WorldWideScience

Sample records for single point energies

  1. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  2. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  3. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in-plan...

  4. Transistors - From Point Contact to Single Electron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    development of the energy band theory of solids by Wilson. ... Davydov developed bis theory independently. All these theories had shortcomings as pointed out by Sab. The correct theory of metal-semiconductor diodes based on thermionic emission of majority carriers .... watches and other portable consumer applications.

  5. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  6. SAAFEC: Predicting the Effect of Single Point Mutations on Protein Folding Free Energy Using a Knowledge-Modified MM/PBSA Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getov, Ivan; Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil

    2016-04-07

    Folding free energy is an important biophysical characteristic of proteins that reflects the overall stability of the 3D structure of macromolecules. Changes in the amino acid sequence, naturally occurring or made in vitro, may affect the stability of the corresponding protein and thus could be associated with disease. Several approaches that predict the changes of the folding free energy caused by mutations have been proposed, but there is no method that is clearly superior to the others. The optimal goal is not only to accurately predict the folding free energy changes, but also to characterize the structural changes induced by mutations and the physical nature of the predicted folding free energy changes. Here we report a new method to predict the Single Amino Acid Folding free Energy Changes (SAAFEC) based on a knowledge-modified Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann (MM/PBSA) approach. The method is comprised of two main components: a MM/PBSA component and a set of knowledge based terms delivered from a statistical study of the biophysical characteristics of proteins. The predictor utilizes a multiple linear regression model with weighted coefficients of various terms optimized against a set of experimental data. The aforementioned approach yields a correlation coefficient of 0.65 when benchmarked against 983 cases from 42 proteins in the ProTherm database. the webserver can be accessed via http://compbio.clemson.edu/SAAFEC/.

  7. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  8. Point defects in electron-irradiated oxide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, K.J.; Cooper, R. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry; Boas, J.F. [Australian Radiation Lab., Yallambie, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-04-01

    Point defects have been produced in CaO, MgO, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals by electron irradiation, and thresholds for atomic displacement have been measured using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Oxygen displacement energies of approximately 50 eV have been determined; however, a temperature-dependent threshold observed for an emission band in MgO may arise from a magnesium displacement. A 300-nm emission in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may be due to an F-center transition. Studies of radiative recombination kinetics are consistent with an electron-detrapping model.

  9. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  10. Zero-point energy of confined fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    A closed form for the reduced Green's function of massless fermions in the interior of a spherical bag is obtained. In terms of this Green's function, the corresponding zero-point or Casimir energy is computed. It is proposed that a resulting quadratic divergence can be absorbed by renormalizing a suitable parameter in the bag model (that is, absorbed by a contact term). The residual Casimir stress is attractive, but smaller than the repulsive Casimir stress of gluons in the model. The result for the total zero-point energy is in substantial disagreement with bag model phenomenological values

  11. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Single and multispecies models are used to examine the effect of species interaction on biological reference points for cod, herring, and sprat in the Baltic. The results demonstrate that reference points are different in single and multispecies contexts. Reference points for fishing mortality...... based on single-species yield and SSB calculations are difficult to use when natural mortality depends on the absolute abundance of the predators and their alternative prey. Reference points based on maximizing total yield from the system may lead to impractical results when species interact...... reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area...

  12. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  13. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...

  14. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  15. Conversion of zero point energy into high-energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, B. I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Manuel Nava No. 6, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    An unusual phenomenon, observed in experiments is studied. X-ray laser bursts of keV energy are emitted from a metal where long-living states, resulting in population inversion, are totally unexpected. Anomalous electron-photon states are revealed to be formed inside the metal. These states are associated with narrow, 10{sup -11} cm, potential well created by the local reduction of zero point electromagnetic energy. In contrast to analogous van der Waals potential well, leading to attraction of two hydrogen atoms, the depth of the anomalous well is on the order of 1 MeV. The states in that well are long-living which results in population inversion and subsequent laser generation observed. The X-ray emission, occurring in transitions to lower levels, is due to the conversion of zero point electromagnetic energy. (Author)

  16. Point defects and electric compensation in gallium arsenide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzer, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis the point-defect budget of gallium arsenide single crystals with different dopings is studied. It is shown, in which way the concentration of the single point defects depende on the concentration of the dopants, the stoichiometry deviation, and the position of the Fermi level. For this serve the results of the measurement-technical characterization of a large number of samples, in the fabrication of which these parameters were directedly varied. The main topic of this thesis lies in the development of models, which allow a quantitative description of the experimentally studied electrical and optical properties of gallium arsenide single crystals starting from the point-defect concentrations. Because from point defects charge carriers can be set free, their concentration determines essentially the charge-carrier concentration in the bands. In the ionized state point defects act as scattering centers for free charge carriers and influence by this the drift mobility of the charge carriers. A thermodynamic modeling of the point-defect formation yields statements on the equilibrium concentrations of the point defects in dependence on dopant concentration and stoichiometry deviation. It is show that the electrical properties of the crystals observed at room temperature result from the kinetic suppression of processes, via which the adjustment of a thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects is mediated [de

  17. Single-point incremental forming and formability-failure diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Atkins, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work [1], the authors constructed a closed-form analytical model that is capable of dealing with the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results published in the literature over the past couple of years. The model is based on ...

  18. Transistors-From Point Contact to Single Electron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Transistors – From Point Contact to Single Electron. D N Bose. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 39-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0039-0054 ...

  19. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain and...

  20. Common fixed points of single-valued and multivalued maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new property which contains the property (EA for a hybrid pair of single- and multivalued maps and give some new common fixed point theorems under hybrid contractive conditions. Our results extend previous ones. As an application, we give a partial answer to the problem raised by Singh and Mishra.

  1. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang, E-mail: qiangli@zju.edu.cn; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min, E-mail: minqiu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  2. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...... is programed using CAM software intended for surface milling. Often the function called profile milling or contour milling is applied. Using this milling function the tool only has a continuous feed rate in two directions X and Y, which is the plane of the undeformed sheet. The feed in the vertical Z direction...... from the profile milling code and converts them into a helical tool path with continuous feed in all three directions. Using the helical tool path the scarring is removed, the part is otherwise unchanged and a major disadvantage of using milling software for SPIF is removed. The solution...

  3. 3D Point Cloud Reconstruction from Single Plenoptic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Murgia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel plenoptic cameras sample the light field crossing the main camera lens. The information available in a plenoptic image must be processed, in order to create the depth map of the scene from a single camera shot. In this paper a novel algorithm, for the reconstruction of 3D point cloud of the scene from a single plenoptic image, taken with a consumer plenoptic camera, is proposed. Experimental analysis is conducted on several test images, and results are compared with state of the art methodologies. The results are very promising, as the quality of the 3D point cloud from plenoptic image, is comparable with the quality obtained with current non-plenoptic methodologies, that necessitate more than one image.

  4. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  5. Nuclear energy at the turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-07-01

    In deciding the future course of nuclear energy, it is necessary to re-examine man's long-term energy options, in particular solar energy and the breeder reactor. Both systems pose difficultiies: energy from the sun is likely to be expensive as well as limited, whereas a massive world-wide deployment of nuclear breeders will create problems of safety and of proliferation. Nuclear energy's long-term success depends on resolving both of these problems. Collocation of nuclear facilities with a system of resident inspectors are measures that ought to help increase the proliferation-resistance as well as the safety of a large-scale, long-term nuclear system based on breeders. In such a long-term system a strengthened International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is viewed as playing a central role

  6. Nuclear energy, a point for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibel, W.

    1977-01-01

    In a world no longer believing in a life after death, life on this world becomes an absolute value and death an absolute threat. The irrational parts of the resistence against nuclear energy, this worry for the saving of this value and the fear of this threat are seen. Such fears cannot be met with tables about accident frequency and risk factors. Therefore in the author's opinion, also the churches are requested to give a concerning answer to the question of the meaning of life, for these fears not to arise repeatedly, namely today in protests against technical development and nuclear energy, and tomorrow somewhere else. (GL) [de

  7. ODMR of single point defects in silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, Nikolay; Danilovsky, Eduard; Gets, Dmitry; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Kuzmin, Roman; Malyarenko, Anna [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya st. 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    We present the findings of the optically detected magnetic resonance technique (ODMR), which reveal single point defects in the ultra-narrow silicon quantum wells (Si-QW) confined by the superconductor {delta}-barriers. This technique allows the ODMR identification without application of an external cavity, as well as a high frequency source and recorder, and with measuring the transmission spectra within the frameworks of the excitonic normal-mode coupling caused by the microcavities embedded in the Si-QW plane. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Geometry of single-point turning tools and drills

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, Viktor P

    2010-01-01

    Tools for metal cutting have many shapes and features, each of which is described by its angles or geometries. The selection of the right cutting tool geometry is critical because it directly affects the integrity of the machined surface, tool life, power needed for machining, and thus the overall machining efficiency. ""Geometry of Single-Point Turning Tools and Drills"" outlines clear objectives of cutting tool geometry selection and optimization, using multiple examples to provide a thorough explanation. The establishment of clear bridges between cutting theory, tool geometry, and shop prac

  9. Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria B.; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Eac...... and involves independent determination of formability limits by necking and fracture using tensile and hydraulic bulge tests in conjunction with SPIF of benchmark shapes under laboratory conditions.......The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Each...... on formability limits and development of fracture. The unified view conciliates the aforementioned different explanations on the role of necking in fracture and is consistent with the experimental observations that have been reported in the past years. The work is performed on aluminium AA1050-H111 sheets...

  10. SCAP-82, Single Scattering, Albedo Scattering, Point-Kernel Analysis in Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Vogtman, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SCAP solves for radiation transport in complex geometries using the single or albedo scatter point kernel method. The program is designed to calculate the neutron or gamma ray radiation level at detector points located within or outside a complex radiation scatter source geometry or a user specified discrete scattering volume. Geometry is describable by zones bounded by intersecting quadratic surfaces within an arbitrary maximum number of boundary surfaces per zone. Anisotropic point sources are describable as pointwise energy dependent distributions of polar angles on a meridian; isotropic point sources may also be specified. The attenuation function for gamma rays is an exponential function on the primary source leg and the scatter leg with a build- up factor approximation to account for multiple scatter on the scat- ter leg. The neutron attenuation function is an exponential function using neutron removal cross sections on the primary source leg and scatter leg. Line or volumetric sources can be represented as a distribution of isotropic point sources, with un-collided line-of-sight attenuation and buildup calculated between each source point and the detector point. 2 - Method of solution: A point kernel method using an anisotropic or isotropic point source representation is used, line-of-sight material attenuation and inverse square spatial attenuation between the source point and scatter points and the scatter points and detector point is employed. A direct summation of individual point source results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The SCAP program is written in complete flexible dimensioning so that no restrictions are imposed on the number of energy groups or geometric zones. The geometric zone description is restricted to zones defined by boundary surfaces defined by the general quadratic equation or one of its degenerate forms. The only restriction in the program is that the total

  11. Securing Single Points of Compromise (SPoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-25

    Securing the Single Points of Compromise that provide central services to the institution’s environment is paramount to success when trying to protect the business. (Fisk, 2014) Time Based Security mandates protection (erecting and ensuring effective controls) that last longer than the time to detect and react to a compromise. When enterprise protections fail, providing additional layered controls for these central services provides more time to detect and react. While guidance is readily available for securing the individual critical asset, protecting these assets as a group is not often discussed. Using best business practices to protect these resources as individual assets while leveraging holistic defenses for the group increases the opportunity to maximize protection time, allowing detection and reaction time for the SPoCs that is commensurate with the inherent risk of these centralized services.

  12. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  13. Code Single Point Positioning Using Nominal GNSS Constellations (Future Perception)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, A. M. A.

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have an endless number of applications in industry, science, military, transportation and recreation & sports. Two systems are currently in operation, namely GPS (the USA Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System), and a third is planned, the European satellite navigation system GALILEO. The potential performance improvements achievable through combining these systems could be significant and expectations are high. The need is inevitable to explore the future of positioning from different nominal constellations. In this research paper, Bernese 5.0 software could be modified to simulate and process GNSS observations from three different constellations (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) using different combinations. This study presents results of code single point positioning for five stations using the three constellations and different combinations.

  14. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences...... the process and furthermore offers a number of new possibilities for solving some of the problems appearing in SPIF. Investigations of the influence of dummy sheet on: formability, wear, surface quality and bulging of planar sides is done by forming to test shapes: a hyperboloid and a truncated pyramid....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  15. Single supplier single retailer inventory model controlled by the reorder and shipping points with sharing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the integrated stochastic inventory problem for a two-stage supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single supplier. By using batch shipment policy, the expected total cost can be significantly reduced. An equally sized batch shipment model, controlled by both the reorder and shipping points, with sharing information by enterprise resource planning and radio frequency identification is constructed. The problem is solved optimally by the proposed algorithm that determines the economic lot size, the optimal batch sizes and number of batches. A numerical example is included to illustrate the algorithmic procedures and to prove that the model controlled both by the reorder and shipping points is superior to the classic model controlled only by the reorder point.

  16. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  17. SINGLE TREE DETECTION FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA USING A MARKED POINT PROCESS BASED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree detection and reconstruction is of great interest in large-scale city modelling. In this paper, we present a marked point process model to detect single trees from airborne laser scanning (ALS data. We consider single trees in ALS recovered canopy height model (CHM as a realization of point process of circles. Unlike traditional marked point process, we sample the model in a constraint configuration space by making use of image process techniques. A Gibbs energy is defined on the model, containing a data term which judge the fitness of the model with respect to the data, and prior term which incorporate the prior knowledge of object layouts. We search the optimal configuration through a steepest gradient descent algorithm. The presented hybrid framework was test on three forest plots and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  19. Acoustic Energy Storage in Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    1996-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is understood in terms of a shock focusing towards the bubble center. We present a mechanism for significantly enhancing the effect of shock focusing, arising from the storage of energy in the acoustic modes of the gas. The modes with strongest coupling are not

  20. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  1. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  2. Single-frequency, single-receiver terrestrial and spaceborne point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tomas

    High-accuracy, point positioning has been an attractive research topic in the GPS community for a number of years. The overall quality of precise point positioning results is also dependent on the quality of the GPS measurements and the user's processing software. Dual-frequency, geodetic-quality GPS receivers are routinely used both in static and kinematic applications for high-accuracy point positioning. However, use of low-cost, single-frequency GPS receivers in similar applications creates a challenge because of difficulty of handling the ionosphere, multipath and other measurement error sources. Potential use of such receivers to provide horizontal positioning accuracies of a few decimetres, and vertical accuracies of less than two metres, will be examined in this dissertation. Practical applications of post-processed, high-accuracy, single-frequency point positioning include a myriad of terrestrial and space-borne applications, where the size and cost of the GPS unit is an issue. The processing technique uses pseudorange and time-differenced carrier-phase measurements in a sequential least-squares filter. In developing the approach, different techniques were investigated. Ionospheric delay grid maps are used to remove the bulk of the ionospheric error, while tropospheric error is handled by a prediction model. Pseudorange multipath errors are mitigated by means of stochastic modelling and carrier-phase cycle slips are detected and corrupted measurements are removed in a quality-control algorithm. The technique was first tested on L1 measurements extracted from datasets from static, high-quality GPS receivers. Accuracies better than two-decimetres in horizontal components (northing and easting r.m.s.), and three-decimetre accuracies in the vertical component (up-component r.m.s.), were obtained. A test dataset from a stationary low-cost GPS receiver has been processed to demonstrate the difference in data quality. Positioning results obtained are worse than

  3. Zero point energy and zero point oscillations: how they are detected experimentally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipenyuk, Yurii M.

    2012-08-01

    The zero point energy of a system in a potential well is reviewed as a concept, with some history of the development behind it, and a discussion is given of how it can be detected experimentally from the electronic-vibrational spectrum of molecules with different isotopes (isotope effect). Also discussed is how the zero point oscillations of crystal lattice atoms show up in the diffraction of X-rays and neutrons from crystals and in the temperature dependence of the Mössbauer effect probability. Other topics include measuring zero point oscillations of water molecules in a nanotube to determine the form of the potential energy of the system; the role of zero point oscillations in the dynamics of electrons in semiconductors, and experiments on the optical cooling and quantum behavior of mechanical oscillators.

  4. Energy-efficient technologies for point-to-point fiber access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Lun; Li, Jie; Chan, Chien Aun; Anthapadmanabhan, N. Prasanth; Chow, Hungkei (Keith)

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the fundamental issues and the technologies to achieve an energy-efficient Gigabit-Ethernet point-to-point (PtP) fiber access network. To minimize the power consumption of PtP fiber access for long-term development, it is essential to optimize each of the network components such as optical transceiver, user network interface, Ethernet aggregator and also their modes of operation. Our analysis shows that the energy consumption of a PtP fiber access network using our proposed technologies can be up to 7.5 times lower than that of the 2010 technologies when a combination of appropriate technologies is applied.

  5. Gibbs free energy, surface stress and melting point of nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wenhua; Hu, Wangyu

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to calculating Gibbs free energy of nanoparticle are compared. It is found that the contribution from the vibrational entropy of surface atoms of nanoparticle to its Gibbs free energy can be ignored, and Jiang et al.'s formula [J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6275] [27] for calculating surface stress is only valid around room temperature. Furthermore, an approximate relationship between surface stress and surface free energy of nanoparticles is revealed. Finally, the reason why effect of size dependent surface energy on melting point of nanoparticle was neglected is clarified

  6. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  7. Point defects in lines in single crystalline phosphorene: directional migration and tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Ma, Liang; Wang, Dayong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-10-20

    Extended line defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can play an important role in modulating their electronic properties. During the experimental synthesis of 2D materials, line defects are commonly generated at grain boundaries between domains of different orientations. In this work, twelve types of line-defect structures in single crystalline phosphorene are examined by using first-principles calculations. These line defects are typically formed via migration and aggregation of intrinsic point defects, including the Stone-Wales (SW), single or double vacancy (SV or DV) defects. Our calculated results demonstrate that the migration of point defects in phosphorene is anisotropic, for instance, the lowest migration energy barriers are 1.39 (or 0.40) and 2.58 (or 0.49) eV for SW (or SV) defects in zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The aggregation of point defects into lines is energetically favorable compared with the separated point defects in phosphorene. In particular, the axis of line defects in phosphorene is direction-selective, depending on the composed point defects. The presence of line defects effectively modulates the electronic properties of phosphorene, rendering the defect-containing phosphorene either metallic or semiconducting with a tunable band gap. Of particular interest is the fact that the SV-based line defect can behave as a metallic wire, suggesting a possibility to fabricate a circuit with subnanometer widths in the semiconducting phosphorene for nanoscale electronic application.

  8. Structure Based Thermostability Prediction Models for Protein Single Point Mutations with Machine Learning Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jia

    Full Text Available Thermostability issue of protein point mutations is a common occurrence in protein engineering. An application which predicts the thermostability of mutants can be helpful for guiding decision making process in protein design via mutagenesis. An in silico point mutation scanning method is frequently used to find "hot spots" in proteins for focused mutagenesis. ProTherm (http://gibk26.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/jouhou/Protherm/protherm.html is a public database that consists of thousands of protein mutants' experimentally measured thermostability. Two data sets based on two differently measured thermostability properties of protein single point mutations, namely the unfolding free energy change (ddG and melting temperature change (dTm were obtained from this database. Folding free energy change calculation from Rosetta, structural information of the point mutations as well as amino acid physical properties were obtained for building thermostability prediction models with informatics modeling tools. Five supervised machine learning methods (support vector machine, random forests, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes classifier, K nearest neighbor and partial least squares regression are used for building the prediction models. Binary and ternary classifications as well as regression models were built and evaluated. Data set redundancy and balancing, the reverse mutations technique, feature selection, and comparison to other published methods were discussed. Rosetta calculated folding free energy change ranked as the most influential features in all prediction models. Other descriptors also made significant contributions to increasing the accuracy of the prediction models.

  9. Zero-point energy in early quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milonni, P.W.; Shih, M.-L.

    1991-01-01

    In modern physics the vacuum is not a tranquil void but a quantum state with fluctuations having observable consequences. The present concept of the vacuum has its roots in the zero-point energy of harmonic oscillators and the electromagnetic field, and arose before the development of the formalism of quantum mechanics. This article discusses these roots in the blackbody research of Planck and Einstein in 1912--1913, and the relation to Bose--Einstein statistics and the first indication of wave--particle duality uncovered by Einstein's fluctuation formula. Also considered are the Einstein--Stern theory of specific heats, which invoked zero-point energy in a way which turned out to be incorrect, and the experimental implications of zero-point energy recognized by Mulliken and Debye in vibrational spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction

  10. ENERGY DISSIPATION IN MAGNETIC NULL POINTS AT KINETIC SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Divin, Andrey; Eriksson, Elin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We use kinetic particle-in-cell and MHD simulations supported by an observational data set to investigate magnetic reconnection in clusters of null points in space plasma. The magnetic configuration under investigation is driven by fast adiabatic flux rope compression that dissipates almost half of the initial magnetic field energy. In this phase powerful currents are excited producing secondary instabilities, and the system is brought into a state of “intermittent turbulence” within a few ion gyro-periods. Reconnection events are distributed all over the simulation domain and energy dissipation is rather volume-filling. Numerous spiral null points interconnected via their spines form null lines embedded into magnetic flux ropes; null point pairs demonstrate the signatures of torsional spine reconnection. However, energy dissipation mainly happens in the shear layers formed by adjacent flux ropes with oppositely directed currents. In these regions radial null pairs are spontaneously emerging and vanishing, associated with electron streams and small-scale current sheets. The number of spiral nulls in the simulation outweighs the number of radial nulls by a factor of 5–10, in accordance with Cluster observations in the Earth's magnetosheath. Twisted magnetic fields with embedded spiral null points might indicate the regions of major energy dissipation for future space missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

  11. Evaluation of correlative nuclear data at certain energy point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Liu Tingjin.

    1993-01-01

    A method to process correlative nuclear data at certain energy point is presented. The corresponding processing code has also been developed. Using the code, the effects of the correlation have been discussed in detail for the cases of the two and three data. (3 figs.)

  12. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  13. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  14. Modeling molecular boiling points using computed interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterangelo, Stephen C; Seybold, Paul G

    2017-12-20

    The noncovalent van der Waals interactions between molecules in liquids are typically described in textbooks as occurring between the total molecular dipoles (permanent, induced, or transient) of the molecules. This notion was tested by examining the boiling points of 67 halogenated hydrocarbon liquids using quantum chemically calculated molecular dipole moments, ionization potentials, and polarizabilities obtained from semi-empirical (AM1 and PM3) and ab initio Hartree-Fock [HF 6-31G(d), HF 6-311G(d,p)], and density functional theory [B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)] methods. The calculated interaction energies and an empirical measure of hydrogen bonding were employed to model the boiling points of the halocarbons. It was found that only terms related to London dispersion energies and hydrogen bonding proved significant in the regression analyses, and the performances of the models generally improved at higher levels of quantum chemical computation. An empirical estimate for the molecular polarizabilities was also tested, and the best models for the boiling points were obtained using either this empirical polarizability itself or the polarizabilities calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, along with the hydrogen-bonding parameter. The results suggest that the cohesive forces are more appropriately described as resulting from highly localized interactions rather than interactions between the global molecular dipoles.

  15. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halladjian, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  16. Comparing Single-Point and Multi-point Calibration Methods in Modulated DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, Caleb Griffith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Heat capacity measurements for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) were performed using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (mDSC) over a wide temperature range, -70 to 115 °C, with a TA Instruments Q2000 mDSC. The default calibration method for this instrument involves measuring the heat capacity of a sapphire standard at a single temperature near the middle of the temperature range of interest. However, this method often fails for temperature ranges that exceed a 50 °C interval, likely because of drift or non-linearity in the instrument's heat capacity readings over time or over the temperature range. Therefore, in this study a method was developed to calibrate the instrument using multiple temperatures and the same sapphire standard.

  17. Energy scales and magnetoresistance at a quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a Chernova street, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Stephanovich, V.A. [Opole University, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Opole, 45-052 (Poland)

    2009-03-02

    The magnetoresistance (MR) of CeCoIn{sub 5} is notably different from that in many conventional metals. We show that a pronounced crossover from negative to positive MR at elevated temperatures and fixed magnetic fields is determined by the scaling behavior of quasiparticle effective mass. At a quantum critical point (QCP) this dependence generates kinks (crossover points from fast to slow growth) in thermodynamic characteristics (like specific heat, magnetization, etc.) at some temperatures when a strongly correlated electron system transits from the magnetic field induced Landau-Fermi liquid (LFL) regime to the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) one taking place at rising temperatures. We show that the above kink-like peculiarity separates two distinct energy scales in QCP vicinity - low temperature LFL scale and high temperature one related to NFL regime. Our comprehensive theoretical analysis of experimental data permits to reveal for the first time new MR and kinks scaling behavior as well as to identify the physical reasons for above energy scales.

  18. Responsiveness of Myofascial Trigger Points to Single and Multiple Trigger Point Release Massages: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F; Schmiege, Sarah J; Mann, John D; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of single and multiple massage treatments on pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in people with myofascial pain syndrome expressed as tension-type headache. Individuals (n = 62) with episodic or chronic tension-type headache were randomized to receive 12 twice-weekly 45-min massage or sham ultrasound sessions or wait-list control. Massage focused on trigger point release (ischemic compression) of MTrPs in the bilateral upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles. PPT was measured at MTrPs with a pressure algometer pre and post the first and final (12th) treatments. PPT increased across the study timeframe in all four muscle sites tested for massage, but not sham ultrasound or wait-list groups (P trigger points to myofascial pain; (2) Describe an effective treatment for decreasing tenderness of a myofascial trigger point; and (3) Discuss the relative values of single vs. multiple massage sessions on increasing pressure-pain thresholds at myofascial trigger points. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

  19. Optimal Control Of Nonlinear Wave Energy Point Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Zhou, Qiang; Kramer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal control law for a single nonlinear point absorber in irregular sea-states is derived, and proven to be a closed-loop controller with feedback from measured displacement, velocity and acceleration of the floater. However, a non-causal integral control component dependent...... on future velocities appears in the optimal control law, rendering the optimal control law less useful for real time implementation. To circumvent this problem a causal closed-loop controller with the same feedback information is proposed, based on a slight modification of the optimal control law. The basic...... idea behind the control strategy is to enforce the stationary velocity response of the absorber into phase with the wave excitation force at any time. The controller is optimal under monochromatic wave excitation. It is demonstrated that the devised causal controller, in plane irregular sea states...

  20. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background... letter from R. W. Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The...

  1. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  2. Saving energy for the data collection point in WBAN network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Duc, Toan; Kamioka, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Wireless sensor networking (WSN) has been rapidly developed and become essential in various domains including health care systems. Such systems use WSN to collect real-time medical sensed data, aiming at improving the patient safety. For instance, patients suffered from adverse events, i.e., cardiac or respiratory arrests, are monitored so as to prevent them from getting harm. Sensors are placed on, in or near the patients' body to continuously collect sensing data such as the electrocardiograms, blood oxygenation, breathing, and heart rate. In this case, the sensors form a subcategory of WSN called wireless body area network (WBAN). In WBAN, sensing data are sent to one or more data collection points called personal server (PS). The role of PS is important since it forwards sensed data, to a medical server via a Bluetooth/WLAN connection in real time to support storage of information and real-time diagnosis, the device can also issue a notification of an emergency status. Since PS is a battery-based device, when its battery is empty, it will disconnect the sensed medical data with the rest network. To best of our knowledge, very few studies that focus on saving energy for the PS. To this end, this work investigates the trade-off between energy consumption for wireless communication and the amount of sensing data. An energy consumption model for wireless communication has been proposed based on direct measurement using real testbed. According to our findings, it is possible to save energy for the PS by selecting suitable wireless technology to be used based on the amount of data to be transmitted.

  3. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Olivier [GERAD and Department of Management Sciences, HEC Montreal, Montreal (Qc) (Canada); Edwards, Neil R. [Earth and Environmental Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Knutti, Reto [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stocker, Thomas F. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. (author)

  4. Single Point Adjustments: A New Definition with Examples. Acquisition Review Quarterly, Fall 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachman, David

    2002-01-01

    .... A single point adjustment (SPA) is made when a contract's existing cost and/or schedule variances are set to zero and all the remaining work is replanned with the goal of completing the project on schedule and on budget...

  5. Low energy electron point source microscopy: beyond imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2010-09-01

    Low energy electron point source (LEEPS) microscopy has the capability to record in-line holograms at very high magnifications with a fairly simple set-up. After the holograms are numerically reconstructed, structural features with the size of about 2 nm can be resolved. The achievement of an even higher resolution has been predicted. However, a number of obstacles are known to impede the realization of this goal, for example the presence of electric fields around the imaged object, electrostatic charging or radiation induced processes. This topical review gives an overview of the achievements as well as the difficulties in the efforts to shift the resolution limit of LEEPS microscopy towards the atomic level. A special emphasis is laid on the high sensitivity of low energy electrons to electrical fields, which limits the structural determination of the imaged objects. On the other hand, the investigation of the electrical field around objects of known structure is very useful for other tasks and LEEPS microscopy can be extended beyond the task of imaging. The determination of the electrical resistance of individual nanowires can be achieved by a proper analysis of the corresponding LEEPS micrographs. This conductivity imaging may be a very useful application for LEEPS microscopes.

  6. A Thermodynamic Point of View on Dark Energy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo F. Cardone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a conjugate analysis of two different dark energy models, namely the Barboza–Alcaniz parameterization and the phenomenologically-motivated Hobbit model, investigating both their agreement with observational data and their thermodynamical properties. We successfully fit a wide dataset including the Hubble diagram of Type Ia Supernovae, the Hubble rate expansion parameter as measured from cosmic chronometers, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO standard ruler data and the Planck distance priors. This analysis allows us to constrain the model parameters, thus pointing at the region of the wide parameters space, which is worth focusing on. As a novel step, we exploit the strong connection between gravity and thermodynamics to further check models’ viability by investigating their thermodynamical quantities. In particular, we study whether the cosmological scenario fulfills the generalized second law of thermodynamics, and moreover, we contrast the two models, asking whether the evolution of the total entropy is in agreement with the expectation for a closed system. As a general result, we discuss whether thermodynamic constraints can be a valid complementary way to both constrain dark energy models and differentiate among rival scenarios.

  7. A single quantum dot-based biosensor for DNA point mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Zhu, Guichi; Liang, Li; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2015-09-07

    Sensitive and selective detection of point mutation is essential to molecular biology research and early clinical diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a single quantum dot (QD)-based biosensor for DNA point mutation assay. In this assay, a mutant target (G/C) remains unchanged after the endonuclease treatment, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be initiated with the assistance of primers and polymerase, generating a large number of mutant targets. The amplified mutant targets can be captured by biotinylated probes during the process of denaturation and annealing, and Cy5-dGTP may be assembled into the biotinylated probe with the catalysis of polymerase, leading to the formation of Cy5-labeled biotinylated probes. The Cy5-labeled biotinylated probes can be further assembled onto the QD surface to obtain a Cy5-DNA-QD complex, resulting in the generation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the QD donor and the Cy5 receptor. The mutant targets can be quantitatively evaluated by the measurement of Cy5 counts by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. While in the presence of wild-type targets (T/A), no Cy5-dGTP can be assembled into the biotinylated probe due to the presence of a mismatch and consequently no FRET is observed. This single QD-based biosensor exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5.3 aM (or 32 copies) and can even discriminate as low as 0.01% variant frequency from the mixture of mutant targets and wild-type ones. Importantly, this biosensor can be used for genomic analysis in human lung cancer cells, and may be further applied for an early clinical diagnosis and personalized medicine.

  8. SEE Transient Response of Crane Interpoint Single Output Point of Load DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anthony B.; Chen, Dakai; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect and transient susceptibility of the Crane Interpoint Maximum Flexible Power (MFP) Single Output Point of Load DC/DC Converters for transient interruptions in the output signal and for destructive and non destructive events induced by exposing it to a heavy ion beam..

  9. Preparing Europe for a single market in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    By the end of 1992 a ''single market'' in the European Community should be in place. While the energy sector was not included in the ''White Paper'' which planned the single market, it soon became obvious that it could not be excluded. The single market in energy is intended to integrate energy supply in the member states and remove barriers to trade. It has been calculated that these barriers cost the Community 20-30 billion ecus ($15-20 billion) every year. Removing the barriers will result in much greater competition within the energy market. The Commission published a working document, the internal energy market, in May 1988. This report described the real and potential obstacles to the single energy market for each of the principal energy sources and suggested priorities which should be addressed. The strategy suggested in the report is outlined here, and recent developments briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. Detection of kinetic change points in piece-wise linear single molecule motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Flynn R.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Duderstadt, Karl E.

    2018-03-01

    Single-molecule approaches present a powerful way to obtain detailed kinetic information at the molecular level. However, the identification of small rate changes is often hindered by the considerable noise present in such single-molecule kinetic data. We present a general method to detect such kinetic change points in trajectories of motion of processive single molecules having Gaussian noise, with a minimum number of parameters and without the need of an assumed kinetic model beyond piece-wise linearity of motion. Kinetic change points are detected using a likelihood ratio test in which the probability of no change is compared to the probability of a change occurring, given the experimental noise. A predetermined confidence interval minimizes the occurrence of false detections. Applying the method recursively to all sub-regions of a single molecule trajectory ensures that all kinetic change points are located. The algorithm presented allows rigorous and quantitative determination of kinetic change points in noisy single molecule observations without the need for filtering or binning, which reduce temporal resolution and obscure dynamics. The statistical framework for the approach and implementation details are discussed. The detection power of the algorithm is assessed using simulations with both single kinetic changes and multiple kinetic changes that typically arise in observations of single-molecule DNA-replication reactions. Implementations of the algorithm are provided in ImageJ plugin format written in Java and in the Julia language for numeric computing, with accompanying Jupyter Notebooks to allow reproduction of the analysis presented here.

  11. Single purse string with four-point traction for better haemorrhoid retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Quan; Cai, Ai-Zhen; Wang, Ning; Chen, Lin

    2012-10-01

    Traction method is important to stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) for its impact on haemorrhoidal prolapse reduction. Single purse string with one-point traction is most commonly used in SH. This traction method often results in an irregular mucosal doughnut with inadequate height, which leads to insignificant and uneven haemorrhoidal prolapse reduction. Single purse string with two-point traction is a modified traction method. According to some authors, it has significantly improved the height and regularity of the mucosal doughnut in SH. However, the reduction of haemorrhoidal prolapse is not always satisfactory, especially in patients with large prolapse. Our assumption is that single purse string with four-point traction, a more balanced traction method, will provide better control to increase the doughnut height using the same amount of traction. This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of single purse string with four-point traction as compared with two-point traction in SH. Consecutive patients with symptomatic grade III haemorrhoids were randomized to two groups: Group 1, G(1) ; Group 2, G(2) . Each group underwent SH by colorectal surgeons. The patients in G(1) underwent single purse string with two-point traction. The patients in G(2) underwent SH using single purse string with four-point traction. Preoperative, intraoperative and post-operative patient characteristics were evaluated. Sixty patients with a median age of 44 (range, 21-78) years were identified. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the two groups. The height of the mucosectomy specimens significantly increased in patients of G(2) (P string with four-point traction ensures a taller and more regular mucosal doughnut during SH, thus it brings a more satisfactory haemorrhoid retraction. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Thirteen and two fairy tales on the energy turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the choices and changes in the German energy policy, the author proposes controversial texts under the form of tales on the German policy and situation regarding energy. These tales ironically address the German energy model, the uselessness of the seven stopped nuclear power plants, the low cost of the energy turnaround made by the German government, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new means of electricity storage, the electric car as means to store electricity, the low cost of solar energy ('Sun does not send any bill'), the wind energy (the wind turbine fleet in such place can supply so much households), the geothermal energy, the so-called technological leap, the benefit of decentralized energy production, the numerous jobs created by renewable energies, the ecologic electric current, and the search for a final nuclear waste disposal site

  13. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...

  14. Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

  15. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, A. R.; Barlow Myers, C. W.; Bryan, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM) in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs) combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics. PMID:27158637

  16. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bainbridge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics.

  17. Soft-Switched Neutral-Point-Clamped Single-Phase Boost Rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Ryozo; Ishizaka, Kouichi

    A soft-switched neutral-point-clamped single-phase boost rectifier capable of compensating the imbalance load voltage is studied. This is based on a single-phase rectifier, in which an inductor is placed in series with the AC supply to resonate with a capacitor connected across the DC output of a full-bridge rectifier and the switching transition is mainly governed by a series resonance. The experimental prototype using insulated-gate bipolar transistors is implemented to investigate the operation under the charge control. The experimental results confirm that the rectifier has a neutral-point-clamp feature providing a good quality AC current.

  18. A Study of Impulsive Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations with Single and Multiple Base Points and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models.

