WorldWideScience

Sample records for single payer system

  1. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  2. Managing health expenditure inflation under a single-payer system: Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Winnie C; Lee, Yue-Chune; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Chen, Bradley

    2017-11-16

    As nations strive to achieve and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), they seek answers as to what health system structures are more effective in managing health expenditure inflation. A fundamental macro-level choice a nation has to make is whether to adopt a single- or a multiple-payer health system. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) as a case, this paper examines how a single-payer system manages its health expenditure growth and draws lessons for other countries whose socioeconomic development is similar to Taiwan's. Our analyses show that as a single payer, Taiwan's NHI is able to exercise its monopsony power to manage its health expenditure growth. This is achieved primarily through the adoption of a system-wide global budget. The global budget sets a hard aggregate budget cap to limit NHI's total spending to its expected revenue, with the annual budget growth rate established by a process of negotiation among key stakeholders. The global budget system is complemented by comprehensive and continuous monitoring and review of encounter records of all providers and patients, enabled by the NHI's advanced information technology. However, by paying its providers using a point-based fee schedule, Taiwan's NHI suffers from inefficient service provision. In particular, providers have incentives to increase use of services and drugs with positive profit margins. Furthermore, Taiwan demonstrates that its control of NHI expenditure growth might be leading it to inadequately meet the changing needs of the population, resulting in the rapid growth of private insurance to cover services excluded or not fully covered by the NHI. If this trend persists and results in a two-tier system, Taiwan's NHI may risk compromising the equity it has achieved in the past two decades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Managed competition" for Ireland? The single versus multiple payer debate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mikkers, Misja

    2014-09-01

    A persistent feature of international health policy debate is whether a single-payer or multiple-payer system can offer superior performance. In Ireland, a major reform proposal is the introduction of \\'managed competition\\' based on the recent reforms in the Netherlands, which would replace many functions of Ireland\\'s public payer with a system of competing health insurers from 2016. This article debates whether Ireland meets the preconditions for effective managed competition, and whether the government should implement the reform according to its stated timeline. We support our arguments by discussing the functioning of the Dutch and Irish systems.

  4. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Single payer: good metaphor, bad politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    Health insurance reform requires political solutions, not technocratic fixes. Single payer frames the problem as a grossly inefficient bursar's office. Great political leadership means reframing the problem as a faulty social compact, rewriting the compact, and making everybody play by the new rules. Most of all, great leadership means explaining in powerful language why participating in the new social compact would fulfill both enlightened self-interest and social responsibility.

  6. Outcome and cost of trauma among the elderly: a real-life model of a single-payer reimbursement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J S; Cephas, G A; Blow, O

    1998-10-01

    As our population ages, the number of elderly trauma patients (age > or = 65 years) increases. Studies have demonstrated increased mortality and cost for a given injury severity in the elderly compared with younger patients. The financial viability of trauma centers in the United States has been an area of concern for many years. As reimbursement diminishes for privately insured patients, the ability to finance the care of the indigent is jeopardized. Medicare, the single-payer insurance plan for the elderly, reimburses at a lower rate than standard private insurance carriers. We examined the differences in outcome and cost between the elderly and younger patients and the financial burden imposed by care for elderly trauma. Our hypothesis was that elderly trauma patients would have poorer outcomes, higher cost, and generate greater financial losses than younger patients. All patients admitted to the University of Virginia Trauma Service from July 1, 1994, to July 1, 1997 were included. Trauma registry and patients records were examined. Patients with incomplete financial data (cost, reimbursement, and payer source) were excluded. Patients were grouped by age (18-64 and > or =65 years), Injury Severity Score, and payer source. One thousand one hundred twenty-seven patients met the entry criteria. One hundred forty patients had incomplete financial or patient data and were excluded. Nine hundred eighty-seven patients were included in the study, of which 159 were elderly and 828 were 18 to 64 years of age. Injury Severity Scores were significantly higher in the elderly group. Only 2% of elderly patients were uninsured (76% were insured by Medicare), whereas 25% of younger patients were uninsured. Medicare reimbursement rates actually exceeded those of all other carriers (114% of costs). Elderly patients had a higher mortality rate, but the z score did not reach significance. The W score, however, indicated that there were more unexpected, negative outcomes among

  7. Does a public single payer system deliver integrated care? A national survey study among professional stakeholders in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Strandberg-Larsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated health care delivery is a goal of health care systems; to date there has been limited information on the integration of medical care in practice. Purpose: To examine and compare perceptions of clinical integration and to identify associated strategic, cultural, technical and structural factors. Design and setting: A national survey addressed to: all county administrative managers (n=15; all hospital managers (n=44; and randomized selected samples of hospital department physician managers (n=200 and general practitioners (n=700 in Denmark. Results: Several initiatives have been implemented in Denmark to integrate care. Nevertheless, most physicians agree that only half of all patients experience well coordinated pathways. Clinical integration is a strategic priority at the managerial levels, but this is not visible at the functional levels. Financial incentives are not used to encourage coordination. The information communication technology to facilitate clinical integration is perceived to be inadequate. Conclusion: The scope for improvement is high due to the structural composition of the system. Increased managerial stewardship, alignment of the financial incentives, and expanded use of information communication technology to link sub-organisations will be a way to move the system forward to meet its explicit goal of providing an integrated delivery of services.

