)
An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas A. Johnson
Full Text Available We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013 in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α∼3.5. This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.’s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents. Keywords: Complex systems, Econophysics, Collective, Power law
Determining Rheological Parameters of Generalized Yield-Power-Law Fluid Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stryczek Stanislaw
2004-09-01
Full Text Available The principles of determining rheological parameters of drilling muds described by a generalized yield-power-law are presented in the paper. Functions between tangent stresses and shear rate are given. The conditions of laboratory measurements of rheological parameters of generalized yield-power-law fluids are described and necessary mathematical relations for rheological model parameters given. With the block diagrams, the methodics of numerical solution of these relations has been presented. Rheological parameters of an exemplary drilling mud have been calculated with the use of this numerical program.
Power-law Decay and the Ergodic-Nonergodic Transition in Simple Fluids
Spyridis, Paul; Mazenko, Gene F.
2013-01-01
It is well known that mode coupling theory (MCT) leads to a two step power-law time decay in dense simple fluids. We show that much of the mathematical machinery used in the MCT analysis can be taken over to the analysis of the systematic theory developed in the Fundamental Theory of Statistical Particle Dynamics (arXiv:0905.4904). We show how the power-law exponents can be computed in the second-order approximation where we treat hard-sphere fluids with statics described by the Percus-Yevick...
Numerical simulation of heat transfer in power law fluid flow through a stenosed artery
Talib, Amira Husni; Abdullah, Ilyani
2017-11-01
A numerical study of heat transfer in a power law fluid is investigated in this paper. The blood flow is treated as power law fluid with a presence of cosine shaped stenosis. This study reveals the effect of stenosis on the heat transfer and velocity of blood flowing in the constricted artery. The governing and energy equations are formulated in a cylindrical coordinate system. Hence, the set of equations and boundary conditions are solved numerically by Marker and Cell (MAC) method. The graphical result shows the profile of blood temperature is increased while the blood velocity is decreased at the critical height of stenosis.
Numerical Modeling of the Flow of a Power Law Ceramic Slurry in the Tape Casting Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2012-01-01
Multilayer ceramics and their application have increased recently. One of the most common ways used to produce these products is tape casting. In this process the wet tape thickness is one of the most determining parameters affecting the final properties of the product and it is therefore of great...... interest to be able to control it. In the present work the flow of La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM) material in the doctor blade region is modelled numerically with ANSYS Fluent in combination with an Ostwald power law constitutive equation. Based on rheometer experiments the constants in the Ostwald power law...
Inertia effects in the laminar radial flow of a power law fluid with an electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.-K.; Chen, K.-H.; Wu, C.-Y.
1984-01-01
An approximate study of the pressure distribution for the radial flow of a non-newtonian (power law) fluid between two parallel disks in the presence of an axial electrical field is obtained by using the momentum and energy integral methods. For a non-newtonian fluid it is shown that the inertia effect must be considered to be significant for the pressure distribution, especially for the power law fluids with n >= 1. Furthermore, it is seen that the inertia effect will also lower the load capacity of the disks. (Auth.)
Dual plane problems for creeping flow of power-law incompressible medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitriy S. Petukhov
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the class of solutions for a creeping plane flow of incompressible medium with power-law rheology, which are written in the form of the product of arbitrary power of the radial coordinate by arbitrary function of the angular coordinate of the polar coordinate system covering the plane. This class of solutions represents the asymptotics of fields in the vicinity of singular points in the domain occupied by the examined medium. We have ascertained the duality of two problems for a plane with wedge-shaped notch, at which boundaries in one of the problems the vector components of the surface force vanish, while in the other—the vanishing components are the vector components of velocity, We have investigated the asymptotics and eigensolutions of the dual nonlinear eigenvalue problems in relation to the rheological exponent and opening angle of the notch for the branch associated with the eigenvalue of the Hutchinson–Rice–Rosengren problem learned from the problem of stress distribution over a notched plane for a power law medium. In the context of the dual problem we have determined the velocity distribution in the flow of power-law medium at the vertex of a rigid wedge, We have also found another two eigenvalues, one of which was determined by V. V. Sokolovsky for the problem of power-law fluid flow in a convergent channel.
Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock
2015-04-01
Channel geometry and hydraulic characteristics of a given river network, i.e., spatio-temporal variability of width, depth, and velocity, can be described as power functional relationships of flow discharge, named 'hydraulic geometry' (Leopold and Maddock, 1953). Many studies have focused on the implication of this power-law itself, i.e., self-similarity, and accordingly its exponents. Coefficients of the power functional relationships, on the contrary, have received little attention. They are often regarded as empirical constants, determined by 'best fitting' to the power-law without significant scientific implications. Here, we investigate and claim that power-law coefficients of hydraulic geometry relationships carry vital information of a given river system. We approach the given problem on the basis of 'basin hydraulic geometry' formulation (Stall and Fok, 1968) which decomposes power-law coefficients into more elementary constants. The linkage between classical power-law relationship (Leopold and Maddock, 1953) and the basin hydraulic geometry is provided by Paik and Kumar (2004). On the basis of this earlier study, it can be shown that coefficients and exponents of power-law hydraulic geometry are interrelated. In this sense, we argue that more elementary constants that constitute both exponents and coefficients carry important messages. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how these elementary constants vary over a wide range of catchments provided from Stall and Fok (1968) and Stall and Yang (1970). Findings of this study can provide new insights on fundamental understanding about hydraulic geometry relationships. Further, we expect that this understanding can help interpretation of hydraulic geometry relationship in the context of flood propagation through a river system as well. Keywords: Hydraulic geometry; Power-law; River network References Leopold, L. B., & Maddock, T. J. (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic
Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase
Nagatani, Takashi
2017-07-01
We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.
Power-law creep of powder-metallurgy grade molybdenum sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciulik, J.; Taleff, E.M.
2007-01-01
Creep behavior of commercial-purity, powder-metallurgy grade molybdenum (Mo) sheet has been investigated at temperatures between 1300 and 1600 deg. C (0.56-0.63 T m ) using tensile testing at controlled strain rates. Strain-rate-change tests were performed at constant-temperatures over true-strain rates from 1.0 x 10 -6 to 5.0 x 10 -4 s -1 . Results agree with previously published data indicating that Mo follows power-law creep with a stress exponent of about 5; however, the present results address a temperature range not previously documented. The activation energy for creep was determined to be 240 kJ/mol within this temperature range, which is lower than previously published values and approximately half the value reported for self-diffusion, indicating that diffusion mechanisms faster than lattice diffusion are active. It is shown that Mo creep data from a variety of investigations converge closely to a single line on a master plot of strain rate normalized using an activation energy of 240 kJ/mol when plotted against stress normalized by the temperature-dependent elastic modulus. This activation energy for creep is attributed to an effective diffusivity that fits the creep data obtained during this study as well as from previously published creep data from commercial-purity molybdenum
Power Politics and the Rule of Law in Post-Dayton Bosnia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy Donais
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Over the past two decades, therule of law has emerged as a key priority within contemporary peacebuildingefforts. Drawing on examples from post-Dayton Bosnia, this article examines theimpact of rule of law reform efforts on broader patterns of power and politicalauthority in peacebuilding contexts. It suggests that in the case of Bosnia,the use of rule of law strategies to restructure political life has largelyfailed. Thus, despite some notable achievements on the rule of law front, thecore dynamics of Bosnia’s political conflict remain intact, and country’s peaceprocess is as fragile as ever. The article concludes by noting that charting acourse between accepting the political status quo and fundamentallytransforming it requires more nuanced approaches that advance the rule of laweven while accepting its limits as an instrument of deep politicaltransformation.
A study on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Gil Gon
1999-02-01
The rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) in a reactor core provide the operator with the on-line 3-dimensional nuclear power distribution. The signal produced by rhodium SPND is interpreted into the local neutron flux by using a sensitivity depletion law and the local neutron flux is interpreted into the local power by using a power conversion factor. This work on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) is performed to improve the uncertainty of the sensitivity depletion law used in ABB-CE reactors employing a rhodium SPND and to develop a calculational tool for providing the sensitivity depletion laws to interpret the signal of the newly designed rhodium SPND into the local neutron flux. The calculational tools for a time dependent neutron flux distribution in the rhodium emitter during depletion and for a time dependent beta escape probability that a beta generated in the emitter is escaped into the collector were developed. Due to the cost, the exposure to the radiation, and the longer fuel cycle, there is a strong incentive that the loading density of an in-core instrumentation is reduced and the lifetime of the detector is lengthened. These objectives can be achieved by reducing the uncertainty which is amplified as it depletes. The calculational tools above provide the sensitivity depletion law and show the reduction of the uncertainty to about 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux compared to the method employed by ABB-CE. The reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux is equivalent to the reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % or more in interpreting the signal into the local power and to the extension of the lifetime of rhodium SPND to about 10 % as reported by ABB-CE
SUBSTANTIAL EXCEPTIONS AND (DELIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF THE JUDGES ON CIVIL PROCEDURAL LAW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Raatz
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This essay aims to unveil the role of the substantial exceptions on delimiting the powers of the judges on civil procedural law, especially regarding the ex officio judicial activity. This way, under a phenomenological method and based on a vision of guarantee of rights on procedural law, the article offers a brief explanation of the question concerning the content of the object under litigation and its role of (delimiting the powers of the judges. The work hypothesis is the addition of the substantial exceptions among the content of the object under litigation, along with the claim itself and the cause of action. The results lie on the premise that, by the substantial exceptions, the defendant extends the object under litigation – which is formed dynamically on civil procedure. The conclusion points towards the idea that the substantial exceptions act in a way of limiting the ex officio judicial activity on civil procedural law
A theory of power-law distributions in financial market fluctuations.
Gabaix, Xavier; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Plerou, Vasiliki; Stanley, H Eugene
2003-05-15
Insights into the dynamics of a complex system are often gained by focusing on large fluctuations. For the financial system, huge databases now exist that facilitate the analysis of large fluctuations and the characterization of their statistical behaviour. Power laws appear to describe histograms of relevant financial fluctuations, such as fluctuations in stock price, trading volume and the number of trades. Surprisingly, the exponents that characterize these power laws are similar for different types and sizes of markets, for different market trends and even for different countries--suggesting that a generic theoretical basis may underlie these phenomena. Here we propose a model, based on a plausible set of assumptions, which provides an explanation for these empirical power laws. Our model is based on the hypothesis that large movements in stock market activity arise from the trades of large participants. Starting from an empirical characterization of the size distribution of those large market participants (mutual funds), we show that the power laws observed in financial data arise when the trading behaviour is performed in an optimal way. Our model additionally explains certain striking empirical regularities that describe the relationship between large fluctuations in prices, trading volume and the number of trades.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bent; Demétrio, Clarice G. B.; Kristensen, Erik
2011-01-01
Estimation of Taylor’s power law for species abundance data may be performed by linear regression of the log empirical variances on the log means, but this method suffers from a problem of bias for sparse data. We show that the bias may be reduced by using a bias-corrected Pearson estimating...
MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid over ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... flow have been presented for various parameters such as Prandtl number, flow behavior index (n), porous plate parameter and magnetic parameter. The local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient is also presented graphically. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic flow; free convection flow; Non-Newtonian power-law
Mathematical analysis of the global dynamics of a power law model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We analyze a mathematical power law model that describes HIV infection of CD4+ T cells. We report that the number of critical points depends on , where is a positive integer. We show that for any positive integer the infection – free equilibrium is asymptotically stable if the reproduction number R0 1.
Influence of power-law index on an unsteady exothermic reaction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study presents the solution of an unsteady Arrhenius exothermic reaction where we reduced the exponential term to a power-law approximation. A numerical solution of the problem is obtained using shooting technique with second order Runge-Kuta scheme. It is shown that the temperature of the reactant depends on ...
Non-coulombic effective power-law potential for the heavy quarkoniums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics
1980-12-01
An effective power-law potential of the form V(r) = 6.08 r/sup 0/sup(.)/sup 106/ - 6.41 is found to describe satisfactorily the gross features of the mass spectra and the leptonic width ratios of the cc and bb systems in a flavour-independent manner.
A non-coulombic effective power-law potential for the heavy quarkoniums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.
1980-01-01
An effective power-law potential of the form V(r) = 6.08 r 0 sup(.) 106 - 6.41 is found to describe satisfactorily the gross features of the mass spectra and the leptonic width ratios of the cc and bb systems in a flavour-independent manner. (orig.)
Legality, separation of powers, stability of electoral law: The impact of new voting technologies
Driza Maurer, Ardita
2016-01-01
Legality, separation of powers and stability of electoral law are some of the principles of the European constitutional heritage. They should be respected and implemented throughout the electoral process, including when new voting technologies are used. This paper discusses e-voting specific implementations of the principles or challenges to it. Ongoing and proposed improvements in legislation or practice are pinpointed.
Fall Velocities of Hydrometeors in the Atmosphere: Refinements to a Continuous Analytical Power Law.
Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A.
2005-12-01
This paper extends the previous research of the authors on the unified representation of fall velocities for both liquid and crystalline particles as a power law over the entire size range of hydrometeors observed in the atmosphere. The power-law coefficients are determined as continuous analytical functions of the Best or Reynolds number or of the particle size. Here, analytical expressions are formulated for the turbulent corrections to the Reynolds number and to the power-law coefficients that describe the continuous transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow around a falling particle. A simple analytical expression is found for the correction of fall velocities for temperature and pressure. These expressions and the resulting fall velocities are compared with observations and other calculations for a range of ice crystal habits and sizes. This approach provides a continuous analytical power-law description of the terminal velocities of liquid and crystalline hydrometeors with sufficiently high accuracy and can be directly used in bin-resolving models or incorporated into parameterizations for cloud- and large-scale models and remote sensing techniques.
Power law of distribution of emergency situations on main gas pipeline
Voronin, K. S.; Akulov, K. A.
2018-05-01
The article presents the results of the analysis of emergency situations on a main gas pipeline. A power law of distribution of emergency situations is revealed. The possibility of conducting further scientific research to ensure the predictability of emergency situations on pipelines is justified.
Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies.
Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David
2003-01-01
Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW)
A Dual Power Law Distribution for the Stellar Initial Mass Function
Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Essex, Christopher; Basu, Shantanu; Prehl, Janett
2018-05-01
We introduce a new dual power law (DPL) probability distribution function for the mass distribution of stellar and substellar objects at birth, otherwise known as the initial mass function (IMF). The model contains both deterministic and stochastic elements, and provides a unified framework within which to view the formation of brown dwarfs and stars resulting from an accretion process that starts from extremely low mass seeds. It does not depend upon a top down scenario of collapsing (Jeans) masses or an initial lognormal or otherwise IMF-like distribution of seed masses. Like the modified lognormal power law (MLP) distribution, the DPL distribution has a power law at the high mass end, as a result of exponential growth of mass coupled with equally likely stopping of accretion at any time interval. Unlike the MLP, a power law decay also appears at the low mass end of the IMF. This feature is closely connected to the accretion stopping probability rising from an initially low value up to a high value. This might be associated with physical effects of ejections sometimes (i.e., rarely) stopping accretion at early times followed by outflow driven accretion stopping at later times, with the transition happening at a critical time (therefore mass). Comparing the DPL to empirical data, the critical mass is close to the substellar mass limit, suggesting that the onset of nuclear fusion plays an important role in the subsequent accretion history of a young stellar object.
Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries
Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel
2008-11-01
Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.
Power laws reveal phase transitions in landscape controls of fire regimes
Donald McKenzie; Maureen C. Kennedy
2012-01-01
Understanding the environmental controls on historical wildfires, and how they changed across spatial scales, is difficult because there are no surviving explicit records of either weather or vegetation (fuels). Here we show how power laws associated with fire-event time series arise in limited domains of parameters that represent critical transitions in the controls...
Axial annular flow of power-law fluids - applicability of the limiting cases
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Filip, Petr; David, Jiří
2007-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 365-371 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/06/1033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Concentric annuli * Poiseuile flow * annular flow * power- law fluids * flow rate * pressure drop Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 419, č. 1 (2015), s. 513-525 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Keywords : power-law cross-correlations * long - term memory * econophysics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433530.pdf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo D. Mininni
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of tackling the ill-posed inverse problem of motion estimation from image sequences, we propose to introduce prior knowledge on flow regularity given by turbulence statistical models. Prior regularity is formalised using turbulence power laws describing statistically self-similar structure of motion increments across scales. The motion estimation method minimises the error of an image observation model while constraining second-order structure function to behave as a power law within a prescribed range. Thanks to a Bayesian modelling framework, the motion estimation method is able to jointly infer the most likely power law directly from image data. The method is assessed on velocity fields of 2-D or quasi-2-D flows. Estimation accuracy is first evaluated on a synthetic image sequence of homogeneous and isotropic 2-D turbulence. Results obtained with the approach based on physics of fluids outperform state-of-the-art. Then, the method analyses atmospheric turbulence using a real meteorological image sequence. Selecting the most likely power law model enables the recovery of physical quantities, which are of major interest for turbulence atmospheric characterisation. In particular, from meteorological images we are able to estimate energy and enstrophy fluxes of turbulent cascades, which are in agreement with previous in situ measurements.
Extraction of the power law exponent for 1 GeV/nucleon Au + C projectile multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilkes, M.L.; Elliott, J.B.; Huager, A.; Hirsch, A.S.; Hjort, E.
1993-01-01
Using moments of the measured charge distribution in exclusive gold multifragmentation events, we present a preliminary determination of the power law exponent τ. For a system undergoing a phase transition near the critical point, τ governs the cluster size distribution and is expected on rather general grounds to lie in the range 2 < τ < 3
Power-law cosmic expansion in f(R) gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goheer, Naureen; Larena, Julien; Dunsby, Peter K. S.
2009-01-01
We show that within the class of f(R) gravity theories, Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker power-law perfect fluid solutions only exist for R n gravity. This significantly restricts the set of exact cosmological solutions which have similar properties to what is found in standard general relativity.
Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...
Asymptotic expansion of unsteady gravity flow of a power-law fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present a paper on the asymptotic expansion of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The asymptotic expansion is employed to obtain solution of the nonlinear problem. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the ...
Quantum dots with indirect band gap: power-law photoluminescence decay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2014-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 5 (2014), s. 507-512 ISSN 1708-5284 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : photoluminescence * quantum dots * electron-phonon interaction * inter-valley deformation potential interaction * power-law decay Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Unconfined Unsteady Laminar Flow of a Power-Law Fluid across a Square Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asterios Pantokratoras
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The flow of a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid, directed normally to a horizontal cylinder with square cross-section (two-dimensional flow is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a very large calculation domain in order that the flow could be considered unconfined. The investigation covers the power-law index from 0.1 up to 2 and the Reynolds number ranges from 60 to 160. Over this range of Reynolds numbers the flow is unsteady. It is found that the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number are higher in a confined flow compared to those of an unconfined flow. In addition some flow characteristics are lost in a confined flow. Complete results for the drag coefficient and Strouhal number in the entire shear-thinning and shear-thickening region have been produced. In shear-thinning fluids chaotic structures exist which diminish at higher values of power-law index. This study represents the first investigation of unsteady, non-Newtonian power-law flow past a square cylinder in an unconfined field.
THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN
Jiang, H.; Liu, F.; Meerschaert, M. M.; McGough, R. J.
2013-01-01
Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development.
THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN.
Jiang, H; Liu, F; Meerschaert, M M; McGough, R J
2013-01-01
Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development. In this paper, multi-term modified power law wave equations in a finite domain are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals (1, 2], [2, 3), [2, 4) or (0, n ) ( n > 2), respectively. Analytical solutions of the multi-term modified power law wave equations are derived. These new techniques are based on Luchko's Theorem, a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator, a method of separating variables and fractional derivative techniques. Then these general methods are applied to the special cases of the Szabo wave equation and the power law wave equation. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term time-space fractional models including fractional Laplacian.
Flow of power-law fluids in fixed beds of cylinders or spheres
Singh, John P.; Padhy, Sourav; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Koch, Donald L.
2012-01-01
is influenced by the Newtonian fluid stress and a body force representing the linear drag on the surrounding particles. We consider a similar analysis for a power-law fluid where the stress τ is related to the rate of strain e by τ = 2m en-1e, where m and n
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courteix, S.
1992-01-01
The number of nuclear-powered satellites rises constantly and, recalling the fear generated by the crash of the Cosmos 954 satellite, the author points out that radioactive debris falling on earth could represent as great a hazard as accidental releases of radioactive material from land-based nuclear installations. Such satellites, therefore, can be governed by both space law and nuclear law. On the basis of international conventions applicable in the two fields and also with reference to the Law of the Sea and environmental law, the article analyses preventive and radiation protection measures as well as emergency plans and also raises the problem of liability and compensation for damage. (NEA)
A generalized power-law scaling law for a two-phase imbibition in a porous medium
El-Amin, Mohamed
2013-11-01
Dimensionless time is a universal parameter that may be used to predict real field behavior from scaled laboratory experiments in relation to imbibition processes in porous media. Researchers work to nondimensionalize the time has been through the use of parameters that are inherited to the properties of the moving fluids and the porous matrix, which may be applicable to spontaneous imbibition. However, in forced imbibition, the dynamics of the process depends, in addition, on injection velocity. Therefore, we propose the use of scaling velocity in the form of a combination of two velocities, the first of which (the characteristic velocity) is defined by the fluid and the porous medium parameters and the second is the injection velocity, which is a characteristic of the process. A power-law formula is suggested for the scaling velocity such that it may be used as a parameter to nondimensionalize time. This may reduce the complexities in characterizing two-phase imbibition through porous media and works well in both the cases of spontaneous and forced imbibition. The proposed scaling-law is tested against some oil recovery experimental data from the literature. In addition, the governing partial differential equations are nondimensionalized so that the governing dimensionless groups are manifested. An example of a one-dimensional countercurrent imbibition is considered numerically. The calculations are carried out for a wide range of Ca and Da to illustrate their influences on water saturation as well as relative water/oil permeabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
A generalized power-law scaling law for a two-phase imbibition in a porous medium
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
Dimensionless time is a universal parameter that may be used to predict real field behavior from scaled laboratory experiments in relation to imbibition processes in porous media. Researchers work to nondimensionalize the time has been through the use of parameters that are inherited to the properties of the moving fluids and the porous matrix, which may be applicable to spontaneous imbibition. However, in forced imbibition, the dynamics of the process depends, in addition, on injection velocity. Therefore, we propose the use of scaling velocity in the form of a combination of two velocities, the first of which (the characteristic velocity) is defined by the fluid and the porous medium parameters and the second is the injection velocity, which is a characteristic of the process. A power-law formula is suggested for the scaling velocity such that it may be used as a parameter to nondimensionalize time. This may reduce the complexities in characterizing two-phase imbibition through porous media and works well in both the cases of spontaneous and forced imbibition. The proposed scaling-law is tested against some oil recovery experimental data from the literature. In addition, the governing partial differential equations are nondimensionalized so that the governing dimensionless groups are manifested. An example of a one-dimensional countercurrent imbibition is considered numerically. The calculations are carried out for a wide range of Ca and Da to illustrate their influences on water saturation as well as relative water/oil permeabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Probing the conductance superposition law in single-molecule circuits with parallel paths.