  19. Bayesian unknown change-point models to investigate immediacy in single case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-12-01

    Although immediacy is one of the necessary criteria to show strong evidence of a causal relation in single case designs (SCDs), no inferential statistical tool is currently used to demonstrate it. We propose a Bayesian unknown change-point model to investigate and quantify immediacy in SCD analysis. Unlike visual analysis that considers only 3-5 observations in consecutive phases to investigate immediacy, this model considers all data points. Immediacy is indicated when the posterior distribution of the unknown change-point is narrow around the true value of the change-point. This model can accommodate delayed effects. Monte Carlo simulation for a 2-phase design shows that the posterior standard deviations of the change-points decrease with increase in standardized mean difference between phases and decrease in test length. This method is illustrated with real data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Focal point analysis of the singlet-triplet energy gap of octacene and larger acenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajgató, Balázs; Huzak, Matija; Deleuze, Michael S

    2011-08-25

    A benchmark theoretical study of the electronic ground state and of the vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet (ST) excitation energies of n-acenes (C(4n+2)H(2n+4)) ranging from octacene (n = 8) to undecacene (n = 11) is presented. The T1 diagnostics of coupled cluster theory and further energy-based criteria demonstrate that all investigated systems exhibit predominantly a (1)A(g) singlet closed-shell electronic ground state. Singlet-triplet (S(0)-T(1)) energy gaps can therefore be very accurately determined by applying the principle of a focal point analysis (FPA) onto the results of a series of single-point and symmetry-restricted calculations employing correlation consistent cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = D, T, Q, 5) and single-reference methods [HF, MP2, MP3, MP4SDQ, CCSD, and CCSD(T)] of improving quality. According to our best estimates, which amount to a dual extrapolation of energy differences to the level of coupled cluster theory including single, double, and perturbative estimates of connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)] in the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set (cc-pV∞Z), the S(0)-T(1) vertical (adiabatic) excitation energies of these compounds amount to 13.40 (8.21), 10.72 (6.05), 8.05 (3.67), and 7.10 (2.58) kcal/mol, respectively. In line with the absence of Peierls distortions (bond length alternations), extrapolations of results obtained at this level for benzene (n = 1) and all studied n-acenes so far (n = 2-11) indicate a vanishing S(0)-T(1) energy gap, in the limit of an infinitely large polyacene, within an uncertainty of 1.5 kcal/mol (0.06 eV). Lacking experimental values for the S(0)-T(1) energy gaps of n-acenes larger than hexacene, comparison is made with recent optical and electrochemical determinations of the HOMO-LUMO band gap. Further issues such as scalar relativistic, core correlation, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (DBOCs) are tentatively examined. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Single-Molecule Counting of Point Mutations by Transient DNA Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Li, Lidan; Wang, Shanshan; Hao, Dandan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Changyuan

    2017-03-01

    High-confidence detection of point mutations is important for disease diagnosis and clinical practice. Hybridization probes are extensively used, but are hindered by their poor single-nucleotide selectivity. Shortening the length of DNA hybridization probes weakens the stability of the probe-target duplex, leading to transient binding between complementary sequences. The kinetics of probe-target binding events are highly dependent on the number of complementary base pairs. Here, we present a single-molecule assay for point mutation detection based on transient DNA binding and use of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of single-molecule kinetics enabled us to effectively discriminate between wild type DNA sequences and single-nucleotide variants at the single-molecule level. A higher single-nucleotide discrimination is achieved than in our previous work by optimizing the assay conditions, which is guided by statistical modeling of kinetics with a gamma distribution. The KRAS c.34 A mutation can be clearly differentiated from the wild type sequence (KRAS c.34 G) at a relative abundance as low as 0.01% mutant to WT. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method for analysis of clinically relevant biological samples, we used this technology to detect mutations in single-stranded DNA generated from asymmetric RT-PCR of mRNA from two cancer cell lines.

  2. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  3. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  4. Mechanism of DNA–binding loss upon single-point mutation in p53

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    provides an excellent prototype system to elucidate the different mechanisms underlying the loss in DNA binding affinity and specificity upon single point mutation because over 50% of all human cancers involve p53 mutations, which occur mostly in the sequence–specific DNA–binding central domain (residues 102–292, ...

  5. Single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Andrew, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter topology which integrates the cascaded configurations of recently introduced inductor-capacitor-capacitor-transformer impedance source network (by Adamowicz) and classic NPC configuration. As a consequence...

  6. Real-time multi-GNSS single-frequency precise point positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a popular Global Positioning System (GPS) processing strategy, thanks to its high precision without requiring additional GPS infrastructure. Single-Frequency PPP (SF-PPP) takes this one step further by no longer relying on expensive dual-frequency GPS receivers,

  7. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  8. Characterization of Point Defects in Lithium Aluminate (LiAlO2) Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    insulating wide-band gap material currently under development for tritium breeding and radiation detection and dosimetry appli- cations. Point defects...110 xi List of Tables Table Page 1.1. Anion - Cation Bond Lengths...the valence band from the bottom of the conduction band is known as the band gap energy, and is normally represented by Eg. If a photon with an energy

  9. Mid-point review of the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.; Safa, H.; Guidez, J.

    2017-01-01

    The result of the 2015 review of the German energy transition is lukewarm. First: generating 20 % of the electricity production through wind power and solar energy appears to be very costly in Germany. Secondly there is practically no effect on the reduction of CO 2 releases as coal has been re-introduced to play the role of nuclear energy which was carbon-free to counter-balance the intermittency of renewable energies. Thirdly a necessity to keep all thermal plants ready to operate in order to cope with the intermittency of renewable energies as no adequate means of energy storage is available, appears to be a luxury that only Germany can afford. And fourthly, the cost of electric power for households and small enterprises is all the higher as the government economic policy is to spare German electro-intensive industry. One of the side effects of the German energy transition policy is to disturb the European market of electricity when favourable climate conditions make green electricity very abundant. In this situation electricity prices drop sharply and can even become negative while green electricity is always paid to the producer at a steady price guaranteed by the state. (A.C.)

  10. A Point of View on the UK Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoeur, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union at a crucial moment for the Energy Union, and in a period when the necessity of leading a coherent energy transition is strongly shared by EU countries. In the light of this conjunction of events, this study analyses the determining factors of the UK energy policy. The industrial revolution started in England, a country endowed with abundant coal supplies but also with robust policies and the right technical, economic and social conditions for making the most out of these natural resources. Likewise, the UK developed effective domestic and foreign policies in the first half of the 20. century and successfully managed the second industrial revolution, which was based on the use of oil and electricity. The UK energy system has gone through significant changes over the past forty years, with the gradual phase out of coal, the development of oil and gas production in the North Sea, the transformation of the electricity system, the re-building of a credible nuclear strategy and the rise of a low-carbon economy. These changes have been implemented at a reasonable cost, at least compared to the cost incurred by the other EU energy systems. The consistency and stability of the UK energy policies are striking, and one must admit that they are driven by a great sense of pragmatism. They are developed through trial and error and their results are openly debated and confronted to the three objectives of having secure, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. There is no doubt about who is the main beneficiary from these policies: it should always be the UK national community. Its interests are well-defended, government after government, and this national focus is probably the main reason why the UK energy policy appears to be very consistent. The EU has often tried to replicate the UK initiatives in the field of energy, but probably without taking proper account of the specificities of the UK context

  11. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten M.; Olsen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle motion of the waves. At first, the equations of motion of the system are derived based on analytical rigid body dynamics. Next, assuming monochromatic waves simplified equations are derived, valid under synchronisation of the ring of the gyro to the angular frequency of the excitation. Especially, it is demonstrated that the dynamics of the ring can be described as an autonomous nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom system, affected by three different types of point attractors. One where the ring vibrations are attracted to a static equilibrium point indicating unstable synchronisation and two types of attractors where the ring is synchronised to the wave angular frequency, either rotating in one or the opposite direction. Finally, the stability conditions and the basins of attraction to the point attractors defining the synchronised motion are determined.

  12. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  13. The technique of obtaining single-energy γ-rays in calibrating energy response of detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rurong; Peng Taiping; Hu Mengchun; Li Zhongbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of transforming γ-rays from 60 Co into a series of single-energy γ-rays and stresses the technique of shielding radiation-interfere and reducing energy-dispersion. The Single-energy γ-rays of any energy in the range of 0.36-1.02 MeV may be obtained by means of this technique. (authors)

  14. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  15. Identification of Intensity Ratio Break Points from Photon Arrival Trajectories in Ratiometric Single Molecule Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingemann, Dieter; Allen, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a statistical method to analyze dual-channel photon arrival trajectories from single molecule spectroscopy model-free to identify break points in the intensity ratio. Photons are binned with a short bin size to calculate the logarithm of the intensity ratio for each bin. Stochastic photon counting noise leads to a near-normal distribution of this logarithm and the standard student t-test is used to find statistically significant changes in this quantity. In stochastic simulations we determine the significance threshold for the t-test’s p-value at a given level of confidence. We test the method’s sensitivity and accuracy indicating that the analysis reliably locates break points with significant changes in the intensity ratio with little or no error in realistic trajectories with large numbers of small change points, while still identifying a large fraction of the frequent break points with small intensity changes. Based on these results we present an approach to estimate confidence intervals for the identified break point locations and recommend a bin size to choose for the analysis. The method proves powerful and reliable in the analysis of simulated and actual data of single molecule reorientation in a glassy matrix. PMID:22837704

  16. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  17. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0440 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED-LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi Gang Yu...2017 Interim 11 September 2013 – 31 May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED-LAYER SUPERLATTICES...Hamiltonian, tight-binding Hamiltonian, and Green’s function techniques to obtain energy levels arising from native point defects (NPDs) in InAs-GaSb and

  18. Single point incremental forming of tailored blanks produced by friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Vilaca, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on the single point incremental forming (SPIF) of tailored welded blanks produced by friction stirwelding (FSW). Special emphasis is placed on the know-how for producing the tailored blanks and on the utilization of innovative forming strategies to protect thewelding joint...... fromthe rotating single point-forming tool. Formability of the tailor welded blanks (TWB) is evaluated by means of benchmark tests carried out on truncated conical and pyramidal shapes and results are compared with similar tests performed on conventional reference blanks of the same material. Results show...... that the combination of SPIF with tailored welded blanks produced by FSW seems promising in the manufacture of complex sheet metal parts with high depths....

  19. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  20. A Starting Point for Fluorescence-Based Single-Molecule Measurements in Biomolecular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gust

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence techniques are ideally suited to provide information about the structure-function-dynamics relationship of a biomolecule as static and dynamic heterogeneity can be easily detected. However, what type of single-molecule fluorescence technique is suited for which kind of biological question and what are the obstacles on the way to a successful single-molecule microscopy experiment? In this review, we provide practical insights into fluorescence-based single-molecule experiments aiming for scientists who wish to take their experiments to the single-molecule level. We especially focus on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments as these are a widely employed tool for the investigation of biomolecular mechanisms. We will guide the reader through the most critical steps that determine the success and quality of diffusion-based confocal and immobilization-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We discuss the specific chemical and photophysical requirements that make fluorescent dyes suitable for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Most importantly, we review recently emerged photoprotection systems as well as passivation and immobilization strategies that enable the observation of fluorescently labeled molecules under biocompatible conditions. Moreover, we discuss how the optical single-molecule toolkit has been extended in recent years to capture the physiological complexity of a cell making it even more relevant for biological research.

  1. Nuclear energy from the point of view of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1977-12-01

    The present study refers mainly to an empirical attitude investigation carried out in 1975 and 1976 in a suburb of Cologne. In order to remain up-to-date, new research results have been included in the analysis. The aim of the publication at hand is to deal with the nuclear controversy in its sociological and social-psychological dimensions, and also to elucidate motives and reasons behind the protests against nuclear energy. The report has been written for sociologists, nuclear engineers and scientists, journalists, political decision-finding authorities and interested laymen alike, and is to offer a general orientation in contradicting statements as regards the stance of the population. The central statement of this very detailed investigation is, that the population has a mainly positive attitude towards the construction of a nuclear power plant - even then when antipathy and uneasiness towards a new energy source prevent emotional identification. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Energy of the Universe - starting point of life

    OpenAIRE

    Vener Mic; Greceanu Radu; Radulescu Dragos Marian

    2014-01-01

    Although current scientific achievements, the materialistic doctrine in the light, we will never know the mystery of life, the cause and purpose of creation. Only the occult sciences, esoteric and theosophical can give an answer to this question, because for them the only reality is the divine human spirit, divine reality which is part of cosmic consciousness, manifestation of spiritual energy, which is key to the universe. It is recognized by all monotheistic religions, eternal spirit, which...

  3. Point defects and magnetic properties of neutron irradiated MgO single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxiong Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available (100-oriented MgO single crystals were irradiated to introduce point defects with different neutron doses ranging from 1.0×1016 to 1.0×1020 cm-2. The point defect configurations were studied with X-ray diffuse scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The isointensity profiles of X-ray diffuse scattering caused by the cubic and double-force point defects in MgO were theoretically calculated based on the Huang scattering theory. The magnetic properties at different temperature were measured with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID. The reciprocal space mappings (RSMs of irradiated MgO revealed notable diffuse scattering. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the presence of O Frenkel defects in irradiated MgO. Neutron-irradiated MgO was diamagnetic at room temperature and became ferromagnetic at low temperature due to O Frenkel defects induced by neutron-irradiation.

  4. 78 FR 28832 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... an original and 7 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of...

  5. Energy risk management through self-exciting marked point process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil is a dynamically traded commodity that affects many economies. We propose a collection of marked self-exciting point processes with dependent arrival rates for extreme events in oil markets and related risk measures. The models treat the time among extreme events in oil markets as a stochastic process. The main advantage of this approach is its capability to capture the short, medium and long-term behavior of extremes without involving an arbitrary stochastic volatility model or a prefiltration of the data, as is common in extreme value theory applications. We make use of the proposed model in order to obtain an improved estimate for the Value at Risk in oil markets. Empirical findings suggest that the reliability and stability of Value at Risk estimates improve as a result of finer modeling approach. This is supported by an empirical application in the representative West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We propose marked self-exciting point processes for extreme events in oil markets. • This approach captures the short and long-term behavior of extremes. • We improve the estimates for the VaR in the WTI and Brent crude oil markets

  6. Exposure buildup factors for a cobalt-60 point isotropic source for single and two layer slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, R.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for point isotropic cobalt-60 sources are calculated by the Monte Carlo method with statistical errors ranging from 1.5 to 7% for 1-5 mean free paths (mfp) thick water and iron single slabs and for 1 and 2 mfp iron layers followed by water layers 1-5 mfp thick. The computations take into account Compton scattering. The Monte Carlo data for single slab geometries are approximated by Geometric Progression formula. Kalos's formula using the calculated single slab buildup factors may be applied to reproduce the data for two-layered slabs. The presented results and discussion may help when choosing the manner in which the radiation field gamma irradiation units will be described. (author)

  7. The consistency condition for the three-point function in dissipative single-clock inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacir, Diana López; Porto, Rafael A.; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the consistency condition for the three-point function in single field inflation to the case of dissipative, multi-field, single-clock models. We use the recently introduced extension of the effective field theory of inflation that accounts for dissipative effects, to provide an explicit proof to leading (non-trivial) order in the generalized slow roll parameters and mixing with gravity scales. Our results illustrate the conditions necessary for the validity of the consistency relation in situations with many degrees of freedom relevant during inflation, namely that there is a preferred clock. Departures from this condition in forthcoming experiments would rule out not only single field but also a large class of multi-field models

  8. The consistency condition for the three-point function in dissipative single-clock inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacir, Diana López [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 1, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Porto, Rafael A.; Zaldarriaga, Matias, E-mail: dnacir@df.uba.ar, E-mail: rporto@ias.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We generalize the consistency condition for the three-point function in single field inflation to the case of dissipative, multi-field, single-clock models. We use the recently introduced extension of the effective field theory of inflation that accounts for dissipative effects, to provide an explicit proof to leading (non-trivial) order in the generalized slow roll parameters and mixing with gravity scales. Our results illustrate the conditions necessary for the validity of the consistency relation in situations with many degrees of freedom relevant during inflation, namely that there is a preferred clock. Departures from this condition in forthcoming experiments would rule out not only single field but also a large class of multi-field models.

  9. Method for detecting point mutations in DNA utilizing fluorescence energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Lawrence J.; Parkhurst, Kay M.; Middendorf, Lyle

    2001-01-01

    A method for detecting point mutations in DNA using a fluorescently labeled oligomeric probe and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is disclosed. The selected probe is initially labeled at each end with a fluorescence dye, which act together as a donor/acceptor pair for FRET. The fluorescence emission from the dyes changes dramatically from the duplex stage, wherein the probe is hybridized to the complementary strand of DNA, to the single strand stage, when the probe is melted to become detached from the DNA. The change in fluorescence is caused by the dyes coming into closer proximity after melting occurs and the probe becomes detached from the DNA strand. The change in fluorescence emission as a function of temperature is used to calculate the melting temperature of the complex or T.sub.m. In the case where there is a base mismatch between the probe and the DNA strand, indicating a point mutation, the T.sub.m has been found to be significantly lower than the T.sub.m for a perfectly match probelstand duplex. The present invention allows for the detection of the existence and magnitude of T.sub.m, which allows for the quick and accurate detection of a point mutation in the DNA strand and, in some applications, the determination of the approximate location of the mutation within the sequence.

  10. Approach for determining the equilibrium point in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashev, At.; Ugrinov, M.

    2001-01-01

    The efficient and result-orientated management of Power engineering systems and companies requires the estimating and forecasting of the Break-even Point (BEP), where the generated revenues fully cover the costs made, with taking into account the specific natural, technical, technological and economic conditions. The BEP is not shown in the corporate financial statements but plays an important role within the financial-economic, technological and power analyses of the business activities in the Power engineering sector and allows the managers to take well focused and competent decisions. In that respect an approach for estimating the BEP in Toploficazia Plovdiv Ltd. Has been presented. It has been calculated on the basis of the 'zero' profit result of the company

  11. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...... occurrence probabilities can be significantly reduced by adapting the control parameters. The magnitude of the slamming load is severely influenced by the buoy shape. The ratio between the peak impact load on the hemisphere and that on the 45 cone is approximately 2, whereas the power absorption is only 4......-8% higher for the 45 degrees cone. This work illustrates the need to include slamming considerations aside from power absorption criteria in the buoy shape design process and the control strategy....

  12. Korea-South Africa nuclear energy focal point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K. H.; Park, M. K.; Chae, J. S.; Cheon, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of the project is to hold Korea-S. Africa joint nuclear or workshop and establish a network of nuclear experts between the two countries. In addition, identification of the collaboration items is another objective of this project. the outcome of this program would be a cornerstone for the nuclear collaboration between Korea and S. Africa. African countries is usually very abundant in the natural resources and developed countries are trying to improve relationships with African countries to secure the natural resources, S. Africa is also very rich with some resources including uranium. Therefore, Korea depending on foreign resources needs to improve the relationship with S. Africa form the viewpoint of securing natural resources. S. Africa has two PWR-type nuclear power plants and is planning to deploy more PWRs to increase the nuclear capacity. In addition, S. Africa is a leading country in developing the PBMR, which is a type of Generation-IV VHTR (very high temperature reactor). In Korea, the VHTR technologies are also under development for the nuclear hydrogen. Although Korea has its own PWR brand, it is not well known to S. Africa. The focal point program would lay a cornerstone for mutually beneficial nuclear collaborations between two countries

  13. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s 2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s 2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive

  14. Ultrasonography for suspected deep vein thrombosis: how useful is single-point augmentation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, A.S. [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andrewmcqueen7@hotmail.com; Elliott, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Keir, M.J. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Aims: To assess the role of single-point augmentation of spectral Doppler flow in the diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Secondary objectives included identifying the augmentation response in non-DVT diagnoses. Methods: Patients attending the ultrasound departments of two hospitals for investigation of suspected acute DVT during an 8-month period were recruited to the study group. Spectral Doppler assessment of the superficial femoral vein was recorded during Valsalva and calf compression manoeuvres in the asymptomatic and symptomatic legs. The Doppler waveforms from the symptomatic limb were characterized as 'normal' or 'abnormal' by the operator. Standard compression ultrasonography of the symptomatic leg was then performed with the presence of DVT or an alternative diagnosis documented. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven patients underwent ultrasound examinations using the study methodology. Nine patients were subsequently excluded due to bilateral DVT or inability to tolerate calf compression. The mean age of the remaining 158 patients was 65.4 years with 28 DVTs identified (18% of patients). Calf compression elicited a normal response in 118/130 of non-DVT examinations (specificity 91%) and an abnormal response in 18/28 DVT examinations (sensitivity 64%). Diminished or absent augmentation was identified in alternative diagnoses that included haematoma and Baker's cyst. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that single-point augmentation has a low sensitivity in suspected lower-limb DVT, and that the majority of undetected DVTs are isolated to the calf veins. An abnormal augmentation response is a poor predictor of lower-limb DVT as alternative diagnoses can produce diminished or reduced augmentation. Therefore, single-point augmentation does not add to the standard compression ultrasound examination for suspected DVT and should not be routinely performed.

  15. Ultrasonography for suspected deep vein thrombosis: how useful is single-point augmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, A.S.; Elliott, S.T.; Keir, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess the role of single-point augmentation of spectral Doppler flow in the diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Secondary objectives included identifying the augmentation response in non-DVT diagnoses. Methods: Patients attending the ultrasound departments of two hospitals for investigation of suspected acute DVT during an 8-month period were recruited to the study group. Spectral Doppler assessment of the superficial femoral vein was recorded during Valsalva and calf compression manoeuvres in the asymptomatic and symptomatic legs. The Doppler waveforms from the symptomatic limb were characterized as 'normal' or 'abnormal' by the operator. Standard compression ultrasonography of the symptomatic leg was then performed with the presence of DVT or an alternative diagnosis documented. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven patients underwent ultrasound examinations using the study methodology. Nine patients were subsequently excluded due to bilateral DVT or inability to tolerate calf compression. The mean age of the remaining 158 patients was 65.4 years with 28 DVTs identified (18% of patients). Calf compression elicited a normal response in 118/130 of non-DVT examinations (specificity 91%) and an abnormal response in 18/28 DVT examinations (sensitivity 64%). Diminished or absent augmentation was identified in alternative diagnoses that included haematoma and Baker's cyst. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that single-point augmentation has a low sensitivity in suspected lower-limb DVT, and that the majority of undetected DVTs are isolated to the calf veins. An abnormal augmentation response is a poor predictor of lower-limb DVT as alternative diagnoses can produce diminished or reduced augmentation. Therefore, single-point augmentation does not add to the standard compression ultrasound examination for suspected DVT and should not be routinely performed

  16. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  17. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations....... Not one is overpowering, but numerous barriers have to be broken down simultaneously to achieve the desired effect. A questionnaire survey with nearly 900 responding homeowners examines the homeowners’ interest and willingness in performing energy renovations and their potential motivation factors....... The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase...

  18. Efficient Background Segmentation and Seed Point Generation for a Single-Shot Stereo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong

    2017-01-01

    Single-shot stereo 3D shape measurement is becoming more popular due to its advantages of noise robustness and short acquisition period. One of the key problems is stereo matching, which is related to the efficiency of background segmentation and seed point generation, etc. In this paper, a more efficient and automated matching algorithm based on digital image correlation (DIC) is proposed. The standard deviation of image gradients and an adaptive threshold are employed to segment the background. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT)-based feature matching and two-dimensional triangulation are combined to estimate accurate initial parameters for seed point generation. The efficiency of background segmentation and seed point generation, as well as the measuring precision, are evaluated by experimental simulation and real tests. Experimental results show that the average segmentation time for an image with a resolution of 1280 × 960 pixels is 240 milliseconds. The efficiency of seed point generation is verified to be high with different convergence criteria. PMID:29194415

  19. Optical Properties And Thermal Stability Of Single-Point Diamond-Machined Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloza, A. A.; Decker, D. L.; Archibald, P. C.; O'Connor, D. A.; Bueltmann, E. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of diamond-turned surfaces of a wide range of aluminum alloys. The alloys machined included a sand-cast A201 alloy manufactured by Specialty Aluminum Inc., conventionally extruded plate alloys 2024, 3003, 5052, 6061, 7075, and for comparison as a best and worst case possible a high-purity aluminum single crystal, and tooling plate. The surfaces were obtained by diamond single-point machining using an interferometrically controlled two-axis, air-bearing lathe. The effect of tool-rake angle and machining fluid on surface quality is examined. Surface characterization was performed by Nomarski microscopy and noncontact optical surface profilometry. The optical properties measured included absolute reflectance at 3.8 μm, total integrated scatter at 752.5 nm, and bidirectional reflection distribution function measurements at 632.8 nm. The dimensional stability of the aluminum alloys subject to thermal cycling is examined.

  20. Single Event Rates for Devices Sensitive to Particle Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, L. D.; Scheick, L. Z.; Banker, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Single event rates (SER) can include contributions from low-energy particles such that the linear energy transfer (LET) is not constant. Previous work found that the environmental description that is most relevant to the low-energy contribution to the rate is a "stopping rate per unit volume" even when the physical mechanisms for a single-event effect do not require an ion to stop in some device region. Stopping rate tables are presented for four heavy-ion environments that are commonly used to assess device suitability for space applications. A conservative rate estimate utilizing limited test data is derived, and the example of SEGR rate in a power MOSFET is presented.

  1. Single- and double-charge exchange at low pion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of pion single- and double-charge exchange reactions at incident energies of 25 to 65 MeV leading to isobaric analog states, and in the case of double-charge exchange leading to the ground state of the residual nucleus. The crucial role of the higher nuclear transparency at low pion energies for the analysis of the data in terms of single and double scattering is demonstrated. The large effects on double-charge exchange produced by the spatial correlations in nuclear wave functions are evident. The data on 1f 7/2 nuclei at 35 MeV are used to establish the general validity of a shell-model-based two-amplitude model for these transitions. Recent measurements of the energy dependence between 25 and 65 MeV of double-charge exchange cross sections at forward angles are presented and discussed. 33 refs., 19 figs

  2. A point of view on the energy needs and supplies for 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the increase of the primary energy consumption in the future, the author discusses the hypothesis proposed by the economists. The following points are detailed: the economic growth, the demography, the reserves and resources in fossil coal, the renewable energies and nuclear future, the world energy accounting for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  3. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  4. Detection of Janus Kinase 2 gene single point mutation in real samples with electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Seda Nur; Kosova, Buket; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2014-02-15

    Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene single point mutations, which have been reported to be associated with myeloproliferative disorders, are usually detected through conventional methods such as melting curve assays, allele-specific and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs). Herein, an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of a Guanine (G) to Thymine (T) transversion at nucleotide position 1849 of the JAK2 gene was reported. Due to clinical importance of this mutation, easy and sensitive tests are needed to be developed. Our aim was to design a biosensor system that is capable of detecting the mutation within less than 1h with high sensitivity. For these purposes, an electrochemical sensing system was developed based on detecting hybridization. Hybridization between probe and its target and discrimination of single point mutation was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation signals observed at +1.0 V with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) by using synthetic oligonucleotides and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons. Hybridization between probe and PCR amplicons was also determined with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We successfully detect hybridization first in synthetic samples, and ultimately in real samples involving blood samples from patients as well as additional healthy controls. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was calculated as 44 pmol of target sequence in a 40-μl reaction volume in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Point-source and diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from Type IIn supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, M.; Coenders, S.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Kamble, A.; Sironi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe), a rare subclass of core collapse SNe, explode in dense circumstellar media that have been modified by the SNe progenitors at their last evolutionary stages. The interaction of the freely expanding SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium gives rise to a shock wave propagating in the dense SN environment, which may accelerate protons to multi-PeV energies. Inelastic proton-proton collisions between the shock-accelerated protons and those of the circumstellar medium lead to multimessenger signatures. Here, we evaluate the possible neutrino signal of Type IIn SNe and compare with IceCube observations. We employ a Monte Carlo method for the calculation of the diffuse neutrino emission from the SN IIn class to account for the spread in their properties. The cumulative neutrino emission is found to be ˜10 per cent of the observed IceCube neutrino flux above 60 TeV. Type IIn SNe would be the dominant component of the diffuse astrophysical flux, only if 4 per cent of all core collapse SNe were of this type and 20-30 per cent of the shock energy was channeled to accelerated protons. Lower values of the acceleration efficiency are accessible by the observation of a single Type IIn SN as a neutrino point source with IceCube using up-going muon neutrinos. Such an identification is possible in the first year following the SN shock breakout for sources within 20 Mpc.

  6. Automatic tracking of vessel-like structures from a single starting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dário Augusto Borges; Leal-Taixé, Laura; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of vascular networks is an important topic in the medical image analysis community. While most methods focus on single vessel tracking, the few solutions that exist for tracking complete vascular networks are usually computationally intensive and require a lot of user interaction. In this paper we present a method to track full vascular networks iteratively using a single starting point. Our approach is based on a cloud of sampling points distributed over concentric spherical layers. We also proposed a vessel model and a metric of how well a sample point fits this model. Then, we implement the network tracking as a min-cost flow problem, and propose a novel optimization scheme to iteratively track the vessel structure by inherently handling bifurcations and paths. The method was tested using both synthetic and real images. On the 9 different data-sets of synthetic blood vessels, we achieved maximum accuracies of more than 98%. We further use the synthetic data-set to analyze the sensibility of our method to parameter setting, showing the robustness of the proposed algorithm. For real images, we used coronary, carotid and pulmonary data to segment vascular structures and present the visual results. Still for real images, we present numerical and visual results for networks of nerve fibers in the olfactory system. Further visual results also show the potential of our approach for identifying vascular networks topologies. The presented method delivers good results for the several different datasets tested and have potential for segmenting vessel-like structures. Also, the topology information, inherently extracted, can be used for further analysis to computed aided diagnosis and surgical planning. Finally, the method's modular aspect holds potential for problem-oriented adjustments and improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Feasibility of Energy Efficiency class Improving of a Building from Economic Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova Daria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article 4 complexes energy efficiency measures for different energy efficiency classes are chosen, it is defined the thermal heating costs of the building during the heating period, it is defined the cost and the payback period of energy efficiency measures. The conclusion about the feasibility of capital repair of buildings by increasing energy efficiency class from an economic point of view is made.

  8. Real-Time Single Frequency Precise Point Positioning Using SBAS Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time single frequency precise point positioning (PPP is a promising technique for high-precision navigation with sub-meter or even centimeter-level accuracy because of its convenience and low cost. The navigation performance of single frequency PPP heavily depends on the real-time availability and quality of correction products for satellite orbits and satellite clocks. Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS provides the correction products in real-time, but they are intended to be used for wide area differential positioning at 1 meter level precision. By imposing the constraints for ionosphere error, we have developed a real-time single frequency PPP method by sufficiently utilizing SBAS correction products. The proposed PPP method are tested with static and kinematic data, respectively. The static experimental results show that the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can reach decimeter level, and achieve an improvement of at least 30% when compared with the traditional SBAS method. The positioning convergence of the proposed PPP method can be achieved in 636 epochs at most in static mode. In the kinematic experiment, the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can be improved by at least 20 cm relative to the SBAS method. Furthermore, it has revealed that the proposed PPP method can achieve decimeter level convergence within 500 s in the kinematic mode.

  9. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented.

  10. Is the 10-point agenda of the Federal Government useful for a successful energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinther, Clemens van; Renelt, Sven; Strueker, Jens; Terzidis, Orestis; Bretschneider, Peter

    2017-01-01

    With the energy transition, the Federal Government has begun the conversion of the energy supply. Because of the success of the energy transition is essential for the future and competitiveness of Germany as a business location The Federal Association of German Industry (BDI) has already published 2013 Stimulus for a smart energy market, in which are derived five principles which provide a framework for discourse on the measures to be taken. Renewable energies will be the dominant source of electricity in the coming years. This results in new challenges. The Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) has recently adopted a 10-point agenda to address these issues (ZPA) for the central energy projects. To be discussed is to what extent they are in harmony with the five principles of the BDI and at which points adjustments are necessary, so that the conversion of the energy system can succeed. [de

  11. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-03-15

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  12. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; Cogdell, Richard J.; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-02-22

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub–100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump–probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  13. Conformation and energy transfer in single conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Joshua C; Traub, Matthew C; Brazard, Johanna; Adachi, Takuji; Barbara, Paul F; Vanden Bout, David A

    2012-11-20

    In contrast to the detailed understanding of inorganic materials, researchers lack a comprehensive view of how the properties of bulk organic materials arise from their individual components. For conjugated polymers to eventually serve as low cost semiconductor layers in electronic devices, researchers need to better understand their functionality. For organics, traditional materials science measurements tend to destroy the species of interest, especially at low concentrations. However, fluorescence continues to be a remarkably flexible, relatively noninvasive tool for probing the properties of individual molecules and allows researchers to carry out a broad range of experiments based on a relatively simple concept. In addition, the sensitivity of single-molecule spectroscopy allows researchers to see the properties of an individual component that would be masked in the bulk phase. In this Account, we examine several photophysical properties of different conjugated polymers using single-molecule spectroscopy. In these experiments, we probed the relationship between the conformation of single conjugated polymer chains and the distance scale and efficiency of energy transfer within the polymer. Recent studies used polarization anisotropy measurements on single polymer chains to study chain folding following spin-casting from solution. This Account summarizes the effects of monomer regioregularity and backbone rigidity, by comparing a regiorandom phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) with both a regiorandom and regioregular thiophene (P3HT). Synthesis of novel polymers allowed us to explore the role of different conformation-directing inclusions in a PPV backbone. We showed that these inclusions control the conformation of individual chains and that molecular dynamics can predict these structural effects. In situ solvent vapor annealing studies explored the dynamics of polymer chains as well as the effect of solvent evaporation on the structural equilibrium of the polymer. We

  14. From single point of measurement to distributed sensing in long-term glacier monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, Daniel; Avvenuti, Marco; Jelicic, Vana; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    Glacial environment monitoring is a key task in understanding natural phenomena related to global warming. For the last 30 years, Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) have been spreading among the meteorological and geophysical community, and are on the way to become a de facto standard to perform long-lasting unattended data acquisitions in single localized points of interest. Sensor Networks (SNs), on the other hand, promise the possibility to perform measurements with a higher spatial density and lower cost. Designing and developing a SN for glacial environment face particular challenges for embedded electronics and sensor systems, which is why SNs are still under research and development in this field. This paper surveys the AWSs and SNs for glacial monitoring applications and compares their characteristics.

  15. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  16. Plastic flow and failure in single point incremental forming of PVC sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. F. Martins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative and effective methodology to characterize plastic flow and failure in single point incremental forming (SPIF of polymers that allows determining the stresses and the accumulated values of ductile damage directly from the experimental values of strain at various positions over the deformed polymer sheets. The approach traces the deformation path of material elements in conical and pyramidal SPIF parts, undergoing linear strain loading paths from beginning until failure, and is built upon the generalization of the analytical framework conditions assumed by Glover et al. [1] to the pressure-sensitive yield surfaces of polymers under incompressible, non-associated, plastic flow. Experimentation in conventional and multi-stage SPIF of Polyvinylchloride (PVC sheets confirms the effectiveness of the proposed methodology and demonstrates that standard non-coupled damage models currently utilized in sheet metal forming are inapplicable to describe failure in polymers. Instead fracture forming limit lines (FFL’s should be employed.

  17. Monitoring single event upsets in SRAM-based FPGAs at the SuperKEKB interaction point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, R.; Tortone, G.; Perrella, S.; Izzo, V.; Aloisio, A.

    2017-07-01

    In February 2016, the SuperKEKB positron-electron high-luminosity collider of the KEK laboratory (Tsukuba, Japan) started being commissioned. A dedicated commissioning detector, named BEAST2, has been used to characterize beam backgrounds before the Belle2 detector was rolled into the beams and to provide tuning parameters for Monte Carlo simulations. BEAST2 consists of a fiberglass support structure and several sub-detectors mounted onto it, including time projection chambers (TPCs) and He-3 tubes. In this work, we present direct measurements of radiation-induced single event upsets in a SRAM-based FPGA device installed in BEAST2 at a distance of ~ 1 m from the beam interaction point. Our goal was to provide experimental results of the expected radiation-induced configuration upset rate and power consumption variation at Belle2 and at other experiments operating in similar radiation environments. Beam currents for both electron and positron rings spanned a range between 50 and 500 mA, therefore providing data about the FPGA operation in different radiation conditions. Even if the machine has not been providing collisions yet, as the beams were not focused to the interaction point, our results show a rate of 0.15 upsets/day averaged over the whole commissioning time frame. We had neither evidence of total dose effects on the FPGA power consumption nor of permanent damage to the device.

  18. Spherical Projection Based Straight Line Segment Extraction for Single Station Terrestrial Laser Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.