  8. A 3-dimensional view of access to licensed and subsidized medicines under single-payer systems in the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Rajan; Aaltonen, Katri; Tordoff, June; Norris, Pauline; Reith, David

    2012-11-01

    Patients' access to medicines can be profoundly affected by the decisions made by medicine licensing bodies and public reimbursement agencies. The present study compares access to licensed and subsidized medicines under a single-payer system in each of the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand (NZ). These systems are the US Department of Veterans Affairs National Formulary (VANF), the UK NHS for England and Wales, Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and NZ's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC). The VANF, PBS and PHARMAC all use positive lists of medicines that are subsidized, along with pharmacoeconomic analysis and price negotiations with suppliers. The NHS uses a negative list of medicines that are not to be subsidized, along with pharmacoeconomic analysis of a small number of medicines and caps on manufacturers' profits. Our objective was to compare licensed and subsidized medicines in terms of the following: (i) total numbers of entities (unique Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] codes); (ii) times since first registration (age) of the entities; and (iii) numbers of innovative entities. This was an observational study in order to test pre-defined hypotheses. All products listed in a major prescribing reference in each country were included in the study. All products were classified by ATC code and their registration dates recorded. Products were collapsed by ATC code to determine 'best-case' licensing and subsidy for each entity, along with the date of first registration. Innovative entities selected for 'fast-track' approval by the US FDA or as a 'breakthrough or substantial improvement' by the Canadian Patented Medicines Prices Review Board were identified. Results were verified by a sensitivity analysis that excluded entities only available in injectable formulations (as these may not always be listed in general prescribing references), and by a parallel analysis done by active agent rather than ATC code. Of the 918 entities and 64

  9. The Little State That Couldn't Could? The Politics of "Single-Payer" Health Coverage in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Blanchet, Nathan J

    2015-06-01

    In May 2011, a year after the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Vermont became the first state to lay the groundwork for a single-payer health care system, known as Green Mountain Care. What can other states learn from the Vermont experience? This article summarizes the findings from interviews with nearly 120 stakeholders as part of a study to inform the design of the health reform legislation. Comparing Vermont's failed effort to adopt single-payer legislation in 1994 to present efforts, we find that Vermont faced similar challenges but greater opportunities in 2010 that enabled reform. A closely contested gubernatorial election and a progressive social movement opened a window of opportunity to advance legislation to design three comprehensive health reform options for legislative consideration. With a unified Democratic government under the leadership of a single-payer proponent, a high-profile policy proposal, and relatively weak opposition, a framework for a single-payer system was adopted by the legislature - though with many details and political battles to be fought in the future. Other states looking to reform their health systems more comprehensively than national reform can learn from Vermont's design and political strategy. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  10. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arrieta

    Full Text Available The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy. From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%.

  11. Nursing home 5-star rating system exacerbates disparities in quality, by payer source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Grabowski, David C; Perraillon, Marcelo Coca; Werner, Rachel M

    2015-05-01

    Market-based reforms in health care, such as public reporting of quality, may inadvertently exacerbate disparities. We examined how the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services' five-star rating system for nursing homes has affected residents who are dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid ("dual eligibles"), a particularly vulnerable and disadvantaged population. Specifically, we assessed the extent to which dual eligibles and non-dual eligibles avoided the lowest-rated nursing homes and chose the highest-rated homes once the five-star rating system began, in late 2008. We found that both populations resided in better-quality homes over time but that by 2010 the increased likelihood of choosing the highest-rated homes was substantially smaller for dual eligibles than for non-dual eligibles. Thus, the gap in quality, as measured by a nursing home's star rating, grew over time. Furthermore, we found that the benefit of the five-star system to dual eligibles was largely due to providers' improving their ratings, not to consumers' choosing different providers. We present evidence suggesting that supply constraints play a role in limiting dual eligibles' responses to quality ratings, since high-quality providers tend to be located close to relatively affluent areas. Increases in Medicaid payment rates for nursing home services may be the only long-term solution. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Negotiating with payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel M

    2010-05-01

    Negotiating with payers for better reimbursement, contract language, support for practice enhancement, or changes in policies and procedures is a critical function that may greatly enhance a practice's success over time. This article discusses keys to successful negotiating and several specific areas beyond reimbursement that deserve the reader's attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Systemy wyrownywania szkodowosci funkcjonujace w bazowych systemach zabezpieczenia zdrowotnego z konkurencja pomiedzy platnikami trzeciej strony. (Claims equalization systems, operating in the health insurance base system, underlying the competition between third-party payers.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Wieckowska

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that in a system in which there is a risk of equalization as a response to the introduction of competition among third-party payers there is also a system of equalization claims. The lower classes of risk in the system means the more redistributive system in order to provide compensation claims – lower financial liability of the third party payer. This thesis has been verified on the basis of an evaluation of compensation claims, operating in countries with co...

  14. Payers' experiences with confidential pharmaceutical price discounts: A survey of public and statutory health systems in North America, Europe, and Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Vogler, Sabine; Wagner, Anita K

    2017-04-01

    Institutional payers for pharmaceuticals worldwide appear to be increasingly negotiating confidential discounts off of the official list price of pharmaceuticals purchased in the community setting. We conducted an anonymous survey about experiences with and attitudes toward confidential discounts on patented pharmaceuticals in a sample of high-income countries. Confidential price discounts are now common among the ten health systems that participated in our study, though some had only recently begun to use these pricing arrangements on a routine basis. Several health systems had used a wide variety of discounting schemes in the past two years. The most frequent discount received by participating health systems was between 20% and 29% of official list prices; however, six participants reported their health system received one or more discount over the past two years that was valued at 60% or more of the list prices. On average, participants reported that confidential discounts were more common, complex, and significant for specialty pharmaceuticals than for primary care pharmaceuticals. Participants had a more favorable view of the impact of confidential discount schemes on their health systems than on the global marketplace. Overall, the frequency, complexity, and scale of confidential discounts being routinely negotiated suggest that the list prices for medicines bear limited resemblance to what many institutional payers actually pay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  16. Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Basinski, Cindy M; Lukes, Andrea S; Troeger, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods A health state transition (semi-Markov) model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial) and $3,000 (Medicaid); cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial) and $8,900 (Medicaid). Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities, and 82%–91% fewer versus hysterectomy. Furthermore, NovaSure-treated patients had fewer days of work absence and short-term disability. Cost-effectiveness metrics showed NovaSure treatment as economically dominant over other GEA modalities in all circumstances. With few exceptions, similar