Vazquez, H; Skouta, R; Schneebeli, S; Kamenetska, M; Breslow, R; Venkataraman, L; Hybertsen, M S
2012-10-01
According to Kirchhoff's circuit laws, the net conductance of two parallel components in an electronic circuit is the sum of the individual conductances. However, when the circuit dimensions are comparable to the electronic phase coherence length, quantum interference effects play a critical role, as exemplified by the Aharonov-Bohm effect in metal rings. At the molecular scale, interference effects dramatically reduce the electron transfer rate through a meta-connected benzene ring when compared with a para-connected benzene ring. For longer conjugated and cross-conjugated molecules, destructive interference effects have been observed in the tunnelling conductance through molecular junctions. Here, we investigate the conductance superposition law for parallel components in single-molecule circuits, particularly the role of interference. We synthesize a series of molecular systems that contain either one backbone or two backbones in parallel, bonded together cofacially by a common linker on each end. Single-molecule conductance measurements and transport calculations based on density functional theory show that the conductance of a double-backbone molecular junction can be more than twice that of a single-backbone junction, providing clear evidence for constructive interference.
Advanteges of using Two-Switch Forward in Single-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars
2000-01-01
A single-Stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (Discontinues Conduction Mode). This will insure the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit parameters and therefore...... power supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency and power factor are about 87% and 0.96 respectively....
High-power single-mode cw dye ring laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, H W; Stein, L; Froelich, D; Fugger, B; Welling, H [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik
1977-12-01
Due to spatial hole burning, standing-wave dye lasers require a large amount of selectivity inside the cavity for single-mode operation. The output power of these lasers is limited by losses caused by the frequency selecting elements. In a travelling-wave laser, on the other hand, spatial hole burning does not exist, thereby eliminating the need for high selectivity. A travelling-wave cw dye laser was realized by unidirectional operation of a ring laser, yielding single mode output powers of 1.2 W at 595 nm and of 55 mW in the UV-region with intracavity frequency doubling.
Single-Event Effects in Silicon Carbide Power Devices
Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ikpe, Stanley; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.
2015-01-01
This report summarizes the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Silicon Carbide Power Device Subtask efforts in FY15. Benefits of SiC are described and example NASA Programs and Projects desiring this technology are given. The current status of the radiation tolerance of silicon carbide power devices is given and paths forward in the effort to develop heavy-ion single-event effect hardened devices indicated.
Wong, Wing-Cheong; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Tantoso, Erwin; Soong, Richie; Eisenhaber, Frank
2018-02-12
Though earlier works on modelling transcript abundance from vertebrates to lower eukaroytes have specifically singled out the Zip's law, the observed distributions often deviate from a single power-law slope. In hindsight, while power-laws of critical phenomena are derived asymptotically under the conditions of infinite observations, real world observations are finite where the finite-size effects will set in to force a power-law distribution into an exponential decay and consequently, manifests as a curvature (i.e., varying exponent values) in a log-log plot. If transcript abundance is truly power-law distributed, the varying exponent signifies changing mathematical moments (e.g., mean, variance) and creates heteroskedasticity which compromises statistical rigor in analysis. The impact of this deviation from the asymptotic power-law on sequencing count data has never truly been examined and quantified. The anecdotal description of transcript abundance being almost Zipf's law-like distributed can be conceptualized as the imperfect mathematical rendition of the Pareto power-law distribution when subjected to the finite-size effects in the real world; This is regardless of the advancement in sequencing technology since sampling is finite in practice. Our conceptualization agrees well with our empirical analysis of two modern day NGS (Next-generation sequencing) datasets: an in-house generated dilution miRNA study of two gastric cancer cell lines (NUGC3 and AGS) and a publicly available spike-in miRNA data; Firstly, the finite-size effects causes the deviations of sequencing count data from Zipf's law and issues of reproducibility in sequencing experiments. Secondly, it manifests as heteroskedasticity among experimental replicates to bring about statistical woes. Surprisingly, a straightforward power-law correction that restores the distribution distortion to a single exponent value can dramatically reduce data heteroskedasticity to invoke an instant increase in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)
Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses.
Wagner, Sandra; Conrad, Fabian; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Holden, Brien A
2015-02-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical zone power profile of the most commonly prescribed soft contact lenses to assess their potential impact on peripheral refractive error and hence myopia progression. The optical power profiles of six single vision and ten multifocal contact lenses of five manufacturers in the powers -1.00 D, -3.00 D, and -6.00 D were measured using the SHSOphthalmic (Optocraft GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). Instrument repeatability was also investigated. Instrument repeatability was dependent on the distance from the optical centre, manifesting unreliable data for the central 1mm of the optic zone. Single vision contact lens measurements of -6.00 D lenses revealed omafilcon A having the most negative spherical aberration, lotrafilcon A having the least. Somofilcon A had the highest minus power and lotrafilcon A the biggest deviation in positive direction, relative to their respective labelled powers. Negative spherical aberration occurred for almost all of the multifocal contact lenses, including the centre-distance designs etafilcon A bifocal and omafilcon A multifocal. Lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A seem to rely predominantly on the spherical aberration component to provide multifocality. Power profiles of single vision soft contact lenses varied greatly, many having a negative spherical aberration profile that would exacerbate myopia. Some lens types and powers are affected by large intra-batch variability or power offsets of more than 0.25 dioptres. Evaluation of power profiles of multifocal lenses was derived that provides helpful information for prescribing lenses for presbyopes and progressing myopes. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tachyon with an inverse power-law potential in a braneworld cosmology
Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Djordjevic, Goran S.
2017-08-01
We study a tachyon cosmological model based on the dynamics of a 3-brane in the bulk of the second Randall-Sundrum model extended to more general warp functions. A well known prototype of such a generalization is the bulk with a selfinteracting scalar field. As a consequence of a generalized bulk geometry the cosmology on the observer brane is modified by the scale dependent four-dimensional gravitational constant. In particular, we study a power law warp factor which generates an inverse power-law potential V\\propto \\varphi-n of the tachyon field φ. We find a critical power n cr that divides two subclasses with distinct asymptotic behaviors: a dust universe for n>n_cr and a quasi de Sitter universe for 0.
The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等
1997-01-01
The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.
Analysis of diodes used as precision power detectors above the square law region
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldbrandsen, Tom
1990-01-01
The deviation from square law found in diode power detectors at moderate power levels has been modeled for a general system consisting of a number of diode detectors connected to a common arbitrary linear passive network, containing an approximately sinusoidal source. This situation covers the case...... if an extra-set of measurements is made in situ. For precision measurements the maximum power level can be increased by about 10 dB. The dynamic range can thus be increased sufficiently to enable fast measurements to be made with an accuracy of 10-3 dB...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Videla, Nelson [FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile); Gulshan, Faiza [Lahore Leads University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-05-15
In the present work, we study the consequences of considering a new family of single-field inflation models, called power-law plateau inflation, in the warm inflation framework. We consider the inflationary expansion is driven by a standard scalar field with a decay ratio Γ having a generic power-law dependence with the scalar field φ and the temperature of the thermal bath T given by Γ(φ,T) = C{sub φ}(T{sup a})/(φ{sup a-1}). Assuming that our model evolves according to the strong dissipative regime, we study the background and perturbative dynamics, obtaining the most relevant inflationary observable as the scalar power spectrum, the scalar spectral index and its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The free parameters characterizing our model are constrained by considering the essential condition for warm inflation, the conditions for the model evolves according to the strong dissipative regime and the 2015 Planck results through the n{sub s}-r plane. For completeness, we study the predictions in the n{sub s}-dn{sub s}/d ln k plane. The model is consistent with a strong dissipative dynamics and predicts values for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and for the running of the scalar spectral index consistent with current bounds imposed by Planck and we conclude that the model is viable. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Videla, Nelson; Gulshan, Faiza
2017-01-01
In the present work, we study the consequences of considering a new family of single-field inflation models, called power-law plateau inflation, in the warm inflation framework. We consider the inflationary expansion is driven by a standard scalar field with a decay ratio Γ having a generic power-law dependence with the scalar field φ and the temperature of the thermal bath T given by Γ(φ,T) = C_φ(T"a)/(φ"a"-"1). Assuming that our model evolves according to the strong dissipative regime, we study the background and perturbative dynamics, obtaining the most relevant inflationary observable as the scalar power spectrum, the scalar spectral index and its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The free parameters characterizing our model are constrained by considering the essential condition for warm inflation, the conditions for the model evolves according to the strong dissipative regime and the 2015 Planck results through the n_s-r plane. For completeness, we study the predictions in the n_s-dn_s/d ln k plane. The model is consistent with a strong dissipative dynamics and predicts values for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and for the running of the scalar spectral index consistent with current bounds imposed by Planck and we conclude that the model is viable. (orig.)
The Transient Elliptic Flow of Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋付权; 刘慈群
2002-01-01
The steady oil production and pressure distribution formulae of vertically fractured well for power-law non-Newtonian fluid were derived on the basis of the elliptic flow model in fractal reservoirs. The corresponding transient flow in fractal reservoirs was studied by numerical differentiation method: the influence of fractal index to transient pressure of vertically fractured well was analyzed. Finally the approximate analytical solution of transient flow was given by average mass conservation law. The study shows that using elliptic flow method to analyze the flow of vertically fractured well is a simple method.
The United Kingdom Law on the authorisation of nuclear power stations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savinson, R.
1977-01-01
This paper explains the requirements of the law of the United Kingdom as to the authorisations needed to construct and operate nuclear power plants in Great Britain. For simplicity, the texts referred to apply to England and Wales, Scottish law differing in detail but not in principle. Implementation of this legal system is studied in particular from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) which is at present the body exclusively responsible for generating and supplying electricity in England and Wales. (NEA) [fr
Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's
Zoutendyk, John A.
1993-01-01
Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.
Active power decoupling with reduced converter stress for single ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SUJATA BHOWMICK
Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, ... Single phase; double-frequency ripple; active power decoupling; reduced stress; ... sation of renewable energy sources (e.g., PV), potential ... In standard grid connected DC/AC H-bridge configuration, ..... solar inverter with reduced-size dc link.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Playe, D.
1999-01-01
The French government will adopt with some reticence the new organization of the electric power market as decided by the European parliament. The French transposition of the European legislative text will be discussed at the French national assembly only in February 1999 and voted only in the second semester. This paper summarizes the main points of the project of law passed in December 9, 1998 and tries to explain the stakes of the new regulatory context for Electricite de France (EdF): creation of a regulation commission, accounting dissociation between production, transport and distribution, the eligible customers, the tariffs of electricity transport, the disagreement between the government and the electric equipment professionals with respect to EdF's position, the social aspects, and the construction of direct power lines in complement of public networks. An interview of G. Poullain, head of the national council of the electric equipment (CNEE), about the future development of EdF is given in inset. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, J.
1984-01-01
This contribution characterises Japanese legislation on power generation and supply, goes into detail with regard to the current Atomic Energy Law within the framework of the overall legal concept governing power supply, and presents an outlook on future developments. A table summarizes the main problems in this field. (orig./HSCH) [de
Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit
2016-04-01
The size-scaling of rock fractures is a well-studied problem in geology, especially for permeability quantification. The intensity of fractures may control the economic exploitation of fractured reservoirs because fracture intensity describes the abundance of fractures potentially available for fluid flow. Moreover, in geotechnical engineering, fractures are important for parameterisation of stress models and excavation design. As fracture data is often collected from widely-spaced boreholes where core recovery is often incomplete, accurate interpretation and representation of fracture aperture-frequency relationships from sparse datasets is important. Fracture intensity is the number of fractures encountered per unit length along a sample scanline oriented perpendicular to the fractures in a set. Cumulative frequency of fractures (F) is commonly related to fracture aperture (A) in the form of a power-law (F = aA-b), with variations in the size of the a coefficient between sites interpreted to equate to fracture frequency for a given aperture (A). However, a common flaw in this approach is that even a small change in b can have a large effect on the response of the fracture frequency (F) parameter. We compare fracture data from the Late Permian Rangal Coal Measures from Australia's Bowen Basin, with fracture data from Jurassic carbonates from the Sierra Madre Oriental, northeastern Mexico. Both power-law coefficient a and exponent b control the fracture aperture-frequency relationship in conjunction with each other; that is, power-laws with relatively low a coefficients have relatively high b exponents and vice versa. Hence, any comparison of different power-laws must take both a and b into consideration. The corollary is that different sedimentary beds in the Sierra Madre carbonates do not show ˜8× the fracture frequency for a given fracture aperture, as based solely on the comparison of coefficient a. Rather, power-law "sensitivity factors" developed from both
Nonlinear quenches of power-law confining traps in quantum critical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi
2011-01-01
We describe the coherent quantum evolution of a quantum many-body system with a time-dependent power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous potential is driven in time along a nonlinear ramp which crosses a critical point. Using Kibble-Zurek-like scaling arguments we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations and energy excess generated during the nonlinear sweep of the confining potential. It is shown that, with respect to the sweeping rate, the densities follow algebraic laws with exponents that depend on the space-time properties of the potential and on the scaling dimensions of the densities. We support our scaling predictions with both analytical and numerical results on the Ising quantum chain with an inhomogeneous transverse field varying in time.
Second-order small-disturbance solutions for hypersonic flow over power-law bodies
Townsend, J. C.
1975-01-01
Similarity solutions were found which give the adiabatic flow of an ideal gas about two-dimensional and axisymmetric power-law bodies at infinite Mach number to second order in the body slenderness parameter. The flow variables were expressed as a sum of zero-order and perturbation similarity functions for which the axial variations in the flow equations separated out. The resulting similarity equations were integrated numerically. The solutions, which are universal functions, are presented in graphic and tabular form. To avoid a singularity in the calculations, the results are limited to body power-law exponents greater than about 0.85 for the two-dimensional case and 0.75 for the axisymmetric case. Because of the entropy layer induced by the nose bluntness (for power-law bodies other than cones and wedges), only the pressure function is valid at the body surface. The similarity results give excellent agreement with the exact solutions for inviscid flow over wedges and cones having half-angles up to about 20 deg. They give good agreement with experimental shock-wave shapes and surface-pressure distributions for 3/4-power axisymmetric bodies, considering that Mach number and boundary-layer displacement effects are not included in the theory.
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1991-01-01
The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de
Need for consent of a law extending the operating life of nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degenhart, Christoph
2010-01-01
The article deals with the question whether a law extending nuclear power plant life beyond the residual periods of time laid down in the law of April 22, 2002 requires consent of the Federal Council. The Atomic Energy Act needed the consent of the Federal Council pursuant to Article 87c, Basic Law, as its Section 24 determines that central functions of licensing and supervision be exercised by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government. This has not changed after the current version of the norm. Increasing the residual quotas of electricity by amending Annex 3 of Sec.7, Para.1a, Atomic Energy Act, per se does not require consent. This is a substantive provision. Sec.24, Atomic Energy Act, does not need to be amended. The Federal Council, which consented to the original legislation, thus does not bear continued responsibility for the law. Every law must be treated as a separate entity in terms of legislative method. The Federal Council, with its first consent to the piece of legislation, ''approves'' this systemic shift. Renewed consent is required only in case of another systemic shift. This is the case when the provision about administrative responsibility takes on a very different meaning and impact no longer supported by the earlier consent. According to decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court, this expressly applies also to administration by commission. What is required is a comparison of administrative duties before and after entry into force of the amending law; mere quantitative shifts of administrative burdens do not cause a systemic shift. Whether the inclusion of backfitting obligations would be associated with regulations in administrative procedures has not been decided. In its ruling of May 4, 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court confirms that these do not require consent within the framework of Art.85 Para.1, Basic Law. (orig.)
Using Power-Law Degree Distribution to Accelerate PageRank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaoyan Jin
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The PageRank vector of a network is very important, for it can reflect the importance of a Web page in the World Wide Web, or of a people in a social network. However, with the growth of the World Wide Web and social networks, it needs more and more time to compute the PageRank vector of a network. In many real-world applications, the degree and PageRank distributions of these complex networks conform to the Power-Law distribution. This paper utilizes the degree distribution of a network to initialize its PageRank vector, and presents a Power-Law degree distribution accelerating algorithm of PageRank computation. Experiments on four real-world datasets show that the proposed algorithm converges more quickly than the original PageRank algorithm.
Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-10-10
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.
Numerical simulation of nanofluids based on power-law fluids with flow and heat transfer
Li, Lin; Jiang, Yongyue; Chen, Aixin
2017-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the heat transfer of nanofluids based on power-law fluids and movement of nanoparticles with the effect of thermophoresis in a rotating circular groove. The velocity of circular groove rotating is a constant and the temperature on the wall is kept to be zero all the time which is different from the temperature of nanofluids in the initial time. The effects of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion are considered in temperature and concentration equations, and it is assumed that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is a function of concentration of nanoparticles. Based on numerical results, it can be found that nanofluids improve the process of heat transfer than base fluids in a rotating circular groove. The enhancement of heat transfer increases as the power law index of base fluids decreases.
How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David L. Bibighaus
2015-12-01
Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.
Focus-based filtering + clustering technique for power-law networks with small world phenomenon
Boutin, François; Thièvre, Jérôme; Hascoët, Mountaz
2006-01-01
Realistic interaction networks usually present two main properties: a power-law degree distribution and a small world behavior. Few nodes are linked to many nodes and adjacent nodes are likely to share common neighbors. Moreover, graph structure usually presents a dense core that is difficult to explore with classical filtering and clustering techniques. In this paper, we propose a new filtering technique accounting for a user-focus. This technique extracts a tree-like graph with also power-law degree distribution and small world behavior. Resulting structure is easily drawn with classical force-directed drawing algorithms. It is also quickly clustered and displayed into a multi-level silhouette tree (MuSi-Tree) from any user-focus. We built a new graph filtering + clustering + drawing API and report a case study.
“Slimming” of power-law tails by increasing market returns
Sornette, D.
2002-06-01
We introduce a simple generalization of rational bubble models which removes the fundamental problem discovered by Lux and Sornette (J. Money, Credit and Banking, preprint at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/9910141) that the distribution of returns is a power law with exponent discount rate rδ, the distribution of returns of the observable price, sum of the bubble component and of the fundamental price, exhibits an intermediate tail with an exponent which can be larger than 1. This regime r> rδ corresponds to a generalization of the rational bubble model in which the fundamental price is no more given by the discounted value of future dividends. We explain how this is possible. Our model predicts that, the higher is the market remuneration r above the discount rate, the larger is the power-law exponent and thus the thinner is the tail of the distribution of price returns.
Flows of Newtonian and Power-Law Fluids in Symmetrically Corrugated Cappilary Fissures and Tubes
Walicka, A.
2018-02-01
In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of Newtonian and power-law fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. wedge and cone, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. For the wedge and cone geometry the present results for the power-law fluid were compared with the results obtained by another method; this comparison indicates a good compatibility between both the results.
Anisotropic power-law inflation for a conformal-violating Maxwell model
Do, Tuan Q.; Kao, W. F.
2018-05-01
A set of power-law solutions of a conformal-violating Maxwell model with a non-standard scalar-vector coupling will be shown in this paper. In particular, we are interested in a coupling term of the form X^{2n} F^{μ ν }F_{μ ν } with X denoting the kinetic term of the scalar field. Stability analysis indicates that the new set of anisotropic power-law solutions is unstable during the inflationary phase. The result is consistent with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. We show, however, that a set of stable slowly expanding solutions does exist for a small range of parameters λ and n. Hence a small anisotropy can survive during the slowly expanding phase.
Flows of Newtonian and Power-Law Fluids in Symmetrically Corrugated Cappilary Fissures and Tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walicka A.
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of Newtonian and power-law fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. wedge and cone, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. For the wedge and cone geometry the present results for the power-law fluid were compared with the results obtained by another method; this comparison indicates a good compatibility between both the results.
Experimental investigation on the spray characteristics of power-law fluid in a swirl injector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Fuqiang; Chen, Shixing; Guo, Jinpeng; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Chang, Qing, E-mail: duqing@tju.edu.cn [Wuxi Fuel Injection Equipment Research Institute, China FAW CO., Wuxi, 214063 (China)
2017-06-15
High-speed photography and 3D phase Doppler methods are used to obtain the swirl jet images, 3D velocities and size distribution of different droplets (including deionized water and two kinds of power-law fluid). For the power-law fluids, a short circular jet is formed after the nozzle exit at low pressure. Along the X direction, the distributions of axial velocity w and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) are symmetrical and increase from the center to both sides. The effect of injection pressure on the radial velocity u is not obvious. Along the Z axis, the absolute value of 3D velocities decreases to some extent with droplets moving downstream. The SMD decreases apparently with the increment of the distance along the Z axis at 1.0 MPa. (paper)
Power law-based local search in spider monkey optimisation for lower order system modelling
Sharma, Ajay; Sharma, Harish; Bhargava, Annapurna; Sharma, Nirmala
2017-01-01
The nature-inspired algorithms (NIAs) have shown efficiency to solve many complex real-world optimisation problems. The efficiency of NIAs is measured by their ability to find adequate results within a reasonable amount of time, rather than an ability to guarantee the optimal solution. This paper presents a solution for lower order system modelling using spider monkey optimisation (SMO) algorithm to obtain a better approximation for lower order systems and reflects almost original higher order system's characteristics. Further, a local search strategy, namely, power law-based local search is incorporated with SMO. The proposed strategy is named as power law-based local search in SMO (PLSMO). The efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the proposed algorithm is tested over 20 well-known benchmark functions. Then, the PLSMO algorithm is applied to solve the lower order system modelling problem.
Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a family of power-law, wing body configurations
Townsend, J. C.
1973-01-01
The configurations analyzed are half-axisymmetric, power-law bodies surmounted by thin, flat wings. The wing planform matches the body shock-wave shape. Analytic solutions of the hypersonic small disturbance equations form a basis for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Boundary-layer displacement effects on the body and the wing upper surface are approximated. Skin friction is estimated by using compressible, laminar boundary-layer solutions. Good agreement was obtained with available experimental data for which the basic theoretical assumptions were satisfied. The method is used to estimate the effects of power-law, fineness ratio, and Mach number variations at full-scale conditions. The computer program is included.
The relationship between randomness and power-law distributed move lengths in random walk algorithms
Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2014-05-01
Recently, we proposed a new random walk algorithm, termed the REV algorithm, in which the agent alters the directional rule that governs it using the most recent four random numbers. Here, we examined how a non-bounded number, i.e., "randomness" regarding move direction, was important for optimal searching and power-law distributed step lengths in rule change. We proposed two algorithms: the REV and REV-bounded algorithms. In the REV algorithm, one of the four random numbers used to change the rule is non-bounded. In contrast, all four random numbers in the REV-bounded algorithm are bounded. We showed that the REV algorithm exhibited more consistent power-law distributed step lengths and flexible searching behavior.
Sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime for a power-law fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, P B
2017-01-01
A scaling analysis is undertaken for the load balance in sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, with a particular emphasis on power-law shear-thinning typical of a structured liquid. It is argued that the shear-thinning regime is mechanically unstable if the power-law index n < 1/2, where n is the exponent that relates the shear stress to the shear rate. Consequently the Stribeck (friction) curve should be discontinuous, with possible hysteresis. Further analysis suggests that normal stress and flow transience (stress overshoot) do not destroy this basic picture, although they may provide stabilising mechanisms at higher shear rates. Extensional viscosity is also expected to be insignificant unless the Trouton ratio is large. A possible application to shear thickening in non-Brownian particulate suspensions is indicated. (paper)
Scattering at low energies by potentials containing power-law corrections to the Coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuitsinskii, A.A.
1986-01-01
The low-energy asymptotic behavior is found for the phase shifts and scattering amplitudes in the case of central potentials which decrease at infinity as n/r+ar /sup -a/,a 1. In problems of atomic and nuclear physics one is generally interested in collisions of clusters consisting of several charged particles. The effective interaction potential of such clusters contains long-range power law corrections to the Coulomb interaction that is presented
Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields
Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William
2010-01-01
We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search---a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude betw...
Laboratory Constraints on Chameleon Dark Energy and Power-Law Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steffen, J. H.; Baumbaugh, A.; Chou, A. S.; Mazur, P. O.; Tomlin, R.; Wester, W.; Upadhye, A.; Weltman, A.
2010-01-01
We report results from a search for chameleon particles created via photon-chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of unexplored chameleon power-law and dark energy models. These results exclude 5 orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of 4 orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.
Strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons in an effective power-law potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.
1981-01-01
We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potenial, generating spin-dependence through scaler and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with zero quark-anomalous moment, which was found successful in earlier works for the fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons like psi and T, can also describe very satisfactorily the S-wave hyperfine levels, M1-transition rates and electromagnetic mass difference of the strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons. (orig.)
Fine-hyperfine splittings of quarkonium levels in an effective power-law potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics
1980-12-01
We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potential generating spin dependence through scalar and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with a very small or zero quark anomalous moment can describe very satisfactorily the up-to-date data on the fine-hyperfine levels and the leptonic width ratios of the vector mesons in the cc and bb families in a flavour independent manner.
Fine-hyperfine splittings of quarkonium levels in an effective power-law potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.
1980-01-01
We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potential generating spin dependence through scalar and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with a very small or zero quark anomalous moment can describe very satisfactorily the up-to-date data on the fine-hyperfine levels and the leptonic width ratios of the vector mesons in the cc and bb families in a flavour independent manner. (orig.)
Strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons in an effective power-law potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N; Jena, S N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics
1981-05-14
We have shown that an effective non-coulombic power-law potenial, generating spin-dependence through scaler and vector exchanges in almost equal proportions along with zero quark-anomalous moment, which was found successful in earlier works for the fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons like psi and T, can also describe very satisfactorily the S-wave hyperfine levels, M1-transition rates and electromagnetic mass difference of the strange, charmed and b-flavoured mesons.
The Power Laws of Violence against Women: Rescaling Research and Policies
Kappler, Karolin E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas
2012-01-01
Background Violence against Women –despite its perpetuation over centuries and its omnipresence at all social levels– entered into social consciousness and the general agenda of Social Sciences only recently, mainly thanks to feminist research, campaigns, and general social awareness. The present article analyzes in a secondary analysis of German prevalence data on Violence against Women, whether the frequency and severity of Violence against Women can be described with power laws. Principal Findings Although the investigated distributions all resemble power-law distributions, a rigorous statistical analysis accepts this hypothesis at a significance level of 0.1 only for 1 of 5 cases of the tested frequency distributions and with some restrictions for the severity of physical violence. Lowering the significance level to 0.01 leads to the acceptance of the power-law hypothesis in 2 of the 5 tested frequency distributions and as well for the severity of domestic violence. The rejections might be mainly due to the noise in the data, with biases caused by self-reporting, errors through rounding, desirability response bias, and selection bias. Conclusion Future victimological surveys should be designed explicitly to avoid these deficiencies in the data to be able to clearly answer the question whether Violence against Women follows a power-law pattern. This finding would not only have statistical implications for the processing and presentation of the data, but also groundbreaking consequences on the general understanding of Violence against Women and policy modeling, as the skewed nature of the underlying distributions makes evident that Violence against Women is a highly disparate and unequal social problem. This opens new questions for interdisciplinary research, regarding the interplay between environmental, experimental, and social factors on victimization. PMID:22768348
Power-law approach to modeling biological systems. II. Application to ethanol production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voit, E O; Savageau, M A
1982-01-01
The use of the power-law formalism is illustrated by modeling yeast ethanol production in batch culture at high cell densities. Parameter values are estimated from experimental data. The results suggest that ethanol killing of viable cells and lysis of nonviable cells are major determinants of system behavior, whereas catabolism of ethanol and inhibition of cell growth by ethanol appear to be insignificant under these experimental conditions.
The Forbes 400, the Pareto power-law and efficient markets
Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Levy, M.; Malcai, O.; Solomon, S.
2007-01-01
Statistical regularities at the top end of the wealth distribution in the United States are examined using the Forbes 400 lists of richest Americans, published between 1988 and 2003. It is found that the wealths are distributed according to a power-law (Pareto) distribution. This result is explained using a simple stochastic model of multiple investors that incorporates the efficient market hypothesis as well as the multiplicative nature of financial market fluctuations.
van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T
2015-06-25
Social networks are common in digital health. A new stream of research is beginning to investigate the mechanisms of digital health social networks (DHSNs), how they are structured, how they function, and how their growth can be nurtured and managed. DHSNs increase in value when additional content is added, and the structure of networks may resemble the characteristics of power laws. Power laws are contrary to traditional Gaussian averages in that they demonstrate correlated phenomena. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the distribution frequency in four DHSNs can be characterized as following a power law. A second objective is to describe the method used to determine the comparison. Data from four DHSNs—Alcohol Help Center (AHC), Depression Center (DC), Panic Center (PC), and Stop Smoking Center (SSC)—were compared to power law distributions. To assist future researchers and managers, the 5-step methodology used to analyze and compare datasets is described. All four DHSNs were found to have right-skewed distributions, indicating the data were not normally distributed. When power trend lines were added to each frequency distribution, R(2) values indicated that, to a very high degree, the variance in post frequencies can be explained by actor rank (AHC .962, DC .975, PC .969, SSC .95). Spearman correlations provided further indication of the strength and statistical significance of the relationship (AHC .987. DC .967, PC .983, SSC .993, Ppower distributions across multiple DHSNs, each addressing a unique condition. Results indicate that despite vast differences in theme, content, and length of existence, DHSNs follow properties of power laws. The structure of DHSNs is important as it gives insight to researchers and managers into the nature and mechanisms of network functionality. The 5-step process undertaken to compare actor contribution patterns can be replicated in networks that are managed by other organizations, and we conjecture that
Single-event burnout of power bipolar junction transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Titus, J.L.; Johnson, G.H.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.
1991-01-01
Experimental evidence of single-event burnout of power bipolar junctions transistors (BJTs) is reported for the first time. Several commercial power BJTs were characterized in a simulated cosmic ray environment using mono-energetic ions at the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Most of the device types exposed to this simulated environment exhibited burnout behavior. In this paper the experimental technique, data, and results are presented, while a qualitative model is used to help explain those results and trends observed in this experiment
Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.
2016-01-01
Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210
Evidence for intermittency and a truncated power law from highly resolved aphid movement data.
Mashanova, Alla; Oliver, Tom H; Jansen, Vincent A A
2010-01-06
Power laws are increasingly used to describe animal movement. Despite this, the use of power laws has been criticized on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and alternative models based on extensions of conventional random walk theory (Brownian motion) have been suggested. In this paper, we analyse a large volume of data of aphid walking behaviour (65,068 data points), which provides a highly resolved dataset to investigate the pattern of movement. We show that aphid movement is intermittent--with alternations of a slow movement with frequent change of direction and a fast, relatively directed movement--and that the fast movement consists of two phases--a strongly directed phase that gradually changes into an uncorrelated random walk. By measuring the mean-squared displacement and the duration of non-stop movement episodes we found that both spatial and temporal aspects of aphid movement are best described using a truncated power law approach. We suggest that the observed spatial pattern arises from the duration of non-stop movement phases rather than from correlations in turning angles. We discuss the implications of these findings for interpreting movement data, such as distinguishing between movement and non-movement, and the effect of the range of data used in the analysis on the conclusions.
Chahtour, C.; Ben Hamed, H.; Beji, H.; Guizani, A.; Alimi, W.
2018-01-01
We investigate how an external imposed magnetic field affects thermal instability in a horizontal shallow porous cavity saturated by a non-Newtonian power-law liquid. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and parallel to the gravity. A uniform heat flux is applied to the horizontal walls of the layer while the vertical walls are adiabatic. We use linear stability analysis to find expressions for the critical Rayleigh number as a function of the power-law index and the intensity of the magnetic field. We use nonlinear parallel flow theory to find some explicit solutions of the problem, and we use finite difference numerical simulations to solve the full nonlinear equations. We show how the presence of magnetic field alters the known hydrodynamical result of Newtonian flows and power-law flows and how it causes the presence of subcritical finite amplitude convection for both pseudoplastic and dilatant fluids. We also show that in the limit of very strong magnetic field, the dissipation of energy by Joule effect dominates the dissipation of energy by shear stress and gives to the liquid an inviscid character.
Dust-acoustic waves and stability in the permeating dusty plasma. II. Power-law distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Jingyu; Du Jiulin; Liu Zhipeng
2012-01-01
The dust-acoustic waves and the stability theory for the permeating dusty plasma with power-law distributions are studied by using nonextensive q-statistics. In two limiting physical cases, when the thermal velocity of the flowing dusty plasma is much larger than, and much smaller than the phase velocity of the waves, we derived the dust-acoustic wave frequency, the instability growth rate, and the instability critical flowing velocity. As compared with the formulae obtained in part I [Gong et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 043704 (2012)], all formulae of the present cases and the resulting plasma characteristics are q-dependent, and the power-law distribution of each plasma component of the permeating dusty plasma has a different q-parameter and thus has a different nonextensive effect. Further, we make numerical analyses of an example that a cometary plasma tail is passing through the interplanetary space dusty plasma and we show that these power-law distributions have significant effects on the plasma characteristics of this kind of plasma environment.
Floquet states of a kicked particle in a singular potential: Exponential and power-law profiles
Paul, Sanku; Santhanam, M. S.
2018-03-01
It is well known that, in the chaotic regime, all the Floquet states of kicked rotor system display an exponential profile resulting from dynamical localization. If the kicked rotor is placed in an additional stationary infinite potential well, its Floquet states display power-law profile. It has also been suggested in general that the Floquet states of periodically kicked systems with singularities in the potential would have power-law profile. In this work, we study the Floquet states of a kicked particle in finite potential barrier. By varying the height of finite potential barrier, the nature of transition in the Floquet state from exponential to power-law decay profile is studied. We map this system to a tight-binding model and show that the nature of decay profile depends on energy band spanned by the Floquet states (in unperturbed basis) relative to the potential height. This property can also be inferred from the statistics of Floquet eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This leads to an unusual scenario in which the level spacing distribution, as a window in to the spectral correlations, is not a unique characteristic for the entire system.
Accuracy analysis of measurements on a stable power-law distributed series of events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E; Siviour, G B
2006-01-01
We investigate how finite measurement time limits the accuracy with which the parameters of a stably distributed random series of events can be determined. The model process is generated by timing the emigration of individuals from a population that is subject to deaths and a particular choice of multiple immigration events. This leads to a scale-free discrete random process where customary measures, such as mean value and variance, do not exist. However, converting the number of events occurring in fixed time intervals to a 1-bit 'clipped' process allows the construction of well-behaved statistics that still retain vestiges of the original power-law and fluctuation properties. These statistics include the clipped mean and correlation function, from measurements of which both the power-law index of the distribution of events and the time constant of its fluctuations can be deduced. We report here a theoretical analysis of the accuracy of measurements of the mean of the clipped process. This indicates that, for a fixed experiment time, the error on measurements of the sample mean is minimized by an optimum choice of the number of samples. It is shown furthermore that this choice is sensitive to the power-law index and that the approach to Poisson statistics is dominated by rare events or 'outliers'. Our results are supported by numerical simulation
The Dynamics of Power laws: Fitness and Aging in Preferential Attachment Trees
Garavaglia, Alessandro; van der Hofstad, Remco; Woeginger, Gerhard
2017-09-01
Continuous-time branching processes describe the evolution of a population whose individuals generate a random number of children according to a birth process. Such branching processes can be used to understand preferential attachment models in which the birth rates are linear functions. We are motivated by citation networks, where power-law citation counts are observed as well as aging in the citation patterns. To model this, we introduce fitness and age-dependence in these birth processes. The multiplicative fitness moderates the rate at which children are born, while the aging is integrable, so that individuals receives a finite number of children in their lifetime. We show the existence of a limiting degree distribution for such processes. In the preferential attachment case, where fitness and aging are absent, this limiting degree distribution is known to have power-law tails. We show that the limiting degree distribution has exponential tails for bounded fitnesses in the presence of integrable aging, while the power-law tail is restored when integrable aging is combined with fitness with unbounded support with at most exponential tails. In the absence of integrable aging, such processes are explosive.
Power-law behavior in complex organizational communication networks during crisis
Uddin, Shahadat; Murshed, Shahriar Tanvir Hasan; Hossain, Liaquat
2011-08-01
Communication networks can be described as patterns of contacts which are created due to the flow of messages and information shared among participating actors. Contemporary organizations are now commonly viewed as dynamic systems of adaptation and evolution containing several parts, which interact with one another both in internal and in external environment. Although there is limited consensus among researchers on the precise definition of organizational crisis, there is evidence of shared meaning: crisis produces individual crisis, crisis can be associated with positive or negative conditions, crises can be situations having been precipitated quickly or suddenly or situations that have developed over time and are predictable etc. In this research, we study the power-law behavior of an organizational email communication network during crisis from complexity perspective. Power law simply describes that, the probability that a randomly selected node has k links (i.e. degree k) follows P(k)∼k, where γ is the degree exponent. We used social network analysis tools and techniques to analyze the email communication dataset. We tested two propositions: (1) as organization goes through crisis, a few actors, who are prominent or more active, will become central, and (2) the daily communication network as well as the actors in the communication network exhibit power-law behavior. Our preliminary results support these two propositions. The outcome of this study may provide significant advancement in exploring organizational communication network behavior during crisis.
IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dyah Ayu Widowati
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.
Influence of the Density Law on Various Fissile Single Unit and Array Storage Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S.T.
2011-01-01
The advancement of computational technology has resulted in the wide-spread availability of powerful radiation transport Monte Carlo codes. Prevailing practices today rely heavily on Monte Carlo codes to provide the basis for assessing the reactivity of various fissile systems for nuclear criticality safety (NCS). In 1958, Weinberg and Wigner expressed their concerns on a 'deplorable trend in reactor design - the tendency to substitute a code for a theory'. Unfortunately, their concerns have largely become a reality in many modern NCS practices. lacking the time or information to understand the underlying neutron physics of the fissile system under consideration is indeed a deplorable trend. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many features of criticality hand calculation methods are indeed based upon the fundamentals of the density law and that many correlations of important physics parameters can be more easily understood from such a perspective. Historically, the density law was recognized by many pioneers in the field, including during the Manhattan Project. However, it was by and large an 'oral tradition' in that bits and pieces of great physical insights of the pioneers were scattered in many earlier publications. This paper attempts to bring together some of the 'jewels' of the pioneers which might have been lost or forgotten.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Meng-Yao; Zhong Ze-Hao; Han Yi-Chen; Wang Xiao-Yu; Yang Zong-Shui; Xie Yi
2014-01-01
New physics beyond the standard model of particles might cause a deviation from the inverse-square law of gravity. In some theories, it is parameterized by a power-law correction to the Newtonian gravitational force, which might originate from the simultaneous exchange of particles or modified and extended theories of gravity. Using the supplementary advances of the perihelia provided by INPOP10a (IMCCE, France) and EPM2011 (IAA RAS, Russia) ephemerides, we obtain preliminary limits on this correction. In our estimation, we take the Lense-Thirring effect due to the Sun's angular momentum into account. The parameters of the power-law correction and the uncertainty of the Sun's quadrupole moment are simultaneously estimated with the method of minimizing χ 2 . From INPOP10a, we find N = 0.605 for the exponent of the power-law correction. However, from EPM2011, we find that, although it yields N = 3.001, the estimated uncertainty in the Sun's quadrupole moment is much larger than the value given by current observations. This might be caused by the intrinsic nonlinearity in the power-law correction, which makes the estimation very sensitive to the supplementary advances of the perihelia. (research papers)
Thompson, Rodger I.
2018-04-01
This investigation explores using the beta function formalism to calculate analytic solutions for the observable parameters in rolling scalar field cosmologies. The beta function in this case is the derivative of the scalar ϕ with respect to the natural log of the scale factor a, β (φ )=d φ /d ln (a). Once the beta function is specified, modulo a boundary condition, the evolution of the scalar ϕ as a function of the scale factor is completely determined. A rolling scalar field cosmology is defined by its action which can contain a range of physically motivated dark energy potentials. The beta function is chosen so that the associated "beta potential" is an accurate, but not exact, representation of the appropriate dark energy model potential. The basic concept is that the action with the beta potential is so similar to the action with the model potential that solutions using the beta action are accurate representations of solutions using the model action. The beta function provides an extra equation to calculate analytic functions of the cosmologies parameters as a function of the scale factor that are that are not calculable using only the model action. As an example this investigation uses a quintessence cosmology to demonstrate the method for power and inverse power law dark energy potentials. An interesting result of the investigation is that the Hubble parameter H is almost completely insensitive to the power of the potentials and that ΛCDM is part of the family of quintessence cosmology power law potentials with a power of zero.
Li, Qiang; Popov, Valentin L.
2018-03-01
Recently proposed formulation of the boundary element method for adhesive contacts has been generalized for contacts of power-law graded materials with and without adhesion. Proceeding from the fundamental solution for single force acting on the surface of an elastic half space, first the influence matrix is obtained for a rectangular grid. The inverse problem for the calculation of required stress in the contact area from a known surface displacement is solved using the conjugate-gradient technique. For the transformation between the stresses and displacements, the Fast Fourier Transformation is used. For the adhesive contact of graded material, the detachment criterion based on the energy balance is proposed. The method is validated by comparison with known exact analytical solutions as well as by proving the independence of the mesh size and the grid orientation.
Emergence of power-law in a market with mixed models
Ali Saif, M.; Gade, Prashant M.
2007-10-01
We investigate the problem of wealth distribution from the viewpoint of asset exchange. Robust nature of Pareto's law across economies, ideologies and nations suggests that this could be an outcome of trading strategies. However, the simple asset exchange models fail to reproduce this feature. A Yardsale (YS) model in which amount put on the bet is a fraction of minimum of the two players leads to condensation of wealth in hands of some agent while theft and fraud (TF) model in which the amount to be exchanged is a fraction of loser's wealth leads to an exponential distribution of wealth. We show that if we allow few agents to follow a different model than others, i.e., there are some agents following TF model while rest follow YS model, it leads to distribution with power-law tails. Similar effect is observed when one carries out transactions for a fraction of one's wealth using TF model and for the rest YS model is used. We also observe a power-law tail in wealth distribution if we allow the agents to follow either of the models with some probability.
Power and Law in Enlightened Absolutism – Carl Gottlieb Svarez’ Theoretical and Practical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milan Kuhli
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The term Enlightened Absolutism reflects a certain tension between its two components. This tension is in a way a continuation of the dichotomy between power on one hand and law on the other. The present paper shall provide an analysis of these two concepts from the perspective of Carl Gottlieb Svarez, who, in his position as a high-ranking Prussian civil servant and legal reformist, had unparalleled influence on the legislative history of the Prussian states towards the end of the 18th century. Working side-by-side with Johann Heinrich Casimir von Carmer, who held the post of Prussian minister of justice from 1779 to 1798, Svarez was able to make use of his talent for reforming and legislating. From 1780 to 1794 he was primarily responsible for the elaboration of the codification of the Prussian private law – the »Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten« in 1794. In the present paper, Svarez’ approach to the relation between law and power shall be analysed on two different levels. Firstly, on a theoretical level, the reformist’s thoughts and reflections as laid down in his numerous works, papers and memorandums, shall be discussed. Secondly, on a practical level, the question of the extent to which he implemented his ideas in Prussian legal reality shall be explored.