  19. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  20. Criteria for evaluating protection from single points of failure for partially expanded fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswani, D.; Badreddine, B.; Malone, M.; Gauthier, G.; Proietty, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a technique that describes the combinations of events in a system which result in an undesirable outcome. FTA is used as a tool to quantitatively assess a system's probability for an undesirable outcome. Time constraints from concept to production in modern engineering often limit the opportunity for a thorough statistical analysis of a system. Furthermore, when undesirable outcomes are considered such as hazard to human(s), it becomes difficult to identify strict statistical targets for what is acceptable. Consequently, when hazard to human(s) is concerned a common design target is to protect the system from single points of failure (SPOF) which means that no failure mode caused by a single event, concern, or error has a critical consequence on the system. Such a design target is common with 'by-wire' systems. FTA can be used to verify if a system is protected from SPOF. In this paper, sufficient criteria for evaluating protection from SPOF for partially expanded fault trees are proposed along with proof. The proposed criteria consider potential interactions between the lowest drawn events of a partial fault tree expansion which otherwise easily leads to an overly optimistic analysis of protection from SPOF. The analysis is limited to fault trees that are coherent and static

  1. Analysis of Point Based Image Registration Errors With Applications in Single Molecule Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E A K; Ober, R J

    2013-12-15

    We present an asymptotic treatment of errors involved in point-based image registration where control point (CP) localization is subject to heteroscedastic noise; a suitable model for image registration in fluorescence microscopy. Assuming an affine transform, CPs are used to solve a multivariate regression problem. With measurement errors existing for both sets of CPs this is an errors-in-variable problem and linear least squares is inappropriate; the correct method being generalized least squares. To allow for point dependent errors the equivalence of a generalized maximum likelihood and heteroscedastic generalized least squares model is achieved allowing previously published asymptotic results to be extended to image registration. For a particularly useful model of heteroscedastic noise where covariance matrices are scalar multiples of a known matrix (including the case where covariance matrices are multiples of the identity) we provide closed form solutions to estimators and derive their distribution. We consider the target registration error (TRE) and define a new measure called the localization registration error (LRE) believed to be useful, especially in microscopy registration experiments. Assuming Gaussianity of the CP localization errors, it is shown that the asymptotic distribution for the TRE and LRE are themselves Gaussian and the parameterized distributions are derived. Results are successfully applied to registration in single molecule microscopy to derive the key dependence of the TRE and LRE variance on the number of CPs and their associated photon counts. Simulations show asymptotic results are robust for low CP numbers and non-Gaussianity. The method presented here is shown to outperform GLS on real imaging data.

  2. Evaluations of Three-Dimensional Building Model Reconstruction from LiDAR Point Clouds and Single-View Perspective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents two approaches for effective three-dimensional (3D building model reconstruction from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS data and single perspective view imagery and assesses their applicability to the reconstruction of 3D models of landmark or historical buildings. The collected LiDAR point clouds are registered based on conjugate points identified using a seven-parameter transformation system. Three dimensional models are generated using plan and surface fitting algorithms. The proposed single-view reconstruction (SVR method is based on vanishing points and single-view metrology. More detailed models can also be generated according to semantic analysis of the façade images. Experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate that both TLS and SVR approaches can successfully produce accurate and detailed 3D building models from LiDAR point clouds or different types of single-view perspective images.

  3. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  4. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, P.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Ultra-dense energy storage utilizing high melting point metallic alloys and photovoltaic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro; Martí Vega, Antonio; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; Luque López, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept for energy storage utilizing high melting point metallic alloys and photovoltaic cells is presented. In the proposed system, the energy is stored in the form of latent heat of metallic alloys and converted to electricity upon demand by infrared sensitive photovoltaic cells. Silicon is considered in this paper due to its extremely high latent heat (1800 J/g), melting point (1410ºC), low cost (~$1.7/kg) and abundance on earth. The proposed solution enables an enormous energy sto...

  6. The necessity of exploitation of nuclear energy in China from the environmental protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Jiang Xiwen; Song Shaoyi; Liu Shutian; Bai Guang

    1984-01-01

    The article proves the necessity of development of nuclear energy in China from the enviromental protection point of view. The development of nuclear energy would be decrease environmental contamination due to energy power production. The prediction of collective dose equivalent commitment from the nuclear power plant in year 2000 would only amount to 0.013% of annual collective dose equivalent from natural radiation sources

  7. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  8. Tunka-Rex: energy reconstruction with a single antenna station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiller R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tunka-Radio extension (Tunka-Rex is a radio detector for air showers in Siberia. From 2012 to 2014, Tunka-Rex operated exclusively together with its host experiment, the air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133, which provided trigger, data acquisition, and an independent air-shower reconstruction. It was shown that the air-shower energy can be reconstructed by Tunka-Rex with a precision of 15% for events with signal in at least 3 antennas, using the radio amplitude at a distance of 120 m from the shower axis as an energy estimator. Using the reconstruction from the host experiment Tunka-133 for the air-shower geometry (shower core and direction, the energy estimator can in principle already be obtained with measurements from a single antenna, close to the reference distance. We present a method for event selection and energy reconstruction, requiring only one antenna, and achieving a precision of about 20%. This method increases the effective detector area and lowers thresholds for zenith angle and energy, resulting in three times more events than in the standard reconstruction.

  9. Rigidity of critical points for a nonlocal Ohta-Kawasaki energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierro, Serena; Novaga, Matteo; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the shape of critical points for a free energy consisting of a nonlocal perimeter plus a nonlocal repulsive term. In particular, we prove that a volume-constrained critical point is necessarily a ball if its volume is sufficiently small with respect to its isodiametric ratio, thus extending a result previously known only for global minimizers. We also show that, at least in one-dimension, there exist critical points with arbitrarily small volume and large isodiametric ratio. This example shows that a constraint on the diameter is, in general, necessary to establish the radial symmetry of the critical points.

  10. CFD Simulations of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Arrays Subjected to Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devolder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD toolbox OpenFOAM to perform numerical simulations of multiple floating point absorber wave energy converters (WECs arranged in a geometrical array configuration inside a numerical wave tank (NWT. The two-phase Navier-Stokes fluid solver is coupled with a motion solver to simulate the hydrodynamic flow field around the WECs and the wave-induced rigid body heave motion of each WEC within the array. In this study, the numerical simulations of a single WEC unit are extended to multiple WECs and the complexity of modelling individual floating objects close to each other in an array layout is tackled. The NWT is validated for fluid-structure interaction (FSI simulations by using experimental measurements for an array of two, five and up to nine heaving WECs subjected to regular waves. The validation is achieved by using mathematical models to include frictional forces observed during the experimental tests. For all the simulations presented, a good agreement is found between the numerical and the experimental results for the WECs’ heave motions, the surge forces on the WECs and the perturbed wave field around the WECs. As a result, our coupled CFD–motion solver proves to be a suitable and accurate toolbox for the study of fluid-structure interaction problems of WEC arrays.

  11. Towards single-valued polylogarithms in two variables for the seven-point remainder function in multi-Regge kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Broedel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate single-valued polylogarithms in two complex variables, which are relevant for the seven-point remainder function in N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory in the multi-Regge regime. After constructing these two-dimensional polylogarithms, we determine the leading logarithmic approximation of the seven-point remainder function up to and including five loops.

  12. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...... in the Danish building regulations and the low flow rate is based on minimum requirements in indoor air quality standards. Measurements were performed on an existing single family house where the controls were installed on the existing mechanical ventilation system. The results showed that the ventilation can...... be reduced to the low rate 37% of the time without significant changes in the CO2-concentration and moisture level in the house. In theory this gives a 35% saving on electric energy for fans....

  13. Four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in N=4 superconformal theories

    CERN Document Server

    Korchemsky, G P

    2015-01-01

    We derive the explicit expression for the four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in four-dimensional N=4 superconformal theory. We show that it has a remarkably simple and suggestive form allowing us to predict a large class of four-point correlation functions involving the stress-energy tensor and other conserved currents. We then apply the obtained results on the correlation functions to computing the energy-energy correlations, which measure the flow of energy in the final states created from the vacuum by a source. We demonstrate that they are given by a universal function independent of the choice of the source. Our analysis relies only on N=4 superconformal symmetry and does not use the dynamics of the theory.

  14. Phase transitions and multicritical points in the mixed spin-32 and spin-2 Ising system with a single-ion anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobak, A.; Dely, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of a single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagram of the mixed spin-32 and spin-2 Ising system is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the free energy. Topologically different kinds of phase diagrams are achieved by changing values of the parameter in the model Hamiltonian. Besides second-order transitions, lines of first-order transitions terminating either at a tricritical point or an isolated critical point, are found

  15. Obtaining Global Picture From Single Point Observations by Combining Data Assimilation and Machine Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Y.; Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Kellerman, A. C.; Spasojevic, M.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.; Aseev, N.; Castillo Tibocha, A. M.; Cervantes Villa, J. S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing volume of satellite measurements requires deployment of new tools that can utilize such vast amount of data. Satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which complicates the data analysis geared towards reproducing the global state of the space environment. In this study we show how measurements can be combined by means of data assimilation and how machine learning can help analyze large amounts of data and can help develop global models that are trained on single point measurement. Data Assimilation: Manual analysis of the satellite measurements is a challenging task, while automated analysis is complicated by the fact that measurements are given at various locations in space, have different instrumental errors, and often vary by orders of magnitude. We show results of the long term reanalysis of radiation belt measurements along with fully operational real-time predictions using data assimilative VERB code. Machine Learning: We present application of the machine learning tools for the analysis of NASA Van Allen Probes upper-hybrid frequency measurements. Using the obtained data set we train a new global predictive neural network. The results for the Van Allen Probes based neural network are compared with historical IMAGE satellite observations. We also show examples of predictions of geomagnetic indices using neural networks. Combination of machine learning and data assimilation: We discuss how data assimilation tools and machine learning tools can be combine so that physics-based insight into the dynamics of the particular system can be combined with empirical knowledge of it's non-linear behavior.

  16. Is equilibrium point control feasible for fast goal-directed single-joint movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2006-05-01

    Several types of equilibrium point (EP) controllers have been proposed for the control of posture and movement. EP controllers are appealing from a computational perspective because they do not require solving the "inverse dynamic problem" (i.e., computation of the torques required to move a system along a desired trajectory). It has been argued that EP controllers are not capable of controlling fast single-joint movements. To refute this statement, several extensions have been proposed, although these have been tested using models in which only the tendon compliance, force-length-velocity relation, and mechanical interaction between tendon and contractile element were not adequately represented. In the present study, fast elbow-joint movements were measured and an attempt was made to reproduce these using a realistic musculoskeletal model of the human arm. Three types of EP controllers were evaluated: an open-loop alpha-controller, a closed-loop lambda-controller, and a hybrid open- and closed-loop controller. For each controller we considered a continuous version and a version in which the control signals were sent out intermittently. Only the intermittent hybrid EP controller was capable of generating movements that were as fast as those of the subjects. As a result of the nonlinear muscle properties, the hybrid EP controller requires a more detailed representation of static muscle properties than generally assumed in the context of EP control. In sum, this study shows that fast single-joint movements can be realized without explicitly solving the inverse dynamics problem, but in a less straightforward manner than implied by proponents of conventional EP controllers.

  17. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  19. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, G; Mileto, A; Gaeta, M; Blandino, A; Mazziotti, S; Scribano, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate "all-in-one'' approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenti, G.; Mileto, A.; Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Mazziotti, S.; Scribano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Materials and methods: Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. Results: The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Conclusion: Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate “all-in-one’’ approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol.

  1. What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of {proportional_to} 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of {proportional_to} 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)

  2. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  3. Collective mass and zero-point energy in the generator-coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, C.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis if the study of the collective mass parameters and the zero-point energies in the GCM framework with special regards to the fission process. After the derivation of the collective Schroedinger equation in the framework of the Gaussian overlap approximation the inertia parameters are compared with those of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. Then the kinetic and the potential zero-point energy occurring in this formulation are studied. Thereafter the practical application of the described formalism is discussed. Then a numerical calculation of the GCM mass parameter and the zero-point energy for the fission process on the base of a two-center shell model with a pairing force in the BCS approximation is presented. (HSI) [de

  4. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  5. Prediction and control of pillow defect in single point incremental forming using numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidore, B. B. Lemopi [Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa (Turkmenistan); Hussain, G.; Khan, Wasim A. [GIK Institute of Engineering, Swabi (Pakistan); Shamachi, S. Pourhassan [University of Minho, Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Pillows formed at the center of sheets in Single point incremental forming (SPIF) are fabrication defects which adversely affect the geometrical accuracy and formability of manufactured parts. This study is focused on using FEA as a tool to predict and control pillowing in SPIF by varying tool size and shape. 3D Finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are carried out using annealed Aluminum 1050. From FEA, it is found out that the stress/strain state in the immediate vicinity of the forming tool in the transverse direction plays a determinant role on sheet pillowing. Furthermore, pillow height increases as compression in the sheet-plane increases. The nature of in-plane stresses in the transverse direction varies from compressive to tensile as the tool-end geometry is changed from spherical to flat. Additionally, the magnitude of corresponding in-plane stresses decreases as the tool radius increases. According to measurements from the FEA model, flat end tools and large radii both retard pillow formation. However, the influence of changing tool end shape from hemispherical to flat is observed to be more important than the effect of varying tool radius, because the deformation zone remains in tension in the transverse direction while forming with flat end tools. These findings are verified by conducting a set of experiments. A fair agreement between the FEM and empirical results show that FEM can be employed as a tool to predict and control the pillow defect in SPIF.

  6. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-02-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/. Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  7. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-02-18

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/ . Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  8. An application of eddy current damping effect on single point diamond turning of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, W. S.; To, S.

    2017-11-01

    Titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (TC4) have been popularly applied in many industries. They have superior material properties including an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, they are regarded as difficult to cut materials; serious tool wear, a high level of cutting vibration and low surface integrity are always involved in machining processes especially in ultra-precision machining (UPM). In this paper, a novel hybrid machining technology using an eddy current damping effect is firstly introduced in UPM to suppress machining vibration and improve the machining performance of titanium alloys. A magnetic field was superimposed on samples during single point diamond turning (SPDT) by exposing the samples in between two permanent magnets. When the titanium alloys were rotated within a magnetic field in the SPDT, an eddy current was generated through a stationary magnetic field inside the titanium alloys. An eddy current generated its own magnetic field with the opposite direction of the external magnetic field leading a repulsive force, compensating for the machining vibration induced by the turning process. The experimental results showed a remarkable improvement in cutting force variation, a significant reduction in adhesive tool wear and an extreme long chip formation in comparison to normal SPDT of titanium alloys, suggesting the enhancement of the machinability of titanium alloys using an eddy current damping effect. An eddy current damping effect was firstly introduced in the area of UPM to deliver the results of outstanding machining performance.

  9. An application of eddy current damping effect on single point diamond turning of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, W S; To, S

    2017-01-01

    Titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (TC4) have been popularly applied in many industries. They have superior material properties including an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, they are regarded as difficult to cut materials; serious tool wear, a high level of cutting vibration and low surface integrity are always involved in machining processes especially in ultra-precision machining (UPM). In this paper, a novel hybrid machining technology using an eddy current damping effect is firstly introduced in UPM to suppress machining vibration and improve the machining performance of titanium alloys. A magnetic field was superimposed on samples during single point diamond turning (SPDT) by exposing the samples in between two permanent magnets. When the titanium alloys were rotated within a magnetic field in the SPDT, an eddy current was generated through a stationary magnetic field inside the titanium alloys. An eddy current generated its own magnetic field with the opposite direction of the external magnetic field leading a repulsive force, compensating for the machining vibration induced by the turning process. The experimental results showed a remarkable improvement in cutting force variation, a significant reduction in adhesive tool wear and an extreme long chip formation in comparison to normal SPDT of titanium alloys, suggesting the enhancement of the machinability of titanium alloys using an eddy current damping effect. An eddy current damping effect was firstly introduced in the area of UPM to deliver the results of outstanding machining performance. (paper)

  10. Mental Health Conditions and Symptoms in Pediatric Hospitalizations: A Single-Center Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Stephanie K; Henry, M Katherine; Bae, Hanah; Litman, Jessica; Turner, Shanarra; Scharko, Alexander M; Feudtner, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents necessitating hospitalization for physical health conditions are at high risk for mental health conditions; however, the prevalence of mental health conditions and symptoms among hospitalized children and adolescents is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hospitalized children and adolescents who have diagnosed mental health disorders or undiagnosed mental health problems. In this single-center point prevalence study of hospitalized children between the ages of 4 and 21 years, patients or their parents reported known mental health diagnoses and use of services using the Services Assessment for Children and Adolescent, and they reported patient mental health symptoms using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 17-item form (PSC-17). Of 229 eligible patients, 119 agreed to participate. Demographic characteristics of patients who enrolled were not statistically significantly different from those of patients who declined to participate. Among participants, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-35%) reported a known mental health diagnosis. On the PSC-17, 29% (95% CI, 21%-38%) of participants had a positive screen for mental health symptoms. Of those with a positive screen, 38% (95% CI, 21%-55%) had no known mental health diagnosis, and 26% (95% CI, 12%-43%) had not received ambulatory mental health services in the 12 months before hospitalization. Mental health conditions and symptoms are common among patients hospitalized in a tertiary children's hospital, and many affected patients are not receiving ambulatory mental health services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating Uncertainty of Point-Cloud Based Single-Tree Segmentation with Ensemble Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Parkan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual tree crown segmentation from Airborne Laser Scanning data is a nodal problem in forest remote sensing. Focusing on single layered spruce and fir dominated coniferous forests, this article addresses the problem of directly estimating 3D segment shape uncertainty (i.e., without field/reference surveys, using a probabilistic approach. First, a coarse segmentation (marker controlled watershed is applied. Then, the 3D alpha hull and several descriptors are computed for each segment. Based on these descriptors, the alpha hulls are grouped to form ensembles (i.e., groups of similar tree shapes. By examining how frequently regions of a shape occur within an ensemble, it is possible to assign a shape probability to each point within a segment. The shape probability can subsequently be thresholded to obtain improved (filtered tree segments. Results indicate this approach can be used to produce segmentation reliability maps. A comparison to manually segmented tree crowns also indicates that the approach is able to produce more reliable tree shapes than the initial (unfiltered segmentation.

  12. Single point incremental sheet forming investigated by in-process 3D digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhart G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a promising sheet metal forming process for prototyping and small batches, in which the blank is formed in a stepwise fashion by a displacement-controlled small-sized tool. Due to specific strain paths induced by the process and limited plastic zones in the contact region between the tool and the workpiece, forming diagrams and forming strategies are different from the classical stamping processes. One major limitation of SPIF is the lack of accuracy of the obtained final parts because of the poor knowledge of the state of stress during the process that requires a good description of the material models and a right choice of the process parameters. In this paper, the SPIF process is experimentally investigated by the mean of surface 3D digital image correlation during the forming of a AW-5086-H111 grade aluminium alloy. Development of strain fields encountered in incremental forming is reported and material formability is evaluated on several formed shapes, taking into account a wide range of straining conditions of this process.

  13. Single point incremental sheet forming investigated by in-process 3D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decultot, N.; Robert, L.; Velay, V.; Bernhart, G.

    2010-06-01

    Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a promising sheet metal forming process for prototyping and small batches, in which the blank is formed in a stepwise fashion by a displacement-controlled small-sized tool. Due to specific strain paths induced by the process and limited plastic zones in the contact region between the tool and the workpiece, forming diagrams and forming strategies are different from the classical stamping processes. One major limitation of SPIF is the lack of accuracy of the obtained final parts because of the poor knowledge of the state of stress during the process that requires a good description of the material models and a right choice of the process parameters. In this paper, the SPIF process is experimentally investigated by the mean of surface 3D digital image correlation during the forming of a AW-5086-H111 grade aluminium alloy. Development of strain fields encountered in incremental forming is reported and material formability is evaluated on several formed shapes, taking into account a wide range of straining conditions of this process.

  14. Prediction and control of pillow defect in single point incremental forming using numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidore, B. B. Lemopi; Hussain, G.; Khan, Wasim A.; Shamachi, S. Pourhassan

    2016-01-01

    Pillows formed at the center of sheets in Single point incremental forming (SPIF) are fabrication defects which adversely affect the geometrical accuracy and formability of manufactured parts. This study is focused on using FEA as a tool to predict and control pillowing in SPIF by varying tool size and shape. 3D Finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are carried out using annealed Aluminum 1050. From FEA, it is found out that the stress/strain state in the immediate vicinity of the forming tool in the transverse direction plays a determinant role on sheet pillowing. Furthermore, pillow height increases as compression in the sheet-plane increases. The nature of in-plane stresses in the transverse direction varies from compressive to tensile as the tool-end geometry is changed from spherical to flat. Additionally, the magnitude of corresponding in-plane stresses decreases as the tool radius increases. According to measurements from the FEA model, flat end tools and large radii both retard pillow formation. However, the influence of changing tool end shape from hemispherical to flat is observed to be more important than the effect of varying tool radius, because the deformation zone remains in tension in the transverse direction while forming with flat end tools. These findings are verified by conducting a set of experiments. A fair agreement between the FEM and empirical results show that FEM can be employed as a tool to predict and control the pillow defect in SPIF.

  15. The use of single point incremental forming for customized implants of unicondylar knee arthroplasty: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kailasrao Bhoyar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The implantable devices are having enormous market. These products are basically made by traditional manufacturing process, but for the custom-made implants Incremental Sheet Forming is a paramount alternative. Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a manufacturing process to form intricate, asymmetrical components. It forms the component using stretching and bending by maintaining materials crystal structure. SPIF process can be performed using conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. Review This review paper elaborates the various manufacturing processes carried on various biocompatible metallic and nonmetallic customised implantable devices. Conclusion Ti-6Al-4V alloy is broadly used for biomedical implants, but in this alloy, Vanadium is toxic so this alloy is not compatible for implants. The attention of researchers is towards the non toxic and suitable biocompatible materials. For this reason, a novel approach was developed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of this material. . The development of incremental forming technique can improve the formability of existing alloys and may meet the current strict requirements for performance of dies and punches.

  16. Modeling and optimization of surface roughness in single point incremental forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kurra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single point incremental forming (SPIF is a novel and potential process for sheet metal prototyping and low volume production applications. This article is focuses on the development of predictive models for surface roughness estimation in SPIF process. Surface roughness in SPIF has been modeled using three different techniques namely, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Support Vector Regression (SVR and Genetic Programming (GP. In the development of these predictive models, tool diameter, step depth, wall angle, feed rate and lubricant type have been considered as model variables. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra and maximum peak to valley height (Rz are used as response variables to assess the surface roughness of incrementally formed parts. The data required to generate, compare and evaluate the proposed models have been obtained from SPIF experiments performed on Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine using Box–Behnken design. The developed models are having satisfactory goodness of fit in predicting the surface roughness. Further, the GP model has been used for optimization of Ra and Rz using genetic algorithm. The optimum process parameters for minimum surface roughness in SPIF have been obtained and validated with the experiments and found highly satisfactory results within 10% error.

  17. Readout of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianping; Ouyang Shihua; You, J Q; Lam, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot (DQD) and its readout via a quantum point contact (QPC). We model the system microscopically and derive rate equations for the reduced electron density matrix of the DQD. Two cases with one and two electrons in the DQD are studied. In the one-electron case, with different Zeeman splittings in the two dots, the electron spin states are distinctly characterized by a constant and an oscillatory current through the QPC. In the two-electron case, the readout of the spin state of the electron in one of the dots called the qubit dot is essentially similar after considering hyperfine interactions between the electrons and the nuclear spins of the host materials and a uniform magnetic field applied to the DQD. Moreover, to ensure that an electron is properly injected into the qubit dot, we propose to determine the success of the electron injection from the variations of the QPC current after applying an oscillating magnetic field to the qubit dot

  18. Point-by-point model description of average prompt neutron data as a function of total kinetic energy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudora, A.

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of total kinetic energy of fragments <ν>(TKE) exhibit, especially in the case of 252 Cf(SF), different slopes dTKE/dν and different behaviours at low TKE values. The Point-by-Point (PbP) model can describe these different behaviours. The higher slope dTKE/dν and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE exhibited by a part of experimental data sets is very well reproduced when the PbP multi-parametric matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a double distribution Y(A,TKE). The lower slope and the almost linear behaviour over the entire TKE range exhibited by other data sets is well described when the same matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a single distribution Y(A). In the case of average prompt neutron energy in SCM as a function of TKE, different dTKE/dε slopes are also obtained by averaging the same PbP matrix ε(A,TKE) over Y(A,TKE) and over Y(A). The results are exemplified for 3 fissioning systems benefiting of experimental data as a function of TKE: 252 Cf(SF), 235 U(n th ,f) and 239 Pu(n th ,f). In the case of 234 U(n,f) for the first time it was possible to calculate <ν>(TKE) and <ε>(TKE) at many incident energies by averaging the PbP multi-parametric matrices over the experimental Y(A,TKE) distributions recently measured at IRMM for 14 incident energies in the range 0.3- 5 MeV. The results revealed that the slope dTKE/dν does not vary with the incident energy and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE values is more pronounced at low incident energies. The average model parameters dependences on TKE resulted from the PbP treatment allow the use of the most probable fragmentation approach, having the great advantage to provide results at many TKE values in a very short computing time compared to PbP and Monte Carlo treatments. (author)

  19. Renovation of a Detached Single-Family House into an Energy Efficient Low Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the political goals for national and international energy savings of reducing CO2 emissions and avoid climate changes, renovation projects for dwellings are becoming increasingly more important. This paper describes the results attained from an extensive renovation of a detached...... single-family house built in the early nineteen seventies. The old house was renovated in accordance to the best Danish low energy class (class 1). The project was followed by detailed measurements of the indoor environment (temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels) and energy consumption for room...

  20. Energy-dependent expansion of .177 caliber hollow-point air gun projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature. The terminal ballistic performance (energy-dependent expansion and penetration) of four different types of .177 caliber hollow-point pellets discharged at kinetic energy levels from approximately 3 J up to 30 J into water, ordnance gelatin, and ordnance gelatin covered with natural chamois as a skin simulant was the subject of this investigation. Energy-dependent expansion of the tested hollow-point pellets was observed after being shot into all investigated target media. While some hollow-point pellets require a minimum kinetic energy of approximately 10 J for sufficient expansion, there are also hollow-point pellets which expand at kinetic energy levels of less than 5 J. The ratio of expansion (RE, calculated by the cross-sectional area (A) after impact divided by the cross-sectional area (A 0 ) of the undeformed pellet) of hollow-point air gun pellets reached values up of to 2.2. The extent of expansion relates to the kinetic energy of the projectile with a peak for pellet expansion at the 15 to 20 J range. To conclude, this work demonstrates that the hollow-point principle, i.e., the design-related enlargement of the projectiles' frontal area upon impact into a medium, does work in air guns as claimed by the manufacturers.

  1. Touching points in the energy band structure of bilayer graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, C Huy; Nguyen, V Lien

    2014-01-01

    The energy band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with zero-averaged periodic δ-function potentials are studied within the four-band continuum model. Using the transfer matrix method, the study is mainly focused on examining the touching points between adjacent minibands. For the zero-energy touching points the dispersion relation derived shows a Dirac-like double-cone shape with the group velocity which is periodic in the potential strength P with the period of π and becomes anisotropic at relatively large P. From the finite-energy touching points we have identified those located at zero wave-number. It was shown that for these finite-energy touching points the dispersion is direction-dependent in the sense that it is linear or parabolic in the direction parallel or perpendicular to the superlattice direction, respectively. We have also calculated the density of states and the conductivity which demonstrates a manifestation of the touching points examined. (paper)

  2. Point Climat no. 26 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans at the heart of the debate on the energy transition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, Cecile; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On the eve of the introduction of the environmental assessment procedure for planning documents, almost all Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans have now been published. This Climate Brief assesses regional climate strategies, which rely on significant commitment from those involved, including citizens by changing their behaviour, companies by improving their energy efficiency and the banking sector through financial support. Identification of these challenges and areas for action will feed into the national debate on energy transition which began last autumn

  3. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications. PMID:29473043

  4. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fogolari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  5. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  6. Robust method for long-term energy and pointing stabilization of high energy, high average power solid state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boge, Robert; Horáček, Jakub; Mazůrek, Petr; Naylon, Jack A; Green, Jonathan T; Hubka, Zbyněk; Šobr, Václav; Novák, Jakub; Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2018-02-01

    A robust and simple method is presented for ensuring constant energy and pointing of a high average power solid state laser on a target. In addition to providing long-term stability, this scheme also eliminates any drifts in energy or pointing resulting from the initial warm-up after a cold start. This is achieved using two separate feedback loops: one loop stabilizes the pointing of the beam external to the amplifier cavity and the other locks the cavity mode to have optimum overlap with the pump spot on the active medium. The key idea of the cavity mode stabilization is to monitor the overlap of the cavity mode and the gain medium with a camera and control it with an actively controlled, intra-cavity mirror. While this method is demonstrated on a thin-disk regenerative amplifier, it can also be applied to a wide variety of solid state laser amplifiers.

  7. Robust method for long-term energy and pointing stabilization of high energy, high average power solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boge, Robert; Horáček, Jakub; Mazůrek, Petr; Naylon, Jack A.; Green, Jonathan T.; Hubka, Zbyněk; Šobr, Václav; Novák, Jakub; Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2018-02-01

    A robust and simple method is presented for ensuring constant energy and pointing of a high average power solid state laser on a target. In addition to providing long-term stability, this scheme also eliminates any drifts in energy or pointing resulting from the initial warm-up after a cold start. This is achieved using two separate feedback loops: one loop stabilizes the pointing of the beam external to the amplifier cavity and the other locks the cavity mode to have optimum overlap with the pump spot on the active medium. The key idea of the cavity mode stabilization is to monitor the overlap of the cavity mode and the gain medium with a camera and control it with an actively controlled, intra-cavity mirror. While this method is demonstrated on a thin-disk regenerative amplifier, it can also be applied to a wide variety of solid state laser amplifiers.

  8. Effect of Set-point Variation on Thermal Comfort and Energy Use in a Plus-energy Dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    are allowed to drift, and it also allows the occupants to benefit from adaptive opportunities.This study presents the results of thermal environment measurements and energy use in a single-family dwelling during a one year period. A radiant floor heating and cooling system was used to condition the indoor...

  9. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  10. Energy and temperature fluctuations in the single electron box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Tineke L van den; Brange, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In mesoscopic and nanoscale systems at low temperatures, charge carriers are typically not in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding lattice. The resulting, non-equilibrium dynamics of electrons has only begun to be explored. Experimentally the time-dependence of the electron temperature (deviating from the lattice temperature) has been investigated in small metallic islands. Motivated by these experiments, we investigate theoretically the electronic energy and temperature fluctuations in a metallic island in the Coulomb blockade regime, tunnel coupled to an electronic reservoir, i.e. a single electron box. We show that electronic quantum tunnelling between the island and the reservoir, in the absence of any net charge or energy transport, induces fluctuations of the island electron temperature. The full distribution of the energy transfer as well as the island temperature is derived within the framework of full counting statistics. In particular, the low-frequency temperature fluctuations are analysed, fully accounting for charging effects and non-zero reservoir temperature. The experimental requirements for measuring the predicted temperature fluctuations are discussed. (paper)

  11. Point Climat no. 23 'The new European Energy Efficiency Directive: France is on track'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On October 4 2012, the European Union adopted a new Directive in order to help reach the common target of a 20% improvement in energy efficiency in 2020. At a time when a major national debate on energy transition is set to take place in France, this new directive will need to be taken into account when defining future energy policy. The measures specified in the European Directive, which focus on buildings and energy suppliers, will enable part of France's goal to be met. The transposition of the Directive into French law will result in the setting of a national target for 2020, and will primarily reinforce an existing requirement that applies to energy suppliers, as well as adding measures aimed at informing energy consumers

  12. Where do the main losses of energy resources occur - at the point of consumption or at the point of production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    This is an opinion of an independent consultant about key sources of energy losses. It differentiates from the one commonly accepted. The main loser of energy is an energy sector - producers of energy and the distribution networks, responsible for transporting of energy, not the housing and the transportation sector. This opinion is based on the GCE Group's experience. The author proposes to focus the work to reduce energy losses on increasing the energy efficiency of energy sector, not on the end consumer. This will allow to reduce the cost of energy unit production and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. State-of-health monitoring of 18650 4S packs with a single-point impedance diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Corey T.; Virji, Maheboob B. V.; Rocheleau, Richard E.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2014-11-01

    The state-of-health (SOH) of Li-ion batteries and battery packs must be monitored effectively for abuse to prevent failure and accidents. In a previous publication, we described a single-point impedance diagnostic method for detecting damage in single prismatic lithium polymer rechargeable cells subjected to overcharge abuse. We now determine whether the single-point impedance diagnostic method is applicable to 4S battery packs. At 316 Hz, commercial 18650 LiCoO2 cells are determined to have the least change in impedance response when cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V, for states-of-charge (SOC) of 0-100%. The impedance response of single cells at 316 Hz changes dramatically during overcharge (SOC = 125%), presumably due to change in their solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layers at the electrodes. When a single cell is purposely subjected to such overcharge abuse and then integrated into a 4S pack with 3 other healthy cells, the impedance response of the 4S pack at 316 Hz also changes, despite variances in the impedance response of each of the 3 healthy cells. The results suggest that this single-point impedance method could serve as a diagnostic in an all-inclusive battery management system to identify overcharge abuse of single cells without individual cell monitoring.

  14. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  15. Assessment of Thailand indoor set-point impact on energy consumption and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamtraipat, N.; Khedari, J.; Hirunlabh, J.; Kunchornrat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of indoor set-point standard of air-conditioned spaces as a tool to control electrical energy consumption of air-conditioners in Thailand office buildings and to reduce air pollutants. One hundred and forty-seven air-conditioned rooms in 13 buildings nationwide were used as models to analyze the electricity consumption of air-conditioning systems according to their set indoor temperatures, which were below the standard set-point and were accounted into a large scale. Then, the electrical energy and environmental saving potentials in the country were assessed by the assumption that adaptation of indoor set-point temperature is increased up to the standard set-point of 26 o C. It was concluded that the impacts of indoor set-point of air-conditioned rooms, set at 26 o C, on energy saving and on environment are as follows: The overall electricity consumption saving would be 804.60 GWh/year, which would reduce the corresponding GHGs emissions (mainly CO 2 ) from power plant by 579.31x10 3 tons/year

  16. A note on the energy of relative equilibria of point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Analytical formulas are derived for the energy of simple relative equilibria of identical point vortices such as the regular polygons, both open and centered, and the various known configurations consisting of nested regular polygons with or without a vortex at the center. ©2007 American Institute...... of Physics...

  17. Gyroscopic power take-off wave energy point absorber in irregular sea states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Chen, Bei; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A GyroPTO wave energy point absorber with magnetic coupling mechanism is proposed. •A 4DOF nonlinear model of the GyroPTO absorber has been derived. •Rational approximations are performed on the radiation damping moments. •Synchronization of the device is more easily maintained...

  18. New results for single stage low energy carbon AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klody, G.M.; Schroeder, J.B.; Norton, G.A.; Loger, R.L.; Kitchen, R.L.; Sundquist, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    A new configuration of the NEC single stage, low energy carbon AMS system (U.S. Patent 6,815,666 B2) has been built and tested. The injector includes two 40-sample ion sources, electrostatic and magnetic analysis, and fast sequential injection. The gas stripper, analyzing magnet, electrostatic analyzer, and detector are on an open air 250 kV deck. Both 12 C and 13 C currents are measured on the deck after the stripper, and an SSB detector is used for 14 C counting. Injected 12 C and mass 13 ( 13 C and 12 CH) currents are also measured. Automated controls follow a user-specified run list for unattended operation. Initial test results show precision for 14 C/ 12 C ratios of better than 5 per mil, and backgrounds for unprocessed graphite of less than 0.005 x modern. We will report final results for precision, background, and throughput and discuss related design features

  19. Role of single-point mutations and deletions on transition temperatures in ideal proteinogenic heteropolymer chains in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2016-07-01

    A coarse-grained statistical mechanics-based model for ideal heteropolymer proteinogenic chains of non-interacting residues is presented in terms of the size K of the chain and the set of helical propensities [Formula: see text] associated with each residue j along the chain. For this model, we provide an algorithm to compute the degeneracy tensor [Formula: see text] associated with energy level [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the number of residues with a native contact in a given conformation. From these results, we calculate the equilibrium partition function [Formula: see text] and characteristic temperature [Formula: see text] at which a transition from a low to a high entropy states is observed. The formalism is applied to analyze the effect on characteristic temperatures [Formula: see text] of single-point mutations and deletions of specific amino acids [Formula: see text] along the chain. Two probe systems are considered. First, we address the case of a random heteropolymer of size K and given helical propensities [Formula: see text] on a conformational phase space. Second, we focus our attention to a particular set of neuropentapeptides, [Met-5] and [Leu-5] enkephalins whose thermodynamic stability is a key feature on their coupling to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] receptors and the triggering of biochemical responses.

  20. Detection of Single Tree Stems in Forested Areas from High Density ALS Point Clouds Using 3d Shape Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a widespread method for forest mapping and management purposes. While common ALS techniques provide valuable information about the forest canopy and intermediate layers, the point density near the ground may be poor due to dense overstory conditions. The current study highlights a new method for detecting stems of single trees in 3D point clouds obtained from high density ALS with a density of 300 points/m2. Compared to standard ALS data, due to lower flight height (150-200 m) this elevated point density leads to more laser reflections from tree stems. In this work, we propose a three-tiered method which works on the point, segment and object levels. First, for each point we calculate the likelihood that it belongs to a tree stem, derived from the radiometric and geometric features of its neighboring points. In the next step, we construct short stem segments based on high-probability stem points, and classify the segments by considering the distribution of points around them as well as their spatial orientation, which encodes the prior knowledge that trees are mainly vertically aligned due to gravity. Finally, we apply hierarchical clustering on the positively classified segments to obtain point sets corresponding to single stems, and perform ℓ1-based orthogonal distance regression to robustly fit lines through each stem point set. The ℓ1-based method is less sensitive to outliers compared to the least square approaches. From the fitted lines, the planimetric tree positions can then be derived. Experiments were performed on two plots from the Hochficht forest in Oberösterreich region located in Austria.We marked a total of 196 reference stems in the point clouds of both plots by visual interpretation. The evaluation of the automatically detected stems showed a classification precision of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively for Plot 1 and 2, with recall values of 0.7 and 0.67.