  17. Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller JD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Miller,1 Gregory M Lenhart,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Cindy M Basinski,2 Andrea S Lukes,3 Kathleen A Troeger4 1Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, 2Basinski, LLC, Newburgh, IN, 3Carolina Women’s Research and Wellness Center, Durham, NC, 4Hologic, Inc, Marlborough, MA, USA Objectives: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods: A health state transition (semi-Markov model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results: Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial and $3,000 (Medicaid; cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial and $8,900 (Medicaid. Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities

  18. Billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, S; Buffington, D E; Memoli, G A

    1999-01-01

    To describe the steps pharmacists must complete when seeking compensation from third party payers for pharmaceutical care services. Government publications; professional publications, including manuals and newsletters; authors' personal experience. Pharmacists in increasing numbers are meeting with success in getting reimbursed by third party payers for patient care activities. However, many pharmacists remain reluctant to seek compensation because they do not understand the steps involved. Preparatory steps include obtaining a provider/supplier number, procuring appropriate claim forms, developing data collection and documentation systems, establishing professional fees, creating a marketing plan, and developing an accounting system. To bill for specific patient care services, pharmacists need to collect the patient's insurance information, obtain a statement of medical necessity from the patient's physician, complete the appropriate claim form accurately, and submit the claim with supporting documentation to the insurer. Although many claims from pharmacists are rejected initially, pharmacists who work with third party payers to understand the reasons for denial of payment often receive compensation when claims are resubmitted. Pharmacists who follow these guidelines for billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services should notice an increase in the number of paid claims.

  19. Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the differences in the utilization of healthcare services between patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC and patients without using a population-based database in Taiwan. METHODS: This study comprised of 350 patients with BPS/IC and 1,750 age-matched controls. Healthcare resource utilization was evaluated in the one-year follow-up period as follows: number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, and the mean costs of outpatient and inpatient treatment. A multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between BPS/IC and total costs of health care services. RESULTS: For urological services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly higher number of outpatient visits (2.5 vs. 0.2, p<0.001 as well as significantly higher outpatient costs ($US166 vs. $US6.8, p<0.001 than the controls. For non-urologic services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly high number of outpatient visits (35.0 vs. 21.3, p<0.001 as well as significantly higher outpatient cots ($US912 vs. $US675, p<0.001 as compared to the controls. Overall, patients with BPS/IC had 174% more outpatient visits and 150% higher total costs than the controls. Multiple-regression-analyses also showed that the patients with BPS/IC had significantly higher total costs for all healthcare services than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with BPS/IC have a significantly higher number of healthcare related visits, and have significantly higher healthcare related costs than age-matched controls. The high level of healthcare services utilization accrued with BPS/IC was not necessarily exclusive for BPS/IC, but may have also been associated with medical co-morbidities.

  20. Paying for the Orphan Drug System: break or bend? Is it time for a new evaluation system for payers in Europe to take account of new rare disease treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes-Wilson Wills

    2012-09-01

    specificities of orphan drugs given that the higher price-points claimed by orphan drugs are unlikely to meet current cost-effectiveness thresholds. The authors propose the development of a new assessment system based on several evaluation criteria, which would serve as a tool for Member State governments to evaluate each new orphan drug at the time of pricing and reimbursement. These should include rarity, disease severity, the availability of other alternatives (level of unmet medical need, the level of impact on the condition that the new treatment offers, whether the product can be used in one or more indications, the level of research undertaken by the developer, together with other factors, such as manufacturing complexity and follow-up measures required by regulatory or other authorities. This will allow governments to value an orphan drug that fulfilled all the criteria very differently from one that only met some of them. An individual country could determine the (monetary value that it places on each of the different criteria, according to societal preferences, the national healthcare system and the resources at its disposal – each individual government deciding on the weighting attributed to each of the criteria in question, based on what each individual society values most. Such a systematic and transparent system will help frame a more structured dialogue between manufacturers and payers, with the involvement of the treating physicians and the patients; and foster a more certain environment to stimulate continued investment in the field. A new approach could also offer pricing and reimbursement decision-makers a tool to handle the different characteristics amongst new orphan drugs and to redistribute the national budgets in accordance with the outcome of a differentiated assessment. The authors believe that this could, therefore, facilitate the approach for all stakeholders.