Power law deformation of Wishart–Laguerre ensembles of random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akemann, Gernot; Vivo, Pierpaolo
2008-01-01
We introduce a one-parameter deformation of the Wishart–Laguerre or chiral ensembles of positive definite random matrices with Dyson index β = 1,2 and 4. Our generalized model has a fat-tailed distribution while preserving the invariance under orthogonal, unitary or symplectic transformations. The spectral properties are derived analytically for finite matrix size N × M for all three values of β, in terms of the orthogonal polynomials of the standard Wishart–Laguerre ensembles. For large N in a certain double-scaling limit we obtain a generalized Marčenko–Pastur distribution on the macroscopic scale, and a generalized Bessel law at the hard edge which is shown to be universal. Both macroscopic and microscopic correlations exhibit power law tails, where the microscopic limit depends on β and the difference M−N. In the limit where our parameter governing the power law goes to infinity we recover the correlations of the Wishart–Laguerre ensembles. To illustrate these findings, the generalized Marčenko–Pastur distribution is shown to be in very good agreement with empirical data from financial covariance matrices
An Updated Perspective of Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout in Power MOSFETs
Titus, Jeffrey L.
2013-06-01
Studies over the past 25 years have shown that heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power MOSFETs [e.g., single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB)]. In 1996, two papers were published in a special issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science [Johnson, Palau, Dachs, Galloway and Schrimpf, “A Review of the Techniques Used for Modeling Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546-560, April. 1996], [Titus and Wheatley, “Experimental Studies of Single-Event Gate Rupture and Burnout in Vertical Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 533-545, Apr. 1996]. Those two papers continue to provide excellent information and references with regard to SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs. This paper provides updated references/information and provides an updated perspective of SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs as well as provides references/information to other device types that exhibit SEB and SEGR effects.
Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baolian Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem, and the design method is given. The simulation and experiment results proved that the proposed variable structure control algorithm can eliminate the chattering problem existing in traditional variable structure control effectively, is insensitive to system disturbance, and has good robustness and fast dynamic response speed and stable DC bus voltage with small fluctuation. The above advantages ensure the compensation effect of APF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-01-01
This law regulates the legal principles for the decommissioning of unit 1 at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The main deadlines for the government in the preparation for the decommissioning are set in the law. All preparatory works should be finished before the year 2005
Effect of the length of inflation on angular TT and TE power spectra in power-law inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirai, Shiro; Takami, Tomoyuki
2006-01-01
The effect of the length of inflation on the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations is estimated using the power-law inflation model with a scale factor of a(η) = (-η) p = t q . Considering various pre-inflation models with radiation-dominated or scalar matter-dominated periods before inflation in combination with two matching conditions, the temperature angular power spectrum (TT) and temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum (TE) are calculated and a likelihood analysis is performed. It is shown that the discrepancies between the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data and the ΛCDM model, such as suppression of the spectrum at l = 2, 3 and oscillatory behaviour, may be explained by the finite length of inflation model if the length of inflation is near 60 e-folds and q ≥ 300. The proposed models retain similar values of χ 2 to that achieved by the ΛCDM model with respect to fit to the WMAP data, but display different characteristics of the angular TE power spectra at l ≤ 20
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-07-01
In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)
The mean first passage time in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with power-law distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Yanjun; Du, Jiulin
2013-01-01
Based on the mean first passage time (MFPT) theory, we derive an expression of the MFPT in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with a power-law distribution. We discuss the finite barrier effect (i.e. the thermal energy k B T is not small with respect to the potential barrier E b ) and compare it with Kramers’ infinite barrier result both in a power-law distribution and in a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. It is shown that the MFPT with a power-law distribution extends Kramers’ low-damping result to a relatively low barrier. We pay attention to the energy-diffusion controlled regime, which is of great interest in the context of Josephson junctions, and study how the power-law parameter κ affects the current distribution function in experiments with Josephson junctions. (paper)
Experimental study of single event burnout and single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs and IGBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin
2001-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to determine the single event burnout and single event gate rupture sensitivities in power MOSFETs and IGBT which were exposed to heavy ions from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism were presented. Current measurements have been performed with a specially designed circuit. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and versus with external capacitors and limited resistors
Power-law neuronal fluctuations in a recurrent network model of parametric working memory.
Miller, Paul; Wang, Xiao-Jing
2006-02-01
In a working memory system, persistent activity maintains information in the absence of external stimulation, therefore the time scale and structure of correlated neural fluctuations reflect the intrinsic microcircuit dynamics rather than direct responses to sensory inputs. Here we show that a parametric working memory model capable of graded persistent activity is characterized by arbitrarily long correlation times, with Fano factors and power spectra of neural activity described by the power laws of a random walk. Collective drifts of the mnemonic firing pattern induce long-term noise correlations between pairs of cells, with the sign (positive or negative) and amplitude proportional to the product of the gradients of their tuning curves. None of the power-law behavior was observed in a variant of the model endowed with discrete bistable neural groups, where noise fluctuations were unable to cause long-term changes in rate. Therefore such behavior can serve as a probe for a quasi-continuous attractor. We propose that the unusual correlated fluctuations have important implications for neural coding in parametric working memory circuits.
Nonlinear and linear wave equations for propagation in media with frequency power law losses
Szabo, Thomas L.
2003-10-01
The Burgers, KZK, and Westervelt wave equations used for simulating wave propagation in nonlinear media are based on absorption that has a quadratic dependence on frequency. Unfortunately, most lossy media, such as tissue, follow a more general frequency power law. The authors first research involved measurements of loss and dispersion associated with a modification to Blackstock's solution to the linear thermoviscous wave equation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 1312 (1967)]. A second paper by Blackstock [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2050 (1985)] showed the loss term in the Burgers equation for plane waves could be modified for other known instances of loss. The authors' work eventually led to comprehensive time-domain convolutional operators that accounted for both dispersion and general frequency power law absorption [Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491 (1994)]. Versions of appropriate loss terms were developed to extend the standard three nonlinear wave equations to these more general losses. Extensive experimental data has verified the predicted phase velocity dispersion for different power exponents for the linear case. Other groups are now working on methods suitable for solving wave equations numerically for these types of loss directly in the time domain for both linear and nonlinear media.
Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems
Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.
2015-12-01
The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.
Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.-m. Hsu
2011-08-01
Full Text Available With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO_{2}, NO_{x}, CO, SO_{2}, and O_{3} and aerosol (PM_{10} measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of −5/3 and −1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, −3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.
Howard, Robert W
2014-09-01
The power law of practice holds that a power function best interrelates skill performance and amount of practice. However, the law's validity and generality are moot. Some researchers argue that it is an artifact of averaging individual exponential curves while others question whether the law generalizes to complex skills and to performance measures other than response time. The present study tested the power law's generality to development over many years of a very complex cognitive skill, chess playing, with 387 skilled participants, most of whom were grandmasters. A power or logarithmic function best fit grouped data but individuals showed much variability. An exponential function usually was the worst fit to individual data. Groups differing in chess talent were compared and a power function best fit the group curve for the more talented players while a quadratic function best fit that for the less talented. After extreme amounts of practice, a logarithmic function best fit grouped data but a quadratic function best fit most individual curves. Individual variability is great and the power law or an exponential law are not the best descriptions of individual chess skill development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakalis, Evangelos, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universita’ di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Venturini, Alessandro [Institute for the Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity, National Research Council of Italy, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)
2015-06-07
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.
Hysteresis and creep: Comparison between a power-law model and Kuhnen's model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveri, Alberto; Stellino, Flavio; Parodi, Mauro; Storace, Marco, E-mail: marco.storace@unige.it
2016-04-01
In this paper we analyze some properties of a recently proposed model of hysteresis and creep (related to a circuit model, whose only nonlinear element is based on a power law) and compare it with the well-known Kuhnen's model. A first qualitative comparison relies on the analysis of the behavior of the elementary cell of each model. Their responses to step inputs (which allow to better evidence the creep effect) are analyzed and compared. Then, a quantitative comparison is proposed, based on the fitting performances of the two models on experimental data measured from a commercial piezoelectric actuator.
Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William
2010-01-01
We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search - a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.
Extended power-law scaling of air permeabilities measured on a block of tuff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Siena
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We use three methods to identify power-law scaling of multi-scale log air permeability data collected by Tidwell and Wilson on the faces of a laboratory-scale block of Topopah Spring tuff: method of moments (M, Extended Self-Similarity (ESS and a generalized version thereof (G-ESS. All three methods focus on q-th-order sample structure functions of absolute increments. Most such functions exhibit power-law scaling at best over a limited midrange of experimental separation scales, or lags, which are sometimes difficult to identify unambiguously by means of M. ESS and G-ESS extend this range in a way that renders power-law scaling easier to characterize. Our analysis confirms the superiority of ESS and G-ESS over M in identifying the scaling exponents, ξ(q, of corresponding structure functions of orders q, suggesting further that ESS is more reliable than G-ESS. The exponents vary in a nonlinear fashion with q as is typical of real or apparent multifractals. Our estimates of the Hurst scaling coefficient increase with support scale, implying a reduction in roughness (anti-persistence of the log permeability field with measurement volume. The finding by Tidwell and Wilson that log permeabilities associated with all tip sizes can be characterized by stationary variogram models, coupled with our findings that log permeability increments associated with the smallest tip size are approximately Gaussian and those associated with all tip sizes scale show nonlinear variations in ξ(q with q, are consistent with a view of these data as a sample from a truncated version (tfBm of self-affine fractional Brownian motion (fBm. Since in theory the scaling exponents, ξ(q, of tfBm vary linearly with q we conclude that nonlinear scaling in our case is not an indication of multifractality but an artifact of sampling from tfBm. This allows us to explain theoretically how power-law scaling of our data, as well
Jell-O Optics: Edibly Exploring Snell's Law and Optical Power
Hendryx, Jennifer; Reynolds, Mathias
2012-03-01
This presentation details a laboratory exercise and/or demonstration of refraction with an inexpensive, simple set-up: a pan of Jell-O, protractors, and laser pointers. This activity is presented from the perspective of an optical sciences graduate student who has spent the school year team-teaching high school math and physics (through Academic Decathlon). The goal is to present some of the fundamentals of optics with an enjoyable and affordable approach. The concepts include Snell's law, index of refraction, and optical power/focal length as they relate to the curvature of a lens.
Power-law temperature dependence of the inelastic-scattering rate in disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devereaux, T.P.; Belitz, D.
1991-01-01
We present a theory of the quasiparticle inelastic lifetime τ in in disordered superconducting films. We find that both the Coulomb and the electron-phonon contribution to τ in -1 are enhanced by disorder, and that for reasonably strong electron-phonon coupling the latter is dominant. In contrast to clean superconductors, the scattering rate is larger than the recombination rate at all temperatures. This leads to a power-law temperature dependence of τ in -1 , in agreement with experimental observations. The theory quantitatively accounts for the magnitude, disorder dependence, and temperature dependence of τ in measured in recent experiments
Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-11-15
We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)
Origin of Power Laws for Reactions at Metal Surfaces Mediated by Hot Electrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob
2009-01-01
A wide range of experiments have established that certain chemical reactions at metal surfaces can be driven by multiple hot-electron-mediated excitations of adsorbates. A high transient density of hot electrons is obtained by means of femtosecond laser pulses and a characteristic feature of such...... density functional theory and the delta self-consistent field method. With a simplifying assumption, the power law becomes exact and we obtain a simple physical interpretation of the exponent n, which represents the number of adsorbate vibrational states participating in the reaction....
Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane.
Bakalis, Evangelos; Höfinger, Siegfried; Venturini, Alessandro; Zerbetto, Francesco
2015-06-07
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Zhonghai; Chen, Goong; Lin, Chang-Shou
2010-01-01
The dimensional scaling (D-scaling) technique is an innovative asymptotic expansion approach to study the multiparticle systems in molecular quantum mechanics. It enables the calculation of ground and excited state energies of quantum systems without having to solve the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis of the D-scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials. By casting the D-scaling technique in an appropriate variational setting and studying the corresponding minimization problem, the D-scaling technique is justified rigorously. A new asymptotic dimensional expansion scheme is introduced to compute asymptotic expansions for ground state energies.
Precision of quantization of the hall conductivity in a finite-size sample: Power law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greshnov, A. A.; Kolesnikova, E. N.; Zegrya, G. G.
2006-01-01
A microscopic calculation of the conductivity in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) mode is carried out. The precision of quantization is analyzed for finite-size samples. The precision of quantization shows a power-law dependence on the sample size. A new scaling parameter describing this dependence is introduced. It is also demonstrated that the precision of quantization linearly depends on the ratio between the amplitude of the disorder potential and the cyclotron energy. The data obtained are compared with the results of magnetotransport measurements in mesoscopic samples
Relaxation of the distribution function tails for gases with power-law interaction potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; de Azevedo, C.A.; de Assis, A.S.
1997-01-01
The relaxation of rarefied gases of particles with the power-law interaction potentials U=α/r s , where 1≤s<4, is considered. The formation and evolution of the distribution function tails are investigated on the basis of the one-dimensional kinetic Landau endash Fokker-Planck equation. For long times, the constructed asymptotic solutions have a propagating-wave appearance in the high velocity region. The analytical solutions are expressed explicitly in terms of the error function. The analytical consideration is accomplished by numerical calculations. The obtained analytical results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Light Fragment Production and Power Law Behavior in Au + Au Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.A.; Chacon, A.D.; Chance, J.L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J.B.; Gilkes, M.L.; Hauger, J.A.; Hirsch, A.S.; Hjort, E.L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.A.; Matis, H.S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.L.; Partlan, M.D.; Porile, N.T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J.L.; Russo, G.V.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B.K.; Symons, T.J.M.; Tincknell, M.L.; Tuve, C.; Warren, P.G.; Weerasundara, D.; Wieman, H.H.; Wolf, K.L.
1995-01-01
Using charged-particle-exclusive measurements of Au+Au collisions in the LBL Bevalac's EOS time projection chamber, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity, and beam energy. Most features of these densities above a transverse momentum threshold are consistent with momentum-space coalescence, and, in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is generally well described by a momentum-space power law
Truncation of power law behavior in 'scale-free' network models due to information filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mossa, Stefano; Barthelemy, Marc; Eugene Stanley, H.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.
2002-01-01
We formulate a general model for the growth of scale-free networks under filtering information conditions--that is, when the nodes can process information about only a subset of the existing nodes in the network. We find that the distribution of the number of incoming links to a node follows a universal scaling form, i.e., that it decays as a power law with an exponential truncation controlled not only by the system size but also by a feature not previously considered, the subset of the network 'accessible' to the node. We test our model with empirical data for the World Wide Web and find agreement
A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.
2015-01-01
The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...... behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity....
Effects of diversity and procrastination in priority queuing theory: The different power law regimes
Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.
2010-01-01
Empirical analyses show that after the update of a browser, or the publication of the vulnerability of a software, or the discovery of a cyber worm, the fraction of computers still using the older browser or software version, or not yet patched, or exhibiting worm activity decays as a power law ˜1/tα with 0procrastination,” defined as the situation in which the target task may be postponed or delayed even after the individual has solved all other pending tasks. This regime provides an explanation for even slower apparent decay and longer persistence.
Mercan, Kadir; Demir, Çiǧdem; Civalek, Ömer
2016-01-01
In the present manuscript, free vibration response of circular cylindrical shells with functionally graded material (FGM) is investigated. The method of discrete singular convolution (DSC) is used for numerical solution of the related governing equation of motion of FGM cylindrical shell. The constitutive relations are based on the Love's first approximation shell theory. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction according to a volume fraction power law indexes. Frequency values are calculated for different types of boundary conditions, material and geometric parameters. In general, close agreement between the obtained results and those of other researchers has been found.
Do we have an acceptable model of power-law creep?
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
2004-12-15
Full Text Available 387–389 (2004) 659–664 Do we have an acceptable model of power-law creep? F.R.N. Nabarro a,b,∗ a Condensed Matter Physics Research Group, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg WITS 2050, South Africa b... an exponential function 0921-5093/$ – see front matter © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.09.118 660 F.R.N. Nabarro / Materials Science and Engineering A 387–389 (2004) 659–664 of the stress. There is little evidence whether the physical...
MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SINGLE-PHASE POWER SUPPLY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.S. Malyar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Aim. Development of a method for calculating mechanical characteristics of three-phase induction motors with single-phase power supply. Methods. The developed algorithm is based on the high-adequacy mathematical model of motor and projection method for solving the boundary problem for equations of electrical circuits balance presented in the three-phase coordinate system. As a result of asymmetry of power supply to the stator windings, in steady state, flux-linkage and current change according to the periodic law. They are determined by solving the boundary problem. Results. The developed mathematical model allows determining periodic dependence of coordinates as a function of slip and, based on them, mechanical characteristics of motors. Academic novelty. The developed method relies on a completely new mathematical approach to calculation of stationary modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which allows obtaining periodic solution in a timeless domain. Practical value. Using the developed calculation algorithm, one can select capacitance required to start an induction motor with single-phase power supply and calculate static mechanical characteristics at a given capacitance.
Critical review of the first-law efficiency in different power combined cycle architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglesias Garcia, Steven; Ferreiro Garcia, Ramon; Carbia Carril, Jose; Iglesias Garcia, Denis
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The adiabatic expansion based TC can improve the energy efficiency of CCs. • A revolutionary TC can be a starting point to develop high-performance CCs. • A theoretical thermal efficiency of 83.7% was reached in a Nuclear Power Plant using a TC as bottoming cycle. - Abstract: This critical review explores the potential of an innovative trilateral thermodynamic cycle used to transform low-grade heat into mechanical work and compares its performance with relevant traditional thermodynamic cycles in combined cycles. The aim of this work is to show that combined cycles use traditional low efficiency power cycles in their bottoming cycle, and to evaluate theoretically the implementation of alternative power bottoming cycles. Different types of combined cycles have been reviewed, highlighting their relevant characteristics. The efficiencies of power plants using combined cycles are reviewed and compared. The relevance of researching thermodynamic cycles for combined cycle applications is that a vast amount of heat energy is available at negligible cost in the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle, with the drawback that existing thermal cycles cannot make efficient use of such available low temperature heat due to their low efficiency. The first-law efficiency is used as a parameter to compare and suggest improvements in the combined cycles (CCs) reviewed. The analysis shows that trilateral cycles using closed processes are by far the most efficient published thermal cycles for combined cycles to transform low-grade heat into mechanical work. An innovative trilateral bottoming cycle is proposed to show that the application of non-traditional power cycles can increase significantly the first-law efficiency of CCs. The highest first-law efficiencies achieved are: 85.55% in a CC using LNG cool, 73.82% for a transport vehicle CC, 74.40% in a marine CC, 83.07% in a CC for nuclear power plants, 73.82% in a CC using Brayton and Rankine cycles, 78.31% in a CC
Birth and death of protein domains: A simple model of evolution explains power law behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berezovskaya Faina S
2002-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connections of enzymes and metabolites in metabolic networks, the number of interactions partners of a given protein, the number of members in paralogous families, and other quantities. In network analysis, power laws imply evolution of the network with preferential attachment, i.e. a greater likelihood of nodes being added to pre-existing hubs. Exploration of different types of evolutionary models in an attempt to determine which of them lead to power law distributions has the potential of revealing non-trivial aspects of genome evolution. Results A simple model of evolution of the domain composition of proteomes was developed, with the following elementary processes: i domain birth (duplication with divergence, ii death (inactivation and/or deletion, and iii innovation (emergence from non-coding or non-globular sequences or acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. This formalism can be described as a birth, death and innovation model (BDIM. The formulas for equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size and the total number of families at equilibrium are derived for a general BDIM. All asymptotics of equilibrium frequencies of domain families possible for the given type of models are found and their appearance depending on model parameters is investigated. It is proved that the power law asymptotics appears if, and only if, the model is balanced, i.e. domain duplication and deletion rates are asymptotically equal up to the second order. It is further proved that any power asymptotic with the degree not equal to -1 can appear only if the hypothesis of independence of the duplication/deletion rates on the size of a domain family is rejected. Specific cases of BDIMs, namely simple, linear, polynomial and rational
Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward S. Cohen
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad
Validation of a power-law noise model for simulating small-scale breast tissue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiser, I; Edwards, A; Nishikawa, R M
2013-01-01
We have validated a small-scale breast tissue model based on power-law noise. A set of 110 patient images served as truth. The statistical model parameters were determined by matching the radially averaged power-spectrum of the projected simulated tissue with that of the central tomosynthesis patient breast projections. Observer performance in a signal-known exactly detection task in simulated and actual breast backgrounds was compared. Observers included human readers, a pre-whitening observer model and a channelized Hotelling observer model. For all observers, good agreement between performance in the simulated and actual backgrounds was found, both in the tomosynthesis central projections and the reconstructed images. This tissue model can be used for breast x-ray imaging system optimization. The complete statistical description of the model is provided. (paper)
Strong Presidents, Robust Democracies? Separation of Powers and Rule of Law in Latin America
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Melo
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The received wisdom on Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s was that countries where presidents enjoyed strong constitutional powers and where multiparty coalitions prevailed would be doomed to instability and institutional crises, while countries boasting weak presidents and strong parties were expected to consolidate democratic rule. After almost two decades, it is now widely acknowledged that this prediction failed. Recent re-conceptualizations of presidentalism have partly corrected the flaws in the established diagnosis but left unexplained the role of checks and balances and of the rule of law in containing presidential abuse and guaranteeing governability. The paper argues that the key to solving the paradox of strong presidents and robust democracies is that democratic stability in Latin American countries is a function of an extended system of checks and balances. These are ultimately generated by power fragmentation at the time of the constitutional choices over their institutional design and political competition sustaining their effective functioning.
The system of legal regulations and supervisory powers in the German Atomic Energy Law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, K.H.
1984-01-01
The first part of the book deals with the practical implementation of the legal provisions governing examination and subsequent licensing and judicial restraint, and the effects of actual practice on the energy industry, for the purpose of showing the chain of cause and effect of the frequently lamented delays in the further utilisation of nuclear energy, and of analysing the role of the administrative courts in the process, pointing to the explosiveness in terms of economics of this issue. The second part analyses the risk assessments from the legal and technical point of view in order to ascertain whether the findings of risk assessments are suitable to serve as scale models for decisions to be taken by the courts. The third part is a critical evaluation of the numerous attempts to incorporate the general doctrine of discretionary power into the system of atomic energy law in a way conformable with the existing system. This analysis resulting in the statement that the attempts have failed so far, the fourth part of the book discusses the necessity to look for other solutions, among other things by critically screening the dogma of discretionary power. The author comes to the conclusion that judicial restraint is to be cut back in the licensing procedure, however not to the extent that control over the authorities is abandoned altogether, but rather in such a way that the power of administrative courts does not develop into judgments executing the law. It is to be avoided that licensing procedures for nuclear power plants degenerate into 'administrative procedures preceded by administrative procedures'. This may not be confounded with giving up all possibilities of legal protection. (orig./HSCH) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitto, L.