  1. Gamma-point lattice free energy estimates from O(1) force calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for estimating the vibrational free energy of crystal (and molecular) structures employing only a single force calculation, for a particularly displaced configuration, in addition to the calculation of the ground state configuration. This displacement vector is the sum...

  2. An efficient global energy optimization approach for robust 3D plane segmentation of point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Hu, Pingbo; Scherer, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Automatic 3D plane segmentation is necessary for many applications including point cloud registration, building information model (BIM) reconstruction, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and point cloud compression. However, most of the existing 3D plane segmentation methods still suffer from low precision and recall, and inaccurate and incomplete boundaries, especially for low-quality point clouds collected by RGB-D sensors. To overcome these challenges, this paper formulates the plane segmentation problem as a global energy optimization because it is robust to high levels of noise and clutter. First, the proposed method divides the raw point cloud into multiscale supervoxels, and considers planar supervoxels and individual points corresponding to nonplanar supervoxels as basic units. Then, an efficient hybrid region growing algorithm is utilized to generate initial plane set by incrementally merging adjacent basic units with similar features. Next, the initial plane set is further enriched and refined in a mutually reinforcing manner under the framework of global energy optimization. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are evaluated with respect to six metrics (i.e., plane precision, plane recall, under-segmentation rate, over-segmentation rate, boundary precision, and boundary recall) on two benchmark datasets. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method obtained good performances both in high-quality TLS point clouds (i.e., http://SEMANTIC3D.NET)

  3. Point Climat no. 27 'Unlocking private investments in energy efficiency through carbon finance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: According to the latest IEA World Energy Outlook, energy efficiency is a 'key option' in transition to a low-carbon economy. A decade of experience with the CDM and JI demonstrates that carbon finance can be used as an effective tool to unlock private investments in energy efficiency. Capital investments in offset projects may significantly exceed the expected carbon revenues resulting in an average weighted leverage ratio of 4:1 and 9:1 for the CDM and JI respectively, which is comparable to other international financial instruments. So far carbon finance has been used mostly for large-scale industrial energy efficiency projects in advanced developing countries and economies in transition, although it is increasingly suited to tap into scattered household energy efficiency projects

  4. Optimal Discrete PTO Force Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters in Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    For ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to become a cost-effective alternative in the energy production system a large increase in the conversion efficiency is needed. Fluid power technology is the leading technology for the Power Take- Off (PTO) system of wave energy converters. However...... of discrete force systems for PTO, by focusing on how to choose the optimal PTO force levels and force profile when seeking to increase energy harvesting. The work concerns point absorber WECs and utilises a simple float model based on linear wave theory. Utilising the principle of superposition...... and the Laplace transform a solution of the float movement is found when subjected an incoming wave and a discrete PTO force. Finally an optimisation leads to the force profile implying the highest harvested energy....

  5. Effect of tissue inhomogeneity on dose distribution of point sources of low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.S.; Bialobzyski, P.J.; Yu, S.K.; Prestwich, W.V.

    1990-01-01

    Perturbation in dose distributions of point sources of low-energy electrons at planar interfaces of cortical bone (CB) and red marrow (RM) was investigated experimentally and by Monte Carlo codes EGS and the TIGER series. Ultrathin LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the dose distributions of point sources of 204 Tl and 147 Pm in RM. When the point sources were at 12 mg/cm 2 from a planar interface of CB and RM equivalent plastics, dose enhancement ratios in RM averaged over the region 0--12 mg/cm 2 from the interface were measured to be 1.08±0.03 (SE) and 1.03±0.03 (SE) for 204 Tl and 147 Pm, respectively. The Monte Carlo codes predicted 1.05±0.02 and 1.01±0.02 for the two nuclides, respectively. However, EGS gave consistently 3% higher dose in the dose scoring region than the TIGER series when point sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 0.75 MeV energy were considered in the homogeneous RM situation or in the CB and RM heterogeneous situation. By means of the TIGER series, it was demonstrated that aluminum, which is normally assumed to be equivalent to CB in radiation dosimetry, leads to an overestimation of backscattering of low-energy electrons in soft tissue at a CB--soft-tissue interface by as much as a factor of 2

  6. Myosin individualized: single nucleotide polymorphisms in energy transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieben Eric D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myosin performs ATP free energy transduction into mechanical work in the motor domain of the myosin heavy chain (MHC. Energy transduction is the definitive systemic feature of the myosin motor performed by coordinating in a time ordered sequence: ATP hydrolysis at the active site, actin affinity modulation at the actin binding site, and the lever-arm rotation of the power stroke. These functions are carried out by several conserved sub-domains within the motor domain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affect the MHC sequence of many isoforms expressed in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and non-muscle tissue. The purpose of this work is to provide a rationale for using SNPs as a functional genomics tool to investigate structurefunction relationships in myosin. In particular, to discover SNP distribution over the conserved sub-domains and surmise what it implies about sub-domain stability and criticality in the energy transduction mechanism. Results An automated routine identifying human nonsynonymous SNP amino acid missense substitutions for any MHC gene mined the NCBI SNP data base. The routine tested 22 MHC genes coding muscle and non-muscle isoforms and identified 89 missense mutation positions in the motor domain with 10 already implicated in heart disease and another 8 lacking sequence homology with a skeletal MHC isoform for which a crystallographic model is available. The remaining 71 SNP substitutions were found to be distributed over MHC with 22 falling outside identified functional sub-domains and 49 in or very near to myosin sub-domains assigned specific crucial functions in energy transduction. The latter includes the active site, the actin binding site, the rigid lever-arm, and regions facilitating their communication. Most MHC isoforms contained SNPs somewhere in the motor domain. Conclusions Several functional-crucial sub-domains are infiltrated by a large number of SNP substitution sites suggesting these

  7. A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...

  8. Constrained Optimal Stochastic Control of Non-Linear Wave Energy Point Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Chen, Jian-Bing; Kramer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    are enforced on the motion of the floater to prevent it from hitting the bottom of the sea or to make unacceptable jumps out of the water. The applied control law, which is of the feedback type with feedback from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the floater, contains two unprovided gain......The paper deals with the stochastic optimal control of a wave energy point absorber with strong nonlinear buoyancy forces using the reactive force from the electric generator on the absorber as control force. The considered point absorber has only one degree of freedom, heave motion, which is used...

  9. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...

  10. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    . Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial...... noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows...... copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale...

  11. Single-collision studies of energy transfer and chemical reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, J.J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research focus in this group is state-to-state dynamics of reaction and energy transfer in collisions of free radicals such as H, OH, and CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2}, alkanes, alcohols and other hydrogen-containing molecules. The motivation for the work is the desire to provide a detailed understanding of the chemical dynamics of prototype reactions that are important in the production and utilization of energy sources, most importantly in combustion. The work is primarily experimental, but with an important and growing theoretical/computational component. The focus of this research program is now on reactions in which at least one of the reactants and one of the products is polyatomic. The objective is to determine how the high dimensionality of the reactants and products differentiates such reactions from atom + diatom reactions of the same kinematics and energetics. The experiments use highly time-resolved laser spectroscopic methods to prepare reactant states and analyze the states of the products on a single-collision time scale. The primary spectroscopic tool for product state analysis is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. CARS is used because of its generality and because the extraction of quantum state populations from CARS spectra is straightforward. The combination of the generality and easy analysis of CARS makes possible absolute cross section measurements (both state-to-state and total), a particularly valuable capability for characterizing reactive and inelastic collisions. Reactant free radicals are produced by laser photolysis of appropriate precursors. For reactant vibrational excitation stimulated Raman techniques are being developed and implemented.

  12. Analysis of single point and continuous wave of condensation root filling techniques by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Angerame

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present microtomographic study was to investigate the quality of root canal filling and the voids formation in canals of extracted teeth instrumented with a simultaneous technique and filled with two different methods. Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were assigned to two experimental groups (no. = 12; canals were shaped with NiTi rotary files, irrigated with NaOCl and filled either with the single point (group 1 or the continuous wave of condensation technique (group 2. Specimens underwent microtomographic scanning. Collected data were statistically analyzed by nonparametric methods. Void mean percentages were found to be limited and similar between the two groups; the single point technique led to greater sealer thickness in partially oval canals.

  13. Zero-point energies in the two-center shell model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The zero-point energy (ZPE) contained in the potential-energy surface of a two-center shell model (TCSM) is evaluated. In extension of previous work, the author uses here the full TCSM with l.s force, smoothing and asymmetry. The results show a critical dependence on the height of the potential barrier between the centers. The ZPE turns out to be non-negligible along the fission path for 236 U, and even more so for lighter systems. It is negligible for surface quadrupole motion and it is just on the fringe of being negligible for motion along the asymmetry coordinate. (Auth.)

  14. Point Climat no. 18 'Energy efficiency, renewable energy and CO2 allowances in Europe: a need for coordination'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Following the adoption in 2009 of the directives for modifying the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and for promoting renewable energies, the Energy Efficiency Directive has been endorsed by the European Parliament on 11 September 2012. It will be the third major European policy that encourages reductions in CO 2 emissions, either directly or indirectly. At a time when the European Commission is reflecting on long-term reforms to the EU ETS, the magnitude of emission reductions that will be generated by other policies calls for the systematisation of assessment of climate and energy policies in order to maintain an sufficient CO 2 price to incentive mitigation action

  15. Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habraken, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, manufactured pieces can be divided into two groups: mass production and production of low volume number of parts. Within the second group (prototyping or small batch production), an emerging solution relies on Incremental Sheet Forming or ISF. ISF refers to processes where the plastic deformation occurs by repeated contact with a relatively small tool. More specifically, many publications over the past decade investigate Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) where the final shape is determined only by the tool movement. This manufacturing process is characterized by the forming of sheets by means of a CNC controlled generic tool stylus, with the sheets clamped by means of a non-workpiece-specific clamping system and in absence of a partial or a full die. The advantage is no tooling requirements and often enhanced formability, however it poses a challenge in term of process control and accuracy assurance. Note that the most commonly used materials in incremental forming are aluminum and steel alloys however other alloys are also used especially for medical industry applications, such as cobalt and chromium alloys, stainless steel and titanium alloys. Some scientists have applied incremental forming on PVC plates and other on sandwich panels composed of propylene with mild steel and aluminum metallic foams with aluminum sheet metal. Micro incremental forming of thin foils has also been developed. Starting from the scattering of the results of Finite Element (FE) simulations, when one tries to predict the tool force (see SPIF benchmark of 2014 Numisheet conference), we will see how SPIF and even micro SPIF (process applied on thin metallic sheet with a few grains within the thickness) allow investigating the material behavior. This lecture will focus on the identification of constitutive laws, on the SPIF forming mechanisms and formability as well as the failure mechanism. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain SPIF formability, they will be

  16. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between split-filter dual-energy images and single-energy images in single-source abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, André; Obmann, Markus M; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Mileto, Achille; Zaehringer, Caroline; Falkowski, Anna L; Winkel, David J; Marin, Daniele; Stieltjes, Bram; Krauss, Bernhard; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2018-02-19

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of abdominal split-filter dual-energy CT (SF-DECT) combined with monoenergetic imaging to single-energy CT (SECT) with automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS). Two-hundred single-source abdominal CT scans were performed as SECT with ATVS (n = 100) and SF-DECT (n = 100). SF-DECT scans were reconstructed and subdivided into composed images (SF-CI) and monoenergetic images at 55 keV (SF-MI). Objective and subjective image quality were compared among single-energy images (SEI), SF-CI and SF-MI. CNR and FOM were separately calculated for the liver (e.g. CNR liv ) and the portal vein (CNR pv ). Radiation dose was compared using size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Results of the three groups were compared using non-parametric tests. Image noise of SF-CI was 18% lower compared to SEI and 48% lower compared to SF-MI (p 0.628). Subjective sharpness was equal between single-energy and monoenergetic images and diagnostic confidence was equal between single-energy and composed images. FOM liv was highest for SF-CI. FOM pv was equal for SEI and SF-MI (p = 0.78). SSDE was significant lower for SF-DECT compared to SECT (p quality at lower radiation dose compared to single-energy CT with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 18% lower noise compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 11% lower SSDE compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Spectral shaping of split-filter dual-energy leads to an increased dose-efficiency.

  17. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  18. Evaluation of maximum power point tracking in hydrokinetic energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking is a mature control issue for wind, solar and other systems. On the other hand, being a relatively new technology, detailed discussion on power tracking of hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are generally not available. Prior to developing sophisticated control schemes for use in hydrokinetic systems, existing know-how in wind or solar technologies can be explored. In this study, a comparative evaluation of three generic classes of maximum power point scheme is carried out. These schemes are (a tip speed ratio control, (b power signal feedback control, and (c hill climbing search control. In addition, a novel concept for maximum power point tracking: namely, extremum seeking control is introduced. Detailed and validated system models are used in a simulation environment. Potential advantages and drawbacks of each of these schemes are summarised.

  19. Performance and design optimization of a heaving point absorber for the exploitation of wave energy in the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Renata; Moreno Miquel, Adrià; Bozzi, Silvia; Antonini, Alessandro; Passoni, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The presentation aims to assess the potential for wave energy production in the Italian seas by the deployment of a heaving point absorbers, specifically optimized for mild climates. We model a single-body WEC, consisting of a cylindrical heaving buoy, attached to a linear electric generator placed on the seabed. The model includes both hydrodynamic and electromechanical forces. Two different version of the device are modeled, a two-body device consisting in a floating buoy attached to a linear generator placed at the sea bed and a three-body device, which also includes a submerged sphere located halfway from the float and the generator, which increases the performance by going easily to resonance. For each version of the device, the model takes into account either the heave only or the heave and surge combined. The devices have been tuned according to the Mediterranean Sea wave climate, taking particular attention to the floaters dimensioning and to the geometrical design of the PTO, which has been adapted to particular working conditions introduced by the surge mode. The Annual Energy production is estimeted, showing encouraging results and enlarge the perspective on wave energy production in the Italian and Mediterranean Seas. In the last part of the work the feasibility of supplying electricity through energy produced by wave by the described device in array at a small Italian island will be presented.

  20. Summary of discussion points and further deliberations in the special committee on the ITER project in the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion points and further deliberations in the Special Committee, which was established in December 1996 on the ITER Project were: 'Global environment problem and energy problem', 'Promotion of the fusion energy development' and 'ITER Project'

  1. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  2. Single species biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates on gutta-percha points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Naoki; Noiri, Yuichiro; Ehara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Takashi; Noguchi, Nobuo; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-12-01

    The participation of bacterial biofilms in the over-filled gutta-percha points associated with refractory periapical periodontitis has recently been reported. This study investigated the initial biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Propionibacterium acnes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) on gutta-percha points in vitro. Each bacterial strain was suspended in 100% cell culture medium or in culture medium containing 4.5, 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The bacterial suspensions were then co-incubated anaerobically with gutta-percha points for 7 d. The gutta-percha points were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation and examined for biofilm presence and thickness. E. faecalis, Strep. sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus biofilms were generated on the surfaces of the specimens incubated in culture medium supplemented with 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The E. faecalis and Strep. sanguis biofilms were significantly thicker than those of Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus. No biofilms were detected on the specimens incubated with F. nucleatum, Prop. acnes, Porph. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia. These findings suggest that Gram-positive facultative anaerobes have the ability to colonize and form extracellular matrices on gutta-percha points, while serum plays a crucial role in biofilm formation. Copyright Eur J Oral Sci, 2004.

  3. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  4. Nuclear fusion as new energy option in a global single-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eherer, C.; Baumann, M.; Dueweke, J.; Hamacher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a window of opportunity for fusion on the electricity market under 'business as usual' conditions, and if not, how do the boundary conditions have to look like to open such a window? This question is addressed within a subtask of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme of the European Commission. The most advanced energy-modelling framework, the TIMES model generator developed by the Energy Technology System Analysis Project group of the IEA (ETSAP) has been used to implement a global single-regional partial equilibrium energy model. Within the current activities the potential role of fusion power in various future energy scenarios is studied. The final energy demand projections of the baseline of the investigations are based on IIASA-WEC Scenario B. Under the quite conservative baseline assumptions fusion only enters the model solution with 35 GW in 2100 and it can be observed that coal technologies dominate electricity production in 2100. Scenario variations show that the role of fusion power is strongly affected by the availability of GEN IV fission breeding technologies as energy option and by CO 2 emission caps. The former appear to be a major competitor of fusion power while the latter open a window of opportunity for fusion power on the electricity market. An interesting outcome is furthermore that the possible share of fusion electricity is more sensitive to the potential of primary resources like coal, gas and uranium, than to the share of solar and wind power in the system. This indicates that both kinds of technologies, renewables and fusion power, can coexist in future energy systems in case of CO 2 emission policies and/or resource scarcity scenarios. It is shown that Endogenous Technological Learning (ETL), a more consistent description of technological progress than mere time series, has an impact on the model results. (author)

  5. Experiments with Point Absorber Type Wave Energy Converters in a Large-Scale Wave Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WECs) extract energy from ocean waves and have the potential to produce a significant contribution of electricity from renewable sources. However, large "WEC farms" or "WEC arrays" are expected to have "WEC array effects", expressed as the impact of the WECs on the wave...... climate at an installation site, as well as on the overall power absorption of the WEC array. Experiments have been performed in the Shallow Water Wave Basin of DHI (Denmark) to study such "WEC array effects". Large arrays of up to 25 heaving point absorber type WECs have been tested for a range...... of geometric layout configurations and wave conditions. WEC response, wave induced forces on the WECs and wave field modifications have been measured. Each WEC consists of a buoy with diameter of 0.315 m. Power take-off is modeled by realizing friction based energy dissipation through damping of the WECs...

  6. A dissipated energy comparison to evaluate fatigue resistance using 2-point bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Maggiore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the main failure mode in pavement engineering. Typically, micro-cracks originate at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer due to horizontal tensile strains. Micro-cracks start to propagate towards the upper layers under repeated loading which can lead to pavement failure. Different methods are usually used to describe fatigue behavior in asphalt materials such as: phenomenological approach, fracture mechanics approach and dissipated energy approach. This paper presents a comparison of fatigue resistances calculated for different dissipated energy models using 2-point bending (2PB at IFSTTAR in Nantes. 2PB tests have been undertaken under different loading and environmental conditions in order to evaluate the properties of the mixtures (stiffness, dissipated energy, fatigue life and healing effect.

  7. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  8. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy...... production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system....... This chapter provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these MPPT methods are also analyzed in order to demonstrate their performance...

  9. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy....... This chapter provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these MPPT methods are also analyzed in order to demonstrate their performance...

  10. X-Ray Radiography of Three-Point Bending of Single Human Trabecula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, S1 (2012), s. 261-261 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : microspheres * strain measurement * three-point bending * trabecular bone * X-ray radiography Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2012

  11. Shape measurement system for single point incremental forming (SPIF) manufacts by using trinocular vision and random pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Francesco; Bini, Ruggero; Lunardelli, Massimo; Bosetti, Paolo; Bruschi, Stefania; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Many contemporary works show the interest of the scientific community in measuring the shape of artefacts made by single point incremental forming. In this paper, we will present an algorithm able to detect feature points with a random pattern, check the compatibility of associations exploiting multi-stereo constraints and reject outliers and perform a 3D reconstruction by dense random patterns. The algorithm is suitable for a real-time application, in fact it needs just three images and a synchronous relatively fast processing. The proposed method has been tested on a simple geometry and results have been compared with a coordinate measurement machine acquisition. (paper)

  12. Neural Network Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control with Quadratic Boost Converter for PMSG—Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Tiwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN based maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy for wind energy conversion system (WECS implemented with a DC/DC converter. The proposed topology utilizes a radial basis function network (RBFN based neural network control strategy to extract the maximum available power from the wind velocity. The results are compared with a classical Perturb and Observe (P&O method and Back propagation network (BPN method. In order to achieve a high voltage rating, the system is implemented with a quadratic boost converter and the performance of the converter is validated with a boost and single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC. The performance of the MPPT technique along with a DC/DC converter is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink.

  13. A High-Power-Density Single-Phase Rectifier Based on Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase three-level converter is suitable for medium-power applications, with an interface voltage that is higher than that of a traditional two-level configuration. The three-level neutral-point clamped converter is adopted using four switches in each bridge arm, which, compared to a two-level rectifier, leads to less voltage stress, a lower switching frequency, and switching loss on switches. The transient current control strategy is designed to control the active power. The single-phase space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM with a voltage balance strategy is designed to solve the neutral point voltage fluctuation problem and keep the dc-link voltage stable. A 1.3 kW high-power-density prototype based on SiC MOSFET was built and tested. The experimental results verified the high performance of steady-state and dynamic responses.

  14. Highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states as source of specific heat capacity anomalies in magnetic frustrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the specific heat capacity are investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the geometrically frustrated tetrahedron recursive lattice. It is shown that the Schottky-type anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity is related to the existence of unique highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states which are formed on the borders between neighboring plateau-like ground states. It is also shown that the very existence of these single-point ground states with large residual entropies predicts the appearance of another anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity for low temperatures, namely, the field-induced double-peak structure, which exists, and should be observed experimentally, along with the Schottky-type anomaly in various frustrated magnetic system.

  15. Low-energy transfers to cislunar periodic orbits visiting triangular libration points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hanlun; Xu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the cislunar periodic orbits that pass through triangular libration points of the Earth-Moon system and studies the techniques on design low-energy transfer trajectories. In order to compute periodic orbits, families of impulsive transfers between triangular libration points are taken to generate the initial guesses of periodic orbits, and multiple shooting techniques are applied to solving the problem. Then, varieties of periodic orbits in cislunar space are obtained, and stability analysis shows that the majority of them are unstable. Among these periodic orbits, an unstable periodic orbit in near 3:2 resonance with the Moon is taken as the nominal orbit of an assumed mission. As the stable manifolds of the target orbit could approach the Moon, low-energy transfer trajectories can be designed by combining lunar gravity assist with the invariant manifold structure of the target orbit. In practice, both the natural and perturbed invariant manifolds are considered to obtain the low-energy transfers, which are further refined to the Sun-perturbed Earth-Moon system. Results indicate that (a) compared to the case of natural invariant manifolds, the optimal transfers using perturbed invariant manifolds could reduce flight time at least 50 days, (b) compared to the cheapest direct transfer, the optimal low-energy transfer obtained by combining lunar gravity assist and invariant manifolds could save on-board fuel consumption more than 200 m/s, and (c) by taking advantage of the gravitational perturbation of the Sun, the low-energy transfers could save more fuel consumption than the corresponding ones obtained in the Earth-Moon system.

  16. Characteristics of X-point lobe structures in single-null discharges on MAST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harrison, J.R.; Kirk, A.; Chapman, I.T.; Cahyna, Pavel; Liu, Y.; Nardon, E.; Thornton, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2014), 064015-064015 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * MAST * X-point * resonant magnetic perturbation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/54/6/064015/pdf/0029-5515_54_6_064015.pdf

  17. Investigation of point and extended defects in electron irradiated silicon—Dependence on the particle energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, R.; Pintilie, I.; Nistor, L. C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105 bis, Magurele 077125 (Romania); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Makarenko, L. F. [Belarusian State University, Independence Ave. 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-04-28

    This work is focusing on generation, time evolution, and impact on the electrical performance of silicon diodes impaired by radiation induced active defects. n-type silicon diodes had been irradiated with electrons ranging from 1.5 MeV to 27 MeV. It is shown that the formation of small clusters starts already after irradiation with high fluence of 1.5 MeV electrons. An increase of the introduction rates of both point defects and small clusters with increasing energy is seen, showing saturation for electron energies above ∼15 MeV. The changes in the leakage current at low irradiation fluence-values proved to be determined by the change in the configuration of the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}). Similar to V{sub 3}, other cluster related defects are showing bistability indicating that they might be associated with larger vacancy clusters. The change of the space charge density with irradiation and with annealing time after irradiation is fully described by accounting for the radiation induced trapping centers. High resolution electron microscopy investigations correlated with the annealing experiments revealed changes in the spatial structure of the defects. Furthermore, it is shown that while the generation of point defects is well described by the classical Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL), the formation of small defect clusters is better described by the “effective NIEL” using results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. A QRS Detection and R Point Recognition Method for Wearable Single-Lead ECG Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Chuang, Chun-Te

    2017-08-26

    In the new-generation wearable Electrocardiogram (ECG) system, signal processing with low power consumption is required to transmit data when detecting dangerous rhythms and to record signals when detecting abnormal rhythms. The QRS complex is a combination of three of the graphic deflection seen on a typical ECG. This study proposes a real-time QRS detection and R point recognition method with low computational complexity while maintaining a high accuracy. The enhancement of QRS segments and restraining of P and T waves are carried out by the proposed ECG signal transformation, which also leads to the elimination of baseline wandering. In this study, the QRS fiducial point is determined based on the detected crests and troughs of the transformed signal. Subsequently, the R point can be recognized based on four QRS waveform templates and preliminary heart rhythm classification can be also achieved at the same time. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using the benchmark of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, where the QRS detected sensitivity (Se) and positive prediction (+P) are 99.82% and 99.81%, respectively. The result reveals the approach's advantage of low computational complexity, as well as the feasibility of the real-time application on a mobile phone and an embedded system.

  19. Optimal fits of diffusion constants from single-time data points of Brownian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Dean, David S; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb

    2012-12-01

    Experimental methods based on single particle tracking (SPT) are being increasingly employed in the physical and biological sciences, where nanoscale objects are visualized with high temporal and spatial resolution. SPT can probe interactions between a particle and its environment but the price to be paid is the absence of ensemble averaging and a consequent lack of statistics. Here we address the benchmark question of how to accurately extract the diffusion constant of one single Brownian trajectory. We analyze a class of estimators based on weighted functionals of the square displacement. For a certain choice of the weight function these functionals provide the true ensemble averaged diffusion coefficient, with a precision that increases with the trajectory resolution.

  20. End-point energies of electrons ejected during auger neutralization of slow, multicharged aluminum and carbon ions near a gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattuhewa, G.

    1990-01-01

    This study of the interaction of slow, multi-charged ions with surfaces made use a laser operated ion source (LOIS) at the University of Arkansas. The diameter of the focused beam at the target surface was approximately 100μm producing a power density estimated to be grater than 10 11 W/cm 2 . The intense radiation field heated the target resulting in production of a plasma which included multi-charged ions with kinetic energies near several hundred eV per charge. The plasma ions enter a 180 degree electrostatic analyzer which separated them according to their kinetic energy to charge ratio. The resulting ion pulses were then allowed to impinge to charge ratio. The resulting ion pulses were then allowed to impinge on a gold surface. Auger-ejected electrons were energy analyzed by the retarding potential method. The present work determined the end-point energies of electrons ejected during the neutralization of slow, multi-charged carbon and aluminum ions near a gold surface. Analysis of the end-point energies that neutralization is stepwise where a captured electron cascades through the energy levels of the once neutralized ion. losing its energy through excitation of the other conduction band electrons. The end-point Auger electrons are produced in the last stages of this energy-loss ladder when the singly neutralized ion is near ground state. There is no evidence of exchange reactions taking place in these last stages or that multiple capture processes are important in producing end-point electrons. The end-point electrons, however, may not be the electrons that would best reflect such processes, since the neutralization energy per captured electron is reduced by each capture event

  1. Mechanism of DNA–binding loss upon single-point mutation in p53

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Despite our current understanding of protein−DNA recognition, the mechanism(s) underlying the loss in protein−DNA binding affinity/ ... Keywords. p53 mutants; protein-DNA interactions; molecular dynamics simulations; free energy decomposition. Abbreviations ... of the salt–bridge with Asp 281, resulting in the loss of DNA.

  2. Point defects and electric compensation in gallium arsenide single crystals; Punktdefekte und elektrische Kompensation in Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Ulrich

    2007-12-10

    In the present thesis the point-defect budget of gallium arsenide single crystals with different dopings is studied. It is shown, in which way the concentration of the single point defects depende on the concentration of the dopants, the stoichiometry deviation, and the position of the Fermi level. For this serve the results of the measurement-technical characterization of a large number of samples, in the fabrication of which these parameters were directedly varied. The main topic of this thesis lies in the development of models, which allow a quantitative description of the experimentally studied electrical and optical properties of gallium arsenide single crystals starting from the point-defect concentrations. Because from point defects charge carriers can be set free, their concentration determines essentially the charge-carrier concentration in the bands. In the ionized state point defects act as scattering centers for free charge carriers and influence by this the drift mobility of the charge carriers. A thermodynamic modeling of the point-defect formation yields statements on the equilibrium concentrations of the point defects in dependence on dopant concentration and stoichiometry deviation. It is show that the electrical properties of the crystals observed at room temperature result from the kinetic suppression of processes, via which the adjustment of a thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects is mediated. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Punktdefekthaushalt von Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen mit unterschiedlichen Dotierungen untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise die Konzentration der einzelnen Punktdefekte von der Konzentration der Dotierstoffe, der Stoechiometrieabweichung und der Lage des Ferminiveaus abhaengen. Dazu dienen die Ergebnisse der messtechnischen Charakterisierung einer grossen Anzahl von Proben, bei deren Herstellung diese Parameter gezielt variiert wurden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Entwicklung

  3. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages....... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  4. Structure and energy of point defects in TiC: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.

    2015-04-01

    We employ first-principles calculations to study the atomic and electronic structure of various point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, and antisites in the stoichiometric as well as slightly off-stoichiometric Ti1 -cCc (including both C-poor and C-rich compositions, 0.49 ≤c ≤0.51 ). The atomic structure analysis has revealed that both interstitial and antisite defects can exist in split conformations involving dumbbells. To characterize the electronic structure changes caused by a defect, we introduce differential density of states (dDOS) defined as a local perturbation of the density of states (DOS) on the defect site and its surrounding relative to the perfect TiC. This definition allows us to identify the DOS peaks characteristic of the studied defects in several conformations. So far, characteristic defect states have been discussed only in connection with carbon vacancies. Here, in particular, we have identified dDOS peaks of carbon interstitials and dumbbells, which can be used for experimental detection of such defects in TiC. The formation energies of point defects in TiC are derived in the framework of a grand-canonical formalism. Among the considered defects, carbon vacancies and interstitials are shown to have, respectively, the lowest and the second-lowest formation energies. Their formation energetics are consistent with the thermodynamic data on the phase stability of nonstoichiometric TiC. A cluster type of point defect is found to be next in energy, a titanium [100] dumbbell terminated by two carbon vacancies.

  5. Understanding zero-point energy in the context of classical electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    Today’s textbooks of electromagnetism give the particular solution to Maxwell’s equations involving the integral over the charge and current sources at retarded times. However, the texts fail to emphasise that the choice of the incoming-wave boundary conditions corresponding to solutions of the homogeneous Maxwell equations must be made based upon experiment. Here we discuss the role of these incoming-wave boundary conditions for an experimenter with a hypothetical charged harmonic oscillator as his equipment. We describe the observations of the experimenter when located near a radio station or immersed in thermal radiation at temperature T . The classical physicists at the end of the 19th century chose the incoming-wave boundary conditions for the homogeneous Maxwell equations based upon the experimental observations of Lummer and Pringsheim which measured only the thermal radiation which exceeded the random radiation surrounding their measuring equipment; the physicists concluded that they could take the homogeneous solutions to vanish at zero temperature. Today at the beginning of the 21st century, classical physicists must choose the incoming-wave boundary conditions for the homogeneous Maxell equations to correspond to the full radiation spectrum revealed by the recent Casimir force measurements which detect all the radiation surrounding conducting parallel plates, including the radiation absorbed and emitted by the plates themselves. The random classical radiation spectrum revealed by the Casimir force measurements includes electromagnetic zero-point radiation, which is missing from the spectrum measured by Lummer and Pringsheim, and which cannot be eliminated by going to zero temperature. This zero-point radiation will lead to zero-point energy for all systems which have electromagnetic interactions. Thus the choice of the incoming-wave boundary conditions on the homogeneous Maxwell equations is intimately related to the ideas of zero-point energy and

  6. Single-Step Ironmaking from Ore to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; B. Anamerie; T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    The pig iron nugget process was developed as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace process by Kobe Steel. The process aimed to produce pig iron nuggets, which have similar chemical and physical properties to blast furnace pig iron, in a single step. The pig iron nugget process utilizes coal instead of coke and self reducing and fluxing dried green balls instead of pellets and sinters. In this process the environmental emissions caused by coke and sinter production, and energy lost between pellet induration (heat hardening) and transportation to the blast furnace can be eliminated. The objectives of this research were to (1) produce pig iron nuggets in the laboratory, (2) characterize the pig iron nugget produced and compare them with blast furnace pig iron, (3) investigate the furnace temperature and residence time effects on the pig iron nugget production, and (4) optimize the operational furnace temperatures and residence times. The experiments involved heat treatment of self reducing and fluxing dried green balls at various furnace temperatures and residence times. Three chemically and physically different products were produced after the compete reduction of iron oxides to iron depending on the operational furnace temperatures and/or residence times. These products were direct reduced iron (DRI), transition direct reduced iron (TDRI), and pig iron nuggets. The increase in the carbon content of the system as a function of furnace temperature and/or residence time dictated the formation of these products. The direct reduced iron, transition direct reduced iron, and pig iron nuggets produced were analyzed for their chemical composition, degree of metallization, apparent density, microstructure and microhardness. In addition, the change in the carbon content of the system with the changing furnace temperature and/or residence time was detected by optical microscopy and Microhardness measurements. The sufficient carbon dissolution required for the

  7. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa; McCullough, William P.; Mecca, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash registered CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality by visual

  8. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, The Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McCullough, William P. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mecca, Patricia [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash {sup registered} CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality by

  9. Directed Energy Transfer in Films of CdSe Quantum Dots: Beyond the Point Dipole Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Zídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size...... of QDs, so that the simple point-dipole approximation, widely used in the conventional approach, can no longer offer quantitative description of the FRET dynamics in such systems. Here, we report the investigations of the FRET dynamics in densely packed films composed of multisized CdSe QDs using...

  10. Subharmonic energy-gap structure and heating effects in superconducting niobium point contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, K.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1989-01-01

    We present experimental data of the temperature-dependent subharmonic energy-gap structure (SGS) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves of superconducting niobium point contacts. The observed SGS is modified by heating effects. We construct a model of the quasiparticle conductance of metallic...... superconducting weak links that includes the heating effects self-consistently. Our model is combined with that of Octavio, Blonder, Klapwijk, and Tinkham [Phys. Rev. B 27, 6739 (1983)], which is based on the idea of multiple Andreev scattering in the contact. The shape and the temperature variation...

  11. On the zero point energy of the electromagnetic field in the presence of material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.

    1980-12-01

    The Van der Waals force between two semi-infinite material media separated by a piece of a third material is calculated. In this calculation, a generalization of some works on this theme is made, considering the radiation field delay effect, and impose no kind of electric and magnetic permeability dependence on the field frequency. The zero point energy of electromagnetic field in the presence of rectangular cavities with perfectly conducting walls (epsilon →i infinite) and/or infinitely permeable walls (μ→ infinite), is also calculated. Two kinds of regularization are made. In view of the results obtained modifications in the Casimir's model for the electron are suggested [pt

  12. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle...... motion of the waves. At first, the equations of motion of the system are derived based on analytical rigid body dynamics. Next, assuming monochromatic waves simplified equations are derived, valid under synchronisation of the ring of the gyro to the angular frequency of the excitation. Especially...

  13. New, multi-dimensional reconstructions for the 12-detector, scanned focal point, single-photon tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.A.; Stoddart, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The heuristic reconstruction process used for the highly-focused, scanned focal-point tomograph described by us in 1979 has remained unchanged until recently. This paper describes an entirely new and completely rigorous reconstruction for this unique geometry which produces dramatically improved images that are least square estimates of the objects. The handling of attenuation, scattering, and object power spectra are discussed. Reconstructions are described for 2D, 3D from three slices, time varying 3D from three slices, and 3D from a large set of slices. Reconstructions for simulated and actual clinical data are shown and the accuracy for quantitation is estimated

  14. A point of view on the energy needs and supplies for 2050; Un point de vue sur les besoins et les approvisionnements en energie a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauquis, P.R. [Institut francais de l' energie, 75 - Paris (France)]|[TotalFinaElf La Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of the increase of the primary energy consumption in the future, the author discusses the hypothesis proposed by the economists. The following points are detailed: the economic growth, the demography, the reserves and resources in fossil coal, the renewable energies and nuclear future, the world energy accounting for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  15. The zero-point field. On the search for the cosmic basic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, L.

    2007-02-01

    Does an inexhaustable energy source exist from which all life is fed? A form of energy, which penetrates all dead and living expression forms of life? Does a logical, scientific explanation exist for parapsychological phenomena like clairvoyance, telepathy, ghost healing, synchronicity, and a model for the mode of action of homeopathy? Do serious researchers and scientific studies to be token in ernest exist, which not only deal with this questions but also have found answers? During eight years the British scientific journalist Lynne McTaggart has researched. ''Teh zero-point field'' is the result of numerous speeches with renowned physicists, biophysicists, neuroscientists, biologist, and consciousness researchers on the whole world, which have independently discovered phenomena, which are combined like puzzle pieces to a fascinating total picture.