  1. Trends in biologic therapies for rheumatoid arthritis: results from a survey of payers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenapple, Rhonda

    2012-03-01

    Advances in therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly biologics, have transformed the treatment paradigm for RA. However, the associated costs of these therapies result in a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. As a chronic disease requiring lifelong treatment, most health plans now position RA drugs as a high-priority therapeutic category. To identify provider and payer practices and perceptions regarding coverage of RA biologics in the current marketplace, as well as emerging trends in reimbursement practices. In November 2011, Reimbursement Intelligence, a healthcare research company, collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data via parallel-structure online surveys of 100 rheumatologists and 50 health plan payers (medical and pharmacy directors) who represent more than 80 million covered lives. The surveys included approximately 150 questions, and the surveys were designed to force a response for each question. Payers reported using tier placement, prior authorization, and contracting in determining coverage strategies for RA biologics. Among providers, experience with older RA agents remains the key driver for the choice of a biologic agent. A majority of payers and providers (68% and 54%, respectively) reported that they did not anticipate a change in the way their plans would manage biologics over the next 2 to 4 years. Payers' responses indicated uncertainty about how therapeutic positioning of newer, small-molecule drugs at price parity to biologics would affect the current reimbursement landscape. Survey responses show that approval of an indication for early treatment of RA is not likely to change the prescribing and reimbursement landscape for RA biologics. This survey further shows that payers and providers are generally aligned in terms of perceptions of current and future treatments for RA. Advances in RA therapies allow patients increasing options for effective disease management. However, the high cost of

  2. Developing evidence that is fit for purpose: a framework for payer and research dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Rajeev K; Graff, Jennifer S; Holve, Erin; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Matching the supply and demand of evidence requires an understanding of when more evidence is needed, as well as the type of evidence that will meet this need. This article describes efforts to develop and refine a decision-making framework that considers payers' perspectives on the utility of evidence generated by different types of research methods, including real-world evidence. Conceptual framework development with subsequent testing during a roundtable dialogue. The framework development process included a literature scan to identify existing frameworks and relevant articles on payer decision making. The framework was refined during a stand-alone roundtable in December 2013 hosted by the research team, which included representatives from public and private payers, pharmacy benefit management, the life sciences industry, and researchers. The roundtable discussion also included an application of the framework to 3 case studies. Application of the framework to the clinical scenarios and the resulting discussion provided key insights into when new evidence is needed to inform payer decision making and what questions should be addressed. Payers are not necessarily seeking more evidence about treatment efficacy; rather, they are seeking more evidence for relevant end points that illustrate the differences between treatment alternatives that can justify the resources required to change practice. In addition, payers are interested in obtaining new evidence that goes beyond efficacy, with an emphasis on effectiveness, longer-term safety, and delivery system impact. We believe that our decision-making framework is a useful tool to increase dialogue between evidence generators and payers, while also allowing for greater efficiency in the research process.

  3. Benefits of a single payment system: case study of Abu Dhabi health system reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Philipp; Boecker, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    In 2005 leaders in the wealthy Emirate of Abu Dhabi inherited an health system from their predecessors that was well-intentioned in its historic design, but that did not live up to aspirations in any dimension. First, the Emirate defined a vision to deliver "world-class" quality care in response to citizen's needs. It has since introduced tiered mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants linked to a single standard payment system, which generates accurate data as an invaluable by-product. A newly created independent health system regulator monitors these data and licenses, audits, and inspects all health service professionals, facilities, and insurers accordingly. We analyse these health system reforms using the "Getting Health Reform Right" framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrated set of reforms addressing all reform levers is critical to achieving the outcomes observed. The reform programme has improved access, by giving all residents health cards. The approximate doubling of demand has been matched by flexible supply, with the private sector adding 5 new hospitals and 93 clinics to the health system infrastructure since 2006. The focus on reliable raw-data flows through the single standard payment system functions as a motor for improvement services, innovation, and investment, for instance by allowing payers to 'pay for quality', which may well be applicable in other contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture clash: aligning payers and providers for real reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey C

    2010-04-01

    Self-imposed cost containment is not part of providers' heritage. The payer business model and its problems are complicated; simplistic reforms won't help. Health reform needs to be refocused on policies that allow providers and payers to align their cultures so that all parties benefit from potential synergies to provide top-quality care as inexpensively as possible.

  5. The Current Status of Outcomes-Based Contracting for Manufacturers and Payers: An AMCP Membership Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Amy; Saha, Soumi; Smith, Stacie; Kaufman, Stew; Hughes, Janet

    2017-12-22

    As the United States health care system shifts from traditional volume-based payments to value-based payments, outcomes-based contracts (OBCs) are gaining popularity among payers and manufacturers as a mechanism for the shift toward value. Under this model, stakeholders hope to align drug payment and value to real-world performance metrics (e.g., biomarkers and health care resource utilization). To understand the experiences, perceptions, and needs of payers and manufacturers related to OBCs. The Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) and Xcenda conducted an online survey with AMCP payer and manufacturer members. Participants were asked a series of questions regarding their use of OBCs, barriers to implementation, and elements required in establishing successful OBCs. The importance and urgency of specific impediments to successful OBC implementation were also assessed. The survey was fielded May 12, 2017, to June 7, 2017, yielding 65 responses (35 payers/30 manufacturers). While a minority of payers/ manufacturers had at least 1 OBC in place (20%/33%), a majority had interest in future OBC use (71%/63%). Among those with at least 1 OBC in place, 86%/80% of payers/manufacturers had renewed at least 1 OBC in the past 5 years. All payers and 60% of manufacturers with OBCs included compliance measures. Improvement in clinical outcomes was also common (71%/70%) (e.g., reaching set laboratory values goals), and 71%/60% included avoidance of unnecessary medical resource use (e.g., hospitalization and emergency department visit). The barrier most frequently identified by payers in implementing OBCs was evidence that OBCs reduced pharmacy spending (60%), while manufacturers identified the inability to obtain accurate data/outcome measures (73%) as a major limiting factor. Payers/manufacturers endorsed the use of easily measurable outcomes (91%/100%) as most important in establishing successful OBCs. Manufacturers, and to a lesser extent payers, indicated that regulations