2007-07-01
The liberalization of the electric power market and gas market has released a comprehensive reorganisation of the energy branch. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on power network operators, their improper behaviour as well as the use of the instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law in order to sanction power network operators.
The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure
Ormerod, Paul
2002-11-01
In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.
Effective non-Coulombic power-law potential for the study of light and heavy mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.
1982-01-01
From purely phenomenological considerations we have shown that it is possible to describe successfully the heavy meson spectra of cc-bar and bb-bar systems in the framework of an effective non-Coulombic power-law potential in the form V(r) = V 0 +ar/sup ν/ (with a,ν>0). The nonsingular short-distance behavior of this potential, which is in apparent contradiction with the predictions of quantum- chromodynamics, does not pose any problem in explaining the fine-hyperfine splitting, if we prescribe the spin dependence to be generated through this static confining potential in the form of an approximately equal admixture of scalar and vector parts with no contributions from the anomalous quark magnetic moments. This nonrelativistic formalsm, when extended to a unified study of the entire meson spectra including the ordinary light and the heavy mesons, gives a very good account of the meson masses, fine-hyperfine splittings, electromagnetic transition rates, and leptonic decay widths without reflecting any inadequacy in the short- and long-range behavior of this simple effective power-law potential
Transition from Exponential to Power Law Income Distributions in a Chaotic Market
Pellicer-Lostao, Carmen; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo
Economy is demanding new models, able to understand and predict the evolution of markets. To this respect, Econophysics offers models of markets as complex systems, that try to comprehend macro-, system-wide states of the economy from the interaction of many agents at micro-level. One of these models is the gas-like model for trading markets. This tries to predict money distributions in closed economies and quite simply, obtains the ones observed in real economies. However, it reveals technical hitches to explain the power law distribution, observed in individuals with high incomes. In this work, nonlinear dynamics is introduced in the gas-like model in an effort to overcomes these flaws. A particular chaotic dynamics is used to break the pairing symmetry of agents (i, j) ⇔ (j, i). The results demonstrate that a "chaotic gas-like model" can reproduce the Exponential and Power law distributions observed in real economies. Moreover, it controls the transition between them. This may give some insight of the micro-level causes that originate unfair distributions of money in a global society. Ultimately, the chaotic model makes obvious the inherent instability of asymmetric scenarios, where sinks of wealth appear and doom the market to extreme inequality.
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.
2017-07-01
In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.
Breaking the power law: Multiscale simulations of self-ion irradiated tungsten
Jin, Miaomiao; Permann, Cody; Short, Michael P.
2018-06-01
The initial stage of radiation defect creation has often been shown to follow a power law distribution at short time scales, recently so with tungsten, following many self-organizing patterns found in nature. The evolution of this damage, however, is dominated by interactions between defect clusters, as the coalescence of smaller defects into clusters depends on the balance between transport, absorption, and emission to/from existing clusters. The long-time evolution of radiation-induced defects in tungsten is studied with cluster dynamics parameterized with lower length scale simulations, and is shown to deviate from a power law size distribution. The effects of parameters such as dose rate and total dose, as parameters affecting the strength of the driving force for defect evolution, are also analyzed. Excellent agreement is achieved with regards to an experimentally measured defect size distribution at 30 K. This study provides another satisfactory explanation for experimental observations in addition to that of primary radiation damage, which should be reconciled with additional validation data.
Desplentere, Frederik; Six, Wim; Bonte, Hilde; Debrabandere, Eric
2013-04-01
In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length > 15mm) this investigation concentrates on the influence of the power law index on the final fiber length distribution within the injection molded part. To realize this, the Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight Scandium 2013 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm is available from this release on. Using virtual material data with realistic viscosity levels allows to separate the influence of the power law index on the fiber breakage from the other material and process parameters. Applying standard settings for the fiber breakage parameters results in an obvious influence on the fiber length distribution through the thickness of the part and also as function of position in the part. Finally, the influence of the shear rate constant within the fiber breakage model has been investigated illustrating the possibility to fit the virtual fiber length distribution to the possible experimentally available data.
Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aliashim Albani
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and exponential fits, in spite of being computed using measured data, is determined as well. Furthermore, the large discrepancy of the wind data and the CF, which has been determined with the application of 1/7, is compared to the exponential fits. This is because; discrepancy in estimation of vertical wind speed could lead to inaccurate CF computation. Meanwhile, from the energy potential analysis based on the computed CF, only Kudat and Mersing display a promising potential to develop a medium capacity of wind turbine power, while the other sites may be suitable for wind turbines at a small scale.
Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies
Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.
2015-01-01
Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.
Power-law versus exponential relaxation of {sup 29}Si nucleus spins in Si:B crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koplak, O.V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University and National Academy of Sciences, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Talantsev, A.D., E-mail: adt@icp.ac.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morgunov, R.B. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities, 109240 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
The Si:B micro-crystals enriched with {sup 29}Si isotope have been studied by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the 300–800 K temperature range. The recovery of nuclear magnetization saturated by radiofrequency impulses follows pure power-law kinetics at 300 K, while admixture of exponential relaxation takes place at 500 K. The power-law relaxation corresponds to direct electron–nuclear relaxation due to the inhomogeneous distribution of paramagnetic centers, while exponential kinetics corresponds to the nuclear spin diffusion mechanism. The inhomogeneous distribution of deformation defects is a most probable reason of the power-law kinetics of nuclear spin relaxation. - Highlights: • {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetization relaxation follows mixed power-exponential law. • Power-law corresponds to direct electron–nuclear relaxation. • Admixture of exponential relaxation corresponds to the nuclear spin diffusion. • Inhomogeneously distributed deformation defects are responsible for power low. • Homogeneously distributed Boron acceptors are responsible for exponential part.
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
Evolving impact of environmental laws on cross-border power between Mexico and the United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barron, J.
2005-01-01
There has been a growing concern among some United States (US) residents that the increasing number of merchant power plants planned for the Mexican side of the US/Mexican border could contribute to increased air pollution and the misuse of finite water resources in the border region. The case of Border Power Plant Working Group v. DOE, et al. is examined in this paper, providing a focus for a discussion of the border region's future as US merchant power producers continue to position themselves to provide electricity in California. One of the factors in the push to develop power generation on the Mexican side of the border was California's electricity crisis of 2000-2001, and plans have been drawn up to build 22 plants between Mexicali and Ciudad Juarez. A history of the Border Power Plant Working Group (BPPWG) was presented, along with details of the government's granting of permits for the power plants after environmental assessments. By suing the government BPPWG hoped to set a standard for future power plant development in the area. The lawsuit addressed the following 4 primary concerns: air emissions; emission offsets; water cooling; and wastewater discharge. BPPWG aimed to achieve the 3 following results: protective legislation in the 4 U.S. border states that would preclude the use of massive amounts of water in border power plant cooling systems; a critical area designation with pollution limits set low enough to require catalytic control systems; and an overarching annex to the La Paz Agreement that would create a formal bi-national agreement governing the above actions for both countries. A review of environmental law in both countries was presented, along with a description of the proposed plants. A complete review of the lawsuit was provided, along with eventual rulings against the BPPWG. It was concluded that the case showed that power developers had proved that although the plants would contribute to the environmental degradation of the region, the
Fundamental features and main problems of nuclear power and radiological safety law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moser, B.
1981-01-01
This report deals on a general basis with the legal spheres affected by the utilisation of nuclear energy and protection from ionising radiation. Following a historical survey of the development both in the field of national legisation in Austria and internationally, the five principal legal spheres are discussed in detail. These are administrative law, liability and insurance law, criminal law, constitutional law and international law. In the foreground of discussion is administrative law, which is mainly of a preventive nature. This also comprises radiological safety law. Next in importance is liability and insurance law, which, in contrast to the former, aims at compensation for damage. Criminal law is also intended to have a preventive effect. Finally, the author discusses the peaceful use of nuclear energy in relation to the constitutional law and the international law in force. (Auth.)
Chakraborty, Ahana; Sensarma, Rajdeep
2018-03-01
The Born-Markov approximation is widely used to study the dynamics of open quantum systems coupled to external baths. Using Keldysh formalism, we show that the dynamics of a system of bosons (fermions) linearly coupled to a noninteracting bosonic (fermionic) bath falls outside this paradigm if the bath spectral function has nonanalyticities as a function of frequency. In this case, we show that the dissipative and noise kernels governing the dynamics have distinct power-law tails. The Green's functions show a short-time "quasi"-Markovian exponential decay before crossing over to a power-law tail governed by the nonanalyticity of the spectral function. We study a system of bosons (fermions) hopping on a one-dimensional lattice, where each site is coupled linearly to an independent bath of noninteracting bosons (fermions). We obtain exact expressions for the Green's functions of this system, which show power-law decay ˜|t - t'|-3 /2 . We use these to calculate the density and current profile, as well as unequal-time current-current correlators. While the density and current profiles show interesting quantitative deviations from Markovian results, the current-current correlators show qualitatively distinct long-time power-law tails |t - t'|-3 characteristic of non-Markovian dynamics. We show that the power-law decays survive in the presence of interparticle interaction in the system, but the crossover time scale is shifted to larger values with increasing interaction strength.
Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Ponomarenko
Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a f ^{-4} . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | B_{IMF} | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles q_{xB} ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward B_{z} and remains nearly constant for northward B_{z} . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V ^{5.71}_{sw} and a V ^{4.12}_{sw}, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing V_{sw}. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions
Earthquake cycle simulations with rate-and-state friction and power-law viscoelasticity
Allison, Kali L.; Dunham, Eric M.
2018-05-01
We simulate earthquake cycles with rate-and-state fault friction and off-fault power-law viscoelasticity for the classic 2D antiplane shear problem of a vertical, strike-slip plate boundary fault. We investigate the interaction between fault slip and bulk viscous flow with experimentally-based flow laws for quartz-diorite and olivine for the crust and mantle, respectively. Simulations using three linear geotherms (dT/dz = 20, 25, and 30 K/km) produce different deformation styles at depth, ranging from significant interseismic fault creep to purely bulk viscous flow. However, they have almost identical earthquake recurrence interval, nucleation depth, and down-dip coseismic slip limit. Despite these similarities, variations in the predicted surface deformation might permit discrimination of the deformation mechanism using geodetic observations. Additionally, in the 25 and 30 K/km simulations, the crust drags the mantle; the 20 K/km simulation also predicts this, except within 10 km of the fault where the reverse occurs. However, basal tractions play a minor role in the overall force balance of the lithosphere, at least for the flow laws used in our study. Therefore, the depth-integrated stress on the fault is balanced primarily by shear stress on vertical, fault-parallel planes. Because strain rates are higher directly below the fault than far from it, stresses are also higher. Thus, the upper crust far from the fault bears a substantial part of the tectonic load, resulting in unrealistically high stresses. In the real Earth, this might lead to distributed plastic deformation or formation of subparallel faults. Alternatively, fault pore pressures in excess of hydrostatic and/or weakening mechanisms such as grain size reduction and thermo-mechanical coupling could lower the strength of the ductile fault root in the lower crust and, concomitantly, off-fault upper crustal stresses.
Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Ganner
2015-04-01
Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.
Thermodynamics of charged rotating dilaton black branes with power-law Maxwell field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zangeneh, M.K.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M.H.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of charged rotating dilaton black brane solutions, with a complete set of rotation parameters, which is coupled to a nonlinear Maxwell field. The Lagrangian of the matter field has the form of the power-law Maxwell field. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and its physical properties in ample details. We also compute thermodynamic and conserved quantities of the spacetime, such as the temperature, entropy, mass, charge, and angular momentum. We find a Smarr-formula for the mass and verify the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles and disclose the effects of dilaton field and nonlinearity of the Maxwell field on the thermal stability of the solutions. We find that, for α ≤ 1, charged rotating black brane solutions are thermally stable independent of the values of the other parameters. For α > 1, the solutions can encounter an unstable phase depending on the metric parameters. (orig.)
A two-parameter family of double-power-law biorthonormal potential-density expansions
Lilley, Edward J.; Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn
2018-05-01
We present a two-parameter family of biorthonormal double-power-law potential-density expansions. Both the potential and density are given in closed analytic form and may be rapidly computed via recurrence relations. We show that this family encompasses all the known analytic biorthonormal expansions: the Zhao expansions (themselves generalizations of ones found earlier by Hernquist & Ostriker and by Clutton-Brock) and the recently discovered Lilley et al. (2017a) expansion. Our new two-parameter family includes expansions based around many familiar spherical density profiles as zeroth-order models, including the γ models and the Jaffe model. It also contains a basis expansion that reproduces the famous Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile at zeroth order. The new basis expansions have been found via a systematic methodology which has wide applications in finding other new expansions. In the process, we also uncovered a novel integral transform solution to Poisson's equation.
Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Daboul, J.
1994-01-01
For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = -γ/r ν , γ > 0 and -∞ 0 (t))] 1/μ , with μ = ν/2 - 1 ≠ 0. For ν > 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when ν > 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Also, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, state which correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed
A study of intergranular cavity growth controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.S.; Martinez, L.; Nix, W.D.
1983-01-01
A technique based on pre-creeping and sintering is used to create large, widely spaced cavities at grain boundaries in copper. The size and spacing of the cavities is such that cavity growth is expected to be controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep. The rupture properties of these pre-cavitated samples are studied over a range of stresses and temperatures and the results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical treatments of cavity growth. The stress and temperature dependence of rupture can be described using an analysis of the type suggested by Chen and Argon, provided that the diffusional length is based on the ligament stress rather than the applied stress
Hysteresis and Power-Law Statistics during temperature induced martensitic transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, Arya; Sengupta, Surajit; Rao, Madan
2011-01-01
We study hysteresis in temperature induced martensitic transformation using a 2D model solid exhibiting a square to rhombic structural transition. We find that upon quenching, the high temperature square phase, martensites are nucleated at sites having large non-affineness and ultimately invades the whole of the high temperature square phase. On heating the martensite, the high temperature square phase is restored. The transformation proceeds through avalanches. The amplitude and the time-duration of these avalanches exhibit power-law statistics both during heating and cooling of the system. The exponents corresponding to heating and cooling are different thereby indicating that the nucleation and dissolution of the product phase follows different transformation mechanism.
A comment on power-law inflation with a dark radiation component
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valentino, Eleonora Di; Bouchet, François R., E-mail: valentin@iap.fr, E-mail: bouchet@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR7095: CNRS and UPMC-Sorbonne Universities), F-75014, Paris (France)
2016-10-01
Tram et al. 2016 recently pointed out in [1] that power-law inflation in presence of a dark radiation component may relieve the 3.3 σ tension which exists within standard ΛCDM between the determination of the local value of the Hubble constant by Riess et al. (2016) [2] and the value derived from CMB anisotropy data [3] by the Planck collaboration. In this comment, we simply point out that this interesting proposal does not help in solving the σ{sub 8} tension between the Planck data and, e.g., the weak lensing measurements. Moreover, when the latest constraints on the reionization optical depth obtained from Planck HFI data [4] are included in the analysis, the H {sub 0} tension reappears and this scenario looses appeal.
A power-law coupled three-form dark energy model
Yao, Yan-Hong; Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He
2018-02-01
We consider a field theory model of coupled dark energy which treats dark energy as a three-form field and dark matter as a spinor field. By assuming the effective mass of dark matter as a power-law function of the three-form field and neglecting the potential term of dark energy, we obtain three solutions of the autonomous system of evolution equations, including a de Sitter attractor, a tracking solution and an approximate solution. To understand the strength of the coupling, we confront the model with the latest Type Ia Supernova, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Cosmic Microwave Background radiation observations, with the conclusion that the combination of these three databases marginalized over the present dark matter density parameter Ω _{m0} and the present three-form field κ X0 gives stringent constraints on the coupling constant, - 0.017< λ <0.047 (2σ confidence level), by which we present the model's applicable parameter range.
Power law field dependence of the 2D magnetoresistance in (TMTSF)2PF6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kriza, G.; Szeghy, G.; Kezsmarki, I.; Mihaly, G.
1999-01-01
The magnetoresistance of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 is studied for currents flowing parallel to the best conducting a and second best conducting b directions in magnetic fields perpendicular to the a-b plane under a hydrostatic pressure of 0.8 GPa. As a function of the magnetic field, the magnetoresistance follows a power law ΔR/R = (B/B 0 ) 3/2 both in the a and b directions. The a-b plane conductivity anisotropy is field independent. The scaling field B 0 , characterizing the strength of the magnetoresistance, follows an exponential temperature dependence B 0 ∝exp(T/T 0 ) with a field-independent characteristic temperature T 0 = 10 K. (orig.)
Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R
2016-01-01
This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)
Bethe-Salpeter equation for non-self conjugate mesons in a power-law potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikhdair, S.M.
1992-07-01
We develop an approach to the solution of the spinless Bethe-Salpeter equation for the different-mass case. Although the calculations are developed for spin-zero particles in any arbitrary spherically symmetric potential, the non-Coulombic effective power-law potential is used as a kernel to produce the spin-averaged bound states of the non-self-conjugate mesons. The analytical formulae are also applicable to the self-conjugate mesons in the equal-mass case. The flavor-independent case is investigated in this work. The calculations are carried out to the third-order correction of the energy series. Results are consistent with those obtained before. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab
On the Measurement of Power Law Creep Parameters from Instrumented Indentation
Sudharshan Phani, P.; Oliver, W. C.; Pharr, G. M.
2017-11-01
Recently the measurement of the creep response of materials at small scales has received renewed interest largely because the equipment required to perform high-temperature nanomechanical testing has become available to an increasing number of researchers. Despite that increased access, there remain several significant experimental and modeling challenges in small-scale mechanical testing at elevated temperatures that are as yet unresolved. In this regard, relating the creep response observed with high-temperature instrumented indentation experiments to macroscopic uniaxial creep response is of great practical value. In this review, we present an overview of various methods currently being used to measure creep with instrumented indentation, with a focus on geometrically self-similar indenters, and their relative merits and demerits from an experimental perspective. A comparison of the various methods to use those instrumented indentation results to predict the uniaxial power law creep response of a wide range of materials will be presented to assess their validity.
Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phung, D.L.
1987-05-01
This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs
Ionic fluids with r-6 pair interactions have power-law electrostatic screening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kjellander, Roland; Forsberg, Bjoern
2005-01-01
The decay behaviour of radial distribution functions for large distances r is investigated for classical Coulomb fluids where the ions interact with an r -6 potential (e.g. a dispersion interaction) in addition to the Coulombic and the short-range repulsive potentials (e.g. a hard core). The pair distributions and the density-density (NN), charge-density (QN) and charge-charge (QQ) correlation functions are investigated analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the NN correlation function ultimately decays like r -6 for large r, just as it does for fluids of electroneutral particles interacting with an r -6 potential. The prefactor is proportional to the squared compressibility in both cases. The QN correlations decay in general like r -8 and the QQ correlations like r -10 in the ionic fluid. The average charge density around an ion decays generally like r -8 and the average electrostatic potential like r -6 . This behaviour is in stark contrast to the decay behaviour for classical Coulomb fluids in the absence of the r -6 potential, where all these functions decay exponentially for large r. The power-law decays are, however, the same as for quantum Coulomb fluids. This indicates that the inclusion of the dispersion interaction as an effective r -6 interaction potential in classical systems yields the same decay behaviour for the pair correlations as in quantum ionic systems. An exceptional case is the completely symmetric binary electrolyte for which only the NN correlation has a power-law decay but not the QQ correlations. These features are shown by an analysis of the bridge function
A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)
2014-12-20
The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.
Musical rhythm spectra from Bach to Joplin obey a 1/f power law.
Levitin, Daniel J; Chordia, Parag; Menon, Vinod
2012-03-06
Much of our enjoyment of music comes from its balance of predictability and surprise. Musical pitch fluctuations follow a 1/f power law that precisely achieves this balance. Musical rhythms, especially those of Western classical music, are considered highly regular and predictable, and this predictability has been hypothesized to underlie rhythm's contribution to our enjoyment of music. Are musical rhythms indeed entirely predictable and how do they vary with genre and composer? To answer this question, we analyzed the rhythm spectra of 1,788 movements from 558 compositions of Western classical music. We found that an overwhelming majority of rhythms obeyed a 1/f(β) power law across 16 subgenres and 40 composers, with β ranging from ∼0.5-1. Notably, classical composers, whose compositions are known to exhibit nearly identical 1/f pitch spectra, demonstrated distinctive 1/f rhythm spectra: Beethoven's rhythms were among the most predictable, and Mozart's among the least. Our finding of the ubiquity of 1/f rhythm spectra in compositions spanning nearly four centuries demonstrates that, as with musical pitch, musical rhythms also exhibit a balance of predictability and surprise that could contribute in a fundamental way to our aesthetic experience of music. Although music compositions are intended to be performed, the fact that the notated rhythms follow a 1/f spectrum indicates that such structure is no mere artifact of performance or perception, but rather, exists within the written composition before the music is performed. Furthermore, composers systematically manipulate (consciously or otherwise) the predictability in 1/f rhythms to give their compositions unique identities.
From the Cover: Musical rhythm spectra from Bach to Joplin obey a 1/f power law
Levitin, Daniel J.; Chordia, Parag; Menon, Vinod
2012-03-01
Much of our enjoyment of music comes from its balance of predictability and surprise. Musical pitch fluctuations follow a 1/f power law that precisely achieves this balance. Musical rhythms, especially those of Western classical music, are considered highly regular and predictable, and this predictability has been hypothesized to underlie rhythm's contribution to our enjoyment of music. Are musical rhythms indeed entirely predictable and how do they vary with genre and composer? To answer this question, we analyzed the rhythm spectra of 1,788 movements from 558 compositions of Western classical music. We found that an overwhelming majority of rhythms obeyed a 1/fβ power law across 16 subgenres and 40 composers, with β ranging from ∼0.5-1. Notably, classical composers, whose compositions are known to exhibit nearly identical 1/f pitch spectra, demonstrated distinctive 1/f rhythm spectra: Beethoven's rhythms were among the most predictable, and Mozart's among the least. Our finding of the ubiquity of 1/f rhythm spectra in compositions spanning nearly four centuries demonstrates that, as with musical pitch, musical rhythms also exhibit a balance of predictability and surprise that could contribute in a fundamental way to our aesthetic experience of music. Although music compositions are intended to be performed, the fact that the notated rhythms follow a 1/f spectrum indicates that such structure is no mere artifact of performance or perception, but rather, exists within the written composition before the music is performed. Furthermore, composers systematically manipulate (consciously or otherwise) the predictability in 1/f rhythms to give their compositions unique identities.