  16. Ultrasonically Assisted Single Point Diamond Turning of Optical Mold of Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To realize high efficiency, low/no damage and high precision machining of tungsten carbide used for lens mold, a high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system was developed at first. Then, tungsten carbide was precisely machined with a polycrystalline diamond (PCD tool assisted by the self-developed high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system. Tool wear mechanism was investigated in ductile regime machining of tungsten carbide. The cutter back-off phenomenon in the process was analyzed. The subsequent experimental results of ultra-precision machining with a single crystal diamond tool showed that: under the condition of high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting, nano-scale surface roughness can be obtained by the diamond tool with smaller tip radius and no defects like those of ground surface were found on the machined surface. Tool wear mechanisms of the single crystal diamond tool are mainly abrasive wear and micro-chipping. To solve the problem, a method of inclined ultrasonic vibration cutting with negative rake angle was put forward according to force analysis, which can further reduce tool wear and roughness of the machined surface. The investigation was important to high efficiency and quality ultra-precision machining of tungsten carbide.

  17. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  18. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  19. CScape: a tool for predicting oncogenic single-point mutations in the cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark F; Shihab, Hashem A; Gaunt, Tom R; Campbell, Colin

    2017-09-14

    For somatic point mutations in coding and non-coding regions of the genome, we propose CScape, an integrative classifier for predicting the likelihood that mutations are cancer drivers. Tested on somatic mutations, CScape tends to outperform alternative methods, reaching 91% balanced accuracy in coding regions and 70% in non-coding regions, while even higher accuracy may be achieved using thresholds to isolate high-confidence predictions. Positive predictions tend to cluster in genomic regions, so we apply a statistical approach to isolate coding and non-coding regions of the cancer genome that appear enriched for high-confidence predicted disease-drivers. Predictions and software are available at http://CScape.biocompute.org.uk/ .

  20. Potential use of point shear wave elastography for the pancreas: A single center prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawada, Natsuko, E-mail: kawada-na@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko, E-mail: sachi686@cocoa.plala.or.jp [Osaka Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, 1-6-107, Morinomiya, Johtoh, Osaka 536-8588 (Japan); Uehara, Hiroyuki, E-mail: uehara-hi@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: okawa-ka@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan); Yamai, Takuo, E-mail: yamai-ta@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan); Takada, Ryoji, E-mail: takada-ry@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan); Shiroeda, Hisakazu, E-mail: shiroeda@kanazawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Arisawa, Tomiyasu, E-mail: tarisawa@kanazawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Tomita, Yasuhiko, E-mail: tomota-ya@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari, Osaka 537-8511 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Aim: Clinical use of point shear wave elastography for the liver has been established, however, few studies demonstrated its usefulness for the pancreas. A prospective study was conducted to clarify its feasibility for the pancreas and its usefulness for the identification of high risk group for pancreatic cancer. Patients and methods: Consecutive eighty-five patients underwent point shear wave elastography for the pancreas. The success rate of shear wave velocity (SWV) measurement, that is the number of successful measurements over total 10 measurements, was recorded. The SWV of the pancreas measured at non-tumorous area was compared between patients with and without pancreatic cancer. Factors associated with high SWV were determined by logistic regression model. Results: Sixty patients were included, of these 18 had pancreatic cancer. The success rate of 100% was achieved at the head, the body and the tail of the pancreas in 80%, 83%, and 68% of the patients, respectively. The success rate of ≥80% was achieved in 100%, 100%, and 96% of the patients, respectively. Although mean SWV of the pancreas harboring pancreatic cancer tended to be higher compared with that of the pancreas without cancer (1.51 ± 0.45 m/s vs 1.43 ± 0.28 m/s), they did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that increased amount of alcohol intake was associated with high SWV. Conclusion: The SWV of the pancreas was measured with excellent success rate. However, tendency of higher SWV obtained from the pancreas harboring pancreatic cancer needed to be further investigated.

  1. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM...... the wild-type RGI lyase in Bacillus subtilis as opposed to in Pichia pastoris; this effect is suggested to be a negative result of glycosylation of the P. pastoris expressed enzyme. A ~ twofold improvement in thermal stability at 60 °C, accompanied by less significant increases in Tm of the enzyme mutants......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  2. A study of point defect aggregates in #betta#-irradiated LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frugoli, P.A.; Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1982-11-01

    Diffuse X-ray scattering near the Bragg Reflection and Bragg profile analaysis have been made in #betta#-irradiated LiF single crystal X-ray diffractometer. An estimate of the half-width of the diffraction patterns was done and preferential alteration in the profile parameters was observed. Clusters with mean parameter sizes from hundreds to thousands of angstroms were observed but each sample has presented a set of average size values. The nature of clusters was found to be dependent on the #betta#-dose: vacancy at low dose (approximately 10 MRad) and interstitial at high dose (approximately 50 MRad). Some process of coalescence at 50 MRad seems to occur. (Author) [pt

  3. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  4. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  5. Charged Point Defects in the Flatland: Accurate Formation Energy Calculations in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Berseneva, Natalia; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2014-07-01

    Impurities and defects frequently govern materials properties, with the most prominent example being the doping of bulk semiconductors where a minute amount of foreign atoms can be responsible for the operation of the electronic devices. Several computational schemes based on a supercell approach have been developed to get insights into types and equilibrium concentrations of point defects, which successfully work in bulk materials. Here, we show that many of these schemes cannot directly be applied to two-dimensional (2D) systems, as formation energies of charged point defects are dominated by large spurious electrostatic interactions between defects in inhomogeneous environments. We suggest two approaches that solve this problem and give accurate formation energies of charged defects in 2D systems in the dilute limit. Our methods, which are applicable to all kinds of charged defects in any 2D system, are benchmarked for impurities in technologically important h-BN and MoS2 2D materials, and they are found to perform equally well for substitutional and adatom impurities.

  6. Charged Point Defects in the Flatland: Accurate Formation Energy Calculations in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Pekka Komsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Impurities and defects frequently govern materials properties, with the most prominent example being the doping of bulk semiconductors where a minute amount of foreign atoms can be responsible for the operation of the electronic devices. Several computational schemes based on a supercell approach have been developed to get insights into types and equilibrium concentrations of point defects, which successfully work in bulk materials. Here, we show that many of these schemes cannot directly be applied to two-dimensional (2D systems, as formation energies of charged point defects are dominated by large spurious electrostatic interactions between defects in inhomogeneous environments. We suggest two approaches that solve this problem and give accurate formation energies of charged defects in 2D systems in the dilute limit. Our methods, which are applicable to all kinds of charged defects in any 2D system, are benchmarked for impurities in technologically important h-BN and MoS_{2} 2D materials, and they are found to perform equally well for substitutional and adatom impurities.

  7. Intelligent energy harvesting scheme for microbial fuel cells: Maximum power point tracking and voltage overshoot avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraj, Muhannad; Radenkovic, Miloje; Park, Jae-Do

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are renewable and sustainable energy sources that can be used for various applications. The MFC output power depends on its biochemical conditions as well as the terminal operating points in terms of output voltage and current. There exists one operating point that gives the maximum possible power from the MFC, maximum power point (MPP), for a given operating condition. However, this MPP may vary and needs to be tracked in order to maintain the maximum power extraction from the MFC. Furthermore, MFC reactors often develop voltage overshoots that cause drastic drops in the terminal voltage, current, and the output power. When the voltage overshoot happens, an additional control measure is necessary as conventional MPPT algorithms will fail because of the change in the voltage-current relationship. In this paper, the extremum seeking (ES) algorithm was used to track the varying MPP and a voltage overshoot avoidance (VOA) algorithm is developed to manage the voltage overshoot conditions. The proposed ES-MPPT with VOA algorithm was able to extract 197.2 mJ during 10-min operation avoiding voltage overshoot, while the ES MPPT-only scheme stopped harvesting after only 18.75 mJ because of the voltage overshoot happened at 0.4 min.

  8. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  9. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  10. Fast computation of quadrupole and hexadecapole approximations in microlensing with a single point-source evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassan, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The exoplanet detection rate from gravitational microlensing has grown significantly in recent years thanks to a great enhancement of resources and improved observational strategy. Current observatories include ground-based wide-field and/or robotic world-wide networks of telescopes, as well as space-based observatories such as satellites Spitzer or Kepler/K2. This results in a large quantity of data to be processed and analysed, which is a challenge for modelling codes because of the complexity of the parameter space to be explored and the intensive computations required to evaluate the models. In this work, I present a method that allows to compute the quadrupole and hexadecapole approximations of the finite-source magnification with more efficiency than previously available codes, with routines about six times and four times faster, respectively. The quadrupole takes just about twice the time of a point-source evaluation, which advocates for generalizing its use to large portions of the light curves. The corresponding routines are available as open-source python codes.

  11. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  12. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  13. Performance of a Tethered Point Wave-Energy Absorber in Regular and Irregular Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Bachynski, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the mooring system on the dynamic response of a point-absorber type ocean-wave energy converter (WEC) is investigated using a frequency-domain approach. In order to ensure the safety of WECs, careful consideration of the response and resonance frequencies in all motions must be evaluated, including the effects of the mooring system. In this study, a WEC floater with a closed, flat bottom is modeled as a rigid vertical cylinder tethered by elastic mooring lines. The WEC hydrodynamic added mass and damping are obtained using established potential-flow methods, with additional damping provided by the energy-extraction system. The results show that the response of the WEC, and the corresponding power takeoff, varies with the diameter-to-draft (D=T) ratio, mooring system stiffness, and mass distribution. For a given wave climate in Northern California, near San Francisco, the heave energy extraction is found to be best for a shallow WEC with a soft mooring system, compared to other systems that were examined. This result assumes a physical limit (cap) on the motion which is related to the significant wave height to draft ratio. Shallow draft designs, however, may experience excessive pitch motions and relatively larger viscous damping. In order to mitigate the pitch response, the pitch radius of gyration should be small and the center of mass should be low. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  14. A theorem on the single particle energy in a Fermi gas with interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, N.M.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    This paper investigates single particle properties in a Fermi gas with interaction at the absolute zero of temperature. In such a system a single particle energy has only a meaning for particles of momentum k close to the Fermi momentum kF. These single particle states are metastable with a

  15. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  16. Channel capacity of TDD-OFDM-MIMO for multiple access points in a wireless single-frequency-network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takatori, Y.; Fitzek, Frank; Tsunekawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    MIMO data transmission scheme, which combines Single-Frequency-Network (SFN) with TDD-OFDM-MIMO applied for wireless LAN networks. In our proposal, we advocate to use SFN for multiple access points (MAP) MIMO data transmission. The goal of this approach is to achieve very high channel capacity in both...... LOS and non line of sight (NLOS) environments. The channel capacity of the proposed method is derived for the direct path environments and it confirms the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in the LOS scenario. Moreover, solid computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed...

  17. Theoretical Basis for Stochastic Optimization Starting from a Single Point in the Search Space Formed by Real DNA Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    This paper discusses DNA-based stochastic optimizations under the constraint that the search starts from a given point in a search space. Generally speaking, a stochastic optimization method explores a search space and finds out the optimum or a sub-optimum after many cycles of trials and errors. This search process could be implemented efficiently by ``molecular computing'', which processes DNA molecules by the techniques of molecular biology to generate and evaluate a vast number of solution candidates at a time. We assume the exploration starting from a single point, and propose a method to embody DNA-based optimization under this constraint, because this method has a promising application in the research field of protein engineering. In this application, a string of nucleotide bases (a base sequence) encodes a protein possessing a specific activity, which could be given as a value of an objective function. Thus, a problem of obtaining a protein with the optimum or a sub-optimum about the desired activity corresponds to a combinatorial problem of obtaining a base sequence giving the optimum or a sub-optimum in the sequence space. Biologists usually modify a base sequence corresponding to a naturally occurring protein into another sequence giving a desired activity. In other words, they explore the space in the proximity of a natural protein as a start point. We first examined if the optimization methods that involve a single start point, such as simulated annealing, Gibbs sampler, and MH algorithms, can be implemented by DNA-based operations. Then, we proposed an application of genetic algorithm, and examined the performance of this application on a model fitness landscape by computer experiments. These experiments gave helpful guidelines in the embodiments of DNA-based stochastic optimization, including a better design of crossover operator.

  18. Electric field and energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperbolaidal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Koo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The electric potential and intensity field, as well as the energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperboloidal electrodes is evaluated as a superposition of prolate spheroidal harmonics using the Green-function technique. This study is motivated by the need to model the electric field between the tip and the sample in a scanning tunnelling microscope, and it can also be applied to a conductor-insulator-conductor junction. [Spanish] Los campos de potencial y de intensidad electrica, asi como la energia de una carga electrica puntual entre electrodos hiperboloidales confocales se evaluan como superposiciones de armonicos esferoidales prolatos usando la tecnica de la funcion de Green. Este estudio ha sido motivado por la necesidad de modelar el campo electrico entre la punta y la muestra de un microscopio de tunelamiento y barrido, y se puede aplicar tambien a una union de conductor-aislante-conductor.

  19. Disentangling interacting dark energy cosmologies with the three-point correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Michele; Marulli, Federico; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro; Cimatti, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of constraining coupled dark energy (cDE) cosmologies using the three-point correlation function (3PCF). Making use of the CODECS N-body simulations, we study the statistical properties of cold dark matter (CDM) haloes for a variety of models, including a fiducial ΛCDM scenario and five models in which dark energy (DE) and CDM mutually interact. We measure both the halo 3PCF, ζ(θ), and the reduced 3PCF, Q(θ), at different scales (2 appears flat at small scales (for all redshifts) and at low redshifts (for all scales), while it builds up the characteristic V-shape anisotropy at increasing redshifts and scales. With respect to the ΛCDM predictions, cDE models show lower (higher) values of the halo 3PCF for perpendicular (elongated) configurations. The effect is also scale-dependent, with differences between ΛCDM and cDE models that increase at large scales. We made use of these measurements to estimate the halo bias, that results in fair agreement with the one computed from the two-point correlation function (2PCF). The main advantage of using both the 2PCF and 3PCF is to break the bias-σ8 degeneracy. Moreover, we find that our bias estimates are approximately independent of the assumed strength of DE coupling. This study demonstrates the power of a higher order clustering analysis in discriminating between alternative cosmological scenarios, for both present and forthcoming galaxy surveys, such as e.g. Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and Euclid.

  20. Automated bone removal in CT angiography : Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Marcel; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic

  1. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  2. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  3. Detecting shifts in gene regulatory networks during time-course experiments at single-time-point temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yoichi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of biological systems is one of the greatest challenges in biology. Vastly improved biological technologies have provided vast amounts of information that must be understood by bioinformatics and systems biology researchers. Gene regulations have been frequently modeled by ordinary differential equations or graphical models based on time-course gene expression profiles. The state-of-the-art computational approaches for analyzing gene regulations assume that their models are same throughout time-course experiments. However, these approaches cannot easily analyze transient changes at a time point, such as diauxic shift. We propose a score that analyzes the gene regulations at each time point. The score is based on the information gains of information criterion values. The method detects the shifts in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) during time-course experiments with single-time-point resolution. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated on the diauxic shift from glucose to lactose in Escherichia coli. Gene regulation shifts were detected at two time points: the first corresponding to the time at which the growth of E. coli ceased and the second corresponding to the end of the experiment, when the nutrient sources (glucose and lactose) had become exhausted. According to these results, the proposed score and method can appropriately detect the time of gene regulation shifts. The method based on the proposed score provides a new tool for analyzing dynamic biological systems. Because the score value indicates the strength of gene regulation at each time point in a gene expression profile, it can potentially infer hidden GRNs from time-course experiments.

  4. Target validation for FCV technology development in Japan from energy competition point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENDO Eiichi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate the technical targets in the governmental hydrogen energy road-map of Japan by analyzing market penetration of fuel cell vehicle(FCV)s and effects of fuel price and carbon tax on it from technology competition point of view. In this analysis, an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL is used. The results of the analysis show that hydrogen FCVs could not have cost-competitiveness until 2030 without carbon tax, including the governmental actual plan of carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs penetrate to the market earlier and more. By assuming higher fuel price and severer carbon tax rate, market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches to the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and/or hydrogen price than those targeted in the road-map is required. At the same time, achievement of the technical targets in the road-map also allows to attain the market penetration target of hydrogen FCVs in some possible conditions. (authors)

  5. Zero-point energy, tunnelling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review in this journal of the thermal and vibrationally state-selected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review, and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates, and why vibrationally non-adiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunnelling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.

  6. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy of suspended graphene, the ultimate 'microscope slide'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J Y; Livadaru, L; Urban, R; Salomons, M H; Cloutier, M; Wolkow, R A; Robinson, J T

    2011-01-01

    Point projection microscopy (PPM) is used to image suspended graphene by using low-energy electrons (100-205 eV). Because of the low energies used, the graphene is neither damaged nor contaminated by the electron beam for doses of the order of 10 7 electrons per nm 2 . The transparency of graphene is measured to be 74%, equivalent to electron transmission through a sheet twice as thick as the covalent radius of sp 2 -bonded carbon. Also observed is rippling in the structure of the suspended graphene, with a wavelength of approximately 26 nm. The interference of the electron beam due to diffraction off the edge of a graphene knife edge is observed and is used to calculate a virtual source size of 4.7±0.6 A for the electron emitter. It is demonstrated that graphene can serve as both the anode and the substrate in PPM, thereby avoiding distortions due to strong field gradients around nanoscale objects. Graphene can be used to image objects suspended on the sheet using PPM and, in the future, electron holography.

  7. Considering linear generator copper losses on model predictive control for a point absorber wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Andrade, Dan-El; Villa Jaén, Antonio de la; García Santana, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We considered the linear generator copper losses in the proposed MPC strategy. • We maximized the power transferred to the generator side power converter. • The proposed MPC increases the useful average power injected into the grid. • The stress level of the PTO system can be reduced by the proposed MPC. - Abstract: The amount of energy that a wave energy converter can extract depends strongly on the control strategy applied to the power take-off system. It is well known that, ideally, the reactive control allows for maximum energy extraction from waves. However, the reactive control is intrinsically noncausal in practice and requires some kind of causal approach to be applied. Moreover, this strategy does not consider physical constraints and this could be a problem because the system could achieve unacceptable dynamic values. These, and other control techniques have focused on the wave energy extraction problem in order to maximize the energy absorbed by the power take-off device without considering the possible losses in intermediate devices. In this sense, a reactive control that considers the linear generator copper losses has been recently proposed to increase the useful power injected into the grid. Among the control techniques that have emerged recently, the model predictive control represents a promising strategy. This approach performs an optimization process on a time prediction horizon incorporating dynamic constraints associated with the physical features of the power take-off system. This paper proposes a model predictive control technique that considers the copper losses in the control optimization process of point absorbers with direct drive linear generators. This proposal makes the most of reactive control as it considers the copper losses, and it makes the most of the model predictive control, as it considers the system constraints. This means that the useful power transferred from the linear generator to the power

  8. Tunnelling determined superconducting energy gap of bulk single crystal aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civiak, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for fabricating Giaver tunnel junctions on bulk aluminum. Al-I-Ag junctions were prepared, where I is the naturally formed oxide on the polished, chemically treated aluminum surface. The aluminum energy gap was determined from tunneling conductance curves obtained from samples oriented in three different crystal directions, and as a function of magnetic field in each of these orientations. In contrast to the results of microwave absorption measurements on superconducting aluminum, no magnetic field dependence could be measured for either the average gap or the spread in gap values of the tunneling electrons. This is consistent with commonly accepted tunneling selection rules, and Garfunkel's interpretation of the microwave behavior which depended upon adjusting the energy spectrum of only the electrons traveling parallel to the surface in the presence of a magnetic field. The energy gaps measured for samples oriented in the 100, 110 and 111 directions are 3.52, 3.50 and 3.39 kT/sub c/, respectively. The trend in the anisotropy is the same as in the calculation of Leavens and Carbotte, however, the magnitude of the anisotropy is smaller than in their calculation and that which previous measurements have indicated

  9. Upgrade of neutron energy spectrometer with single multilayer bonner sphere using onion-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukpshi, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritan, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ogata, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In order to measure neutron energy spectra, the conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) are widely used. In this spectrometer, several measurements with different size Bonner spheres are required. Operators should, therefore, place these spheres in several times to a measurement point where radiation dose might be relatively high. In order to reduce this effort, novel neutron energy spectrometer using an onion-like single Bonner sphere was proposed in our group. This Bonner sphere has multiple sensitive spherical shell layers in the single sphere. In this spectrometer, a band-shaped thermal neutron detection medium, which consists of a LiF-ZnS mixed powder scintillator sheet and a wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber readout, was looped to each sphere at equal angular intervals. Amount of LiF neutron converter is reduced near polar region, where the band-shaped detectors are concentrated, in order to uniform the directional sensitivity. The LiF-ZnS mixed powder has an advantage of extremely high light yield. However, since it is opaque, scintillation photons cannot be collect uniformly. This type of detector shows no characteristic shape in the pulse height spectrum. Subsequently, it is difficult to set the pulse height discrimination level. This issue causes sensitivity fluctuation due to gain instability of photodetectors and/or electric modules. In order to solve this problem, we propose to replace the LiF-ZnS mixed powder into a flexible and Transparent RUbber SheeT type LiCaAlF6 (TRUST LiCAF) scintillator. TRUST LiCAF scintillator can show a peak shape corresponding to neutron absorption events in the pulse height spectrum. We fabricated the prototype detector with five sensitive layers using TRUST LiCAF scintillator and conducted basic experiments to evaluate the directional uniformity of the sensitivity. The fabricated detector shows excellent directional uniformity of the neutron sensitivity

  10. Upgrade of neutron energy spectrometer with single multilayer bonner sphere using onion-like structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukpshi, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritan, Akira [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ogata, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Takashi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe(Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In order to measure neutron energy spectra, the conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) are widely used. In this spectrometer, several measurements with different size Bonner spheres are required. Operators should, therefore, place these spheres in several times to a measurement point where radiation dose might be relatively high. In order to reduce this effort, novel neutron energy spectrometer using an onion-like single Bonner sphere was proposed in our group. This Bonner sphere has multiple sensitive spherical shell layers in the single sphere. In this spectrometer, a band-shaped thermal neutron detection medium, which consists of a LiF-ZnS mixed powder scintillator sheet and a wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber readout, was looped to each sphere at equal angular intervals. Amount of LiF neutron converter is reduced near polar region, where the band-shaped detectors are concentrated, in order to uniform the directional sensitivity. The LiF-ZnS mixed powder has an advantage of extremely high light yield. However, since it is opaque, scintillation photons cannot be collect uniformly. This type of detector shows no characteristic shape in the pulse height spectrum. Subsequently, it is difficult to set the pulse height discrimination level. This issue causes sensitivity fluctuation due to gain instability of photodetectors and/or electric modules. In order to solve this problem, we propose to replace the LiF-ZnS mixed powder into a flexible and Transparent RUbber SheeT type LiCaAlF6 (TRUST LiCAF) scintillator. TRUST LiCAF scintillator can show a peak shape corresponding to neutron absorption events in the pulse height spectrum. We fabricated the prototype detector with five sensitive layers using TRUST LiCAF scintillator and conducted basic experiments to evaluate the directional uniformity of the sensitivity. The fabricated detector shows excellent directional uniformity of the neutron sensitivity.

  11. Image quality comparison between single energy and dual energy CT protocols for hepatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Pelc, Norbert J.; Ng, Joshua M.; Megibow, Alec J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enables volumetric scans in a single breath hold and is clinically useful for hepatic imaging. For simple tasks, conventional single energy (SE) computed tomography (CT) images acquired at the optimal tube potential are known to have better quality than dual energy (DE) blended images. However, liver imaging is complex and often requires imaging of both structures containing iodinated contrast media, where atomic number differences are the primary contrast mechanism, and other structures, where density differences are the primary contrast mechanism. Hence it is conceivable that the broad spectrum used in a dual energy acquisition may be an advantage. In this work we are interested in comparing these two imaging strategies at equal-dose and more complex settings. Methods: We developed numerical anthropomorphic phantoms to mimic realistic clinical CT scans for medium size and large size patients. MDCT images based on the defined phantoms were simulated using various SE and DE protocols at pre- and post-contrast stages. For SE CT, images from 60 kVp through 140 with 10 kVp steps were considered; for DE CT, both 80/140 and 100/140 kVp scans were simulated and linearly blended at the optimal weights. To make a fair comparison, the mAs of each scan was adjusted to match the reference radiation dose (120 kVp, 200 mAs for medium size patients and 140 kVp, 400 mAs for large size patients). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of liver against other soft tissues was used to evaluate and compare the SE and DE protocols, and multiple pre- and post-contrasted liver-tissue pairs were used to define a composite CNR. To help validate the simulation results, we conducted a small clinical study. Eighty-five 120 kVp images and 81 blended 80/140 kVp images were collected and compared through both quantitative image quality analysis and an observer study. Results: In the simulation study, we found that the CNR of pre-contrast SE image mostly

  12. On zero-point energy, stability and Hagedorn behavior of Type IIB strings on pp-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.

    2003-06-01

    Type IIB strings on many pp-wave backgrounds, supported either by 5-form or 3-form fluxes, have negative light-cone zero-point energy. This raises the question of their stability and poses possible problems in the definition of their thermodynamic properties. After having pointed out the correct way of calculating the zero-point energy, an issue not fully discussed in literature, we show that these Type IIB strings are classically stable and have well defined thermal properties, exhibiting a Hagedorn behavior. (author)

  13. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    saving improvements carried out in the project are “easy to carry out” and cost-beneficial measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, insulation of walls under windows and a new second window-frame with energy-saving glass. The work was carried out by professional contractors at a total......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....

  14. Bipolar Photothermoelectric Effect Across Energy Filters in Single Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-07-12

    The photothermoelectric (PTE) effect uses nonuniform absorption of light to produce a voltage via the Seebeck effect and is of interest for optical sensing and solar-to-electric energy conversion. However, the utility of PTE devices reported to date has been limited by the need to use a tightly focused laser spot to achieve the required, nonuniform illumination and by their dependence upon the Seebeck coefficients of the constituent materials, which exhibit limited tunability and, generally, low values. Here, we use InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires to overcome these limitations: first, we use naturally occurring absorption "hot spots" at wave mode maxima within the nanowire to achieve sharp boundaries between heated and unheated subwavelength regions of high and low absorption, allowing us to use global illumination; second, we employ carrier energy-filtering heterostructures to achieve a high Seebeck coefficient that is tunable by heterostructure design. Using these methods, we demonstrate PTE voltages of hundreds of millivolts at room temperature from a globally illuminated nanowire device. Furthermore, we find PTE currents and voltages that change polarity as a function of the wavelength of illumination due to spatial shifting of subwavelength absorption hot spots. These results indicate the feasibility of designing new types of PTE-based photodetectors, photothermoelectrics, and hot-carrier solar cells using nanowires.

  15. Ultrafast Single and Multiexciton Energy Transfer in Semiconductor Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Richard

    Photophysical processes such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enable optical antennas, wavelength down-conversion in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and optical bio-sensing schemes. The rate and efficiency of this donor to acceptor transfer of excitation between chromophores dictates the utility of FRET and can unlock new device operation motifs including quantum-funnel solar cells and reduced gain thresholds. However, the fastest reported FRET time constants involving spherical quantum dots (QDs) (0.12-1 ns), do not outpace biexciton Auger recombination (0.01-0.1 ns), which impedes multiexciton-driven applications including electrically-pumped lasers and carrier-multiplication-enhanced photovoltaics. Precisely controlled, few-monolayer thick semiconductor nano-platelets with tens-of-nanometer diameters exhibit intense optical transitions and hundreds-of-picosecond Auger recombination, but heretofore lack FRET characterizations. We examine binary CdSe NPL solids and show that inter-plate FRET (~6-23 ps, presumably for co-facial arrangements) can occur 15-50 times faster than Auger recombination and demonstrate multiexcitonic FRET, making such materials ideal candidates for advanced technologies. This work was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. A study on density functional theory of the effect of pressure on the formation and migration enthalpies of intrinsic point defects in growing single crystal Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, Koji; Kamiyama, Eiji; Kariyazaki, Hiroaki

    2012-05-01

    In 1982, Voronkov presented a model describing point defect behavior during the growth of single crystal Si from a melt and derived an expression to predict if the crystal was vacancy- or self-interstitial-rich. Recently, Vanhellemont claimed that one should take into account the impact of compressive stress introduced by the thermal gradient at the melt/solid interface by considering the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the formation enthalpy of the intrinsic point defects. To evaluate the impact of thermal stress more correctly, the pressure dependence of both the formation enthalpy (Hf) and the migration enthalpy (Hm) of the intrinsic point defects should be taken into account. Furthermore, growing single crystal Si is not under hydrostatic pressure but almost free of external pressure (generally in Ar gas under reduced pressure). In the present paper, the dependence of Hf and Hm on the pressure P, or in other words, the pressure dependence of the formation energy (Ef) and the relaxation volume (vf), is quantified by density functional theory calculations. Although a large number of ab initio calculations of the properties of intrinsic point defects have been published during the last years, calculations for Si crystals under pressure are rather scarce. For vacancies V, the reported pressure dependences of HfV are inconsistent. In the present study, by using 216-atom supercells with a sufficient cut-off energy and mesh of k-points, the neutral I and V are found to have nearly constant formation energies EfI and EfV for pressures up to 1 GPa. For the relaxation volume, vfI is almost constant while vfV decreases linearly with increasing pressure P. In case of the hydrostatic pressure Ph, the calculated formation enthalpy HfI and migration enthalpy HmI at the [110] dumbbell site are given by HfI = 3.425 - 0.057 × Ph (eV) and HmI = 0.981 - 0.039 × Ph (eV), respectively, with Ph given in GPa. The calculated HfV and HmV dependencies on Ph given by HfV = 3.543 - 0

  17. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  18. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  19. High Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser at Low Repetition Rate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  20. High Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser at Low Repetition Rate, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system operating at low repetition rate of 10 Hz to 1 kHz for coherent Lidar systems...

  1. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  2. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  3. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  4. Critical Watersheds: Climate Change, Tipping Points, and Energy-Water Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R. S.; Brown, M.; Coon, E.; Linn, R.; McDowell, N. G.; Painter, S. L.; Xu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change, extreme climate events, and climate-induced disturbances will have a substantial and detrimental impact on terrestrial ecosystems. How ecosystems respond to these impacts will, in turn, have a significant effect on the quantity, quality, and timing of water supply for energy security, agriculture, industry, and municipal use. As a community, we lack sufficient quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the complex interplay between climate extremes (e.g., drought, floods), ecosystem dynamics (e.g., vegetation succession), and disruptive events (e.g., wildfire) to assess ecosystem vulnerabilities and to design mitigation strategies that minimize or prevent catastrophic ecosystem impacts. Through a combination of experimental and observational science and modeling, we are developing a unique multi-physics ecohydrologic framework for understanding and quantifying feedbacks between novel climate and extremes, surface and subsurface hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and disruptive events in critical watersheds. The simulation capability integrates and advances coupled surface-subsurface hydrology from the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), dynamic vegetation succession from the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and QUICFIRE, a novel wildfire behavior model developed from the FIRETEC platform. These advances are expected to make extensive contributions to the literature and to earth system modeling. The framework is designed to predict, quantify, and mitigate the impacts of climate change on vulnerable watersheds, with a focus on the US Mountain West and the energy-water nexus. This emerging capability is used to identify tipping points in watershed ecosystems, quantify impacts on downstream users, and formally evaluate mitigation efforts including forest (e.g., thinning, prescribed burns) and watershed (e.g., slope stabilization). The framework is being trained, validated, and demonstrated using field observations and remote data collections in the

  5. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    . It was found that energy consumption and indoor climate are ever more in focus when buying a house and important drivers for house owners’ motivation for retrofitting their existing house. Energy retrofitting is complicated and it is also experienced as such by many house owners. There is uncertainty......The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house...

  6. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  7. Fingerprints of single nuclear spin energy levels using STM - ENDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassen, Yishay; Averbukh, Michael; Jbara, Moamen; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Shnirman, Alexander; Horovitz, Baruch

    2018-04-01

    We performed STM-ENDOR experiments where the intensity of one of the hyperfine components detected in ESR-STM is recorded while an rf power is irradiated into the tunneling junction and its frequency is swept. When the latter frequency is near a nuclear transition a dip in ESR-STM signal is observed. This experiment was performed in three different systems: near surface SiC vacancies where the electron spin is coupled to a next nearest neighbor 29Si nucleus; Cu deposited on Si(111)7x7 surface, where the unpaired electron of the Cu atom is coupled to the Cu nucleus (63Cu, 65Cu) and on Tempo molecules adsorbed on Au(111), where the unpaired electron is coupled to a Nitrogen nucleus (14N). While some of the hyperfine values are unresolved in the ESR-STM data due to linewidth we find that they are accurately determined in the STM-ENDOR data including those from remote nuclei, which are not detected in the ESR-STM spectrum. Furthermore, STM-ENDOR can measure single nuclear Zeeman frequencies, distinguish between isotopes through their different nuclear magnetic moments and detect quadrupole spectra. We also develop and solve a Bloch type equation for the coupled electron-nuclear system that facilitates interpretation of the data. The improved spectral resolution of STM - ENDOR opens many possibilities for nanometric scale chemical analysis.

  8. Fingerprints of single nuclear spin energy levels using STM - ENDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassen, Yishay; Averbukh, Michael; Jbara, Moamen; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Shnirman, Alexander; Horovitz, Baruch

    2018-04-01

    We performed STM-ENDOR experiments where the intensity of one of the hyperfine components detected in ESR-STM is recorded while an rf power is irradiated into the tunneling junction and its frequency is swept. When the latter frequency is near a nuclear transition a dip in ESR-STM signal is observed. This experiment was performed in three different systems: near surface SiC vacancies where the electron spin is coupled to a next nearest neighbor 29 Si nucleus; Cu deposited on Si(111)7x7 surface, where the unpaired electron of the Cu atom is coupled to the Cu nucleus ( 63 Cu, 65 Cu) and on Tempo molecules adsorbed on Au(111), where the unpaired electron is coupled to a Nitrogen nucleus ( 14 N). While some of the hyperfine values are unresolved in the ESR-STM data due to linewidth we find that they are accurately determined in the STM-ENDOR data including those from remote nuclei, which are not detected in the ESR-STM spectrum. Furthermore, STM-ENDOR can measure single nuclear Zeeman frequencies, distinguish between isotopes through their different nuclear magnetic moments and detect quadrupole spectra. We also develop and solve a Bloch type equation for the coupled electron-nuclear system that facilitates interpretation of the data. The improved spectral resolution of STM - ENDOR opens many possibilities for nanometric scale chemical analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of the point defect pinning effect in Mo-doped Bi2212 single crystals of reduced anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Han, S H; Dai, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Zhao, Y

    2002-01-01

    High quality Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 sub - sub x Mo sub x O sub y (x = 0, 0.01 and 0.02) single crystals have been grown by a self-flux method in a horizontal temperature gradient and their flux pinning and irreversibility behaviour have been investigated. The irreversibility lines of the undoped and Mo-doped Bi2212 crystals have been greatly improved by reducing the anisotropy parameter gamma. However, this improvement is much more pronounced for Mo-doped crystals than for the undoped ones. The peak effect of magnetization loops also changes with both Mo-doping and gamma. The results provide strong evidence that the point defect pinning served by Mo is greatly enhanced when the anisotropy of the system is reduced.

  10. Revisiting single-point incremental forming and formability/failure diagrams by means of finite elements and experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M. B.; Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    the forming limits determined by the analytical framework with experimental values. It is shown that agreement between analytical, finite element, and experimental results is good, implying that the previously proposed analytical framework can be utilized to explain the mechanics of deformation......In a previously published work, the current authors presented an analytical framework, built upon the combined utilization of membrane analysis and ductile damage mechanics, that is capable of modelling the fundamentals of single-point incremental forming (SPIF) of metallic sheets. The analytical...... mode of deformation. The study of the morphology of the cracks combined with the experimentally observed suppression of neck formation enabled the authors to conclude that traditional forming limit curves are inapplicable for describing failure. Instead, fracture forming limit curves should be employed...

  11. High performance control strategy for single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped traction four-quadrant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejian, Song; Konstantinou, Georgios; Jing, Li

    2017-01-01

    multiple unit traction system is proposed in this study. The strategy is based on a multiple frequency tuned quasi-proportional resonant controller in the ac-side current loop and a multiple frequency tuned notch filter in the dc-link voltage loop. Under the typical supply voltage distortion present......Operational data from Chinese railways indicate a number of challenges for traction four-quadrant converter (4QC) control including low-order voltage and current harmonics and reference tracking. A control strategy for a single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped 4QC employed in the electric...... in the network, the proposed control strategy improves the current tracking performance and reduces the line current harmonics, when compared with conventional control strategies. Experimental results, both under purely sinusoidal and distorted supply voltages, validate the effectiveness of the proposed control...

  12. Experimental and numerical study on optimization of the single point incremental forming of AINSI 304L stainless steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, B.; Giraud-Moreau, L.; Cherouat, A.; Nasri, R.