  6. Identification of single-input-single-output quantum linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Matthew; GuÅ£ǎ, Mǎdǎlin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate system identification for single-input-single-output general (active or passive) quantum linear systems. For a given input we address the following questions: (1) Which parameters can be identified by measuring the output? (2) How can we construct a system realization from sufficient input-output data? We show that for time-dependent inputs, the systems which cannot be distinguished are related by symplectic transformations acting on the space of system modes. This complements a previous result of Guţă and Yamamoto [IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 61, 921 (2016), 10.1109/TAC.2015.2448491] for passive linear systems. In the regime of stationary quantum noise input, the output is completely determined by the power spectrum. We define the notion of global minimality for a given power spectrum, and characterize globally minimal systems as those with a fully mixed stationary state. We show that in the case of systems with a cascade realization, the power spectrum completely fixes the transfer function, so the system can be identified up to a symplectic transformation. We give a method for constructing a globally minimal subsystem direct from the power spectrum. Restricting to passive systems the analysis simplifies so that identifiability may be completely understood from the eigenvalues of a particular system matrix.

  7. Evaluation of Public Accountability and Tax Culture among Tax Payers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Igbo Igbeng; Sunny Biobele Beredugo; Vincent Adaka Adu

    2015-01-01

    This study is about public accountability and tax culture in Nigeria. The article specifically evaluates the extent to which government’s accountability, transparency and act in the interest of the public create a sustainable tax culture in Nigeria and whether clear definition of responsibility, adherence to reporting mechanism and strict system review and sanctions enhance Nigerian tax culture among others. Survey research design was used and information was gathered from 782 tax payers fr...

  8. Variation in Private Payer Coverage of Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James D; Wilkinson, Colby L; Anderson, Jordan E; Chenoweth, Matthew D

    2016-10-01

    Payers in the United States issue coverage determinations to guide how their enrolled beneficiaries use prescription drugs. Because payers create their own coverage policies, how they cover drugs can vary, which in turn can affect access to care by beneficiaries. To examine how the largest private payers based on membership cover drugs indicated for rheumatoid arthritis and to determine what evidence the payers reported reviewing when formulating their coverage policies. Coverage policies issued by the 10 largest private payers that make their policies publicly available were identified for rheumatoid arthritis drugs. Each coverage determination was compared with the drug's corresponding FDA label and categorized according to the following: (a) consistent with the label, (b) more restrictive than the label, (c) less restrictive than the label, or (d) mixed (i.e., more restrictive than the label in one way but less restrictive in another). Each coverage determination was also compared with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2012 treatment recommendations and categorized using the same relative restrictiveness criteria. The policies were then reviewed to identify the evidence that the payers reported reviewing. The identified evidence was divided into the following 6 categories: randomized controlled trials; other clinical studies (e.g., observational studies); health technology assessments; clinical reviews; cost-effectiveness analyses; and clinical guidelines. Sixty-nine percent of coverage determinations were more restrictive than the corresponding FDA label; 15% were consistent; 3% were less restrictive; and 13% were mixed. Thirty-four percent of coverage determinations were consistent with the ACR recommendations, 33% were more restrictive; 17% were less restrictive; and 17% were mixed. Payers most often reported reviewing randomized controlled trials for their coverage policies (an average of 2.3 per policy). The payers reported reviewing an average of

  9. Innovations in Payer-Community Partnerships: The EmblemHealth Neighborhood Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Wauchope, Karen; Islam, Nadia S; Fifield, Judith; Kidd Arlotta, Patricia; Han, Hee Won; Ng, Eliza

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive and innovative strategies are needed to address and manage chronic diseases and conditions and to reduce health disparities. EmblemHealth Neighborhood Care (EHNC) sites provide community-based linkages across payers, health providers, and delivery systems and underserved communities using culturally sensitive methods tailored to meet the needs of the community. This article describes this novel initiative and early indicators of its feasibility. Three EHNC sites were established in New York City: Harlem, Cambria Heights, and Chinatown. Each site provides core health and customer services to members and the community. In addition, sites provide tailored services to meet the unique needs of each community. Preliminary data suggest that program and community members are utilizing the sites and returning for follow-up visits. Sites also demonstrate success in cross referral between EHNC teams. The EHNC program is both feasible from the payer's perspective and acceptable to diverse patient populations and settings.

  10. Diabetes benefit management: evolving strategies for payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeel, Albert L

    2011-11-01

    Over the next quarter century, the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is expected to at least double. Currently, 1 in every 10 healthcare dollars is spent on diabetes management; by 2050, it has been projected that the annual costs of managing T2DM will rise to $336 billion. Without substantial, systemic changes, T2DM management costs will lead to a potentially untenable strain on the healthcare system. However, the appropriate management of diabetes can reduce associated mortality and delay comorbidities. In addition, adequate glycemic control can improve patient outcomes and significantly reduce diabetes-related complications. This article provides an overview of key concepts associated with a value-based insurance design (VBID) approach to T2DM coverage. By promoting the use of services or treatments that provide high benefits relative to cost, and by alternatively discouraging patients from utilizing services whose benefits do not justify their cost, VBID improves the quality of healthcare while simultaneously reining in spending. VBID initiatives tend to focus on chronic disease management and generally target prescription drug use. However, some programs have expanded their scope by incorporating services traditionally offered by wellness and disease management programs. The concept of VBID is growing, and it is increasingly being implemented by a diverse and growing number of public and private entities, including pharmacy benefit managers, health plans, and employers. This article provides key background on VBID strategies, with a focus on T2DM management. It also provides a road map for health plans seeking to implement VBID as part of their programs.