Undersampling power-law size distributions: effect on the assessment of extreme natural hazards
Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.
2014-01-01
The effect of undersampling on estimating the size of extreme natural hazards from historical data is examined. Tests using synthetic catalogs indicate that the tail of an empirical size distribution sampled from a pure Pareto probability distribution can range from having one-to-several unusually large events to appearing depleted, relative to the parent distribution. Both of these effects are artifacts caused by limited catalog length. It is more difficult to diagnose the artificially depleted empirical distributions, since one expects that a pure Pareto distribution is physically limited in some way. Using maximum likelihood methods and the method of moments, we estimate the power-law exponent and the corner size parameter of tapered Pareto distributions for several natural hazard examples: tsunamis, floods, and earthquakes. Each of these examples has varying catalog lengths and measurement thresholds, relative to the largest event sizes. In many cases where there are only several orders of magnitude between the measurement threshold and the largest events, joint two-parameter estimation techniques are necessary to account for estimation dependence between the power-law scaling exponent and the corner size parameter. Results indicate that whereas the corner size parameter of a tapered Pareto distribution can be estimated, its upper confidence bound cannot be determined and the estimate itself is often unstable with time. Correspondingly, one cannot statistically reject a pure Pareto null hypothesis using natural hazard catalog data. Although physical limits to the hazard source size and by attenuation mechanisms from source to site constrain the maximum hazard size, historical data alone often cannot reliably determine the corner size parameter. Probabilistic assessments incorporating theoretical constraints on source size and propagation effects are preferred over deterministic assessments of extreme natural hazards based on historic data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luna, N. [Secretaria de Energia, Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico DF (Mexico); Bautista, O. [ITESM, Division de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-05-01
We treat numerically in this paper, the transient analysis of a conjugated heat transfer process in the thermal entrance region of a circular tube with a fully developed laminar power-law fluid flow. We apply the quasi-steady approximation for the power-law fluid, identifying the suitable time scales of the process. Thus, the energy equation in the fluids is solved analytically using the well-known integral boundary layer technique. This solution is coupled to the transient energy equation for the solid where the transverse and longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the average temperature of the tube wall, {theta}{sub av,} is plotted for different nondimensional parameters such as conduction parameter, {alpha}, the aspect ratios of the tube, {epsilon} and {epsilon}{sub 0} and the index of power-law fluid, n. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jawad Ahmed
Full Text Available This paper examines the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristic in power law fluid model over unsteady radially stretching sheet under the influence of convective boundary conditions. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the direction of the flow. The governing time dependent nonlinear boundary layer equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerically by shooting procedure. Effects of various governing parameters like, power law index n, magnetic parameter M, unsteadiness A, suction/injection S, Biot number γ and generalized Prandtl number Pr on velocity, temperature, local skin friction and the local Nusselt number are studied and discussed. It is found from the analysis that the magnetic parameter diminishes the velocity profile and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. Keywords: Axisymmetric flow, Power law fluid, Unsteady stretching, Convective boundary conditions
Sachs, M. K.; Yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.; Malamud, B. D.
2012-05-01
Extreme events that change global society have been characterized as black swans. The frequency-size distributions of many natural phenomena are often well approximated by power-law (fractal) distributions. An important question is whether the probability of extreme events can be estimated by extrapolating the power-law distributions. Events that exceed these extrapolations have been characterized as dragon-kings. In this paper we consider extreme events for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, landslides and floods. We also consider the extreme event behavior of three models that exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC): the slider-block, forest-fire, and sand-pile models. Since extrapolations using power-laws are widely used in probabilistic hazard assessment, the occurrence of dragon-king events have important practical implications.
Estimation of inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Joy, Minu
2015-01-01
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass m eff for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation ν t and change in spectral index for scalar perturbation ν st to explain the observed features in the scalar and tensor power spectrum of perturbation. From the recent measurements of CMB power spectra by WMAP, Planck and BICEP-2 for temperature and polarization, we estimate the feasibility of PPL model with standard ΛCDM model. Although BICEP-2 claimed a detection of r=0.2, estimates of dust contamination provided by Planck have left open the possibility that only upper bound on r will be expected in a joint analysis. As a result we consider different upper bounds on the value of r and show that PPL model can explain a lower value of tensor to scalar ratio (r<0.1 or r<0.01) for a scalar spectral index of n s =0.96 by having a non-zero value of effective mass of the inflaton field m 2 eff /H 2 . The analysis with WP + Planck likelihood shows a non-zero detection of m 2 eff /H 2 with 5.7 σ and 8.1 σ respectively for r<0.1 and r<0.01. Whereas, with BICEP-2 likelihood m 2 eff /H 2 = −0.0237 ± 0.0135 which is consistent with zero
Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images
Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.
2018-01-01
We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.
Evidence for two hard X-ray components in double power-law fits to the 1980 June 7 flare
Smith, Dean F.; Orwig, Larry E.
1988-01-01
The June 7, 1980 flare at 0312 UT was analyzed with double power-law fits on the basis of SMM hard X-ray burst spectrometer data. The flare is found to consist of seven peaks of characteristic time scale of about 8 sec followed by seven valleys which may contain significant peak components because of overlap. It is suggested that the possibility of thermal spectra for the peaks is unlikely. An investigation of the double power-law parameters through the third and fourth peaks revealed a hysteresis effect in the fourth peak. The present results have been interpreted in terms of a trap plus precipitation model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medhat M. Helal
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of heat and mass transfer in a power law, two-dimensional, laminar, boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid over an inclined plate with heat generation and thermophoresis is investigated by the characteristic function method. The governing non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and heat transfer problem are transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equation which was solved using Runge–Kutta shooting method. Exact solutions for the dimensionless temperature and concentration profiles, are presented graphically for different physical parameters and for the different power law exponents 0 0.5.
Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michiya Sugimori
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability.To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres. Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone. Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90 to a straight line (log(% total clones = k*log(#cells/clone indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42. Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17. Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population.Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous
Dynamic bounds for power and efficiency of non-ideal energy converters under nonlinear transfer laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sieniutycz, Stanislaw
2009-01-01
We present a thermodynamic approach to simulation and modeling of nonlinear energy converters, in particular radiation engines. Novel results are obtained especially for dynamical engines when the temperature of the propelling medium decreases in time due to a continual decrease of the medium's internal energy caused by the power production. Basic thermodynamic principles determine the converter's efficiency and work limits in terms of the entropy production. The real work is a cumulative effect obtained in a system of a resource fluid, a sequence of engines, and an infinite bath. Nonlinear modeling involves dynamic optimization in which the classical expression for efficiency at maximum power is generalized to endoirreversible machines and nonlinear transfer laws. The primary result is a finite-rate generalization of the classical, reversible work potential (exergy). The generalized work function depends on thermal coordinates and a dissipation index, h, i.e. a Hamiltonian of the minimum entropy production problem. This generalized work function implies stronger bounds on work delivered or supplied than the reversible work potential. The role of the nonlinear analyses and dynamic optimization is shown especially for radiation engines. As an example of the kinetic work limit, generalized exergy of radiation fluid is estimated in terms of finite rates, quantified by the Hamiltonian h
Papadopoulos, Anthony
2009-01-01
The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony Papadopoulos
Full Text Available The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrik Holmberg
2009-10-01
Full Text Available All real processes generate entropy and the power/exergy loss is usually determined by means of the Gouy-Stodola law. If the system only exchanges heat at the environmental temperature, the Gouy-Stodola law gives the correct loss of power. However, most industrial processes exchange heat at higher or lower temperatures than the actual environmental temperature. When calculating the real loss of power in these cases, the Gouy-Stodola law does not give the correct loss if the actual environmental temperature is used. The first aim of this paper is to show through simple steam turbine examples that the previous statement is true. The second aim of the paper is to define the effective temperature to calculate the real power loss of the system with the Gouy-Stodola law, and to apply it to turbine examples. Example calculations also show that the correct power loss can be defined if the effective temperature is used instead of the real environmental temperature.
Indirect Control of a low power Single-Phase Active Power Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SILVIU EPURE
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a low power, single phase active filter used to compensate nonlinear loads. The filter uses the indirect control method and it is based on a particular connection between filter, polluting load and grid to avoid timeconsuming mathematic operations or signal processing computations and assures good rejection of harmonic currents injected by the nonlinear load into the grid. A scale model was first simulated in Simulink and then physically implemented. The paper presents simulation and experimental results, and highlight problems encountered during experiments.
Why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting log-periodic power law structures
Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Leker, Jens
2014-01-01
Recent research has established the existence of log-periodic power law (LPPL) patterns in financial institutions’ credit default swap (CDS) spreads. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting LPPL structures. To this end, the credit risk prediction of two variants of logistic regression, i.e. polynomial logistic regression (PLR) and kernel logistic regression (KLR), are firstly compared to the standard logistic regression (SLR). In doing so, the question whether the performances of rating systems based on balance sheet ratios can be improved by nonlinear transformations of the explanatory variables is resolved. Building on the result that nonlinear balance sheet ratio transformations hardly improve the SLR’s predictive power in our case, we secondly compare the classification performance of a multivariate SLR to the discriminative powers of probabilities of default derived from three different capital market data, namely bonds, CDSs, and stocks. Benefiting from the prompt inclusion of relevant information, the capital market data in general and CDSs in particular increasingly outperform the SLR while approaching the time of the credit event. Due to the higher classification performances, it seems plausible for creditors to align their investment decisions with capital market-based default indicators, i.e., to imitate the aggregate opinion of the market participants. Since imitation is considered to be the source of LPPL structures in financial time series, it is highly plausible to scan CDS spread developments for LPPL patterns. By establishing LPPL patterns in governmental CDS spread trajectories of some European crisis countries, the LPPL’s application to credit risk markets is extended. This novel piece of evidence further strengthens the claim that credit risk markets are adequate breeding grounds for LPPL patterns.
Size effect and scaling power-law for superelasticity in shape-memory alloys at the nanoscale.
Gómez-Cortés, Jose F; Nó, Maria L; López-Ferreño, Iñaki; Hernández-Saz, Jesús; Molina, Sergio I; Chuvilin, Andrey; San Juan, Jose M
2017-08-01
Shape-memory alloys capable of a superelastic stress-induced phase transformation and a high displacement actuation have promise for applications in micro-electromechanical systems for wearable healthcare and flexible electronic technologies. However, some of the fundamental aspects of their nanoscale behaviour remain unclear, including the question of whether the critical stress for the stress-induced martensitic transformation exhibits a size effect similar to that observed in confined plasticity. Here we provide evidence of a strong size effect on the critical stress that induces such a transformation with a threefold increase in the trigger stress in pillars milled on [001] L2 1 single crystals from a Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy from 2 μm to 260 nm in diameter. A power-law size dependence of n = -2 is observed for the nanoscale superelasticity. Our observation is supported by the atomic lattice shearing and an elastic model for homogeneous martensite nucleation.
A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoying Xia
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1988-01-01
The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1989-01-01
The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de
Flow of power-law fluids in fixed beds of cylinders or spheres
Singh, John P.
2012-10-29
An ensemble average of the equations of motion for a Newtonian fluid over particle configurations in a dilute fixed bed of spheres or cylinders yields Brinkman\\'s equations of motion, where the disturbance velocity produced by a test particle is influenced by the Newtonian fluid stress and a body force representing the linear drag on the surrounding particles. We consider a similar analysis for a power-law fluid where the stress τ is related to the rate of strain e by τ = 2m en-1e, where m and n are constants. In this case, the ensemble-averaged momentum equation includes a body force resulting from the nonlinear drag exerted on the surrounding particles, a power-law stress associated with the disturbance velocity of the test particle, and a stress term that is linear with respect to the test particle\\'s disturbance velocity. The latter term results from the interaction of the test particle\\'s velocity disturbance with the random straining motions produced by the neighbouring particles and is important only in shear-thickening fluids where the velocity disturbances of the particles are long-ranged. The solutions to these equations using scaling analyses for dilute beds and numerical simulations using the finite element method are presented. We show that the drag force acting on a particle in a fixed bed can be written as a function of a particle-concentration-dependent length scale at which the fluid velocity disturbance produced by a particle is modified by hydrodynamic interactions with its neighbours. This is also true of the drag on a particle in a periodic array where the length scale is the lattice spacing. The effects of particle interactions on the drag in dilute arrays (periodic or random) of cylinders and spheres in shear-thickening fluids is dramatic, where it arrests the algebraic growth of the disturbance velocity with radial position when n≥ 1 for cylinders and n≥ 2 for spheres. For concentrated random arrays of particles, we adopt an
Converging cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic shock collapse onto a power-law-varying line current
Mostert, W.
2016-03-16
We investigate the convergence behaviour of a cylindrical, fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave in a neutrally ionized gas collapsing onto an axial line current that generates a power law in time, azimuthal magnetic field. The analysis is done within the framework of a modified version of ideal MHD for an inviscid, non-dissipative, neutrally ionized compressible gas. The time variation of the magnetic field is tuned such that it approaches zero at the instant that the shock reaches the axis. This configuration is motivated by the desire to produce a finite magnetic field at finite shock radius but a singular gas pressure and temperature at the instant of shock impact. Our main focus is on the variation with shock radius, as, of the shock Mach number and pressure behind the shock as a function of the magnetic field power-law exponent, where gives a constant-in-time line current. The flow problem is first formulated using an extension of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) into the time domain to take account of the time-varying conditions ahead of the converging shock, coupled with appropriate shock-jump conditions for a fast, symmetric MHD shock. This provides a pair of ordinary differential equations describing both and the time evolution on the shock, as a function of, constrained by a collapse condition required to achieve tuned shock convergence. Asymptotic, analytical results for and are obtained over a range of for general, and for both small and large . In addition, numerical solutions of the GSD equations are performed over a large range of, for selected parameters using . The accuracy of the GSD model is verified for some cases using direct numerical solution of the full, radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the GSD solutions, it is found that the physical character of the shock convergence to the axis is a strong function of . For μ≤0.816, and both approach unity at shock impact owing to the dominance of the strong
In-Degree and PageRank of web pages: why do they follow similar power laws?
Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.
2009-01-01
PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. Experiments confirm that PageRank values obey a power law with the same exponent as In-Degree values. This paper presents a novel mathematical model that explains this phenomenon. The relation between PageRank and In-Degree is
In-degree and pageRank of web pages: Why do they follow similar power laws?
Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.
The PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. Experiments confirm that the PageRank obeys a 'power law' with the same exponent as the In-Degree. This paper presents a novel mathematical model that explains this phenomenon. The relation between the PageRank and In-Degree
The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries
Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.
2010-01-01
We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moreno, Y.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.
2003-01-01
to the heterogeneity of the system. In one regime, a characteristic event is observed while for the second regime a power-law spectrum of avalanches is obtained reminiscent of self-organized criticality. We find that both regimes are different when predicting large avalanches and that, in the second regime...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
This Royal Decree-Law sets out the conditions of intervention by the State in the achievement of the Lemoniz nuclear power plant with a view to accelerating the work. It sets up an Intervention Council responsible for directing the work which is empowered to take the necessary measures for discharging its duties. (NEA) [fr
Mülken, O.; Borrmann, P.; Harting, J.D.R.; Stamerjohanns, H.
2001-01-01
We present a detailed description of a classification scheme for phase transitions in finite systems based on the distribution of Fisher zeros of the canonical partition function in the complex temperature plane. We apply this scheme to finite Bose systems in power-law traps within a semi-analytic
Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, J.A.
1989-09-01
This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs
Breakup characteristics of power-law liquid sheets formed by two impinging jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Fuqiang; Diao, Hai; Chang, Qing; Wang, Endong; Du, Qing; Zhang, Mengzheng
2014-01-01
The breakup characteristics of the shear-thinning power-law liquid sheets formed by two impinging jets have been investigated with the shadowgraph technique. This paper focuses on the effects of spray parameters (jet velocity), physical parameters (viscosity) and geometry parameters (impinging angle and nozzle cross-sectional shape) on the breakup behaviors of liquid sheets. The breakup mode, sheet length and expansion angle of the sheet are extracted from the spray images obtained by a high speed camera. Impinging angle and Weber number play the similar roles in promoting the breakup of liquid sheets. With the increase of jet velocity, five different breakup modes are observed and the expansion angle increases consistently after the closed-rim mode while the sheet length first increases and then decreases. But there exists a concave consisting of a fierce drop and a second rising process on the sheet length curve for the fluid with smaller viscosity. Different nozzle cross-sectional shapes emphasize significant effects on the sheet length and expansion angle of liquid sheets. At a fixed Weber number, the liquid sheet with greater viscosity has a greater sheet length and a smaller expansion angle due to the damping effect of viscosity. (papers)
Contracting bubbles in Hele-Shaw cells with a power-law fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCue, Scott W; King, John R
2011-01-01
The problem of bubble contraction in a Hele-Shaw cell is studied for the case in which the surrounding fluid is of power-law type. A small perturbation of the radially symmetric problem is first considered, focussing on the behaviour just before the bubble vanishes, it being found that for shear-thinning fluids the radially symmetric solution is stable, while for shear-thickening fluids the aspect ratio of the bubble boundary increases. The borderline (Newtonian) case considered previously is neutrally stable, the bubble boundary becoming elliptic in shape with the eccentricity of the ellipse depending on the initial data. Further light is shed on the bubble contraction problem by considering a long thin Hele-Shaw cell: for early times the leading-order behaviour is one-dimensional in this limit; however, as the bubble contracts its evolution is ultimately determined by the solution of a Wiener–Hopf problem, the transition between the long thin limit and the extinction limit in which the bubble vanishes being described by what is in effect a similarity solution of the second kind. This same solution describes the generic (slit-like) extinction behaviour for shear-thickening fluids, the interface profiles that generalize the ellipses that characterize the Newtonian case being constructed by the Wiener–Hopf calculation
Transport ac loss in a rectangular thin strip with power-law E(J) relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing; Fan, Yu; Fang, Jin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Transport ac loss in a thin strip with power-law E(J) is systematically computed. • The scaled results can be accurately used for strips with any critical current and frequency. • Experiments may be unambiguously compared with modeling results at a critical frequency. - Abstract: Transport ac losses of a rectangular thin strip obeying relation E/E c =(J/J c ) n with a fixed critical current I c and n=5,10,20,30, and 40 are accurately computed at a fixed frequency f as functions of the current amplitude I m . The results may be interpolated and scaled to those at any values of I c ,f, and 5⩽n⩽40. Normalized in the same way as that in Norris’ analytical formula derived from the critical-state model and converting f to a critical frequency f c , the modeling results may be better compared with the Norris formula and experimental data. A complete set of calculated modeling data are given with necessary formulas to be easily used by experimentalists in any particular case
Nonperturbative effects on Tc of interacting Bose gases in power-law traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zobay, O.; Metikas, G.; Kleinert, H.
2005-01-01
The critical temperature T c of an interacting Bose gas trapped in a general power-law potential V(x)=Σ i U i vertical bar x i vertical bar p i is calculated with the help of variational perturbation theory. It is shown that the interaction-induced shift in T c fulfills the relation (T c -T c 0 )/T c 0 =D 1 (η)a+D ' (η)a 2η +O(a 2 ) with T c 0 the critical temperature of the trapped ideal gas, a the s-wave scattering length divided by the thermal wavelength at T c , and η=1/2+Σ i p i -1 the potential-shape parameter. The terms D 1 (η)a and D ' (η)a 2η describe the leading-order perturbative and nonperturbative contributions to the critical temperature, respectively. This result quantitatively shows how an increasingly inhomogeneous potential suppresses the influence of critical fluctuations. The appearance of the a 2η contribution is qualitatively explained in terms of the Ginzburg criterion
Power Law and Logarithmic Ricci Dark Energy Models in Hořava-Lifshitz Cosmology
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Khurshudyan, Martiros; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Hakobyan, Margarit; Movsisyan, Artashes
2015-03-01
In this work, we studied the Power Law and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected versions of the Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in a spatially non-flat universe and in the framework of Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology. For the two cases containing non-interacting and interacting RDE and Dark Matter (DM), we obtained the exact differential equation that determines the evolutionary form of the RDE energy density. Moreover, we obtained the expressions of the deceleration parameter q and, using a parametrization of the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω D given by the relation ω D ( z) = ω 0+ ω 1 z, we derived the expressions of both ω 0 and ω 1. We interestingly found that the expression of ω 0 is the same for both non-interacting and interacting case. The expression of ω 1 for the interacting case has strong dependence from the interacting parameter b 2. The parameters derived in this work are done in small redshift approximation and for low redshift expansion of the EoS parameter.
A power-law coupled three-form dark energy model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Yan-Hong; Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2018-02-15
We consider a field theory model of coupled dark energy which treats dark energy as a three-form field and dark matter as a spinor field. By assuming the effective mass of dark matter as a power-law function of the three-form field and neglecting the potential term of dark energy, we obtain three solutions of the autonomous system of evolution equations, including a de Sitter attractor, a tracking solution and an approximate solution. To understand the strength of the coupling, we confront the model with the latest Type Ia Supernova, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Cosmic Microwave Background radiation observations, with the conclusion that the combination of these three databases marginalized over the present dark matter density parameter Ω{sub m0} and the present three-form field κX{sub 0} gives stringent constraints on the coupling constant, -0.017 < λ < 0.047 (2σ confidence level), by which we present the model's applicable parameter range. (orig.)