    2017-09-01

    AINSI 304L stainless steel sheets are commonly formed into a variety of shapes for applications in the industrial, architectural, transportation and automobile fields, it’s also used for manufacturing of denture base. In the field of dentistry, there is a need for personalized devises that are custom made for the patient. The single point incremental forming process is highly promising in this area for manufacturing of denture base. The single point incremental forming process (ISF) is an emerging process based on the use of a spherical tool, which is moved along CNC controlled tool path. One of the major advantages of this process is the ability to program several punch trajectories on the same machine in order to obtain different shapes. Several applications of this process exist in the medical field for the manufacturing of personalized titanium prosthesis (cranial plate, knee prosthesis...) due to the need of product customization to each patient. The objective of this paper is to study the incremental forming of AISI 304L stainless steel sheets for future applications in the dentistry field. During the incremental forming process, considerable forces can occur. The control of the forming force is particularly important to ensure the safe use of the CNC milling machine and preserve the tooling and machinery. In this paper, the effect of four different process parameters on the maximum force is studied. The proposed approach consists in using an experimental design based on experimental results. An analysis of variance was conducted with ANOVA to find the input parameters allowing to minimize the maximum forming force. A numerical simulation of the incremental forming process is performed with the optimal input process parameters. Numerical results are compared with the experimental ones.

  13. Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.G. [Departamento de Electronica y Comunicaciones, Universidad de los Andes, nucleo la Hechicera, 5101 Merida (Venezuela); Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Carranza, O. [Escuela Superior de Computo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz s/n, 07738 DF (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents an improved maximum-power-point tracking algorithm for wind-energy-conversion-systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the turbine mechanical stress with regard to conventional techniques, so that both the maintenance needs and the medium time between failures are expected to be improved. To achieve these objectives, a sensorless speed control loop receives its reference signal from a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm, in which the typical steps on the reference speed have been substituted by a fixed and well-defined slope ramp signal. As a result, it is achieved a soft dynamic response of both the torque and the speed of the wind turbine, so that the whole system suffers from a lower mechanical stress than with conventional P and O techniques. The proposed method has been applied to a wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator operating at variable speed, which is connected to the distribution grid by means of a back to back converter. (author)

  14. The point of view of religious authorities and philosophers on nuclear energy - Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the reporting of an interview made with Jacques Arnould, a science historian and philosopher. The philosopher thinks that the main problem of sciences and technologies is the lack of questioning about the real purpose of developing new technologies. Are they developed for the well-being and comfort of mankind or for the sole business and economical aspects? The response to this basic question is fundamental for the long-term acceptance of controversial technologies. In 2009 in the strong debate that took place on nano-technologies, the question of 'why this technology' was never asked and the debate was bogged down in technical issues. The consequences: 10 years later we are still at the same point. For nuclear technologies the ethical aspect is even more important because we engage future generations through the disposal of radioactive wastes. The nuclear risk should be balanced by the response to the why question: do we accept this risk because we want to provide humanity with plentiful non-carbon energy or because we want to develop an industrial sector? the ethical aspect is fundamental to deal with in terms of public acceptance. (A.C.)

  15. Mixing and electronic entropy contributions to thermal energy storage in low melting point alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Patrick J.; Mizuno, Yasushi; Talapatra, Anjana A.

    2017-07-01

    Melting of crystalline solids is associated with an increase in entropy due to an increase in configurational, rotational, and other degrees of freedom of a system. However, the magnitude of chemical mixing and electronic degrees of freedom, two significant contributions to the entropy of fusion, remain poorly constrained, even in simple 2 and 3 component systems. Here, we present experimentally measured entropies of fusion in the Sn-Pb-Bi and In-Sn-Bi ternary systems, and decouple mixing and electronic contributions. We demonstrate that electronic effects remain the dominant contribution to the entropy of fusion in multi-component post-transition metal and metalloid systems, and that excess entropy of mixing terms can be equal in magnitude to ideal mixing terms, causing regular solution approximations to be inadequate in the general case. Finally, we explore binary eutectic systems using mature thermodynamic databases, identifying eutectics containing at least one semiconducting intermetallic phase as promising candidates to exceed the entropy of fusion of monatomic endmembers, while simultaneously maintaining low melting points. These results have significant implications for engineering high-thermal conductivity metallic phase change materials to store thermal energy.

  16. Preparation, single-molecule manipulation and energy transfer investigation of a polyfluorene-graft-DNA polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mikael; Christensen, Rasmus S.; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart

    2017-01-01

    with the conjugated polyfluorene backbone, but the protruding single-stranded DNA provides the material with an exceptional addressability. This allows us to demonstrate controlled single polymer patterning, as well as energy transfer between two different polymer-DNA conjugates. Finally, we demonstrate highly...

  17. Investigating the use of multi-point coupling for single-sensor bearing estimation in one direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Americo G.; Phoenix, Austin A.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2018-04-01

    Bearing estimation of radially propagating symmetric waves in solid structures typically requires a minimum of two sensors. As a test specimen, this research investigates the use of multi-point coupling to provide directional inference using a single-sensor. By this provision, the number of sensors required for localization can be reduced. A finite-element model of a beam is constructed with a symmetrically placed bipod that has asymmetric joint-stiffness properties. Impulse loading is applied at different points along the beam, and measurements are taken from the apex of the bipod. A technique is developed to determine the direction-of-arrival of the propagating wave. The accuracy when using the bipod with the developed technique is compared against results gathered without the bipod and measuring from an asymmetric location along the beam. The results show 92% accuracy when the bipod is used, compared to 75% when measuring without the bipod from an asymmetric location. A geometry investigation finds the best accuracy results when one leg of the bipod has a low stiffness and a large diameter relative to the other leg.

  18. Single-Point Incremental Forming of Two Biocompatible Polymers: An Insight into Their Thermal and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marcelo Lozano-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheets of polycaprolactone (PCL and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE were fabricated and shaped by the Single-Point Incremental Forming process (SPIF. The performance of these biocompatible polymers in SPIF was assessed through the variation of four main parameters: the diameter of the forming tool, the spindle speed, the feed rate, and the step size based on a Box–Behnken design of experiments of four variables and three levels. The design of experiments allowed us to identify the parameters that most affect the forming of PCL and UHMWPE. The study was completed by means of a deep characterization of the thermal and structural properties of both polymers. These properties were correlated to the performance of the polymers observed in SPIF, and it was found that the polymer chains are oriented as a consequence of the SPIF processing. Moreover, by X-ray diffraction it was proved that polymer chains behave differently on each surface of the fabricated parts, since the chains on the surface in contact with the forming tool are oriented horizontally, while on the opposite surface they are oriented in the vertical direction. The unit cell of UHMWPE is distorted, passing from an orthorhombic cell to a monoclinic due to the slippage between crystallites. This slippage between crystallites was observed in both PCL and UHMWPE, and was identified as an alpha star thermal transition located in the rubbery region between the glass transition and the melting point of each polymer.

  19. Mitigation of Critical Single Point Failure (SPF) Material - Laminac 4116 Binder Replacement Program for Parachute and Cluster Stars Illuminant Compositions for Hand Held Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakshminarayanan, G. R; Chen, Gary; Ames, Richard; Lee, Wai T; Wejsa, James L

    2006-01-01

    Laminac 4116 binder has been identified as a single point failure (SPF) material since it is being produced by only one company and there is a possibility that the company may discontinue production due to low product demand...

  20. Grid to vehicle and vehicle to grid energy transfer using single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The design of the various components of proposed configuration for energy transfer from grid to vehicle and vehicle to grid consists of a single phase half bridge boost AC-DC converter, a bidirectional DC-DC boost converter, and a battery energy storage system. The detailed design of each part is given in the following ...

  1. Underwater radiated noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters : Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Haikonen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of wave energy into electrical energy has the potential to become a clean and sustainable form of renewable energy conversion. However, like all forms of energy conversion it will inevitably have an impact on the marine environment, although not in the form of emissions of hazardous substances (gases, oils or chemicals associated with anticorrosion). Possible environmental issues associated with wave energy conversion include electromagnetic fields, alteration of sedimentation ...

  2. Thermodynamic Stability of Ice II and Its Hydrogen-Disordered Counterpart: Role of Zero-Point Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-03-03

    We investigate why no hydrogen-disordered form of ice II has been found in nature despite the fact that most of hydrogen-ordered ices have hydrogen-disordered counterparts. The thermodynamic stability of a set of hydrogen-ordered ice II variants relative to ice II is evaluated theoretically. It is found that ice II is more stable than the disordered variants so generated as to satisfy the simple ice rule due to the lower zero-point energy as well as the pair interaction energy. The residual entropy of the disordered ice II phase gradually compensates the unfavorable free energy with increasing temperature. The crossover, however, occurs at a high temperature well above the melting point of ice III. Consequently, the hydrogen-disordered phase does not exist in nature. The thermodynamic stability of partially hydrogen-disordered ices is also scrutinized by examining the free-energy components of several variants obtained by systematic inversion of OH directions in ice II. The potential energy of one variant is lower than that of the ice II structure, but its Gibbs free energy is slightly higher than that of ice II due to the zero-point energy. The slight difference in the thermodynamic stability leaves the possibility of the partial hydrogen-disorder in real ice II.

  3. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption. This will ......It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption....... This will take time, so both areas must be considered already now, but it will be beneficial to work on reducing the consumption before the sustainable energy supply is fully developed, so that we can avoid expensive over-production. Some 30% of the total energy consumption in Denmark takes place in households......, and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...

  4. High energy heavy ion collisions from the view point of the 'strong field physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    In the high energy heavy ion collisions at the facilities like RHIC and LHC, two strongest fields in the present universe are generated. First of all, a very strong electromagnetic field is generated, though its duration is very short due to the very high speed collisions of nuclei and the large electric charges. On the other hand, the nuclei are described as the high density saturation gluon state just before the moment of the collision and the high density gluon is released by the collision. A very strong color electromagnetic field is generated. The color glass condensate (CGC) is a reasonable picture. In this text, dynamics of the GLASMA (Glass + plasma), the new physics brought about by those 'strong fields', are introduced and are explained how the yet unsolved problems of the heavy ion collisions are going to be investigated on the new view point. The mechanism of the apparitions of the strong electromagnetic field and the strong color electromagnetic field are explained at first. The heavy ion collisions can be described as the process CGC to develop into QGP. As the phenomena under the strong electromagnetic field and the heavy ion collisions, their synchrotron radiations, the photon birefringence, the photon decay, the splitting of photons and the chiral phase transitions under high field are picked up. Concerning the strong color electromagnetic field dynamics and the heavy ion collisions, the plasma flux tube dynamics, the color magnetic flux tube, the color electric flux tube and the coexisting case of the color electric field and magnetic field are presented. (S. Funahashi)

  5. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    . To demonstrate how it could be done in small residential buildings a thorough retrofitting of a single-family house from 1972 was carried out. The house was brought up to the energy performance level of a new house. The energy renovation has reduced the net room heating consumption from 27.8 to 12.7 MWh....../year corresponding to a 54 % reduction. The energy renovation project has proven that it is possible to renovate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s in a cost efficient manner to roughly the energy performance standard of a new Danish single-family house. As a positive side effect the living...... conditions have been greatly improved. In the paper the author also describes the lessons learned during the process of renovating the house....

  6. Characterization of energy losses in an upflow single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung-Sool; Rittmann, Bruce E. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, 1001 South McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    We characterized electrode energy losses and ohmic energy loss in an upflow, single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with no metal catalyst on the cathode. The MEC produced 0.57 m{sup 3}-H{sub 2}/m{sup 3}-d at an applied voltage of {proportional_to}1 V and achieved a cathodic conversion efficiency of 98% and a H{sub 2} yield of 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol acetate. Eliminating the membrane lowered the ohmic energy loss to 0.005 V, and the pH energy loss became as small as 0.072 V. The lack of metal catalyst on the cathode led to a significant cathode energy loss of 0.56 V. The anode energy loss also was relatively large at 0.395 V, but this was artificial, due to the high positive anode potential, poised at +0.07 V (vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). The energy-conversion efficiency (ECE) was 75% in the single-chamber MEC when the energy input and outputs were compared directly as electrical energy. To achieve an energy benefit out of an MEC (i.e., an ECE >100%), the applied voltage must be less than 0.6 V with a cathodic conversion efficiency over 80%. An ECE of 180% could be achieved if the anode and cathode energy losses were reduced to 0.2 V each. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  8. Feasibility Study for Using a Linear Transverse Flux Machine as part of the Structure of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.

  9. An energy-saving set-point optimizer with a sliding mode controller for automotive air-conditioning/refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yanjun; Khajepour, Amir; Ding, Haitao; Bagheri, Farshid; Bahrami, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel two-layer energy-saving controller for automotive A/C-R system is developed. • A set-point optimizer at the outer loop is designed based on the steady state model. • A sliding mode controller in the inner loop is built. • Extensively experiments studies show that about 9% energy can be saving by this controller. - Abstract: This paper presents an energy-saving controller for automotive air-conditioning/refrigeration (A/C-R) systems. With their extensive application in homes, industry, and vehicles, A/C-R systems are consuming considerable amounts of energy. The proposed controller consists of two different time-scale layers. The outer or the slow time-scale layer called a set-point optimizer is used to find the set points related to energy efficiency by using the steady state model; whereas, the inner or the fast time-scale layer is used to track the obtained set points. In the inner loop, thanks to its robustness, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is utilized to track the set point of the cargo temperature. The currently used on/off controller is presented and employed as a basis for comparison to the proposed controller. More importantly, the real experimental results under several disturbed scenarios are analysed to demonstrate how the proposed controller can improve performance while reducing the energy consumption by 9% comparing with the on/off controller. The controller is suitable for any type of A/C-R system even though it is applied to an automotive A/C-R system in this paper.

  10. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  11. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  12. Accurate mitochondrial DNA sequencing using off-target reads provides a single test to identify pathogenic point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Helen R; Pyle, Angela; Blakely, Emma L; Alston, Charlotte L; Duff, Jennifer; Hudson, Gavin; Horvath, Rita; Wilson, Ian J; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a common cause of inherited metabolic disease and can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA. The current diagnostic approach involves the targeted resequencing of mitochondrial DNA and candidate nuclear genes, usually proceeds step by step, and is time consuming and costly. Recent evidence suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA sequence can be obtained from whole-exome sequence data, raising the possibility of a comprehensive single diagnostic test to detect pathogenic point mutations. We compared the mitochondrial DNA sequence derived from off-target exome reads with conventional mitochondrial DNA Sanger sequencing in 46 subjects. Mitochondrial DNA sequences can be reliably obtained using three different whole-exome sequence capture kits. Coverage correlates with the relative amount of mitochondrial DNA in the original genomic DNA sample, heteroplasmy levels can be determined using variant and total read depths, and-providing there is a minimum read depth of 20-fold-rare sequencing errors occur at a rate similar to that observed with conventional Sanger sequencing. This offers the prospect of using whole-exome sequence in a diagnostic setting to screen not only all protein coding nuclear genes but also all mitochondrial DNA genes for pathogenic mutations. Off-target mitochondrial DNA reads can also be used to assess quality control and maternal ancestry, inform on ethnic origin, and allow genetic disease association studies not previously anticipated with existing whole-exome data sets.

  13. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A. [Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  14. PIV study of non-Marangoni surface flows in thin liquid films induced by single- and multi-point thermodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nai-Yi; Wang, Song-Po

    2018-03-01

    The non-Marangoni directional flows, which can occur in only very thin liquid films, have been studied using particle image velocimetry techniques. Single- and multi-point thermodes have been used in this study for generating the flows. The results show that the direction of these flows is governed by the variation trend of the thickness of the film and the shape of the temperature profile. A hot thermode always drives a thick-to-thin flow, whereas a cold thermode always drives a flow in the opposite direction. Increasing the temperature difference between the thermode and the ambience, or decreasing the thickness of the liquid film, can accelerate the flow speed. However, the flow speed cannot exceed an upper limit. When more than one thermode was used, different flow patterns, including thick-to-thin streams driven by hot thermodes and thin-to-thick streams driven by cold thermodes, could be formed. The experimental results strongly suggest that these flows were not driven by thermo-capillary forces but by a newly proposed thermo-dynamic mechanism.

  15. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying...

  16. Impact of specific fracture energy investigated in front of the crack tip of three-point bending specimen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klon, J.; Sobek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 41 (2017), s. 183-190 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Finite element method * Loading curve * Specific fracture energy * Three-point bending test * Work of fracture Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  17. An algorithm to locate optimal bond breaking points on a potential energy surface for applications in mechanochemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Josep Maria; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; García, Sergio Pablo; Quapp, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The reaction path of a mechanically induced chemical transformation changes under stress. It is well established that the force-induced structural changes of minima and saddle points, i.e., the movement of the stationary points on the original or stress-free potential energy surface, can be described by a Newton Trajectory (NT). Given a reactive molecular system, a well-fitted pulling direction, and a sufficiently large value of the force, the minimum configuration of the reactant and the saddle point configuration of a transition state collapse at a point on the corresponding NT trajectory. This point is called barrier breakdown point or bond breaking point (BBP). The Hessian matrix at the BBP has a zero eigenvector which coincides with the gradient. It indicates which force (both in magnitude and direction) should be applied to the system to induce the reaction in a barrierless process. Within the manifold of BBPs, there exist optimal BBPs which indicate what is the optimal pulling direction and what is the minimal magnitude of the force to be applied for a given mechanochemical transformation. Since these special points are very important in the context of mechanochemistry and catalysis, it is crucial to develop efficient algorithms for their location. Here, we propose a Gauss-Newton algorithm that is based on the minimization of a positively defined function (the so-called σ -function). The behavior and efficiency of the new algorithm are shown for 2D test functions and for a real chemical example.

  18. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    existing single-family houses in the Nordic countries are to have competitive power compared to new buildings on the future housing market. Good technical solutions exist but need to be combined based on the full range of (standard) solutions in order to reach the low primary energy level of new...... the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses –a sustainable renovation concept suitable for different categories of single-family houses with regard to type and age has been proposed in this article. The sustainable renovation concept...

  19. The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more. -- Highlights: •Actors do not see energy efficiency as a critical problem. •Factors other than costs and price were important in the decision making. •Energy issues just one factor in housing purchase decisions. •The consumers don′t know what to ask for. •Building norms should require the most energy efficient solution

  20. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    literature. Then we calculate the formation energy of various NPDs in a number of InAs- GaSb SLS systems. From the calculated defect formation energies...Unclassified Joseph Burns 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include Area Code) (937) 255-9594 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by... number of InAs-GaSb SLS systems. From the calculated defect formation energies in SLS rel- ative to that in constituent bulk material, the probability

  1. Low-energy multistage atrial defibrillation therapy terminates atrial fibrillation with less energy than a single shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H; Fedorov, Vadim V; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    2011-12-01

    Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multistage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of 3 stages: stage (ST) 1 (1-4 low-energy biphasic [BP] shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultralow-energy monophasic [MP] shocks), and ST3 (antitachycardia pacing). First, ST1 testing compared single or multiple MP and BP shocks. Second, several multistage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Third, 3 shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus, proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage, and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage. The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1 BP shock was defibrillation at or below the pain threshold.

  2. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  3. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  5. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  6. Axial Colocalization of Single Molecules with Nanometer Accuracy Using Metal-Induced Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Karedla, Narain; Kaminska, Izabela; Ruhlandt, Daja; Raab, Mario; Bohlen, Johann; Chizhik, Alexey; Gregor, Ingo; Tinnefeld, Philip; Enderlein, Jörg; Tsukanov, Roman

    2018-03-27

    Single-molecule localization based super-resolution microscopy has revolutionized optical microscopy and routinely allows for resolving structural details down to a few nanometers. However, there exists a rather large discrepancy between lateral and axial localization accuracy, the latter typically three to five times worse than the former. Here, we use single-molecule metal-induced energy transfer (smMIET) to localize single molecules along the optical axis, and to measure their axial distance with an accuracy of 5 nm. smMIET relies only on fluorescence lifetime measurements and does not require additional complex optical setups.

  7. Low-pressure, single-point grout injection for tank heel sludge mixing and in-situ immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes tests conducted in an approximately 9-ft diameter test tank situated outside the 336 building in Hanford's 300 area. The tests were performed to measure the ability of jets of grout slurry to mobilize and mix simulated tank sludge. The technique is intended for in situ immobilization of tank waste heels. The current approach uses a single, rotated, larger-diameter nozzle driven at lower pressure. Due to the larger diameter, the potential for plugging is reduced and the effective radius around an injection point over which the jet is effective in mobilizing sludge from the tank bottom can be made larger. A total of three grout injection tests were conducted in a 9-ft diameter tank. In each case, a 2-in. layer of kaolin clay paste was placed on a dry tank floor to simulate a sludge heel. The clay was covered with 4 inches of water. The grout slurry, consisting of Portland cement, class F fly ash, and eater, was prepared and delivered by an offsite vendor. In the third test, the sludge in half of the tank was replaced by a layer of 20x50 mesh zeolite, and bentonite clay was added to the grout formulation. After injection, the grout was allowed to set and then the entire grout monolith was manually broken up and excavated using a jack hammer. Intact pieces of clay were visually apparent due to a sharp color contrast between the grout and clay. Remaining clay deposits were collected and weighed and suspended clay pieces within the monolith were photographed. The mobilization performance of the grout jets exceeded expectations

  8. Assessment of left ventricular function with single breath-hold highly accelerated cine MRI combined with guide-point modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Nassenstein, Kai; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of highly accelerated cine MRI in multi-orientations combined with a new guide-point modeling post-processing technique (GPM approach) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function compared to the standard summation of slices method based on a stack of short axis views (SoS approach). Materials and methods: 33 consecutive patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with a standard steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence (TR, 3.0 ms; TE, 1.5 m; flip angle (FA), 60 o ; acceleration factor (AF), 2) analyzed with the SoS method and a highly accelerated, single breath-hold temporal parallel acquisition SSFP sequence (TR, 4.6 ms; TE, 1.1 ms; AF, 3) post-processed with the GPM method. LV function values were measured by two independent readers with different experience in cardiac MRI and compared by using the paired t-test and F-test. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated using Bland-Altman-Plots. Results: Mean acquisition and post-processing time was significantly shorter with the GPM approach (15 s/3 min versus 360 s/6 min). For all LV function parameters interobserver agreement between the experienced and non-experienced reader was significantly improved when the GPM approach was used. However, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger for the GPM technique when compared to the SoS method (P 0.121). In both readers and for all parameters variances did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.409) and the two approaches showed an excellent linear correlation (r > 0.951). Conclusion: Due to its accurate, fast and reproducible assessment of LV function parameters highly accelerated MRI combined with the GPM technique may become the technique of first choice for assessment of LV function in clinical routine.

  9. Energy loss of light ions scattered off Al(110) single crystal surfaces at low energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, S; Hofner, C; Schlathölter, Thomas; Franke, H; Narmann, A; Heiland, W

    We present energy loss data taken after grazing incidence scattering of H+, H-0, He2+, He+, and He-0 off an Al(110) surface, The data is evaluated by means of a procedure that allows to extract surface electron density parameters. The obtained density parameters will be compared to those obtained

  10. 78 FR 18576 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...: Christopher Calamita, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, Forrestal Building, GC-71, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585. Phone number: (202) 586- 1777. Email: christopher.... Contractors (PHCC). Robert De Vries Nu Wool Company Inc......... Jenison, MI. Eric Williams reEnergize Program...

  11. Imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy using single nanosecond electron pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, Matthieu; Bücker, Kerstin; LaGrange, Thomas; Banhart, Florian

    2018-03-13

    We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach. By varying the laser power, the Wehnelt bias, and the condenser lens settings, the optimum TEM operation conditions for the single-shot approach are revealed. Due to space charge and the Boersch effect, the energy width of the pulses under maximized emission conditions is far too high for imaging or spectroscopy. However, by using the Wehnelt electrode as an energy filter, the energy width of the pulses can be reduced to 2 eV, though at the expense of intensity. The first EEL spectra taken with nanosecond electron pulses are shown in this study. With 7 ns pulses, an image resolution of 25 nm is attained. It is shown how the spherical and chromatic aberrations of the objective lens as well as shot noise limit the resolution. We summarize by giving perspectives for improving the single-shot time-resolved approach by using aberration correction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  13. Critical points of the conformational potential energy surface of carbonic acid: H 2CO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschek, Rudolf; Csizmadia, Imre G.

    1993-12-01

    The conformational potential energy surface E  E( T1, T2) of H 2CO 3, where T1 is the torsional angle for HO 1CO 2 and T2 is the torsional angle for O 1CO 2H, revealed that the anti—anti conformation is the global minimum. Additional local minima were also found. The next higher energy conformation was the syn—anti conformation, and a degenerate pair of right handed and left handed helical conformations were the highest on the energy scale. The syn—syn conformation turned out to be a transition structure sandwiched between the two helical conformation.

  14. An elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: a time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G; Kitto, Laura; Zafar, Sara; Reid, Thomas W D J; Martin, Kirsty G; Davidson, Janice S; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The innate immune system is profoundly dysregulated in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple bedside index with prognostic value in a number of inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the NLR in patients with significant liver injury following single time-point and staggered paracetamol overdoses. Time-course analysis of 100 single time-point and 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Timed laboratory samples were correlated with time elapsed after overdose or admission, respectively, and the NLR was calculated. A total of 49/100 single time-point patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Median NLRs were higher at both 72 (P=0.0047) and 96 h after overdose (P=0.0041) in single time-point patients who died or were transplanted. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were associated with increasing HE grade (P=0.0005). An NLR of more than 16.7 during the first 96 h following overdose was independently associated with the development of HE [odds ratio 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.67-19.13), P=0.005]. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were strongly associated with the requirement for intracranial pressure monitoring (Poverdose cohort, the NLR was not associated with adverse outcomes or death/transplantation either at admission or subsequently. The NLR is a simple test which is strongly associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point, but not staggered, paracetamol overdoses. Future studies should assess the value of incorporating the NLR into existing prognostic and triage indices of single time-point paracetamol overdose.

  15. Present status of development of alternative energy technology from environment protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Japan lacks fossil fuel resources. Consequently, almost all fossil fuels are imported from abroad. Therefore, change in international affairs affects on Japan's politics and social life, as learned from experience of economic social life, as learned from experience of economic confusion caused by the oil crisis of 1973. For this reason, research and development (R and D) of alternative energy technologies was initiated in July 1974, which was promoted as one of national energy development programs called Sunshine Project. Presently, their technical developments are being continued to put practical use under this project. However, Japan's dependency of primary energy resources on oil is still high among major advanced countries and energy supply structure is significantly weak. Furthermore, from indetermination of the recent political condition in the Middle East, the importance of security against supply and demand of petroleum in middle and long term is generally recognized with the increasing cost of oil

  16. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  17. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  18. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Single event upset is defined by NASA as 'radiation- induced errors in microelectronic circuits caused when charged particles (usually from the radiation belts or from cosmic rays) lose energy by ionizing the medium through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- tron-hole pairs'. SEU are transient soft errors and ...

  19. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  20. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  1. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  2. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  3. Identifying Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fractures With Single-Energy Absorptiometry: Declining Prevalence

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Malachi

    2017-03-01

    Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) are associated with long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. Early identification of AFF prior to their completion provides an opportunity to intervene, potentially reducing morbidity associated with these fractures. Single-energy X-ray absorptiometry (SE) is an imaging method recently shown to detect incomplete AFF (iAFF) prior to fracture completion.

  4. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses w...

  5. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical.

  6. Single determinant N-representability and the kernel energy method applied to water clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkosnik, Walter; Massa, Lou

    2017-10-24

    The Kernel energy method (KEM) is a quantum chemical calculation method that has been shown to provide accurate energies for large molecules. KEM performs calculations on subsets of a molecule (called kernels) and so the computational difficulty of KEM calculations scales more softly than full molecule methods. Although KEM provides accurate energies those energies are not required to satisfy the variational theorem. In this article, KEM is extended to provide a full molecule single-determinant N-representable one-body density matrix. A kernel expansion for the one-body density matrix analogous to the kernel expansion for energy is defined. This matrix is converted to a normalized projector by an algorithm due to Clinton. The resulting single-determinant N-representable density matrix maps to a quantum mechanically valid wavefunction which satisfies the variational theorem. The process is demonstrated on clusters of three to twenty water molecules. The resulting energies are more accurate than the straightforward KEM energy results and all violations of the variational theorem are resolved. The N-representability studied in this article is applicable to the study of quantum crystallography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules

  8. One-point fluctuation analysis of the high-energy neutrino sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyereisen, Michael R.; Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    of shower events that can reasonably be associated to blazars. We also find that upper limits on the contribution of blazars to the measured flux are unfavourably affected by the skewness of the blazar flux distribution. One-point event clustering and likelihood analyses of the IceCube HESE data suggest...

  9. Sensitivity of the Baikal neutrino telescope NT-200 to point sources of very high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabi, J.; Spiering, C.; Bugaev, E.V.; Klimushin, S.I.

    1991-12-01

    The sensitivity of the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector 'NT-200' in lake Baikal to point sources of extraterrestrial neutrinos is calculated. Results are given for different assumptions on the neutrino source spectrum and the reconstruction capabilities of the detector. (orig.)

  10. Low-energy neutron-induced single-event upsets in static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoqiang; Guo Hongxia; Wang Guizhen; Ling Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Bai Xiaoyan; Yang Shanchao; Liu Yan

    2009-01-01

    The visual analysis method of data process was provided for neutron-induced single-event upset(SEU) in static random access memory(SRAM). The SEU effects of six CMOS SRAMs with different feature size(from 0.13 μm to 1.50 μm) were studied. The SEU experiments were performed using the neutron radiation environment at Xi'an pulsed reactor. And the dependence of low-energy neutron-induced SEU cross section on SRAM's feature size was given. The results indicate that the decreased critical charge is the dominant factor for the increase of single event effect sensitivity of SRAM devices with decreased feature size. Small-sized SRAM devices are more sensitive than large-sized ones to single event effect induced by low-energy neutrons. (authors)

  11. The cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimzadeh, A.; Forough, B.; Olia, B.; Alishiri, G. H.; Ghasemzadeh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry is a method which can extensively be used for bone mineral densitometry . Another more recent method is dual energy X-ray and laser, which associate with dual X ray absorptiometry, assisted by laser measure heel thickness. In this study the cut off points for dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in different bone regions in postmenopausal women had been determined. Materials and Methods: In 268 postmenopausal women, BMD of the spinal and femoral regions was measured by DM, and the value for the calcaneous was measured by dual energy X-ray and laser. The agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis was obtained. What obtained was the agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, as well as the optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis. Results: Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry showed osteoporosis in 40.7% of cases with 35.2% in L2-L4, 16.2% in the femoral neck, and 11.7% for the femoral total region. The dual energy X-ray and laser found osteoporosis, considering -2.5 SD as a threshold, in 26.1% of cases. Agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis (Kappa score) was 0.443 for the lumbar region, 0.464 for the neck, and, 0.421 for total femur regions (all P values were significant). Using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, it was found that a T-score of -2.1, -2.6 and -2.4 as the optimal cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, the neck and total region of femur, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a moderate agreement between the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It seems that the dual energy X-ray and laser cannot be used as a substitute for the DM method, but it can be used as a screening method to find (to diagnose) osteoporosis

  12. High energy behavior of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Jochen; Hentschinski, Martin; Mischler, Anna-Maria [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ewerz, Carlo [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We study the high energy limit of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for finite N{sub c}. We make use of the framework of perturbative resummation of large logarithms of the energy. More specifically, we apply the (extended) generalized leading logarithmic approximation. We find that the same conformally invariant two-to-four gluon vertex occurs as in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a new feature we find a direct coupling of the four-gluon t-channel state to the R-current impact factor. (orig.)

  13. High energy behavior of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Jochen; Hentschinski, Martin; Mischler, Anna-Maria

    2009-12-01

    We study the high energy limit of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for finite N c . We make use of the framework of perturbative resummation of large logarithms of the energy. More specifically, we apply the (extended) generalized leading logarithmic approximation. We find that the same conformally invariant two-to-four gluon vertex occurs as in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a new feature we find a direct coupling of the four-gluon t-channel state to the R-current impact factor. (orig.)

  14. Single- versus dual-energy quantitative computed tomography for spinal densitometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, R.F.J.M.; Erning, L.J.Th.O. van; Lemmens, J.A.M.; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Ruijs, S.H.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    1992-01-01

    Lumbar bone mineral density was measured by both single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography in 109 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results were corrected for the age-related increase in vertebral fat content by converting them to percentages of expected densities, using sex and energy-level specific regression equations obtained in a normal reference population. The percentages of expected density are approximately 10% lower in the single- than in the dual-energy mode, both in the patients with and without prednisone therapy. This difference is statistically highly significant, and is positively correlated with the duration of the disease and with the degree of radiological joint destruction. The data suggest that the vertebral fat content may be increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a consequence of disease-dependent mechanisms. (Author)

  15. Fixed Points of Single- and Set-Valued Mappings in Uniformly Convex Metric Spaces with No Metric Convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafa Espínola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of fixed points and convergence of iterates for asymptotic pointwise contractions in uniformly convex metric spaces. We also study the existence of fixed points for set-valued nonexpansive mappings in the same class of spaces. Our results do not assume convexity of the metric which makes a big difference when studying the existence of fixed points for set-valued mappings.

  16. Prediction of point-defect migration energy barriers in alloys using artificial intelligence for atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castin, N. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Studiecentrum voor Kerneenergie Centre d' etude de l' energie nucleaire (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Physique des Solides Irradies et Nanostructures (PSIN), CP234 Boulevard du triomphe, Brussels (Belgium); Malerba, L. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Studiecentrum voor Kerneenergie Centre d' etude de l' energie nucleaire (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: lmalerba@sckcen.be

    2009-09-15

    We significantly improved a previously proposed method to take into account chemical and also relaxation effects on point-defect migration energy barriers, as predicted by an interatomic potential, in a rigid lattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Examples of energy barriers are rigorously calculated, including chemical and relaxation effects, as functions of the local atomic configuration, using a nudged elastic bands technique. These examples are then used to train an artificial neural network that provides the barriers on-demand during the simulation for each configuration encountered by the migrating defect. Thanks to a newly developed training method, the configuration can include a large number of neighbour shells, thereby properly including also strain effects. Satisfactory results have been obtained when the configuration includes different chemical species only. The problems encountered in the extension of the method to configurations including any number of point-defects are stated and solutions to tackle them are sketched.

  17. L1 Adaptive Speed Control of a Small Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wi......) is used to carry out case studies using Matlab/Simulink. The case study results show that the designed L1 adaptive controller has good tracking performance even with unmodeled dynamics and in the presence of parameter uncertainties and unknown disturbances.......This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wind...

  18. Efficiency and Optimality of 2-period Gait from Kinetic Energy Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Fumihiko

    This paper investigates the efficiency of a 2-period limit-cycle gait from the kinetic energy viewpoint. First, we formulate a steady 2-period gait by using simple recurrence formulas for the kinetic energy of an asymmetric rimless wheel. Second, we theoretically show that, in the case that the mean value of the hip angle is constant, the generated 2-period steady gait is less efficient than a 1-period symmetric one in terms of kinetic energy. Furthermore, we show that the symmetric gait is not always optimal from another viewpoint. Finally, we investigate the validity of the derived theory through numerical simulations of virtual passive dynamic walking using a compass-like biped robot.

  19. A generic-tee-plenum mixing system for application to single point aerosol sampling in stacks and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taewon; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI/HPS-N13.1-1999 standard is based on the concept of obtaining a single point representative sample from a location where the velocity and contaminant profiles are relatively uniform. It is difficult to predict the level of mixing in an arbitrary stack or duct without experimental data to meet the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements. The goal of this study was to develop experimental data for a range of conditions in "S" (S-shaped configuration) duct systems with different mixing elements and "S" systems having one or two mixing elements. Results were presented in terms of the coefficients of variation (COVs) for velocity, tracer gas, and 10-mum aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particle profiles at different downstream locations for each mixing element. Five mixing elements were tested, including a 90 degrees elbow, a commercial static mixer, a Small-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (SH-GTP), a Small-Vertical Generic-Tee-Plenum (SV-GTP), and a Large-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (LH-GTP) system. The COVs for velocity, gas concentration, and aerosol particles for the three GTP systems were all determined to be less than 8%. Tests with two different sizes of GTPs were conducted, and the results showed the performance of the GTPs was relatively unaffected by either size or velocity as reflected by the Reynolds number. The pressure coefficients were 0.59, 0.57, and 0.65, respectively, for the SH-GTP, SV-GTP, and LH-GTP. The pressure drop for the GTPs was approximately twice that of the round elbow, but a factor of 5 less than a Type IV Air Blender. The GTP was developed to provide a sampling location less than 4-duct diameters downstream of a mixing element with low pressure drop condition. The object of the developmental effort was to provide a system that could be employed in new stack; however, the concept of GTPs could also be retrofitted onto existing system applications as well. Results from these tests show that the system performance is well within the ANSI

  20. Hydrogen as Future Energy Carrier: The ENEA Point of View on Technology and Application Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ronchetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen and fuel cells should reduce costs and increase reliability and durability to compete in the energy market. A considerable long term effort is necessary for research, development and demonstration of adequate solutions; important programs in this sense are carried out in the main industrialized countries, with the involvement of many industries, research structures and stakeholders. In such framework a relevant role is played in Italy by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment. In the paper the main aspects related to the possible hydrogen role in the future society are addressed, according to ENEA perspectives.