  11. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  13. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  14. Systems interaction and single failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report documents the results of a six-month study to evaluate the ongoing research programs of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and U.S. commercial nuclear station owners which address the safety significance of systems interaction and the regulatory adequacy of the single failure criterion. The evaluation of system interactions provided is the initial phase of a more detailed study leading to the development and application of methodology for quantifying the relative safety of operating nuclear plants. (Auth.)

  15. Single event upsets in spacecraft digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukowicz, P. E.; Richter, L. J.

    This paper describes the physical environments that can result in random bit changes in spaceborne memory systems. The impact of bit flips in digital telemetry systems is emphasized, with special attention paid to software requirements for protection from single event upset (SEU) effects. Some observations on incidence rates are presented along with an outline of hardware and software methods that can be taken to prevent future SEU problems. Several conclusions are drawn about strategies for preventing data corruption on the next generation of satellites in the presence of SEU-inducing particles.

  16. Forging a novel provider and payer partnership in Wisconsin to compensate pharmacists for quality-driven pharmacy and medication therapy management services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapskin, Kari; Johnson, Curtis; Cory, Patrick; Sorum, Sarah; Decker, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To describe the Wisconsin Pharmacy Quality Collaborative (WPQC), a quality-based network of pharmacies and payers with the common goals of improving medication use and safety, reducing health care costs for payers and patients, and increasing professional recognition and compensation for pharmacist-provided services. Wisconsin between 2006 and 2009. Community (independent, chain, and health-system) pharmacies and private and public health care payers/purchasers with support from the McKesson Corporation. This initiative aligns incentives for pharmacies and payers through implementation of 12 quality-based pharmacy requirements as conditions of pharmacy participation in a practice-advancement pilot. Payers compensate network pharmacies that meet the quality-based requirements for two levels of pharmacy professional services (level 1, intervention-based services; level 2, comprehensive medication review and assessment services). The pilot project is designed to measure the following outcomes: medication-use quality improvements, frequency and types of services provided, drug therapy problems, patient safety, cost savings, identification of factors that facilitate pharmacist participation, and patient satisfaction. The Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin created the WPQC network, which consists of 53 pharmacies, 106 trained pharmacists, 45 student pharmacists, 6 pharmacy technicians, and 2 initial payers. A quality assurance process is followed approximately quarterly to audit the 12 network quality requirements. An evaluation of this collaboration is being conducted. This program demonstrates that collaboration among payers and pharmacists is possible and can result in the development of an incentive-aligned program that stresses quality patient care, standardized services, and professional service compensation for pharmacists. This combination of a quality-based credentialing process with a professional services reimbursement schedule is unique and has the promise to

  17. Single-Shell tank system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) system consists of 149 underground SSTs and processing equipment designed and constructed between 1940 and 1964 to transport and store radioactive hazardous/dangerous wastes generated from irradiated nuclear fuel processing. The tanks, designed to store waste, vary in size from between 190,000 to 3,800,000 L (50,000 gal to 1,000,000 gal) and contain a variety of solid and liquid waste. The system also includes miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST). In addition to the tanks, there is a large amount of ancillary equipment associated with the system and although not designed to store wastes, the ancillary equipment is contaminated through contact with the waste. Waste was routed to the tanks through a network of underground piping, with interconnections provided in concrete pits that allowed changes to the routing through instrumentation. Processing vaults used during waste handling operations, evaporators used to reduce the waste stored in the system, and other miscellaneous structures used for a variety of waste handling operations are also included in the system. The SST system was taken out of service in 1980 and no additional waste has been added to the tanks. The SSTs and ancillary equipment were designed and constructed before promulgation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986. The purpose of this document is to describe the SST system for use in performing an engineering and compliance assessment in support of M-23 milestones (Ecology, et al. 2000). This system description provides estimated locations and volumes of waste within the SST system, including storage tanks, transfer systems, evaporators aid miscellaneous support facilities

  18. Sharing risk between payer and provider by leasing health technologies: an affordable and effective reimbursement strategy for innovative technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Hall, Peter; Wallner, Klemens; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of implementing high-cost innovative technologies in health care systems operating under significant budgetary pressure has led to a radical shift in the health technology reimbursement landscape. New reimbursement strategies attempt to reduce the risk of making the wrong decision, that is, paying for a technology that is not good value for the health care system, while promoting the adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. The remaining risk, however, is not shared between the manufacturer and the health care payer at the individual purchase level; it continues to be passed from the manufacturer to the payer at the time of purchase. In this article, we propose a health technology payment strategy-technology leasing reimbursement scheme-that allows the sharing of risk between the manufacturer and the payer: the replacing of up-front payments with a stream of payments spread over the expected duration of benefit from the technology, subject to the technology delivering the claimed health benefit. Using trastuzumab (Herceptin) in early breast cancer as an exemplar technology, we show how a technology leasing reimbursement scheme not only reduces the total budgetary impact of the innovative technology but also truly shares risk between the manufacturer and the health care system, while reducing the value of further research and thus promoting the rapid adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does good medication adherence really save payers money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bruce C; Dai, Mingliang; Xu, Jing; Loh, Feng-Hua E; S Dougherty, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Despite a growing consensus that better adherence with evidence-based medications can save payers money, assertions of cost offsets may be incomplete if they fail to consider additional drug costs and/or are biased by healthy adherer behaviors unobserved in typical medical claims-based analyses. The objective of this study was to determine whether controlling for healthy adherer bias (HAB) materially affected estimated medical cost offsets and additional drug spending associated with higher adherence. A total of 1273 Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes enrolled in Part D plans between 2006 and 2009. Using survey and claims data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we measured medical and drug costs associated with good and poor adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80% and <80%, respectively) to oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, and statins over 2 years. To test for HAB, we estimated pairs of regression models, one set containing variables typically controlled for in conventional claims analysis and a second set with survey-based variables selected to capture HAB effects. We found consistent evidence that controlling for HAB reduces estimated savings in medical costs from better adherence, and likewise, reduces estimates of additional adherence-related drug spending. For ACE inhibitors/ARBs we estimate that controlling for HAB reduced adherence-related medical cost offsets from $6389 to $4920 per person (P<0.05). Estimates of additional adherence-related drug costs were 26% and 14% lower in HAB-controlled models (P < 0.05). These results buttress the economic case for action by health care payers to improve medication adherence among insured persons with chronic disease. However, given the limitations of our research design, further research on larger samples with other disease states is clearly warranted.