Sparse Power-Law Network Model for Reliable Statistical Predictions Based on Sampled Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander P. Kartun-Giles
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A projective network model is a model that enables predictions to be made based on a subsample of the network data, with the predictions remaining unchanged if a larger sample is taken into consideration. An exchangeable model is a model that does not depend on the order in which nodes are sampled. Despite a large variety of non-equilibrium (growing and equilibrium (static sparse complex network models that are widely used in network science, how to reconcile sparseness (constant average degree with the desired statistical properties of projectivity and exchangeability is currently an outstanding scientific problem. Here we propose a network process with hidden variables which is projective and can generate sparse power-law networks. Despite the model not being exchangeable, it can be closely related to exchangeable uncorrelated networks as indicated by its information theory characterization and its network entropy. The use of the proposed network process as a null model is here tested on real data, indicating that the model offers a promising avenue for statistical network modelling.
Stochastic models with power-law tails the equation X = AX + B
Buraczewski, Dariusz; Mikosch, Thomas
2016-01-01
In this monograph the authors give a systematic approach to the probabilistic properties of the fixed point equation X=AX+B. A probabilistic study of the stochastic recurrence equation X_t=A_tX_{t-1}+B_t for real- and matrix-valued random variables A_t, where (A_t,B_t) constitute an iid sequence, is provided. The classical theory for these equations, including the existence and uniqueness of a stationary solution, the tail behavior with special emphasis on power law behavior, moments and support, is presented. The authors collect recent asymptotic results on extremes, point processes, partial sums (central limit theory with special emphasis on infinite variance stable limit theory), large deviations, in the univariate and multivariate cases, and they further touch on the related topics of smoothing transforms, regularly varying sequences and random iterative systems. The text gives an introduction to the Kesten-Goldie theory for stochastic recurrence equations of the type X_t=A_tX_{t-1}+B_t. It provides the c...
Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Denz, Cornelia
2013-09-01
We employ the log-periodic power law (LPPL) to analyze the late-2000 financial crisis from the perspective of critical phenomena. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether LPPL structures in the development of credit default swap (CDS) spreads can be used for default classification. Based on the different triggers of Bear Stearns’ near bankruptcy during the late-2000 financial crisis and Ford’s insolvency in 2009, this study provides a quantitative description of the mechanism behind bank runs. We apply the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) positive feedback model to explain the rise of financial institutions’ CDS spreads during the global financial crisis 2007-2009. This investigation is based on CDS spreads of 40 major banks over the period from June 2007 to April 2009 which includes a significant CDS spread increase. The qualitative data analysis indicates that the CDS spread variations have followed LPPL patterns during the global financial crisis. Furthermore, the univariate classification performances of seven LPPL parameters as default indicators are measured by Mann-Whitney U tests. The present study supports the hypothesis that discrete scale-invariance governs the dynamics of financial markets and suggests the application of new and fast updateable default indicators to capture the buildup of long-range correlations between creditors.
Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacqueline Chakyung Shin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.
White, Darcy; Dynes, Michelle; Rubardt, Marcie; Sissoko, Koman; Stephenson, Rob
2013-06-01
Evidence from diverse settings suggests that women often have limited control over their own reproductive health decisions. To increase uptake of preventive services and behaviors, it is important to understand how intrafamilial power dynamics and the attitudes of women, their husband and their mother-in-law are associated with maternal health practices. In 317 households in two rural districts of central Mali, women who had given birth in the previous year, their husband and their mother-in-law each completed a survey gauging their attitudes toward constructs of gender, power and health. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify associations with four maternal health outcomes: antenatal care frequency, antenatal care timing, institutional delivery and postnatal care. In multivariable analyses, the preferences and opinions of mothers-in-law were associated with the maternal health behaviors of their daughters-in-law. Women's own perceptions of their self-efficacy, the value of women in society and the quality of services at the local health facility were also independently associated with their preventive and health-seeking practices. Husbands' preferences and opinions were not associated with any outcome. Interventions focusing on women or couples may be insufficient to advance women's reproductive health in patriarchal societies such as Mali. Future research and programmatic efforts need to address gender norms and consider the influence of other family members, such as mothers-in-law.
Power decoupling method for single phase differential buck converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaobin
2015-01-01
inverter to improve the dc link power quality, and an improved active power decoupling method is proposed to achieve ripple power reduction for both AC-DC and DC-AC conversions. The ripple energy storage is realized by the filter capacitors, which are connected between the output terminal and the negative...... generation technique is proposed to provide accurate ripple power compensation, and closed-loop controllers are also designed based on small signal models. The effectiveness of this power decoupling method is verified by detailed simulation studies as well as laboratory prototype experimental results....... dc bus. By properly controlling the differential mode voltage of the capacitors, it is possible to transfer desired energy between the DC port and AC port. The common mode voltage is controlled in such a way that the ripple power on the dc side will be reduced. Furthermore, an autonomous reference...
Cutting Power to the Detriment of the Disadvantaged Consumer at the Democratic Rule of Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean Carlos Nunes Pereira
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Administrative law. Consumer Law. Constitutional right. Theory of Fundamental Human Rights. Transversality. Democratic Rule of Law. The cut in the supply of essential public service of electricity when the default results of consumer hipossuficiência. Cutting impracticality than through legal action, that part, an objective aspect, discussion anchored in the Theory of Fundamental Human Rights, and a subjective aspect, the hipossuficiente citizen accompanied by technical defense and the Brazilian State.
The Dawn of Criminal Law, Regulation of Punitive Power in the Sumerian, Akk adian and Semite Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramiro J. García Falconí
2016-06-01
Full Text Available General and special Law, the regulation of the punitive power appeared since the first codings known in the history of mankind, being clear their religious character, their sacrifice logic, and the violence element that permeate to it. This punitive matrix is found in both Sumerian and Akkadian Codes, as in the later Jewish legislation, in which violence and sacredness fuse. The Talion Law already makes its appearance, as well as the structures on which the Inquisitorial System will be later built, and some traits that survive until today.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Junyent-Ferre, Adria; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2010-10-15
The paper deals with the evaluation of power generated by variable and constant frequency offshore wind farms connected to a single large power converter. A methodology to analyze different wind speed scenarios and system electrical frequencies is presented and applied to a case study, where it is shown that the variable frequency wind farm concept (VF) with a single power converter obtains 92% of the total available power, obtained with individual power converters in each wind turbine (PC). The PC scheme needs multiple power converters implying drawbacks in terms of cost, maintenance and reliability. The VF scheme is also compared to a constant frequency scheme CF, and it is shown that a significant power increase of more than 20% can be obtained with VF. The case study considers a wind farm composed of four wind turbines based on synchronous generators. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.
1983-01-01
The power law potentials in the Schroedinger equation solved recently are shown to come from the classical treatment of the singularities of a linear, second order differential equation. This allows to enlarge the class of solvable power law potentials. (Author) [pt
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Xiaoping; Chen, Yandong; Zhou, Leming
2018-01-01
storage unit (ESU) are added into hybrid single/three-phase microgrid, and a power coordinated control method with frequency support capability is proposed for hybrid single/three-phase microgrid in this study. PEU is connected with three single-phase microgrids to coordinate power exchange among three...... phases and provide frequency support for hybrid microgrid. Meanwhile, a power coordinated control method based on the droop control is proposed for PEU to alleviate three-phase power imbalance and reduce voltage fluctuation of hybrid microgrid. Besides, ESU is injected into the DC-link to buffer......Due to the intermittent output power of distributed generations (DGs) and the variability of loads, voltage fluctuation and three-phase power imbalance easily occur when hybrid single/three-phase microgrid operates in islanded mode. To address these issues, the power exchange unit (PEU) and energy...
PLNoise: a package for exact numerical simulation of power-law noises
Milotti, Edoardo
2006-08-01
Many simulations of stochastic processes require colored noises: here I describe a small program library that generates samples with a tunable power-law spectral density: the algorithm can be modified to generate more general colored noises, and is exact for all time steps, even when they are unevenly spaced (as may often happen in the case of astronomical data, see e.g. [N.R. Lomb, Astrophys. Space Sci. 39 (1976) 447]. The method is exact in the sense that it reproduces a process that is theoretically guaranteed to produce a range-limited power-law spectrum 1/f with -1uk/summaries/ADXV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Programming language used: ANSI C Computer: Any computer with an ANSI C compiler: the package has been tested with gcc version 3.2.3 on Red Hat Linux 3.2.3-52 and gcc version 4.0.0 and 4.0.1 on Apple Mac OS X-10.4 Operating system: All operating systems capable of running an ANSI C compiler No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:6238 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 387 Distribution format:tar.gz RAM: The code of the test program is very compact (about 50 Kbytes), but the program works with list management and allocates memory dynamically; in a typical run (like the one discussed in Section 4 in the long write-up) with average list length 2ṡ10, the RAM taken by the list is 200 Kbytes. External routines: The package needs external routines to generate uniform and exponential deviates. The implementation described here uses the random number generation library ranlib freely available from Netlib [B.W. Brown, J. Lovato, K. Russell, ranlib, available from Netlib, http://www.netlib.org/random/index.html, select the C version ranlib.c], but it has also been successfully tested with the random number routines in Numerical Recipes [W.H. Press, S.A. Teulkolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes
Simple molecular mechanism of heat transfer: Debye relaxation versus power-law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gall, M.; Kutner, R.
2005-01-01
We study a simple molecular model (at coarse-grain level) as a basis of irreversible heat transfer through a diathermic partition. The partition separates into two adjacent parts a box containing ideal point particles that communicate only though this partition. We provide the basic mechanism of energy transfer between the left- and right-hand side gas samples by assuming equipartition of kinetic energy of all outgoing particles colliding with the partition at a given time. We analyse and compare two essentially different cases (A) the reference one, where we assume that the border walls of the box and the diathermic partitions can randomize the direction of motion of rebounding particles, and (B) the case where we assume the mirror collisions of particles with the border walls and the partition. In both cases the rebounding of the particles from border walls is elastic. The above introduced assumptions allow us to numerically simulate and analytically consider, for example, the relaxation of temperatures of both gas samples and the entropy of the system. However, in both cases the long-time relaxation is essentially different since in case (A) it is an exponential one, while in case (B) it seems to be a power-law relaxation. The obtained results well agree in case (A) with the predictions of the phenomenological, linear theory of irreversible theory had to be developed which assumes time-dependence of heat conductivity; it describes the relaxation of the system far from equilibrium. The explanation of the results obtained in this case is, nevertheless, an intriguing problem. (author)
Maximal planar networks with large clustering coefficient and power-law degree distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Tao; Yan Gang; Wang Binghong
2005-01-01
In this article, we propose a simple rule that generates scale-free networks with very large clustering coefficient and very small average distance. These networks are called random Apollonian networks (RANs) as they can be considered as a variation of Apollonian networks. We obtain the analytic results of power-law exponent γ=3 and clustering coefficient C=(46/3)-36 ln (3/2)≅0.74, which agree with the simulation results very well. We prove that the increasing tendency of average distance of RANs is a little slower than the logarithm of the number of nodes in RANs. Since most real-life networks are both scale-free and small-world networks, RANs may perform well in mimicking the reality. The RANs possess hierarchical structure as C(k)∼k -1 that are in accord with the observations of many real-life networks. In addition, we prove that RANs are maximal planar networks, which are of particular practicability for layout of printed circuits and so on. The percolation and epidemic spreading process are also studied and the comparisons between RANs and Barabasi-Albert (BA) as well as Newman-Watts (NW) networks are shown. We find that, when the network order N (the total number of nodes) is relatively small (as N∼10 4 ), the performance of RANs under intentional attack is not sensitive to N, while that of BA networks is much affected by N. And the diseases spread slower in RANs than BA networks in the early stage of the suseptible-infected process, indicating that the large clustering coefficient may slow the spreading velocity, especially in the outbreaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckhoff, Jan, E-mail: j.dieckhoff@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Schrittwieser, Stefan; Schotter, Joerg [Molecular Diagnostics, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Remmer, Hilke; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-04-15
In this work, we report on the effect of the magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) concentration on the quantitative detection of proteins in solution with a rotating magnetic field (RMF) based homogeneous bioassay. Here, the phase lag between 30 nm iron oxide single-core particles and the RMF is analyzed with a fluxgate-based measurement system. As a test analyte anti-human IgG is applied which binds to the protein G functionalized MNP shell and causes a change of the phase lag. The measured phase lag changes for a fixed MNP and a varying analyte concentration are modeled with logistic functions. A change of the MNP concentration results in a nonlinear shift of the logistic function with the analyte concentration. This effect results from the law of mass action. Furthermore, the bioassay results are used to determine the association constant of the binding reaction. - Highlights: • A rotating magnetic field based homogeneous bioassay concept was presented. • Here, single-core iron oxide nanoparticles are applied as markers. • The impact of the particle concentration on the bioassay results is investigated. • The relation between particle concentration and bioassay sensitivity is nonlinear. • This finding can be reasonably explained by the law of mass action.
Second law comparison of single effect and double effect vapour absorption refrigeration systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomri, Rabah
2009-01-01
In this paper a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems with identical cold output is carried out. Simulation results were used to study the influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient, the thermal loads of the components, exergetic efficiency (rational efficiency) and the total change in exergy of the two systems. It is concluded that the COP of double effect system is approximately twice the COP of single effect system but the exergetic efficiency of double effect system increase slightly compared to the exergetic efficiency of single effect system. It is found that for each condenser and evaporator temperature, there is an optimum generator temperature where the total change in exergy of the single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems is minimum. At this point the COP and exergetic efficiency of the systems become maximum. In this study and when the evaporation temperature is varied from 4 deg. C to 10 deg. C, condenser and absorber temperatures are varied from 33 deg. C to 39 deg. C and generator (HPG) temperature is varied from 60 deg. C to 190 deg. C the maximum COP values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 0.73-0.79 and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 1.22-1.42. The maximum exergetic efficiency values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 12.5-23.2% and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 14.3-25.1%.
"Living as a single person". Marital Status, Performance and the Law in Late Medieval England
Beattie, Cordelia
2008-01-01
This article contributes to the debate about how we define the single woman by thinking about what makes someone ‘married’ as opposed to ‘not married’. It argues that understanding what marriage meant in a particular society can shed light on what it meant to live as a single person in that society, in this case, the society of fourteenth and fifteenth century England. It also argues that ‘the margins of marriage’, the grey areas produced by definitions of marriage, are also at the margins of...
Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter
2016-09-01
With the growing demand for a reliable electrical grid, backup power supplies and energy management systems are a necessity. Systems such as server...ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Freltoft, T.; Kjems, Jørgen; Sinha, S. K.
1986-01-01
Small-angle neutron scattering from normal, compressed, and water-suspended powders of aggregates of fine silica particles has been studied. The samples possessed average densities ranging from 0.008 to 0.45 g/cm3. Assuming power-law correlations between particles and a finite correlation length ξ......, the authors derive the scattering function S(q) from specific models for particle-particle correlation in these systems. S(q) was found to provide a satisfactory fit to the data for all samples studied. The fractal dimension df corresponding to the power-law correlation was 2.61±0.1 for all dry samples, and 2...
Systematic study of β-band and correlation with g- band using power law and soft rotor formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katoch, Vikas; Kaushik, Reetu; Sharma, S.; Gupta, J.B.
2014-01-01
The nuclear structure of even Z even N medium mass transitional nuclei consist of ground state band, K π =0 1 β-band, K π =2 1 γ- band and other higher bands. As we move away from closed shell, energy levels are low lying from spherical to deformed nuclei and energy deviated from ideal rotor behavior. The energy of these transitional nuclei in ground band can also be studied using Bohr Mottelson energy expression, Soft Rotor Formula (SRF), Power Law (PL) etc. Recently, Gupta et al. (2013) modified SRF for non zero band head K π =2 1 γ-band and reproduced the level energies. Here same formula applied for K π =0 1 β-band and the level energies are reproduced and compared with experimental energies. The power law is also used for recalculation of level energies and for useful comparison
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiuf, Carsten Henrik; Feliu, Elisenda
2013-01-01
is derived from the determinant of the Jacobian of the species formation rate function. Using this characterization, we further derive similar determinant criteria applicable to general sets of kinetics. The criteria are conceptually simple, computationally tractable, and easily implemented. Our approach...... embraces and extends previous work on multistationarity, such as work in relation to chemical reaction networks with dynamics defined by mass-action or noncatalytic kinetics, and also work based on graphical analysis of the interaction graph associated with the system. Further, we interpret the criteria...... and how the species influence each reaction. We characterize families of so-called power-law kinetics for which the associated species formation rate function is injective within each stoichiometric class and thus the network cannot exhibit multistationarity. The criterion for power-law kinetics...
Recalling items from a category for 1 hour: an inquiry into power-law behavior and memory foraging.
Rhodes, Theo
2013-07-01
There are two complementary approaches to characterizing performance in a free recall task (retrieving items from a specified category). The historic, or top down approach, considers the overall structure of the produced responses, generally as the parameters of a fitted cumulative recall curve. Alternatively, free recall can be considered as a time series of recalls or inter-recall intervals. Earlier work employing this approach (Rhodes & Turvey, 2007) suggested power law behavior. Long trial durations (1 hour) are employed to more rigorously test for the presence of power law behavior and more generally, the hypothesis that the dynamics of free recall reflect complex, multiplicative processes. The outlined empirical methods are also employed to test predictions about the relative structure of differently sized categories. Consequences for an asymptotic curve based understanding of free recall and foraging metaphors of retrieval are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazhinskii, D S
2004-01-01
We consider a dynamical system generated by a shift in the space of finite-valued one-sided sequences. We study spectral properties of Perron-Frobenius operators associated with this system, whose potentials on the number of the term of the sequence have power-law dependence. Using these operators, we construct a family of equilibrium probability measures in the phase space having the property of power-law mixing. For these measures we prove a central limit theorem for functions in phase space and a Cramer-type theorem for the probabilities of large deviations. Similar results for the significantly simpler case of exponential decay in the dependence of the potentials on the number of the term of the sequence were previously obtained by the author.
Seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone and its power-law obeying floe size distribution
Zhang, J.; Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Steele, M.; Hwang, P. B.
2017-12-01
A thickness, floe size, and enthalpy distribution (TFED) sea ice model, implemented numerically into the Pan-arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS), is used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and its floe size distribution. The TFED sea ice model, by coupling the Zhang et al. [2015] sea ice floe size distribution (FSD) theory with the Thorndike et al. [1975] ice thickness distribution (ITD) theory, simulates 12-category FSD and ITD explicitly and jointly. A range of ice thickness and floe size observations were used for model calibration and validation. The model creates FSDs that generally obey a power law or upper truncated power law, as observed by satellites and aerial surveys. In this study, we will examine the role of ice fragmentation and lateral melting in altering FSDs in the Arctic MIZ. We will also investigate how changes in FSD impact the seasonal evolution of the MIZ by modifying the thermodynamic processes.
Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system
Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.
2016-08-01
This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.
On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 421, č. 1 (2015), s. 218-222 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Power-law cross-correlations * Long term memory * Short term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452316.pdf
Subcritical crack growth and power law exponent of Y-Si-Al-O (-N) glasses in aqueous environment
Graaf, de D.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; With, de G.
2006-01-01
The subcritical crack growth resistance in water of a Y–Si–Al–O and Y–Si–Al–O–N glasses has been investigated with three point bending experiments. It has been shown that the SCG behaviour of the Y–Si–Al–O–N glass is superior to that of the Y–Si–Al–O glass. This is reflected by the power law
Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M
2016-01-01
Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of "neural avalanches" (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods-power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity-have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox.
Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.
2007-01-01
For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that
Single-failure-proof cranes for nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porse, L.
1979-05-01
NRC has licensed reactors on the basis that the safe handling of critical loads can be accomplished by adding safety features to the handling equipment, by adding special features to the structures and areas over which the critical load is carried, or by a combination of the two. When reliance for the safe handling of critical loads is placed on the crane system itself, the system should be designed so that a single failure will not result in the loss of the capability of the system to safely retain the load. Features of the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and operation of single-failure-proof overhead crane handling systems that are used for handling critical loads are identified. These features are limited to the hoisting system and to braking systems for trolley and bridge. Other load-bearing items such as girders should be conservatively designed but need not be considered single failure proof
Indirect control of a single-phase active power filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai CULEA
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The control of shunt active power filters using PWM inverters consists in generating a reference by separating, using different methods, the harmonics to be eliminated. The methods used are time-consuming and need dedicated control and signal processing equipments. To avoid these setbacks a new method is proposed in the paper. The active power filter is a current PWM rectifier with voltage output and with a capacitor on the DC side. The PWM rectifier is controlled so that the sum of its current and the load’s current is a sinusoid. The control block as well as simulation results are presented.
29 CFR 1955.12 - Administrative law judge; powers and duties.
2010-07-01
... U.S.C. 554-557 (hereinafter called the APA). (b) On any procedural question not otherwise regulated by this part, the Act, or the APA, the administrative law judge shall be guided to the extent...
Rossberg, Axel G.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K.
2011-01-01
A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048
Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2015-10-01
We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.
New version of PLNoise: a package for exact numerical simulation of power-law noises
Milotti, Edoardo
2007-08-01
In a recent paper I have introduced a package for the exact simulation of power-law noises and other colored noises [E. Milotti, Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 212]: in particular, the algorithm generates 1/f noises with 0law spectrum for any arbitrary sequence of sampling intervals, i.e. the sampling times may be unevenly spaced. Program summaryTitle of program: PLNoise Catalogue identifier:ADXV_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXV_v2_0.html Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Programming language used: ANSI C Computer: Any computer with an ANSI C compiler: the package has been tested with gcc version 3.2.3 on Red Hat Linux 3.2.3-52 and gcc version 4.0.0 and 4.0.1 on Apple Mac OS X-10.4 Operating system: All operating systems capable of running an ANSI C compiler RAM: The code of the test program is very compact (about 60 Kbytes), but the program works with list management and allocates memory dynamically; in a typical run with average list length 2ṡ10, the RAM taken by the list is 200 Kbytes External routines: The package needs external routines to generate uniform and exponential deviates. The implementation described here uses the random number generation library ranlib freely available from Netlib [B.W. Brown, J. Lovato, K. Russell: ranlib, available from Netlib, http://www.netlib.org/random/index.html, select the C version ranlib.c], but it has also been successfully tested with the random number routines in Numerical Recipes [W.H. Press, S.A. Teulkolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, second ed., Cambridge Univ. Press., Cambridge, 1992, pp. 274-290]. Notice that ranlib requires a pair of routines from the linear algebra package LINPACK, and that the distribution of ranlib includes the C source of these routines, in case LINPACK is not
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Kuei Su
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers. To elucidate the mathematical features of NO-mediated heterogeneous responses, the ratios of changes in firing were plotted against their original firing rates. In log-log plots, a linear data distribution demonstrated that NO-mediated heterogeneity in sympathetic firing responses was well described by a power function. Selective antagonists were applied to test if glycinergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord are involved in NO-mediated power-law firing modulations (plFM. NO-mediated plFM diminished in the presence of mecamylamine (an open-channel blocker of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, indicating that endogenous nicotinic receptor activities were essential for plFM. Applications of strychnine (a glycine receptor blocker, gabazine (a GABAA receptor blocker, or kynurenate (a broad-spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor blocker also caused plFM. However, strychnine- or kynurenate-induced plFM was diminished by L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor pretreatments, indicating that the involvements of glycine or ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in plFM were secondary to NO signaling. To recapitulate the arithmetic natures of the plFM, the plFM were simulated by firing changes in two components: a step increment and a fractional reduction of their basal firing activities. Ionotropic glutamate receptor
A New Power Calculation Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
A new method to calculate average active power and reactive power for single-phase systems is proposed in this paper. It can be used in different applications where the output active power and reactive power need to be calculated accurately and fast. For example, a grid-connected photovoltaic...... system in low voltage ride through operation mode requires a power feedback for the power control loop. Commonly, a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based power calculation method can be adopted in such systems. However, the DFT method introduces at least a one-cycle time delay. The new power calculation...... method, which is based on the adaptive filtering technique, can achieve a faster response. The performance of the proposed method is verified by experiments and demonstrated in a 1 kW single-phase grid-connected system operating under different conditions.Experimental results show the effectiveness...
Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Tzanis
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location
Varotsos, C. A.; Efstathiou, M. N.
2018-03-01
In this paper we investigate the evolution of the energy emitted by CO2 and NO from the Earth's thermosphere on a global scale using both observational and empirically derived data. In the beginning, we analyze the daily power observations of CO2 and NO received from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) equipment on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite for the entire period 2002-2016. We then perform the same analysis on the empirical daily power emitted by CO2 and NO that were derived recently from the infrared energy budget of the thermosphere during 1947-2016. The tool used for the analysis of the observational and empirical datasets is the detrended fluctuation analysis, in order to investigate whether the power emitted by CO2 and by NO from the thermosphere exhibits power-law behavior. The results obtained from both observational and empirical data do not support the establishment of the power-law behavior. This conclusion reveals that the empirically derived data are characterized by the same intrinsic properties as those of the observational ones, thus enhancing the validity of their reliability.
Wireless Neural Recording With Single Low-Power Integrated Circuit
Harrison, Reid R.; Kier, Ryan J.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen; Greger, Bradley; Solzbacher, Florian; Shenoy, Krishna V.
2010-01-01
We present benchtop and in vivo experimental results from an integrated circuit designed for wireless implantable neural recording applications. The chip, which was fabricated in a commercially available 0.6-μm 2P3M BiCMOS process, contains 100 amplifiers, a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 100 threshold-based spike detectors, and a 902–928 MHz frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter. Neural signals from a selected amplifier are sampled by the ADC at 15.7 kSps and telemetered over the FSK wireless data link. Power, clock, and command signals are sent to the chip wirelessly over a 2.765-MHz inductive (coil-to-coil) link. The chip is capable of operating with only two off-chip components: a power/command receiving coil and a 100-nF capacitor. PMID:19497825
Wireless neural recording with single low-power integrated circuit.
Harrison, Reid R; Kier, Ryan J; Chestek, Cynthia A; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen; Greger, Bradley; Solzbacher, Florian; Shenoy, Krishna V
2009-08-01
We present benchtop and in vivo experimental results from an integrated circuit designed for wireless implantable neural recording applications. The chip, which was fabricated in a commercially available 0.6- mum 2P3M BiCMOS process, contains 100 amplifiers, a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 100 threshold-based spike detectors, and a 902-928 MHz frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter. Neural signals from a selected amplifier are sampled by the ADC at 15.7 kSps and telemetered over the FSK wireless data link. Power, clock, and command signals are sent to the chip wirelessly over a 2.765-MHz inductive (coil-to-coil) link. The chip is capable of operating with only two off-chip components: a power/command receiving coil and a 100-nF capacitor.
Single Null Negative Triangularity Tokamak for Power Handling
Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Medvedev, S.; Takizuka, T.; Sauter, O.; Merle, A.; Coda, S.; Chen, D.; Li, J. X.
2017-10-01
Power and particle control in fusion reactor is challenge and we proposed the negative triangularity tokamak (NTT) to eliminate ELM by operating L-mode edge with improved core confinement. The SN configuration has more flexibility in shaping by adopting rectangular-shaped TF coils. The limiting normalized beta is 3.56 with wall stabilization and 3.14 without wall. The vertical stability is assured under a reasonable control system. The wetted area on the divertor plates becomes wider in proportion to the larger major radius at the divertor strike points due to the NT configuration. In addition to the major-radius effect, the ``Flux Tune Expansion (FTE)'' is adopted to further reduce the heat load on the divertor plate by factor of 2.6 with a coil current 3 MA. L-mode edge also allows further increase in wetted area. The fusion power of 3 GW is deliverable only at normalized beta 2.1. Therefore this reactor may be operable stably against the serious MHD activities. The CD power for SS operation is 175 MW at Q = 17. AC operation is also possible option. A required HH factor is relatively modest H = 1.12.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)
Letting students discover the power, and the limits, of simple models: Coulomb's law
Bohacek, Peter; Vonk, Matthew; Dill, Joseph; Boehm, Emma
2017-09-01
The inverse-square law pops up all over. It's a simplified model of reality that describes light, sound, gravity, and static electricity. But when it's brought up in class, students are often just handed the equations. They rarely have an opportunity to discover Coulomb's law or Newton's law of gravitation for themselves. It's not hard to understand why. A quantitative demonstration of Coulomb's law can be difficult. The forces are smaller than many force sensors can measure and static electricity tends to be finicky. In addition, off-the-shelf units are expensive or difficult to use. As a result, many instructors skip this lab in favor of qualitative demonstrations or simulations. Adolf Cortel sought to remedy this by designing a straightforward experiment for measuring Coulomb's law using charged metalized-glass spheres (Christmas ornaments) and an electronic balance. Building on Cortel's design, we've made a series of video-based experiments that students can use to discover the relationships that underlie electric force.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tretyak, V.I.; Gaida, R.P.
1980-01-01
Symmetry properties of the single-time relativistic Lagrangian of an N-particle-system corresponding to the many-time action of the Fokker-type, which are a function of derivatives of particle coordinates with respect to time up to infinite order, are investigated. The conditions for quasi-invariance for such a Lagrangian, with respect to a representation of an arbitrary group in infinite continuation of configuration space of the system, are discussed. Using these conditions a general expression for the Lagrangian, securing Poincare covariance of corresponding equations of motion, is found, and the conservation laws related to this covariance are formulated. In the case of tensor interaction, the expansion of conserved quantities in c -1 up to terms of the order c -4 is performed. (author)
High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří
2005-01-01
Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005
SCREAMER: a single-line pulsed-power design tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiefer, M.L.; Widner, M.M.
1985-01-01
SCREAMER is a special purpose circuit code developed as a design tool for single module accelerators. It is fast, accurate, flexible, and user-friendly. Its development was motivated by the excessive costs and long turn-around times incurred when using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code to perform simulations of circuits with large numbers of nodes and with nonlinear components. Comparable simulations between SCREAMER running on a VAX 11/780 and SCEPTRE running on a CRAY-1S show that turn-around times and costs can be two orders of magnitude lower when using SCREAMER
SCREAMER - A single-line pulsed-power design tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiefer, M.L.; Widner, M.M.
1985-01-01
SCREAMER is a special purpose circuit code developed as a design tool for single module accelerators. it is fast, accurate, flexible, and user-friendly. Its development was motivated by the excessive costs and long turn-around times incurred when using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code to perform simulations of circuits with large numbers of modes and with nonlinear components. Comparable simulations between SCREAMER running on a VAX 11/780 and SCEPTRE running on a CRAY-1S show that turn-around times and costs can be two orders of magnitude lower when using SCREAMER
Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; López-López, M. G.; Alvarado-Martínez, V. M.
2018-03-01
In this paper, the two-dimensional projectile motion was studied; for this study two cases were considered, for the first one, we considered that there is no air resistance and, for the second case, we considered a resisting medium k . The study was carried out by using fractional calculus. The solution to this study was obtained by using fractional operators with power law, exponential decay and Mittag-Leffler kernel in the range of γ \\in (0,1] . These operators were considered in the Liouville-Caputo sense to use physical initial conditions with a known physical interpretation. The range and the maximum height of the projectile were obtained using these derivatives. With the aim of exploring the validity of the obtained results, we compared our results with experimental data given in the literature. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization approach was used for generating Pareto-optimal solutions for the parameters k and γ for different fixed values of velocity v0 and angle θ . The results showed some relevant qualitative differences between the use of power law, exponential decay and Mittag-Leffler law.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic
2010-01-01
Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k -1 ∼ 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers ∼3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.
Giant electrical power factor in single-walled chiral carbon nanotube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.
2001-10-01
Using the semiclassical approach we studied the thermoelectrical properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We predict a giant electrical power factor and hence proposed the use of carbon nanotubes as thermoelements for refrigeration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Naomi; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Maru, Akifumi; Tamura, Takashi; Hirao, Toshio; Abe, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
It was demonstrated that anomalously large degradation observed in power MOSFETs was caused by a single heavy ion. It was identified as a microdose effect and successfully characterized by several parameters extracted from experimental data. (author)
Single-Event Effects in Silicon and Silicon Carbide Power Devices
Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.
2014-01-01
NASA Electronics Parts and Packaging program-funded activities over the past year on single-event effects in silicon and silicon carbide power devices are presented, with focus on SiC device failure signatures.
Boumediene and the Meanings of Separation of Powers in U.S. Emergency Law
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartz, Emily; Kyritsis, Dimitrios
2010-01-01
This article examines the conception of the U.S. courts’ role vis-à-vis the political branches of government in a national emergency that underlies the recent case-law on the rights of the detainees held in Guantanamo Bay and in the U.S. These cases struck historic blows to the Bush Administratio...
High School Forum: Boyle's/Hooke's/Towneley and Power's/Mariotte's Law.
Hawthorne, Robert M.; Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.
1979-01-01
This column for high school teachers, written by high school teachers, discusses several interesting anecdotes related to the formulation of laws and the determination of constants. Science history is presented in a manner that can enliven classroom presentations and aid in understanding the principle itself. (Authur/SA)
5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.
2010-01-01
... review will cause undue harm to a party or the public. (2) If the motion is granted, the Judge or... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL...
Competition law and environmental protection : the Dutch agreement on coal-fired power plants
Kloosterhuis, Erik; Mulder, Machiel
2015-01-01
Agreements between firms to jointly reduce production capacity generally violate competition law, unless specific conditions are met. These conditions imply that the agreements need to realize benefits for consumers that could not otherwise be realised. Together, we call them “efficiency defence.”
Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Alqarni, Wejdan Mohammed Mofleh; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
2014-01-01
We have developed a sustainable, single feeding, microsized, air-cathode and membrane-free microbial fuel cells with a volume of 40 mu L each, which we have used for rapid evaluation of power generation and viability of a series array of three cells seeking higher voltage levels. Contrary to expectations, the achieved power density was modest (45 mWm(-3)), limited due to non-uniformities in assembly and the single-channel feeding system.
Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto
2014-07-08
We have developed a sustainable, single feeding, microsized, air-cathode and membrane-free microbial fuel cells with a volume of 40 mu L each, which we have used for rapid evaluation of power generation and viability of a series array of three cells seeking higher voltage levels. Contrary to expectations, the achieved power density was modest (45 mWm(-3)), limited due to non-uniformities in assembly and the single-channel feeding system.
Individuality and universality in the growth-division laws of single E. coli cells
Kennard, Andrew S.; Osella, Matteo; Javer, Avelino; Grilli, Jacopo; Nghe, Philippe; Tans, Sander J.; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco
2016-01-01
The mean size of exponentially dividing Escherichia coli cells in different nutrient conditions is known to depend on the mean growth rate only. However, the joint fluctuations relating cell size, doubling time, and individual growth rate are only starting to be characterized. Recent studies in bacteria reported a universal trend where the spread in both size and doubling times is a linear function of the population means of these variables. Here we combine experiments and theory and use scaling concepts to elucidate the constraints posed by the second observation on the division control mechanism and on the joint fluctuations of sizes and doubling times. We found that scaling relations based on the means collapse both size and doubling-time distributions across different conditions and explain how the shape of their joint fluctuations deviates from the means. Our data on these joint fluctuations highlight the importance of cell individuality: Single cells do not follow the dependence observed for the means between size and either growth rate or inverse doubling time. Our calculations show that these results emerge from a broad class of division control mechanisms requiring a certain scaling form of the "division hazard rate function," which defines the probability rate of dividing as a function of measurable parameters. This "model free" approach gives a rationale for the universal body-size distributions observed in microbial ecosystems across many microbial species, presumably dividing with multiple mechanisms. Additionally, our experiments show a crossover between fast and slow growth in the relation between individual-cell growth rate and division time, which can be understood in terms of different regimes of genome replication control.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL
2013-01-01
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.
Amani, Roonak; Rezazadeh, Kazem; Abdolmaleki, Asrin; Karami, Kayoomars
2018-02-01
We investigate the power-law, intermediate, and logamediate inflationary models in the framework of DBI non-canonical scalar field with constant sound speed. In the DBI setting, we first represent the power spectrum of both scalar density and tensor gravitational perturbations. Then, we derive different inflationary observables including the scalar spectral index n s , the running of the scalar spectral index {{dn}}s/d{ln}k, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. We show that the 95% CL constraint of the Planck 2015 T + E data on the non-Gaussianity parameter {f}{NL}{DBI} leads to the sound speed bound {c}s≥slant 0.087 in the DBI inflation. Moreover, our results imply that, although the predictions of the power-law, intermediate, and logamediate inflations in the standard canonical framework (c s = 1) are not consistent with the Planck 2015 data, in the DBI scenario with constant sound speed {c}srunning of the scalar spectral index and find that it is compatible with the 95% CL constraint from the Planck 2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP data.
Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...
Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house
Serag-Eldin, M. A.
2011-01-01
The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof
First nondestructive measurements of power MOSFET single event burnout cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.
1987-01-01
A new technique to nondestructively measure single event burnout cross sections for N-channel power MOSFETs is presented. Previous measurements of power MOSFET burnout susceptibility have been destructive and thus not conducive to providing statistically meaningful burnout probabilities. The nondestructive technique and data for various device types taken at several accelerators, including the LBL Bevalac, are documented. Several new phenomena are observed
A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso
2018-01-01
in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharti, Ram P.; Harvie, Dalton J.E.; Davidson, Malcolm R.
2009-01-01
Electroviscous effects in steady, fully developed, pressure-driven flow of power-law liquids through a uniform cylindrical microchannel have been investigated numerically by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann and the momentum equations using a finite difference method. The pipe wall is considered to have uniform surface charge density and the liquid is assumed to be a symmetric 1:1 electrolyte solution. Electroviscous resistance reduces the velocity adjacent to the wall, relative to the velocity on the axis. The effect is shown to be greater when the liquid is shear-thinning, and less when it is shear-thickening, than it is for Newtonian flow. For overlapping electrical double layers and elevated surface charge density, the electroviscous reduction in the near-wall velocity can form an almost stationary (zero shear) layer there when the liquid is shear-thinning. In that case, the liquid behaves approximately as if it is flowing through a channel of reduced diameter. The induced axial electrical field shows only a weak dependence on the power-law index with the dependence being greatest for shear-thinning liquids. This field exhibits a local maximum as surface charge density increases from zero, even though the corresponding electrokinetic resistance increases monotonically. The magnitude of the electroviscous effect on the apparent viscosity, as measured by the ratio of the apparent and physical consistency indices, decreases monotonically as the power-law index increases. Thus, overall, the electroviscous effect is stronger in shear-thinning, and weaker in shear-thickening liquids, than it is when the liquid is Newtonian.
Why Does Not the Leaf Weight-Area Allometry of Bamboos Follow the 3/2-Power Law?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuyan Lin
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917 states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area (A, density (ρ, length (L, thickness (T, and weight (W. Because the edge of a bamboo leaf follows a simplified two-parameter Gielis equation, we could show that A ∝ L2 and that A ∝ T2. This then allowed us to derive the density-thickness allometry ρ ∝ Tb and the weight-area allometry W ∝ A(b+3/2 ≈ A9/8, where b approximates −3/4. Leaf density is strikingly negatively associated with leaf thickness, and it is this inverse relationship that results in the weight-area allometry to deviate from the 3/2-power law. In conclusion, although plants are prone to invest less dry mass and thus produce thinner leaves when the leaf area is sufficient for photosynthesis, such leaf thinning needs to be accompanied with elevated density to ensure structural stability. The findings provide the insights on the evolutionary clue about the biomass investment and output of photosynthetic organs of plants. Because of the importance of leaves, plants could have enhanced the ratio of dry material per unit area of leaf in order to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, relative the other parts of plants. Although the conclusion is drawn only based on 11 bamboo species, it should also be applicable to the other plants, especially considering previous works on the exponent of the weight-area relationship being less than 3/2 in plants.
Flux decay during thermonuclear X-ray bursts analysed with the dynamic power-law index method
Kuuttila, J.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Nättilä, J.; Motta, S. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Cumming, A.; Poutanen, J.
2017-08-01
The cooling of type-I X-ray bursts can be used to probe the nuclear burning conditions in neutron star envelopes. The flux decay of the bursts has been traditionally modelled with an exponential, even if theoretical considerations predict power-law-like decays. We have analysed a total of 540 type-I X-ray bursts from five low-mass X-ray binaries observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We grouped the bursts according to the source spectral state during which they were observed (hard or soft), flagging those bursts that showed signs of photospheric radius expansion (PRE). The decay phase of all the bursts were then fitted with a dynamic power-law index method. This method provides a new way of probing the chemical composition of the accreted material. Our results show that in the hydrogen-rich sources the power-law decay index is variable during the burst tails and that simple cooling models qualitatively describe the cooling of presumably helium-rich sources 4U 1728-34 and 3A 1820-303. The cooling in the hydrogen-rich sources 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-536, and GS 1826-24, instead, is clearly different and depends on the spectral states and whether PRE occurred or not. Especially the hard state bursts behave differently than the models predict, exhibiting a peculiar rise in the cooling index at low burst fluxes, which suggests that the cooling in the tail is much faster than expected. Our results indicate that the drivers of the bursting behaviour are not only the accretion rate and chemical composition of the accreted material, but also the cooling that is somehow linked to the spectral states. The latter suggests that the properties of the burning layers deep in the neutron star envelope might be impacted differently depending on the spectral state.
Power decoupling techniques for single-phase power electronics systems — An overview
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
. In this paper, recently proposed state-of-the-art power decoupling techniques for ripple power reduction in these systems are presented and classified into different groups for performance comparison. The pros and cons of these techniques are discussed and identified, and the conclusions drawn will be useful...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasper, M.
2008-01-01
The contribution outlines legal problems from the view of national and European law. It presents alternative funding models and investigates their legal applicability. For example, funds may be established with obligatory contributions by nuclear power plant operators. A model of this type was proposed by the EU Commission. The authors discuss whether the EU Commission has the right at all to make this proposal, and what legal problems may arise in Germany, e.g. the right of property of public utilities. Other funding models are presented and investigated as well. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N; Das, M [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics
1983-01-13
Several properties of octet baryons such as (i) the magnetic moment, (ii) (Gsub(A)/Gsub(v))sub(n) for neutron ..beta..-decay and (iii) the charge radius of the proton have been calculated in a simple independent-quark model under the assumption that the individual constituent quarks are confined, in first approximation, by a relativistic power-law potential Vsub(q)(r)=(1+..beta..) (asup(..nu..+1)rsup(..nu..)+V/sub 0/) with a, ..nu..>0. In view of the simplicity of the model, the results obtained are quite encouraging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Das, M.
1983-01-01
Several properties of octet baryons such as (i) the magnetic moment, (ii) (Gsub(A)/Gsub(v))sub(n) for neutron #betta#-decay and (iii) the charge radius of the proton have been calculated in a simple independent-quark model under the assumption that the individual constituent quarks are confined, in first approximation, by a relativistic power-law potential Vsub(q)(r)=(1+#betta#) (asup(#betta#+1)rsup(#betta#)+V 0 ) with a, #betta#>0. In view of the simplicity of the model, the results obtained are quite encouraging. (orig.)
Adaptive estimation of a time-varying phase with a power-law spectrum via continuous squeezed states
Dinani, Hossein T.; Berry, Dominic W.
2016-01-01
When measuring a time-varying phase, the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit as usually defined, for a constant phase, do not apply. If the phase has Gaussian statistics and a power-law spectrum $1/|\\omega|^p$ with $p>1$, then the generalized standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit have recently been found to have scalings of $1/{\\cal N}^{(p-1)/p}$ and $1/{\\cal N}^{2(p-1)/(p+1)}$, respectively, where ${\\cal N}$ is the mean photon flux. We show that this Heisenberg scaling can be a...
Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.
2016-02-01
The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.
Thermostatistical properties of q-deformed bosons trapped in a D-dimensional power-law potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su Guozhen; Chen Jincan; Chen Lixuan
2003-01-01
The thermostatistical properties of an ideal gas of q-deformed bosons trapped in a D-dimensional power-law potential are studied, based on the q-deformed Bose-Einstein distribution. The effects of q-deformation on the properties of the system are discussed. It is shown that q-deformed bosons (q ≠ 1) possess many different characteristics from those of ordinary bosons, which include the condition that Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) occurs, the critical temperature and the continuity of heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adzhemyan, L.Ts.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Pis'mak, Yu.M.
1988-01-01
The investigation of the infrared behavior of the propagator of a light wave in a randomly inhomogeneous medium with massless Gaussian noise is continued. The infrared representation of the propagator for correlation function D varphi (k)∼k -2 is generalized to the case of an arbitrary power-law noise correlation function is rigorously established in the first two orders of the infrared asymptotic behavior by construction of a suitable R operation. As a consequence, the results are generalized to the case of critical opalescence, when D varphi (k)∼k -2+η , where η ∼ 0.03 is the Fisher index