  1. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  2. Implementation of a new maximum power point tracking control strategy for small wind energy conversion systems without mechanical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daili, Yacine; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind turbines is proposed. • This algorithm resolves the problems of the classical perturb and observe method. • The proposed method has been tested under several wind speed profiles. • The validity of the new algorithm has been confirmed by the experimental results. - Abstract: This paper proposes a modified perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm for small wind energy conversion systems to overcome the problems of the conventional perturbation and observation technique, namely rapidity/efficiency trade-off and the divergence from peak power under a fast variation of the wind speed. Two modes of operation are used by this algorithm, the normal perturbation and observation mode and the predictive mode. The normal perturbation and observation mode with small step-size is switched under a slow wind speed variation to track the true maximum power point with fewer fluctuations in steady state. When a rapid change of wind speed is detected, the algorithm tracks the new maximum power point in two phases: in the first stage, the algorithm switches to the predictive mode in which the step-size is auto-adjusted according to the distance between the operating point and the estimated optimum point to move the operating point near to the maximum power point rapidly, and then the normal perturbation and observation mode is used to track the true peak power in the second stage. The dc-link voltage variation is used to detect rapid wind changes. The proposed algorithm does not require either knowledge of system parameters or of mechanical sensors. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in terms of dynamic response and efficiency compared with the conventional perturbation and observation algorithm

  3. A new maximum power point method based on a sliding mode approach for solar energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Maissa; Barambones, Oscar; Sbita, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Create a simple, easy of implement and accurate V MPP estimator. • Stability analysis of the proposed system based on the Lyapunov’s theory. • A comparative study versus P&O, highlight SMC good performances. • Construct a new PS-SMC algorithm to include the partial shadow case. • Experimental validation of the SMC MPP tracker. - Abstract: This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) system with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) facility. The goal of this work is to maximize power extraction from the photovoltaic generator (PVG). This goal is achieved using a sliding mode controller (SMC) that drives a boost converter connected between the PVG and the load. The system is modeled and tested under MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In simulation, the sliding mode controller offers fast and accurate convergence to the maximum power operating point that outperforms the well-known perturbation and observation method (P&O). The sliding mode controller performance is evaluated during steady-state, against load varying and panel partial shadow (PS) disturbances. To confirm the above conclusion, a practical implementation of the maximum power point tracker based sliding mode controller on a hardware setup is performed on a dSPACE real time digital control platform. The data acquisition and the control system are conducted all around dSPACE 1104 controller board and its RTI environment. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed control scheme over a stand-alone real photovoltaic system.

  4. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System Constructed by High Step-Up Converter with Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Hwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic energy conversion system, constructed by high step-up converter with hybrid maximum power point tracking (HMPPT, is presented. A voltage converter with a high voltage conversion ratio is proposed, which is simple in circuit and easy in control. After this, such a converter operating with a suitable initial duty cycle of the pulsewidth-modulated (PWM control signal, together with the proposed HMPPT algorithm combining the fractional open-circuit voltage method and the incremental conductance method, is applied to the photovoltaic energy conversion system. By doing so, not only the maximum power point tracking speed can be increased, but also the oscillation around the maximum power point can be reduced. Aside from these, the field programmable gate array (FPGA is used as a control kernal of the overall system, so as to realize the HMPPT and fully digitalized control. Finally, via a PV simulator, some experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed photovoltaic energy conversion system.

  5. First Search for Point Sources of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A.C.A.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhofer, A.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; De Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefevre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sapienza, P.; Schock, F.; Schuller, J.P.; Schussler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon

  6. X Marks the Spot: Creating and Managing a Single Service Point to Improve Customer Service and Maximize Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Mary Ann; Keshmiripour, Seti

    2016-01-01

    This article will describe how merging service points in an academic library is an opportunity to improve customer service and utilize staffing resources more efficiently. Combining service points provides libraries with the ability to create a more positive library experience for patrons by minimizing the ping-pong effect for assistance. The…

  7. Residential sector dossier. Energy savings as target; Dossier residentiel. Les economies d'energie en point de mire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappa, F.

    2004-05-01

    With the 2003 heat wave in Europe, the sales of air conditioning split systems have reached records with a progress of about 40%. Beside these data, it is a new perception of these devices that is progressively gaining the consumers mind, in particular in the residential sector which has been considered as 'very promising' by air conditioning professionals, but which has never reached its expected development in France, so far. Manufacturers are more and more looking towards this sector with the energy savings and the environment protection as main arguments. The French scientific and technical committee of air conditioning industries (Costic) is carrying out several actions in parallel which aim at giving help to professionals for the realisation of quality air conditioning installations. This dossier takes stock of the technical and regulatory aspects of residential air conditioning (choice of appliances, evacuation of condensates, air flow, abatement of energy consumptions and noise pollution, Vivrelec offer of Electricite de France (EdF), improvement of esthetics and efficiency..). Some examples of innovative realizations illustrate this dossier: high environmental quality house with 77% of space heating savings, combination of ventilation and radiant ceiling. (J.S.)

  8. Instruments to foster renewable energy investments in Europe. A survey under the financial point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, O.

    1996-01-01

    Since capital needs are high when investing in Renewable Energy Technologies (RET), well adapted financial schemes are essential, including well fitted financial support. Supporting the dissemination of RET means supporting people, not technologies. Though support mechanism have to be adapted to people not to technologies. A recent study for the European Parliament compares support mechanisms for RET in several European countries by describing case studies. Six different investor types can be identified, each one standing for a specific amalgam of motivation, energy needs, financial possibilities and risk-averse. Each of these types has its specific importance for different RET and different stages of RET's market penetration. Also the size of the market for RET, represented by each investor type, is different. (Author)

  9. Space charge and working point studies in the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Huschauer, A; Hancock, S; Kain, V

    2017-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is at the heart ofCERN’s heavy ion physics programme and was designed toprovide the high phase space densities required by the exper-iments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). LEIR is the firstsynchrotron of the LHC ion injector chain and it receives aquasi-continuous pulse of lead ions (Pb54+) from Linac3, ex-ploiting a sophisticated multi-turn injection scheme in bothtransverse and longitudinal planes. Seven of these pulses areinjected and accumulated, which requires continuous elec-tron cooling (EC) at low energy to decrease the phase spacevolume of the circulating beam in between two injections.Subsequently, the coasting beam is adiabatically capturedin two bunches, which are then accelerated and extractedtowards the Proton Synchrotron (PS). Figure 1 shows theLEIR magnetic cycle and the different steps required forbeam production.

  10. Communication: Newton homotopies for sampling stationary points of potential energy landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging and frequently arising problems in many areas of science is to find solutions of a system of multivariate nonlinear equations. There are several numerical methods that can find many (or all if the system is small enough) solutions but they all exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods can break down if the system contains singular solutions. Here, we propose an efficient implementation of Newton homotopies, which can sample a large number of the stationary points of complicated many-body potentials. We demonstrate how the procedure works by applying it to the nearest-neighbor ϕ 4 model and atomic clusters

  11. Modeling of a Point Absorber for Energy Conversion in Italian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Archetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of wave electricity production in Italian seas by the deployment of the Seabased wave energy converter (WEC. A numerical model of the coupled buoy-generator system is presented, which simulates the behavior of the wave energy converter under regular waves of different wave heights and periods. The hydrodynamic forces, including excitation force, radiation impedance and hydrostatic force, are calculated by linear potential wave theory, and an analytical model is used for the linear generator. Two buoys of different radii are considered to explore the effect of buoy dimension on energy conversion and device efficiency. The power output is maximized by adding a submerged object to the floating buoy, in order to bring the system into resonance with the typical wave frequencies of the sites. The simulation results show a very good agreement with the published data on the Seabased WEC. The model is used to estimate energy production at eight Italian offshore locations. The results indicate that the degree of utilization of the device is higher than 20% at the two most energetic Italian sites (Alghero and Mazara del Vallo and that it can be considerably increased if the floating body is connected to a submerged object, thanks to the resonant behavior of the WEC. In this case, the degree of utilization of the device would be higher than 40% at most of the study sites, with the highest value at Mazara del Vallo. The work enlarges the perspective, to be confirmed by experimental tests and more accurate numerical modeling, on clean electric power production from ocean waves in the Italian seas.

  12. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  13. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  14. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2004-01-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  15. Short-range energy budget simulator of single photon lidar demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Mark V.; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Pershin, Sergey M.; Lednev, Vasily N.

    2017-05-01

    The compact single photon lidar demonstrator dedicated for asteroid rendezvous missions has been designed and realized in our laboratory two years ago. The instrument provides crucial data on altitude and terrain profile for altitudes exceeding 5 km with a precision of less than 10 cm fulfilling the Rayleigh criterion. One of the calibration procedure of demonstrator is the positioning of receiver and transmitter optics related to detector and laser and the aligning of transmitter and receiver optical common paths. To improve this particular indoor calibration procedure the new simulator of single photon energy budget during short range operation has been created. The comparison of simulated and experimental data will be presented and discussed.

  16. Theory of energy and power flow of plasmonic waves on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-10-01

    The energy theorem of electrodynamics is extended so as to apply to the plasmonic waves on single-walled carbon nanotubes which propagate parallel to the axial direction of the system and are periodic waves in the azimuthal direction. Electronic excitations on the nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of free-electron gas which is described by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory. General expressions of energy and power flow associated with surface waves are obtained by solving Maxwell and hydrodynamic equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical results for the transverse magnetic mode show that energy, power flow, and energy transport velocity of the plasmonic waves strongly depend on the nanotube radius in the long-wavelength region.

  17. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  18. Singlet-triplet splittings from the virial theorem and single-particle excitation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Axel D.

    2018-01-01

    The zeroth-order (uncorrelated) singlet-triplet energy difference in single-particle excited configurations is 2Kif, where Kif is the Coulomb self-energy of the product of the transition orbitals. Here we present a non-empirical, virial-theorem argument that the correlated singlet-triplet energy difference should be half of this, namely, Kif. This incredibly simple result gives vertical HOMO-LUMO excitation energies in small-molecule benchmarks as good as the popular TD-B3LYP time-dependent approach to excited states. For linear acenes and nonlinear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the performance is significantly better than TD-B3LYP. In addition to the virial theorem, the derivation borrows intuitive pair-density concepts from density-functional theory.

  19. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwen

    2016-09-22

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Scalable single point power extraction for compact mobile and stand-alone solar harvesting power sources based on fully printed organic photovoltaic modules and efficient high voltage DC/DC conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Villarejo, José A.; Hösel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns for fully printed polymer solar cells are presented that inherently enable scaling of the power output with single point electrical energy connection is presented. Connection is made to only one end of the printed foil that can be rolled out for light energy harvesting. The power level...... (AM1.5G, 1000 W m−2). As a demonstration we present a scalable fully integrated and compact power unit for mobile applications comprising solar energy harvesting OPV modules, power conversion and storage. Applications possible include electrical charging of mobile devices, illumination using LED lamps...... takes place in a HVDC–DC converter that is tailored specifically for operation with polymer solar cells by regulation on the input side. The system charges a lithium-polymer battery thus enabling storage of 82 Wh for a printed OPV foil measuring 0.305 m×9 m having a nominal power output of at least 15 W...

  1. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  2. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  3. High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Jonathan; Jones, J; Hand, D; Bouwmans, G; Knight, J; Russell, P; Mangan, B

    2004-02-23

    We report on the development of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for the delivery of high energy pulses for precision micromachining applications. Short pulses of (65ns pulse width) and energies of the order of 0.37mJ have been delivered in a single spatial mode through hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 1064nm using a high repetition rate (15kHz) Nd:YAG laser. The ultimate laser-induced damage threshold and practical limitations of current hollow-core fibers for the delivery of short optical pulses are discussed.

  4. A single term expression of ground band level energies of a soft rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.B.; Kavathekar, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    1995-01-01

    A single term expression in the form of a Power law with two unknown coefficients is proposed. It explains fairly well the energies of ground bands in even-even nuclei in the A = 150-200 region. The index ''b'' and the coefficient ''a'' in this expression are fairly constant independent of the level spin, below the back bending energy. Variation of average ''a'' and ''b'' with Z and N, and with the valence nucleon pair product N p N n is also illustrated and agrees with general expectations. (orig.)

  5. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.

    2014-01-01

    the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...

  6. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  7. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  8. Low energy proton induced single event upset in 65 nm DDR and QDR commercial SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, T. Q.; Maaz, K.; Luo, J.; Wang, B.; Yin, Y. N.; Ji, Q. G.; Sun, Y. M.; Hou, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of 65 nm commercial double data rate static random access memory (SRAM) and quad data rate SRAM was investigated by using proton beams with energies in the range of 0.15 MeV to 8.0 MeV. Experimental results show that a significant number of SEU occurrences can be triggered when the energy of incident proton is below 1 MeV. For the low energy protons, the SEU cross section measured in these SRAMs was found to increase with increasing proton energy, attaining a peak value, and then decreases as the proton energy was further increased. While in case of quad data rate SRAMs, it seems that they are more sensitive to SEU occurrences as compared with double data rate SRAMs. The bias voltage and data pattern dependence on SEU cross section induced by the low energy protons were also investigated in this work. In addition, the over-layer thickness of the SRAMs and the impact of degrader use in proton induced SEU test were also analyzed in detail. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate that the use of degrader in case of low energy proton induced SEU test results in a significant reduction of the SEU cross section.

  9. Optimization of single-step tapering amplitude and energy detuning for high-gain FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He-Ting; Jia, Qi-Ka

    2015-01-01

    We put forward a method to optimize the single-step tapering amplitude of undulator strength and initial energy tuning of electron beam to maximize the saturation power of high gain free-electron lasers (FELs), based on the physics of longitudinal electron beam phase space. Using the FEL simulation code GENESIS, we numerically demonstrate the accuracy of the estimations for parameters corresponding to the linac coherent light source and the Tesla test facility.

  10. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and single photon energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet (TGG) are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift an...

  11. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  12. Optimal probabilistic energy management in a typical micro-grid based-on robust optimization and point estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Seyed Arash; Ahmadian, Ali; Aliakbar-Golkar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management is necessary in the active distribution network to reduce operation costs. • Uncertainty modeling is essential in energy management studies in active distribution networks. • Point estimate method is a suitable method for uncertainty modeling due to its lower computation time and acceptable accuracy. • In the absence of Probability Distribution Function (PDF) robust optimization has a good ability for uncertainty modeling. - Abstract: Uncertainty can be defined as the probability of difference between the forecasted value and the real value. As this probability is small, the operation cost of the power system will be less. This purpose necessitates modeling of system random variables (such as the output power of renewable resources and the load demand) with appropriate and practicable methods. In this paper, an adequate procedure is proposed in order to do an optimal energy management on a typical micro-grid with regard to the relevant uncertainties. The point estimate method is applied for modeling the wind power and solar power uncertainties, and robust optimization technique is utilized to model load demand uncertainty. Finally, a comparison is done between deterministic and probabilistic management in different scenarios and their results are analyzed and evaluated

  13. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  14. The point of view of religious authorities and philosophers on nuclear energy - Judaism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    Judaism considers sciences and technological progress as tools to allow people to reach spiritual values, more easily. Nuclear technologies are seen as a valuable element of modern life because they provide huge quantities of energy through nuclear power plants and efficient diagnostic or treatment methods in nuclear medicine. All these advantages must be used to the well-being of the 7 billions people living on earth. The limit imposed on technologies is the respect of life and nature as they were created by God. The important feedback experience on nuclear power must allow people to weigh its pros and cons more clearly without being trapped in an ideology. Man appears to be the manager of a property that does not belong to him and he has to manage it with a benevolent attitude for the future generations. (A.C.)

  15. Maximum power point tracking analysis of a coreless ironless electric generator for renewable energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The magnetism attraction between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator is often known as cogging. Cogging requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator to see its performance characteristic. In the maximum power point tracking test, the fabricated ironless coreless electricity generator was tested by applying the load on the ironless coreless electricity generator optimization to maximize the power generated, voltage and the current produced by the ironless coreless electricity generator when the rotational speed of the rotor increased throughout the test. The rotational torque and power output are measured, and efficiency is then analyzed. Results indicated that the generator produced RMS voltage of 200VAC at rotational speed of 318 RPM. Torque required to rotate the generator was at 10.8Nm. The generator had working efficiency of 77.73% and the power generated was at 280W.

  16. FoCuS-point: software for STED fluorescence correlation and time-gated single photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P; Sezgin, Erdinc

    2016-01-01

    microscopy (STED-FCS). Specifically, the use of gated detection has shown great potential for enhancing STED-FCS, but has also created a demand for software which is efficient and also implements the latest algorithms. Prior to this study, no open software has been available which would allow practical time...... to be established quickly and efficiently. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FoCuS-point is written in python and is available through the github repository: https://github.com/dwaithe/FCS_point_correlator. Furthermore, compiled versions of the code are available as executables which can be run directly in Linux...

  17. Model of a single mode energy harvester and properties for optimal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yabin; Sodano, Henry A

    2008-01-01

    The process of acquiring the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy is termed power harvesting. In the last few years, the field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth due to the ever increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended life. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their finite energy supply, which necessitates their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and covert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. The development of energy harvesting systems is greatly facilitated by an accurate model to assist in the design of the system. This paper will describe a theoretical model of a piezoelectric based energy harvesting system that is simple to apply yet provides an accurate prediction of the power generated around a single mode of vibration. Furthermore, this model will allow optimization of system parameters to be studied such that maximal performance can be achieved. Using this model an expression for the optimal resistance and a parameter describing the energy harvesting efficiency will be presented and evaluated through numerical simulations. The second part of this paper will present an experimental validation of the model and optimal parameters

  18. Preliminary study of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhang Longjiang; Zhou Changsheng; Lu Guangming; Ma Yan; Gu Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary applications of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Methods: Thirty patients underwent dual energy heart imaging with DSCT, of which 6 cases underwent SPECT or DSA within one week. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality of coronary arteries and iodine map of myocardium. and correlated the coronary artery stenosis with the perfusion distribution of iodine map. Results: l00% (300/300) segments reached diagnostic standards. The mean score of image for all patients was 4.68±0.57. Mural coronary artery was present in 10 segments in S cases, atherosclerotic plaques in 32 segments in 12 cases, of which 20 segments having ≥50% stenosis, 12 segments ≤50% stenosis; dual energy CT coronary angiography was consistent with the DSA in 3 patients. 37 segmental perfusion abnormalities on iodine map were found in 15 cases, including 28 coronary blood supply segment narrow segment and 9 no coronary stenosis (including three negative segments in SPECD. Conclusion: Single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging can provide good coronary artery and myocardium perfusion images in the patients with appropriate heart rate, which has a potential to be used in the clinic and further studies are needed. (authors)

  19. Single isolated hadron response and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vivarelli, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The response of single isolated hadrons in the ATLAS calorimeter is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC. Isolated tracks with a momentum between 0.5 to 10-20 GeV are selected in the rapidity region up to 2.3. Adjacent energy deposits collected in calorimeter clusters are summed together in a cone of size R=0.2. The measured calorimeter cluster energy sum is compared to the track momentum. Data are in compared in detail to Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 tool-kit and to test-beam measurements. The response to hadrons at low momenta is described by the Monte Carlo simulation with an accuracy of a few percent. Together with test-beam data the results of the single isolated hadron analysis can be used to get a first estimate of the jet energy scale uncertainty in the ATLAS detector.

  20. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS- based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node’s specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM, block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  1. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kan; Cai, Zhipeng; Du, Keqin; Zou, Fumin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Jianqing

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS-) based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node's specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM), block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT) basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs) which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  2. A low energy muon spin rotation and point contact tunneling study of niobium films prepared for superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Tobias; Calatroni, S.; Sublet, A.; Terenziani, G.; Prokscha, T.; Salman, Z.; Suter, A.; Proslier, T.; Zasadzinski, J.

    2017-12-01

    Point contact tunneling and low energy muon spin rotation are used to probe, on the same samples, the surface superconducting properties of micrometer thick niobium films deposited onto copper substrates using different sputtering techniques: diode, dc magnetron and HIPIMS. The combined results are compared to radio-frequency tests performances of RF cavities made with the same processes. Degraded surface superconducting properties are found to correlate to lower quality factors and stronger Q-slope. In addition, both techniques find evidence for surface paramagnetism on all samples and particularly on Nb films prepared by HIPIMS.

  3. The application of specific point energy analysis to laser cutting with 1 μm laser radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemzadeh, M.; Suder, W; Williams, S.; Powell, J.; Kaplan, A.F.H.; Voisey, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Specific point energy (SPE) is a concept that has been successfully used in laser welding where SPE and power density determine penetration depth. This type of analysis allows the welding characteristics of different laser systems to be directly compared. This paper investigates if the SPE concept can usefully be applied to laser cutting. In order to provide data for the analysis laser cutting of various thicknesses of mild steel with a 2kW fibre laser was carried out over a wide range of par...

  4. Single particle momentum and angular distributions in hadron-hadron collisions at ultrahigh energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, T. T.; Chen, N. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The forward-backward charged multiplicity distribution (P n sub F, n sub B) of events in the 540 GeV antiproton-proton collider has been extensively studied by the UA5 Collaboration. It was pointed out that the distribution with respect to n = n sub F + n sub B satisfies approximate KNO scaling and that with respect to Z = n sub F - n sub B is binomial. The geometrical model of hadron-hadron collision interprets the large multiplicity fluctuation as due to the widely different nature of collisions at different impact parameters b. For a single impact parameter b, the collision in the geometrical model should exhibit stochastic behavior. This separation of the stochastic and nonstochastic (KNO) aspects of multiparticle production processes gives conceptually a lucid and attractive picture of such collisions, leading to the concept of partition temperature T sub p and the single particle momentum spectrum to be discussed in detail.

  5. Computational and the real energy performance of a single-family residential building in Poland – an attempt to compare: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents energy use for heating and ventilation (one of the energy performance components determined in three ways. A case of a single family building located near Wroclaw in Poland is analyzed. The first and the second variant are both computational and the third presents actual measured energy consumption. Computational variants are based on the Polish methodology for the EPC (the Energy Performance Certificate. This methodology is based on ‘the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU’. Energy use for heating and ventilation is calculated using monthly method presented in EN ISO 13790. In the first computational option standard input data (parameters such as indoor and outdoor air temperature etc. are taken from standards and regulations are implemented. In the second variant this input data are partially taken from measurements. The results of energy use from both computational variants are compared to the actual measured energy consumption. On the basis of this comparison the influence of three factors: solar radiation heat gains, building air tightness and the SCOP of the heat pump on energy use calculations are analyzed. Conclusions aim to point the differences between them and the actual energy consumption.

  6. SU-E-T-263: Point Dose Variation Using a Single Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Plan for Two Treatments with a Single Tandem-Ovoid Insertion for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, X; Morrill, S; Hardee, M; Han, E; Penagaricano, J; Zhang, X; Vaneerat, R [University of Arkansas Medical Science, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the point dose variations between Ir-192 HDR treatments on two consecutive days using a single tandem-ovoid insertion without replanning in cervical cancer patients. Methods: This study includes eleven cervical cancer patients undergoing HDR brachytherapy with a prescribed dose of 28 Gy in 4 fractions. Each patient had two tandemovoid insertions one week apart. Each insertion was treated on consecutive days with rescanning and replanning prior to each treatment. To study the effect of no replanning for day 2 treatments, the day 1 plan dwell position and dwell time with decay were applied to the day 2 CT dataset. The point dose variations on the prescription point H (defined according to American Brachytherapy Society), and normal tissue doses at point B, bladder, rectum and vaginal mucosa (based on ICRU Report 38) were obtained. Results: Without replanning, the mean point H dose variation was 4.6 ± 10.7% on the left; 2.3 ± 2.9% on the right. The mean B point variation was 3.8 ± 4.9% on the left; 3.6 ± 4.7% on the right. The variation in the left vaginal mucosal point was 12.2 ± 10.7%; 9.5 ± 12.5% on the right; the bladder point 5.5 ± 7.4%; and the rectal point 7.9 ± 9.1%. Conclusion: Without replanning, there are variations both in the prescription point and the normal tissue point doses. The latter can vary as much as 10% or more. This is likely due to the steep dose gradient from brachytherapy compounded by shifts in the positions of the applicator in relationship to the patients anatomy. Imaging prior to each treatment and replanning ensure effective and safe brachytherapy are recommended.

  7. Comparison of single point normalized and modified Gate's method for measurement of glomerular filtration rate by nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, L.M.B. da; Fonseca, N.M.; Martins, E.; Pereira, E.

    1992-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate was measured in 22 patients (mean age 30 years) using a noninvasive modified Gates method and the results were compared to the one point normalized technique. The values obtained were 74-11.7 and 82-11.09 ml/min., respectively. The advantages of the method are its reliability, easy adaptation to small laboratories and the avoidance of blood and urine sampling. (author)

  8. Bee venom acupuncture point injection for central post stroke pain: a preliminary single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Joo-Young; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Seong-Uk

    2013-06-01

    We investigated apipuncture, or acupuncture point injection with diluted bee venom, as a promising new treatment for central post stroke pain (CPSP). Bee venom, diluted to 0.005% in normal saline, was administered to the treatment group, and normal saline given to control group as twice-weekly injections for three weeks. The points were LI15, GB21, LI11, GB31, ST36 and GB39 of the affected side and the amount of injection was 0.05 ml at each point. Eight patients in each group were included in the analysis. After three weeks there were significant decreases in visual analogue pain scores compared with baseline in both groups and the treatment group improved more significantly than the control group (p = 0.009). Apipuncture significantly improved CPSP in this pilot trial. Further studies of its mechanisms and a larger and long-term follow-up trial will be needed to determine more definitely the efficacy of apipuncture and to elucidate duration of improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... heating with heat recovery from exhaust air. During the cooling season, the house was cooled by floor cooling and was ventilated mechanically. Air and globe (operative, when applicable) temperatures at different heights at a central location were recorded. The thermal indoor environment, local thermal...... discomfort and overheating were evaluated based on EN 15251 (2007), EN ISO 7730 (2005), and DS 469 (2013), respectively. Energy performance was evaluated based on the energy production and HVAC system energy use. The thermal indoor environment during the heating season was satisfactory...

  10. Many-Body Theory of Proton-Generated Point Defects for Losses of Electron Energy and Photons in Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danhong; Iurov, Andrii; Gao, Fei; Gumbs, Godfrey; Cardimona, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effects of point defects on the loss of either energies of ballistic electron beams or incident photons are studied by using a many-body theory in a multi-quantum-well system. This theory includes the defect-induced vertex correction to a bare polarization function of electrons within the ladder approximation, and the intralayer and interlayer screening of defect-electron interactions is also taken into account in the random-phase approximation. The numerical results of defect effects on both energy-loss and optical-absorption spectra are presented and analyzed for various defect densities, numbers of quantum wells, and wave vectors. The diffusion-reaction equation is employed for calculating distributions of point defects in a layered structure. For completeness, the production rate for Frenkel-pair defects and their initial concentration are obtained based on atomic-level molecular-dynamics simulations. By combining the defect-effect, diffusion-reaction, and molecular-dynamics models with an available space-weather-forecast model, it will be possible in the future to enable specific designing for electronic and optoelectronic quantum devices that will be operated in space with radiation-hardening protection and, therefore, effectively extend the lifetime of these satellite onboard electronic and optoelectronic devices. Specifically, this theory can lead to a better characterization of quantum-well photodetectors not only for high quantum efficiency and low dark current density but also for radiation tolerance or mitigating the effects of the radiation.

  11. Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

  12. Enhancing the accuracy of GPS point positioning by converting the single frequency data to dual frequency data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS has been used to support a wide variety of applications, such as high-accuracy positioning and navigation. Differential GPS techniques can largely eliminate common-mode errors between the reference and the rover GPS stations resulting from ionospheric and tropospheric refraction and delays, satellite and receiver clock biases, and orbital errors [1]. The ionospheric delay in the propagation of global positioning system (GPS signals is one of the main sources of error in GPS precise positioning and navigation. A dual-frequency GPS receiver can eliminate (to the first order the ionospheric delay through a linear combination of the L1 and L2 observations [2]. The most significant effect of ionospheric delay appear in case of using single frequency data. In this paper the single frequency data of concerned station are converted to dual frequency data by employing dual frequency data from 11 regional GPS stations distributed around it. Total electron content (TEC was calculated at every GPS station to produce the mathematical model of TEC which is a function of latitude (Φ and longitude (λ. By using this mathematical model the values of TEC and L2 can be predicted at the single frequency GPS station for each satellite, after that the comparison between predicted and observation values of TEC and L2 was performed. The estimation method and test results of the proposed method indicates that the difference between predicted and observation values is very small.

  13. Single source dual energy CT: What is the optimal monochromatic energy level for the analysis of the lung parenchyma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, M., E-mail: mickael.ohana@gmail.com [iCube Laboratory, Université de Strasbourg/CNRS, UMR 7357, 67400 Illkirch (France); Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Labani, A., E-mail: aissam.labani@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Severac, F., E-mail: francois.severac@chru-strasbourg.fr [Département de Biostatistiques et d’Informatique Médicale, Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg,1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Jeung, M.Y., E-mail: Mi-Young.Jeung@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Gaertner, S., E-mail: Sebastien.Gaertner@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Médecine Vasculaire, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg,1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); and others

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Lung parenchyma aspect varies with the monochromatic energy level in spectral CT. • Optimal diagnostic and image quality is obtained at 50–55 keV. • Mediastinum and parenchyma could be read on the same monochromatic energy level. - Abstract: Objective: To determine the optimal monochromatic energy level for lung parenchyma analysis in spectral CT. Methods: All 50 examinations (58% men, 64.8 ± 16yo) from an IRB-approved prospective study on single-source dual energy chest CT were retrospectively included and analyzed. Monochromatic images in lung window reconstructed every 5 keV from 40 to 140 keV were independently assessed by two chest radiologists. Based on the overall image quality and the depiction/conspicuity of parenchymal lesions, each reader had to designate for every patient the keV level providing the best diagnostic and image quality. Results: 72% of the examinations exhibited parenchymal lesions. Reader 1 picked the 55 keV monochromatic reconstruction in 52% of cases, 50 in 30% and 60 in 18%. Reader 2 chose 50 keV in 52% cases, 55 in 40%, 60 in 6% and 40 in 2%. The 50 and 55 keV levels were chosen by at least one reader in 64% and 76% of all patients, respectively. Merging 50 and 55 keV into one category results in an optimal setting selected by reader 1 in 82% of patients and by reader 2 in 92%, with a 74% concomitant agreement. Conclusion: The best image quality for lung parenchyma in spectral CT is obtained with the 50–55 keV monochromatic reconstructions.

  14. The zero-point field. On the search for the cosmic basic energy; Das Nullpunkt-Feld. Auf der Suche nach der kosmischen Ur-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, L.

    2007-02-15

    Does an inexhaustable energy source exist from which all life is fed? A form of energy, which penetrates all dead and living expression forms of life? Does a logical, scientific explanation exist for parapsychological phenomena like clairvoyance, telepathy, ghost healing, synchronicity, and a model for the mode of action of homeopathy? Do serious researchers and scientific studies to be token in ernest exist, which not only deal with this questions but also have found answers? During eight years the British scientific journalist Lynne McTaggart has researched. ''Teh zero-point field'' is the result of numerous speeches with renowned physicists, biophysicists, neuroscientists, biologist, and consciousness researchers on the whole world, which have independently discovered phenomena, which are combined like puzzle pieces to a fascinating total picture.

  15. Distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from a single semiconductor nanostructure to graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspiel, François; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Nasilowski, Michel; Pedetti, Silvia; Mahmood, Ather; Doudin, Bernard; Park, Serin; Lee, Jeong-O; Halley, David; Dubertret, Benoît; Gilliot, Pierre; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2015-02-11

    The near-field Coulomb interaction between a nanoemitter and a graphene monolayer results in strong Förster-type resonant energy transfer and subsequent fluorescence quenching. Here, we investigate the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from individual, (i) zero-dimensional CdSe/CdS nanocrystals and (ii) two-dimensional CdSe/CdS/ZnS nanoplatelets to a graphene monolayer. For increasing distances d, the energy transfer rate from individual nanocrystals to graphene decays as 1/d(4). In contrast, the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from a two-dimensional nanoplatelet to graphene deviates from a simple power law but is well described by a theoretical model, which considers a thermal distribution of free excitons in a two-dimensional quantum well. Our results show that accurate distance measurements can be performed at the single particle level using graphene-based molecular rulers and that energy transfer allows probing dimensionality effects at the nanoscale.

  16. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  17. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  18. A Single-Chip Solar Energy Harvesting IC Using Integrated Photodiodes for Biomedical Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Law, Man-Kay; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%. By employing an auxiliary charge pump (AQP) using zero threshold voltage (ZVT) devices in parallel with the main charge pump, a low startup voltage of 0.25 V is obtained while minimizing the reversion loss. A 4 V in gate drive voltage is utilized to reduce the conduction loss. Systematic charge pump and solar cell area optimization is also introduced to improve the energy harvesting efficiency. The proposed system is implemented in a standard 0.18- [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 1.54 [Formula: see text]. Measurement results show that the on-chip charge pump can achieve a maximum efficiency of 67%. With an incident power of 1.22 [Formula: see text] from a halogen light source, the proposed energy harvesting IC can deliver an output power of 1.65 [Formula: see text] at 64% charge pump efficiency. The chip prototype is also verified using in-vitro experiment.

  19. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  20. Single photon and multiphoton events with missing energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Single- and multi-photon events with missing energy are selected in 619/pb of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189GeV and 209GeV. The cross sections of the process e^+e^- -> nu nu gamma (gamma) are found to be in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, and the number of light neutrino species is determined, including lower energy data, to be N_nu = 2.98 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.04. Selection results are also given in the form of tables which can be used to test future models involving single- and multi-photon signatures at LEP. These final states are also predicted by models with large extra dimensions and by several supersymmetric models. No evidence for such models is found. Among others, lower limits between 1.5TeV and 0.65TeV are set, at 95% confidence level, on the new scale of gravity for the number of extra dimensions between 2 and 8.

  1. On the Uncertainty in Single Molecule Fluorescent Lifetime and Energy Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emery N.; Zhang, Zhenhua; McCollom, Alex D.

    1996-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting has recently been combined with mode-locked picosecond pulsed excitation to measure the fluorescent lifetimes and energy emissions of single molecules in a flow stream. Maximum likelihood (ML) and least squares methods agree and are optimal when the number of detected photons is large, however, in single molecule fluorescence experiments the number of detected photons can be less than 20, 67 percent of those can be noise, and the detection time is restricted to 10 nanoseconds. Under the assumption that the photon signal and background noise are two independent inhomogeneous Poisson processes, we derive the exact joint arrival time probability density of the photons collected in a single counting experiment performed in the presence of background noise. The model obviates the need to bin experimental data for analysis, and makes it possible to analyze formally the effect of background noise on the photon detection experiment using both ML or Bayesian methods. For both methods we derive the joint and marginal probability densities of the fluorescent lifetime and fluorescent emission. The ML and Bayesian methods are compared in an analysis of simulated single molecule fluorescence experiments of Rhodamine 110 using different combinations of expected background noise and expected fluorescence emission. While both the ML or Bayesian procedures perform well for analyzing fluorescence emissions, the Bayesian methods provide more realistic measures of uncertainty in the fluorescent lifetimes. The Bayesian methods would be especially useful for measuring uncertainty in fluorescent lifetime estimates in current single molecule flow stream experiments where the expected fluorescence emission is low. Both the ML and Bayesian algorithms can be automated for applications in molecular biology.

  2. Preparation, Single-Molecule Manipulation, and Energy Transfer Investigation of a Polyfluorene-graft-DNA polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mikael; Christensen, Rasmus S; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Bakke, Mette R; Riber, Camilla F; Nielsen, Karina S; Zelikin, Alexander N; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2017-08-04

    Conjugated polymers have been intensively studied due to their unique optical and electronic properties combined with their physical flexibility and scalable bottom up synthesis. Although the bulk qualities of conjugated polymers have been extensively utilized in research and industry, the ability to handle and manipulate conjugated polymers at the nanoscale lacks significantly behind. Here, the toolbox for controlled manipulation of conjugated polymers was expanded through the synthesis of a polyfluorene-DNA graft-type polymer (poly(F-DNA)). The polymer possesses the characteristics associated with the conjugated polyfluorene backbone, but the protruding single-stranded DNA provides the material with an exceptional addressability. This study demonstrates controlled single-molecule patterning of poly(F-DNA), as well as energy transfer between two different polymer-DNA conjugates. Finally, highly efficient DNA-directed quenching of polyfluorene fluorescence was shown. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A method of dopant electron energy spectrum parameterization for calculation of single-electron nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorokhov, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Solitary dopants in semiconductors and dielectrics that possess stable electron structures and interesting physical properties may be used as building blocks of quantum computers and sensor systems that operate based on new physical principles. This study proposes a phenomenological method of parameterization for a single-particle energy spectrum of dopant valence electrons in crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics that takes electron-electron interactions into account. It is proposed to take electron-electron interactions in the framework of the outer electron shell model into account. The proposed method is applied to construct the procedure for the determination of the effective dopant outer shell capacity and the method for calculation of the tunneling current in a single-electron device with one or several active dopants-charge centers.