  20. Predictors of Payer Mix and Financial Performance Among Safety Net Hospitals Prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Stone, Juliana; Kane, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use audited hospital financial statements to identify predictors of payer mix and financial performance in safety net hospitals prior to the Affordable Care Act. We analyzed the 2010 financial statements of 98 large, urban safety net hospital systems in 34 states, supplemented with data on population demographics, hospital features, and state policies. We used multivariate regression to identify independent predictors of three outcomes: 1) Medicaid-reliant payer mix (hospitals for which at least 25% of hospital days are paid for by Medicaid); 2) safety net revenue-to-cost ratio (Medicaid and Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments and local government transfers, divided by charity care costs and Medicaid payment shortfall); and 3) operating margin. Medicaid-reliant payer mix was positively associated with more inclusive state Medicaid eligibility criteria and more minority patients. More inclusive Medicaid eligibility and higher Medicaid reimbursement rates positively predicted safety net revenue-to-cost ratio. University governance was the strongest positive predictor of operating margin. Safety net hospital financial performance varied considerably. Academic hospitals had higher operating margins, while more generous Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies improved hospitals' ability to recoup costs. Institutional and state policies may outweigh patient demographics in the financial health of safety net hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Gravisensing in single-celled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    Single-celled systems are favourable cell types for studying several aspects of gravisensing and gravitropic responses. Whether and how actin is involved in both processes in higher plant statocytes is still a matter of intensive debate. In single-celled and tip-growing characean rhizoids and protonemata, however, there is clear evidence that actin is a central keyplayer controlling polarized growth and the mechanisms of gravity sensing and growth reorientation. Both cell types exhibit a unique actin polymerization in the extending tip, strictly colocalized with the prominent ER-aggregate in the center of the Spitzenkoerper. The local accumulation of ADF and profilin in this central array suggest that actin polymerization is controlled by these actin-binding proteins, which can be regulated by calcium, pH and a variety of other parameters. Distinct actin filaments extend even into the outermost tip and form a dense meshwork in the apical and subapical region, before they become bundled by villin to form two populations of thick actin cables that generate rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region. Actomyosin not only mediates the delivery of secretory vesicles to the growing tip and controls the incorporation pattern of cell wall material, but also coordinates the tip-focused distribution pattern of calcium channels in the apical membrane. They establish the tip-high calcium gradient, a prerequisite for exocytosis. Microgravity experiments have added much to our understanding that both cell types use an efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. Actin's involvement in the graviresponses is more indirect. The upward growth of negatively gravitropic protonemata was shown to be preceded by a statolith-induced relocalization the Ca2+-calcium gradient to the upper flank that does not occur in positively gravitropic

  2. Impact of Payer Constraints on Access to Genetic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Pat; Beitsch, Peter; Arnell, Christopher; Cox, Hannah C; Brown, Krystal; Kidd, John; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2017-01-01

    With increased demand for hereditary cancer genetic testing, some large national health-care insurance payers (LNHPs) have implemented policies to minimize inappropriate testing by mandating consultation with a geneticist or genetic counselor (GC). We hypothesized such a restriction would reduce access and appropriate testing. Test cancellation rates (ie, tests ordered that did not result in a reported test result), mutation-positive rates, and turnaround times for comprehensive BRCA1/2 testing for a study LNHP that implemented a GC-mandate policy were determined over the 12 months before and after policy implementation (excluding a 4-month transition period). Cancellation rates were evaluated based on the reason for cancellation, National Comprehensive Cancer Network testing criteria, and self-identified ancestry. A control LNHP was evaluated over the same period for comparison. The study LNHP cancellation rate increased from 13.3% to 42.1% ( P testing were considered (9.5% to 37.7%; P testing, disproportionately impacting minority populations without any evidence that inappropriate testing was decreased.

  3. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Ermisch, Michael; Godman, Brian; Martin, Antony P; Van Den Bergh, Jesper; Bezmelnitsyna, Liudmila; Bucsics, Anna; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Eriksson, Irene; Fürst, Jurij; Gad, Mohamed; Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Ieva; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovic, Jolanta; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Mardare, Ileana; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Magnusson, Einar; Melien, Oyvind; Meshkov, Dmitry O; Petrova, Guenka I; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jorge; Zara, Corinne; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva; Haycox, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs) will be a challenge for payers. The "introduction" of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA) with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

  4. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  5. 34 CFR 200.12 - Single State accountability system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single State accountability system. 200.12 Section 200... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies State Accountability System § 200.12 Single State accountability system. (a)(1) Each State must demonstrate in its State plan that the State has...