  4. A multichannel single-photon sensitive detector for high-energy physics: the megapixel EBCCD

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Giannini, G; Golovkin, S V; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mondardini, M R; Penso, G; Polizzi, A; Santacesaria, R; Santini, G; Spinetti, M; Vilain, P; Votano, L; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of the characteristics of a hybrid image intensifier tube based on a thinned backside Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) with better performance in spatial resolution, single photoelectron detection and gain stability than the conventional intensified systems based on a Micro Channel Plate followed by a CCD. Single photon detection sensitivity has been studied and a procedure to correct the gain non-uniformity of the EBCCD has been developed. The EBCCD, operating at 14 kV, has an average gain of approx 3000 electrons/photoelectron and a noise of the order of 100 electron/pixel. These characteristics make the EBCCD a very attractive device for many applications in high-energy physics, astrophysics and biomedicine. A possible application in a neutrino oscillation experiment is presented.

  5. Radiative capture of nucleons at astrophysical energies with single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Guimaraes, V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiative capture of nucleons at energies of astrophysical interest is one of the most important processes for nucleosynthesis. The nucleon capture can occur either by a compound nucleus reaction or by a direct process. The compound reaction cross sections are usually very small, especially for light nuclei. The direct capture proceeds either via the formation of a single-particle resonance or a non-resonant capture process. In this work we calculate radiative capture cross sections and astrophysical S-factors for nuclei in the mass region A<20 using single-particle states. We carefully discuss the parameter fitting procedure adopted in the simplified two-body treatment of the capture process. Then we produce a detailed list of cases for which the model works well. Useful quantities, such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients, are obtained and compared to published data.

  6. Low-energy electron dose-point kernel simulations using new physics models implemented in Geant4-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Incerti, Sébastien; Lampe, Nathanael; Bardiès, Manuel; Bordage, Marie-Claude

    2017-05-01

    When low-energy electrons, such as Auger electrons, interact with liquid water, they induce highly localized ionizing energy depositions over ranges comparable to cell diameters. Monte Carlo track structure (MCTS) codes are suitable tools for performing dosimetry at this level. One of the main MCTS codes, Geant4-DNA, is equipped with only two sets of cross section models for low-energy electron interactions in liquid water (;option 2; and its improved version, ;option 4;). To provide Geant4-DNA users with new alternative physics models, a set of cross sections, extracted from CPA100 MCTS code, have been added to Geant4-DNA. This new version is hereafter referred to as ;Geant4-DNA-CPA100;. In this study, ;Geant4-DNA-CPA100; was used to calculate low-energy electron dose-point kernels (DPKs) between 1 keV and 200 keV. Such kernels represent the radial energy deposited by an isotropic point source, a parameter that is useful for dosimetry calculations in nuclear medicine. In order to assess the influence of different physics models on DPK calculations, DPKs were calculated using the existing Geant4-DNA models (;option 2; and ;option 4;), newly integrated CPA100 models, and the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code used in step-by-step mode for monoenergetic electrons. Additionally, a comparison was performed of two sets of DPKs that were simulated with ;Geant4-DNA-CPA100; - the first set using Geant4‧s default settings, and the second using CPA100‧s original code default settings. A maximum difference of 9.4% was found between the Geant4-DNA-CPA100 and PENELOPE DPKs. Between the two Geant4-DNA existing models, slight differences, between 1 keV and 10 keV were observed. It was highlighted that the DPKs simulated with the two Geant4-DNA's existing models were always broader than those generated with ;Geant4-DNA-CPA100;. The discrepancies observed between the DPKs generated using Geant4-DNA's existing models and ;Geant4-DNA-CPA100; were caused solely by their different cross

  7. Low-energy electron dose-point kernel simulations using new physics models implemented in Geant4-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordes, Julien, E-mail: julien.bordes@inserm.fr [CRCT, UMR 1037 INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31037 Toulouse (France); UMR 1037, CRCT, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, F-31037 (France); Incerti, Sébastien, E-mail: incerti@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Lampe, Nathanael, E-mail: nathanael.lampe@gmail.com [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bardiès, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.bardies@inserm.fr [CRCT, UMR 1037 INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31037 Toulouse (France); UMR 1037, CRCT, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, F-31037 (France); Bordage, Marie-Claude, E-mail: marie-claude.bordage@inserm.fr [CRCT, UMR 1037 INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31037 Toulouse (France); UMR 1037, CRCT, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, F-31037 (France)

    2017-05-01

    When low-energy electrons, such as Auger electrons, interact with liquid water, they induce highly localized ionizing energy depositions over ranges comparable to cell diameters. Monte Carlo track structure (MCTS) codes are suitable tools for performing dosimetry at this level. One of the main MCTS codes, Geant4-DNA, is equipped with only two sets of cross section models for low-energy electron interactions in liquid water (“option 2” and its improved version, “option 4”). To provide Geant4-DNA users with new alternative physics models, a set of cross sections, extracted from CPA100 MCTS code, have been added to Geant4-DNA. This new version is hereafter referred to as “Geant4-DNA-CPA100”. In this study, “Geant4-DNA-CPA100” was used to calculate low-energy electron dose-point kernels (DPKs) between 1 keV and 200 keV. Such kernels represent the radial energy deposited by an isotropic point source, a parameter that is useful for dosimetry calculations in nuclear medicine. In order to assess the influence of different physics models on DPK calculations, DPKs were calculated using the existing Geant4-DNA models (“option 2” and “option 4”), newly integrated CPA100 models, and the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code used in step-by-step mode for monoenergetic electrons. Additionally, a comparison was performed of two sets of DPKs that were simulated with “Geant4-DNA-CPA100” – the first set using Geant4′s default settings, and the second using CPA100′s original code default settings. A maximum difference of 9.4% was found between the Geant4-DNA-CPA100 and PENELOPE DPKs. Between the two Geant4-DNA existing models, slight differences, between 1 keV and 10 keV were observed. It was highlighted that the DPKs simulated with the two Geant4-DNA’s existing models were always broader than those generated with “Geant4-DNA-CPA100”. The discrepancies observed between the DPKs generated using Geant4-DNA’s existing models and “Geant4-DNA-CPA100” were

  8. Onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczyński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indi- cate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase di- agram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. Further information about the existence and nature of a phase transition in the SPS energy range can be gained from the studies of event-by-event fluctuations of final stat...

  9. Search for Extra dimensions in a single-jet and missing energy channel at CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Benucci, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    A possible solution to the hierarchy problem is the presence of extra spatial dimensions beyond the three ones which are known from our everyday experience. The phenomenological ADD model of large extra-dimensions predicts a missing transverse energy plus a single-jet signature. This contribution addresses the sensitivity of the CMS detector at the LHC pp collider to parameters of this model, focusing on the conditions expected for second half of 2010 running (sqrt(s) = 10 TeV, O(100) pb-1). It is shown that a significant improvement of the existing limits can be obtained in such an early stage.

  10. Application of electron energy loss spectroscopy for single wall carbon nanotubes (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, N.; Jain, S.; Mittal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is among the few techniques that are available for the characterization of modified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having nanometer dimensions (~1-3 nm). CNTs can be modified either by surface functionalization or coating, between bundles of nanotubes by doping, intercalation and fully or partially filling the central core. EELS is an exclusive technique for the identification, composition analysis, and crystallization studies of the chemicals and materials used for the modification of SWCNTs. The present paper serves as a compendium of research work on the application of EELS for the characterization of modified SWCNTs. (authors)

  11. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  12. Energy loss of the electron system in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Chudow, Joel D; Prober, Daniel E; Purewal, Meninder S; Kim, Philip

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the energy loss of the nonequilibrium electron system in individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature. Using Johnson noise thermometry, we demonstrate that, for a nanotube with Ohmic contacts, the dc resistance at finite bias current directly reflects the average electron temperature. This enables a straightforward determination of the thermal conductance associated with cooling of the nanotube electron system. In analyzing the temperature- and length-dependence of the thermal conductance, we consider contributions from acoustic phonon emission, optical phonon emission, and hot electron outdiffusion.

  13. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  14. Predicting Binding Free Energy Change Caused by Point Mutations with Knowledge-Modified MM/PBSA Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marharyta Petukh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology termed Single Amino Acid Mutation based change in Binding free Energy (SAAMBE was developed to predict the changes of the binding free energy caused by mutations. The method utilizes 3D structures of the corresponding protein-protein complexes and takes advantage of both approaches: sequence- and structure-based methods. The method has two components: a MM/PBSA-based component, and an additional set of statistical terms delivered from statistical investigation of physico-chemical properties of protein complexes. While the approach is rigid body approach and does not explicitly consider plausible conformational changes caused by the binding, the effect of conformational changes, including changes away from binding interface, on electrostatics are mimicked with amino acid specific dielectric constants. This provides significant improvement of SAAMBE predictions as indicated by better match against experimentally determined binding free energy changes over 1300 mutations in 43 proteins. The final benchmarking resulted in a very good agreement with experimental data (correlation coefficient 0.624 while the algorithm being fast enough to allow for large-scale calculations (the average time is less than a minute per mutation.

  15. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb

  16. Energy decomposition analysis of single bonds within Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel S; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2017-11-28

    An energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for single chemical bonds is presented within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory based on spin projection equations that are exact within wave function theory. Chemical bond energies can then be understood in terms of stabilization caused by spin-coupling augmented by dispersion, polarization, and charge transfer in competition with destabilizing Pauli repulsions. The EDA reveals distinguishing features of chemical bonds ranging across nonpolar, polar, ionic, and charge-shift bonds. The effect of electron correlation is assessed by comparison with Hartree-Fock results. Substituent effects are illustrated by comparing the C-C bond in ethane against that in bis(diamantane), and dispersion stabilization in the latter is quantified. Finally, three metal-metal bonds in experimentally characterized compounds are examined: a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] dimer, the [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] bond in dizincocene, and the Mn-Mn bond in dimanganese decacarbonyl.

  17. Energy Band Gap Study of Semiconducting Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkadi, Asmaa; Decrossas, Emmanuel; El-Ghazaly, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of multiple semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) considering various distribution inside a bundle are studied. The model derived from the proposed analytical potential function of electron density for na individual s-SWCNT is general and can be easily applied to multiple nanotubes. This work demonstrates that regardless the number of carbon nanotubes, the strong coupling occurring between the closet neighbors reduces the energy band gap of the bundle by 10%. As expected, the coupling is strongly dependent on the distance separating the s-SWCNTs. In addition, based on the developed model, it is proposed to enhance this coupling effect by applying an electric field across the bundle to significantly reduce the energy band gap of the bundle by 20%.

  18. The European single market of energy faced with conventional supply safety concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    By analysing the context of the creation of the Single Energy Market, this article tries to understand the logic behind the coexistence of two energy safety concepts: (1) the financial gains of international trading; (2) the protection against supply shortage risks using domestic self-sufficiency policies. Both concepts are based on an informative context conditioned by the two crises, which mainly impact the security perceptions of today: the oil crisis in the seventies and the Californian crisis in 2001. They are based on opposite factors: anti-market behaviour in the first case and excessive competition in the second case. The nature of liberalization, of the relation-ship with non-EU producing countries and the perception of the dangers are inherent to such an informative context. (author)

  19. Dependence of single-walled carbon nanotube adsorption kinetics on temperature and binding energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, D S; Krungleviciute, V; Heroux, L; Bulut, M; Calbi, M M; Migone, A D

    2008-12-02

    We present results for the isothermal adsorption kinetics of methane, hydrogen, and tetrafluoromethane on closed-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes. In these experiments, we monitor the pressure decrease as a function of time as equilibrium is approached, after a dose of gas is added to the cell containing the nanotubes. The measurements were performed at different fractional coverages limited to the first layer. The results indicate that, for a given coverage and temperature, the equilibration time is an increasing function of E/(k(B)T), where E is the binding energy of the adsorbate and k(B)T is the thermal energy. These findings are consistent with recent theoretical predictions and computer simulations results that we use to interpret the experimental measurements.

  20. Stored and absorbed energy of fields in lossy chiral single-component metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenko, I.; Balmakou, A.; Khakhomov, S.; Tretyakov, S.

    2018-01-01

    Here we present theoretical results for estimation of electromagnetic field energy density and absorbed energy in dispersive lossy chiral single-component metamaterials which consist of an ensemble of identical helical resonators as inclusions. The shape of the helical resonator can vary over a wide range, from a straight wire to a flat split ring. An interaction of the inclusions with harmonic circularly polarized electromagnetic plane waves is studied. We focus on how the inclusion shape influences the mentioned metamaterial properties. The derived general solution for the problem is in good agreement with previous partial and alternative solutions obtained for split ring resonators, straight wires, and helices. The study reveals the optimal geometry of helical lossy resonators for their strongest selectivity of interaction with circularly polarized radiation.

  1. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  2. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  3. First year's operation experience of the deepest SPM (Single Point Mooring) in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.L.; Hughes, H.; Dyer, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The British National Oil Corp. had a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) installed at the Thistle Field in Apr. 1977 for export loading of tankers pending completion of the Brent System 36 in. pipeline to Sullom-Voe, which became operational in Dec. 1978; the SALM will continue to be maintained in good condition as a standby alternative export outlet. Modification of the original three 80,000 dwt tankers during 1977 provided the original design capacity of an 80,000 dwt tanker, but with added clean ballast capacity to eliminate tank cleaning and treatment of dirty ballast water. A fully integrated tanker/SALM/platform instrumentation system monitors mooring loads, buoy and riser angles, and tanker status; the latter being radio telemetered to the nearby block platform. Operation of the system and necessary modifications are described.

  4. Extremely high genetic diversity in a single tumor points to prevalence of non-Darwinian cell evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shaoping; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Zuyu; Yang, Fang; Li, Yawei; Lin, Pei; Chen, Ke; Dong, Lili; Cao, Lihua; Tao, Yong; Hao, Lingtong; Chen, Qingjian; Gong, Qiang; Wu, Dafei; Li, Wenjie; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Xiuyun; Hao, Chunyi; Hungate, Eric A; Catenacci, Daniel V T; Hudson, Richard R; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Lu, Xuemei; Wu, Chung-I

    2015-11-24

    The prevailing view that the evolution of cells in a tumor is driven by Darwinian selection has never been rigorously tested. Because selection greatly affects the level of intratumor genetic diversity, it is important to assess whether intratumor evolution follows the Darwinian or the non-Darwinian mode of evolution. To provide the statistical power, many regions in a single tumor need to be sampled and analyzed much more extensively than has been attempted in previous intratumor studies. Here, from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor, we evaluated multiregional samples from the tumor, using either whole-exome sequencing (WES) (n = 23 samples) or genotyping (n = 286) under both the infinite-site and infinite-allele models of population genetics. In addition to the many single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) present in all samples, there were 35 "polymorphic" SNVs among samples. High genetic diversity was evident as the 23 WES samples defined 20 unique cell clones. With all 286 samples genotyped, clonal diversity agreed well with the non-Darwinian model with no evidence of positive Darwinian selection. Under the non-Darwinian model, MALL (the number of coding region mutations in the entire tumor) was estimated to be greater than 100 million in this tumor. DNA sequences reveal local diversities in small patches of cells and validate the estimation. In contrast, the genetic diversity under a Darwinian model would generally be orders of magnitude smaller. Because the level of genetic diversity will have implications on therapeutic resistance, non-Darwinian evolution should be heeded in cancer treatments even for microscopic tumors.

  5. Papilla height in relation to the distance between bone crest and interproximal contact point at single-tooth implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Mario; Roccuzzo, Andrea; Ramanuskaite, Ausra

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the tooth-implant papilla formation in correlation with the distance between the interproximal bone level and the prosthetic contact point. A comprehensive search of the current literature (01/01/2000-01/01/2017) was performed to identify human trials that included 10 patients or more, with at least 12 months follow-up, in need of the replacement of one single tooth in the anterior maxillary region with an implant-supported single crown. To meet the inclusion criteria, studies had to provide both radiographic and clinical data regarding the distance between the interproximal bone level and the prosthetic contact point. The search yielded 136 records. After evaluation of abstracts and full texts, 12 papers were included in the final review, even though various reference points, for the comparison between the vertical distance and the papilla height, were used. The vertical distance between the interproximal bone level and prosthetic contact point ranged between 2 and 11 mm, and the partial or complete papilla fill (Jemt's score 2-3) ranged between 56.5% and 100% of cases. There is limited evidence that the vertical distance from the base of the interproximal contact point to the crestal bone level seems to affect the interproximal papilla height; that is, the lower is the distance the higher is the percentage of papilla fill. Complete embrasure fill between an implant restoration and the adjacent tooth seems to be correlated with the integrity of the periodontal ligament of the tooth. To reduce the risk of aesthetic failures, interproximal probing on the adjacent teeth should be encouraged before implant placement. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Point Climat no. 15 'Australia's Clean Energy Future Package: How does it compare with the EU's approach?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patay, Magali; Sartor, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On November 8, 2011, the Australian Government passed the so-called 'Clean Energy Future Package'. This set of 19 Acts includes a carbon tax of 23 AUD/tCO 2 , to come into force on 1 July 2012, which will transition, from 1 July 2015, to a system of emissions trading. While it is based on the European model, the Australian carbon market includes several important departures from the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, particularly in terms of sectoral coverage, price controls, governance, support for low-carbon technologies, and the management of complementary policies. The design of the Australian carbon market is thus of interest not only to domestic stakeholders, but to the evolution of carbon markets and climate policy elsewhere

  7. Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus. When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.

  8. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  9. Single-cell tracking reveals antibiotic-induced changes in mycobacterial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglica, Željka; Özdemir, Emre; McKinney, John D

    2015-02-17

    ATP is a key molecule of cell physiology, but despite its importance, there are currently no methods for monitoring single-cell ATP fluctuations in live bacteria. This is a major obstacle in studies of bacterial energy metabolism, because there is a growing awareness that bacteria respond to stressors such as antibiotics in a highly individualistic manner. Here, we present a method for long-term single-cell tracking of ATP levels in Mycobacterium smegmatis based on a combination of microfluidics, time-lapse microscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ATP biosensors. Upon treating cells with antibiotics, we observed that individual cells undergo an abrupt and irreversible switch from high to low intracellular ATP levels. The kinetics and extent of ATP switching clearly discriminate between an inhibitor of ATP synthesis and other classes of antibiotics. Cells that resume growth after 24 h of antibiotic treatment maintain high ATP levels throughout the exposure period. In contrast, antibiotic-treated cells that switch from ATP-high to ATP-low states never resume growth after antibiotic washout. Surprisingly, only a subset of these nongrowing ATP-low cells stains with propidium iodide (PI), a widely used live/dead cell marker. These experiments also reveal a cryptic subset of cells that do not resume growth after antibiotic washout despite remaining ATP high and PI negative. We conclude that ATP tracking is a more dynamic, sensitive, reliable, and discriminating marker of cell viability than staining with PI. This method could be used in studies to evaluate antimicrobial effectiveness and mechanism of action, as well as for high-throughput screening. New antimicrobials are urgently needed to stem the rising tide of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. All antibiotics are expected to affect bacterial energy metabolism, directly or indirectly, yet tools to assess the impact of antibiotics on the ATP content of individual bacterial cells are lacking. The

  10. Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazúr, P.; Mrlík, J.; Beneš, J.; Pocedič, J.; Vrána, J.; Dundálek, J.; Kosek, J.

    2018-03-01

    In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions. Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.g., for the component screening and in-situ durability studies on single-cell scale redox flow batteries of various chemistries.

  11. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  12. A DAB Converter with Common-Point-Connected Winding Transformers Suitable for a Single-Phase 5-Level SST System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeok-Jin Yun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main disadvantages of the multi-level solid-state transformer (SST system is the voltage imbalance on the output of the rectifier modules. This voltage imbalance can be caused by parameter mismatch of the active and passive components, different loads, and the floating structure of the high voltage DC-links. Some studies have been done to solve this voltage imbalance problem. A common way to avoid this imbalance is to balance the voltage of DC-links at the AC/DC conversion stage and balance the power between the modules at the DC/DC conversion stage. Most of these methods require a complex balancing controller or additional circuits. This paper proposes a novel dual active bridge (DAB converter specialized in power balancing in a single-phase 5-level SST system. The proposed DAB converter does not require any additional balancing controllers or techniques for power balancing. The performance of the proposed DAB converter was verified by simulation and experiments using a 3 kW 5-level SST prototype system.

  13. Exploring kinetic energy as a new marker of cardiac function in the single ventricle circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, James; Chabiniok, Radomir; Tibby, Shane M; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Sammut, Eva; Celermajer, David S; Giese, Daniel; Hussain, Tarique; Greil, Gerald F; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza

    2018-01-25

    Ventricular volumetric ejection fraction (VV EF) is often normal in patients with single ventricle circulations despite them experiencing symptoms related to circulatory failure. We sought to determine if kinetic energy (KE) could be a better marker of ventricular performance. KE was prospectively quantified using 4D flow MRI in 41 patients with a single ventricle circulation (aged 0.5 - 28 years) and compared to 43 healthy volunteers (aged 1.5 - 62 years) and 14 patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (aged 28 - 79 years). Intraventricular end-diastolic blood was tracked through systole and divided into ejected and residual blood components. Two ejection fraction (EF) metrics were devised based on the KE of the ejected component over the total of both the ejected and residual components using: (1) instantaneous peak KE to assess KE EF or; (2) summating individual peak particle energy (PE) to assess PE EF. KE EF and PE EF had a smaller range than VV EF in healthy subjects (97.9 {plus minus} 0.8% vs. 97.3 {plus minus} 0.8% vs. 60.1 {plus minus} 5.2%). LV dysfunction caused a fall in KE EF (p =0.01) and PE EF (p =0.0001). VV EF in healthy LVs and single ventricle hearts was equivalent however KE EF and PE EF were lower (p <0.001) with a wider range indicating a spectrum of severity. Those reporting the greatest symptomatic impairment (NYHA II) had lower PE EF than asymptomatic subjects (p =0.0067). KE metrics are markers of healthy cardiac function. PE EF may be useful in grading dysfunction.

  14. Magneto-transport in the zero-energy Landau level of single-layer and bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, U; Giesbers, A J M; Elferen, H J van; Kurganova, E V; McCollam, A; Maan, J C

    2011-01-01

    We present recent low-temperature magnetotransport experiments on single-layer and bilayer graphene in high magnetic field up to 33 T. In single layer graphene the fourfold degeneracy of the zero-energy Landau level is lifted by a gap opening at filling factor ν = 0. In bilayer graphene, we observe a partial lifting of the degeneracy of the eightfold degenerate zero-energy Landau level.

  15. Nutritional analysis of gastric contents and body condition score at a single time point in feral horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Brian A; Owens, Elizabeth; Watts, Kathryn A; Mills, Paul C; Pollitt, Christopher C; de Laat, Melody A

    2011-09-01

    To determine the impact of a free-choice diet on nutritional intake and body condition of feral horses. Cadavers of 41 feral horses from 5 Australian locations. Body condition score (BCS) was determined (scale of 1 to 9), and the stomach was removed from horses during postmortem examination. Stomach contents were analyzed for nutritional variables and macroelement and microelement concentrations. Data were compared among the locations and also compared with recommended daily intakes for horses. Mean BCS varied by location; all horses were judged to be moderately thin. The BCS for males was 1 to 3 points higher than that of females. Amount of protein in the stomach contents varied from 4.3% to 14.9% and was significantly associated with BCS. Amounts of water-soluble carbohydrate and ethanol-soluble carbohydrate in stomach contents of feral horses from all 5 locations were higher than those expected for horses eating high-quality forage. Some macroelement and microelement concentrations were grossly excessive, whereas others were grossly deficient. There was no evidence of ill health among the horses. Results suggested that the diet for several populations of feral horses in Australia appeared less than optimal. However, neither low BCS nor trace mineral deficiency appeared to affect survival of the horses. Additional studies on food sources in these regions, including analysis of water-soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-soluble carbohydrate, and mineral concentrations, are warranted to determine the provenance of such rich sources of nutrients. Determination of the optimal diet for horses may need revision.

  16. A single point mutation within the coding sequence of cholera toxin B subunit will increase its expression yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Boustanshenas, Mina; Ghorbani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been extensively considered as an immunogenic and adjuvant protein, but its yield of expression is not satisfactory in many studies. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of native and mutant recombinant CTB (rCTB) in pQE vector. ctxB fragment from Vibrio cholerae O1 ATCC14035 containing the substitution of mutant ctxB for amino acid S128T was amplified by PCR and cloned in pGETM-T easy vector. It was then transformed to E. coli Top 10F' and cultured on LB agar plate containing ampicillin. Sequence analysis confirmed the mature ctxB gene sequence and the mutant one in both constructs which were further subcloned to pQE-30 vector. Both constructs were subsequently transformed to E. coli M15 (pREP4) for expression of mature and mutant rCTB. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the maximum expression of rCTB in both systems at 5 hours after induction and Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of rCTB in blotting membranes. The expression of mutant rCTB was much higher than mature rCTB, which may be the result of serine-to-threonine substitution at position 128 of mature rCTB amino acid sequence created by PCR mutagenesis. The mutant rCTB retained pentameric stability and its ability to bind to anti- cholera toxin IgG antibodies. Point mutation in ctxB sequence resulted in over-expression of rCTB, probably due to the increase of solubility of produced rCTB. Consequently, this expression system can be used to produce rCTB in high yield.

  17. Activity coefficients and free energies of nonionic mixed surfactant solutions from vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jennifer A; Ray, Gargi Basu; Leaist, Derek G

    2011-05-19

    The thermodynamic properties of mixed surfactant solutions are widely investigated, prompted by numerous practical applications of these systems and by interest in molecular association and self-organization. General techniques for measuring thermodynamic activities, such as isopiestic equilibration, are well-established for multicomponent solutions. Surprisingly, these techniques have not yet been applied to mixed surfactant solutions, despite the importance of the free energy for micelle stability. In this study, equations are developed for the osmotic coefficients of solutions of nonionic surfactant A + nonionic surfactant B. A mass-action model is used, with virial equations for the activity coefficients of the micelles and free surfactant monomer species. The equations are fitted to osmotic coefficients of aqueous decylsulfobetaine + dodecylsulfobetaine solutions measured by vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry. Equilibrium constants for mixed-micelle formation are calculated from the free monomer concentrations at the critical micelle concentrations. The derived activity coefficients of the micelles and free monomers indicate large departures from ideal solution behavior, even for dilute solutions of the surfactants. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the total surfactant components are evaluated by Gibbs-Duhem integration of the osmotic coefficients. Relatively simple colligative property measurements hold considerable promise for free energy studies of multicomponent surfactant solutions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, Maciej; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gazdzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indicate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase diagram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. A selection of NA49 results on di-pion and proton intermittency from the scan of the phase diagram will be discussed.

  19. The Effect of de-Sitter Like Background on Increasing the Zero Point Budget of Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Ali; Saaidi, Khaled; Sheikhahmadi, Haidar

    2016-01-01

    During this work, using subtraction renormalization mechanism, zero point quantum fluctuations for bosonic scalar fields in a de-Sitter like background are investigated. By virtue of the observed value for spectral index, n s (k), for massive scalar field the best value for the first slow roll parameter, ϵ, is achieved. In addition, the energy density of vacuum quantum fluctuations for massless scalar field is obtained. The effects of these fluctuations on other components of the universe are studied. By solving the conservation equation, for some different examples, the energy density for different components of the universe is obtained. In the case which all components of the universe are in an interaction, the different dissipation functions, Q-tilde i , are considered. The time evolution of ρ DE (z)/ρ cri (z) shows that Q-tilde=3γH(t)ρ m has the best agreement in comparison to observational data including CMB, BAO, and SNeIa data set.

  20. Reducing start-up time and minimizing energy losses of Microbial Fuel Cells using Maximum Power Point Tracking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Daniele; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Liberale, Alessandro; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Callegari, Arianna; Colprim, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are considered to be an environmental friendly energy conversion technology. The main limitations that delay their industrialization include low current and power densities achievable and long start-up times. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has been proposed as a method to enhance MFCs electrical performances. However, the specialized literature is still lacking of experimental works on scaled-up reactors and/or real wastewater utilization. This study evaluates the impact of a MPPT system applied to MFCs treating swine wastewater in terms of start-up time and long-term performance. For this purpose, two replicate cells were compared, one with applied MPPT control and one working with fixed resistance. Both MFCs were continuously fed with swine wastewater to validate the control system under real and dynamic conditions. The study demonstrated that the automatic resistance control was able to reduce the start-up time of about one month. Moreover, MPPT system increased of 40% the Coulombic efficiency at steady-state conditions, reduced energy losses associated with anode and cathode reactions and limited methanogenic activity in the anode chamber. A power density of 5.0 ± 0.2 W m-3 NAC was achieved feeding the system at an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD m-3 d-1.

  1. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  2. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan eCao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  3. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  4. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10 −3 s −1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10 −2 s −1 .

  5. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail: gh-du@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  6. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  7. Single scan parameterization of space-variant point spread functions in image space via a printed array: the impact for two PET/CT scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C; Angelis, G I; Noonan, P J; Jackson, A [Imaging, Genomics and Proteomics, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Price, P [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lionheart, W R [School of Mathematics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J, E-mail: fotis.kotasidis@mmic.man.ac.uk [Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-05-21

    Incorporation of a resolution model during statistical image reconstruction often produces images of improved resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. A novel and practical methodology to rapidly and accurately determine the overall emission and detection blurring component of the system matrix using a printed point source array within a custom-made Perspex phantom is presented. The array was scanned at different positions and orientations within the field of view (FOV) to examine the feasibility of extrapolating the measured point source blurring to other locations in the FOV and the robustness of measurements from a single point source array scan. We measured the spatially-variant image-based blurring on two PET/CT scanners, the B-Hi-Rez and the TruePoint TrueV. These measured spatially-variant kernels and the spatially-invariant kernel at the FOV centre were then incorporated within an ordinary Poisson ordered subset expectation maximization (OP-OSEM) algorithm and compared to the manufacturer's implementation using projection space resolution modelling (RM). Comparisons were based on a point source array, the NEMA IEC image quality phantom, the Cologne resolution phantom and two clinical studies (carbon-11 labelled anti-sense oligonucleotide [{sup 11}C]-ASO and fluorine-18 labelled fluoro-l-thymidine [{sup 18}F]-FLT). Robust and accurate measurements of spatially-variant image blurring were successfully obtained from a single scan. Spatially-variant resolution modelling resulted in notable resolution improvements away from the centre of the FOV. Comparison between spatially-variant image-space methods and the projection-space approach (the first such report, using a range of studies) demonstrated very similar performance with our image-based implementation producing slightly better contrast recovery (CR) for the same level of image roughness (IR). These results demonstrate that image-based resolution modelling within reconstruction is a valid alternative to

  8. Ab initio analysis of a vacancy and a self-interstitial near single crystal silicon surfaces: Implications for intrinsic point defect incorporation during crystal growth from a melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji; Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Vanhellemont, Jan [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, Gent 9000 (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The microscopic model of the Si (001) crystal surface was investigated by first principles calculations to clarify the behavior of intrinsic point defects near crystal surfaces. A c(4 x 2) structure model was used to describe the crystal surface in contact with vacuum. The calculations show lower formation energy near the surface and the existence of formation energy differences between the surface and the bulk for both types of intrinsic point defects. The tetrahedral (T)-site and the dumbbell (DB)-site, in which a Si atom is captured from the surface and forms a self-interstitial, are found as stable sites near the third atomic layer. The T-site has a barrier of 0.48 eV, whereas the DB-site has no barrier for the interstitial to penetrate into the crystal from the vacuum. Si atoms in a melt can migrate and reach at the third layer during crystal growth when bulk diffusion coefficient is used. Therefore, the melt/solid interface is always a source of intrinsic point defects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  10. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Diemling, Markus; Kremser, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM) chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie) into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Through an adequate choice of acupuncture material (gold needles) as well as of

  11. Spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single molecule with intramolecular spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2010-07-23

    We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states.

  12. Exploring the optimal performances of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-05-01

    Applying finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) and electronic transport theory, the optimal performances of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron (ESE) refrigerator are analyzed. The effects of heat leakage between two electron reservoirs on optimal performances are discussed. The influences of system operating parameters on cooling load, coefficient of performance (COP), figure of merit and ecological function are demonstrated using numerical examples. Comparative performance analyses among different objective functions show that performance characteristics at maximum ecological function and maximum figure of merit are of great practical significance. Combining the two optimization objectives of maximum ecological function and maximum figure of merit together, more specific optimal ranges of cooling load and COP are obtained. The results can provide some advices to the design of practical electronic machine systems.

  13. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonchev, H; Donkov, A A; Chamati, H

    2016-01-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains. (paper)

  14. Non-degenerate single-particle energies in the Ginocchio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Kirson, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    A one-body operator expressing the breaking of the degeneracy of the single-nucleon energies is added to the pairing interaction of the Ginocchio model. This operator couples states inside the model's SD space to states outside it. The influence of this coupling on the effective interaction in the SD space and the possibility of expressing the results in terms of renormalization of parameters in the fermion hamiltonian or the IBM are investigated. The effective interaction is found to be almost diagonal in seniority, while splitting the previously-degenerate seniority multiplets. Appropriately renormalized Ginocchio and IBM hamiltonians can approximately reproduce the results, but fermion-number dependence of the hamiltonian parameters and explicit three-body interactions are needed to reproduce the computed effects exactly. (orig.)

  15. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  16. Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Lei; Li, Yilei; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Long; Niu, Simiao; Chenet, Daniel; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Yufeng; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-23

    The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m(-2) and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.

  17. Glutamate Excitotoxicity Is Involved in the Induction of Paralysis in Mice after Infection by a Human Coronavirus with a Single Point Mutation in Its Spike Protein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, Elodie; Jacomy, Hélène; Desforges, Marc; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are recognized respiratory pathogens, and some strains, including HCoV-OC43, can infect human neuronal and glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and activate neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Moreover, HCoV-OC43 is neuroinvasive, neurotropic, and neurovirulent in susceptible mice, where it induces chronic encephalitis. Herein, we show that a single point mutation in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein (Y241H), acquired during viral persistence in human neural cells, led to a hind-limb paralytic disease in infected mice. Inhibition of glutamate excitotoxicity using a 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propranoic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist (GYKI-52466) improved clinical scores related to the paralysis and motor disabilities in S mutant virus-infected mice, as well as protected the CNS from neuronal dysfunctions, as illustrated by restoration of the phosphorylation state of neurofilaments. Expression of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, responsible for glutamate homeostasis, was downregulated following infection, and GYKI-52466 also significantly restored its steady-state expression level. Finally, GYKI-52466 treatment of S mutant virus-infected mice led to reduced microglial activation, which may lead to improvement in the regulation of CNS glutamate homeostasis. Taken together, our results strongly suggest an involvement of excitotoxicity in the paralysis-associated neuropathology induced by an HCoV-OC43 mutant which harbors a single point mutation in its spike protein that is acquired upon persistent virus infection. PMID:21957311

  18. A single point mutation in Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein is sufficient to overcome Tsw-gene-mediated resistance in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, Asztéria; Nemes, Katalin; Csömör, Zsófia; Tóbiás, István; Palkovics, László; Salánki, Katalin

    2017-06-01

    The nonstructural protein (NSs) of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was previously identified as an avirulence determinant for Tsw-based resistance on pepper. The NSs of wild-type (WT) and resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains isolated in Hungary had only two amino acid substitutions (104, 461). We have analysed the ability of the NSs and their point mutant variants to trigger Tsw-mediated hypersensitive responses and RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity in patch assays. We identified a single amino acid change at position 104 (T-A) that was responsible for the necrosis induction or loss, while a significant difference was not detected in the RSS activity of the two parental strains. We have successfully complemented the infection of the WT strain on resistant pepper cultivar with the infectious S RNA transcript of the RB strain and the WT-T104A point mutant. Our work provides direct evidence that a single amino acid change can induce an RB phenotype.

  19. Enhanced thermal conductivity of form-stable phase change composite with single-walled carbon nanotubes for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Li, Jinhong; Feng, Wuwei; Nian, Hong'en

    2017-03-16

    A striking contrast in the thermal conductivities of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/diatomite form-stable phase change composite (fs-PCC) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) as nano-additive has been reported in our present study. Compared to the pure PEG, the thermal conductivity of the prepared fs-PCC has increased from 0.24 W/mK to 0.87 W/Mk with a small SWCNs loading of 2 wt%. SWCNs are decorated on the inner surface of diatomite pores whilst retaining its porous structure. Compared to PEG/diatomite fs-PCC, the melting and solidification time of the PEG/diatomite/SWCNs fs-PCC are respectively decreased by 54.7% and 51.1%, and its thermal conductivity is 2.8 times higher. The composite can contain PEG as high as 60 wt% and maintain its original shape perfectly without any PEG leakage after subjected to 200 melt-freeze cycles. DSC results indicates that the melting point of the PEG/diatomite/SWCNs fs-PCC shifts to a lower temperature while the solidification point shifts to a higher temperature due to the presence of SWCNs. Importantly, the use of SWCNs is found to have clear beneficial effects for enhancing the thermal conductivity and thermal storage/release rates, without affecting thermal properties, chemical compatibility and thermal stability. The prepared PEG/diatomite/SWCNs fs-PCC exhibits excellent chemical and thermal durability and has potential application in solar thermal energy storage and solar heating.

  20. Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

    2012-03-01

    Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.