  6. Changes in Payer Mix and Physician Reimbursement After the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Jones MD, MS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although uncompensated care for hospital-based care has fallen dramatically since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion, the changes in hospital physician reimbursement are not known. We evaluated if payer mix and physician reimbursement by encounter changed between 2013 and 2014 in an academic hospitalist practice in a Medicaid expansion state. This was a retrospective cohort study of all general medicine inpatient admissions to an academic hospitalist group in 2013 and 2014. The proportion of encounters by payer and reimbursement/inpatient encounter were compared in 2013 versus 2014. A sensitivity analysis determined the relative contribution of different factors to the change in reimbursement/encounter. Among 37 540 and 40 397 general medicine inpatient encounters in 2013 and 2014, respectively, Medicaid encounters increased (17.3% to 30.0%, P < .001, uninsured encounters decreased (18.4% to 6.3%, P < 0.001, and private payer encounters also decreased (14.1% to 13.3%, P = .001. The median reimbursement/encounter increased 4.2% from $79.98/encounter in 2013 to $83.36/encounter in 2014 (P < .001. In a sensitivity analysis, changes in length of stay, proportions in encounter type by payer, payer mix, and reimbursement for encounter type by payer accounted for −0.7%, 0.8%, 2.0%, and 2.3% of the reimbursement change, respectively. From 2013 to 2014, Medicaid encounters increased, and uninsured and private payer encounters decreased within our hospitalist practice. Reimbursement/encounter also increased, much of which could be attributed to a change in payer mix. Further analyses of physician reimbursement in Medicaid expansion and non-expansion states would further delineate reimbursement changes that are directly attributable to Medicaid expansion.

  7. Innovative payer engagement strategies: will the convergence lead to better value creation in personalized medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, Ildar; Bubnov, Rostyslav V

    2017-12-01

    As reimbursement authorities are gaining greater power to influence the prescription behavior of physicians, it remains critical for life science companies focusing on personalized medicine to develop "tailor-made" payer engagement strategies to secure reimbursement and assure timely patient access to their innovative products. Depending on the types of such engagement, pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies may benefit by obtaining access to medical and pharmacy claims data, getting invaluable upfront inputs on evidence requirements and clinical trial design, and strengthening trust by payers, therefore avoiding uncertainties with regards to pricing, reimbursement, and research and development reinvestment. This article aims to study the evolving trend of partnering among two interdependent, yet confronting, stakeholder groups-payers and producers-as well as to identify the most promising payer engagement strategies based on cocreation of value introduced by life science companies in the past few years. We analyzed the recent case studies from both therapeutic and diagnostic realms considered as the "best practices" in payer engagement. The last 5 years were a breakout period for deals between life science companies and reimbursement authorities in the area of personalized medicine with a number of felicitous collaborative practices established already, and many more yet to emerge. We suggest that there are many ways for producers and payers to collaborate throughout the product life cycle-from data exchange and scientific counseling to research collaboration aimed at reducing healthcare costs, addressing adherence issues, and diminishing risks associated with future launches. The presented case studies provide clear insights on how successful personalized medicine companies customize their state-of-the-art payer engagement strategies to ensure closer proximity with payers and establish longer-term trust-based relationships.

  8. Unvented single stack sanitary drainage system I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najman, Z.

    This report forms the basis of the preparation of design recommendations. In the observation tables all single results from 147 tests of charging are dispersed on 53 test set-ups. At test set-ups in 1 till 4 floors height discharge pipes with dimensions of 100, 125, and 150 mm were tested with di...

  9. Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure

  10. Negotiating with third party payers: one community pharmacy's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridy, Kimberly; DeHart, Renee M; Monk-Tutor, Mary R

    2002-01-01

    attempts at contract negotiation between one pharmacy and nine third party payers. The difficulty of achieving successful results and the necessity of carefully considering the time and cost of contract negotiations underscore how important it is for independent pharmacists to concentrate their efforts on contracts and terms they have an opportunity to change.

  11. Comparative analysis on the probability of being a good payer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihova, V.; Pavlov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Credit risk assessment is crucial for the bank industry. The current practice uses various approaches for the calculation of credit risk. The core of these approaches is the use of multiple regression models, applied in order to assess the risk associated with the approval of people applying for certain products (loans, credit cards, etc.). Based on data from the past, these models try to predict what will happen in the future. Different data requires different type of models. This work studies the causal link between the conduct of an applicant upon payment of the loan and the data that he completed at the time of application. A database of 100 borrowers from a commercial bank is used for the purposes of the study. The available data includes information from the time of application and credit history while paying off the loan. Customers are divided into two groups, based on the credit history: Good and Bad payers. Linear and logistic regression are applied in parallel to the data in order to estimate the probability of being good for new borrowers. A variable, which contains value of 1 for Good borrowers and value of 0 for Bad candidates, is modeled as a dependent variable. To decide which of the variables listed in the database should be used in the modelling process (as independent variables), a correlation analysis is made. Due to the results of it, several combinations of independent variables are tested as initial models - both with linear and logistic regression. The best linear and logistic models are obtained after initial transformation of the data and following a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. A comparative analysis between the two final models is made and scorecards are obtained from both models to assess new customers at the time of application. A cut-off level of points, bellow which to reject the applications and above it - to accept them, has been suggested for both the models, applying the strategy to keep the same Accept Rate as

  12. Computer systems for annotation of single molecule fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Severin, Jessica

    2016-07-19

    There are provided computer systems for visualizing and annotating single molecule images. Annotation systems in accordance with this disclosure allow a user to mark and annotate single molecules of interest and their restriction enzyme cut sites thereby determining the restriction fragments of single nucleic acid molecules. The markings and annotations may be automatically generated by the system in certain embodiments and they may be overlaid translucently onto the single molecule images. An image caching system may be implemented in the computer annotation systems to reduce image processing time. The annotation systems include one or more connectors connecting to one or more databases capable of storing single molecule data as well as other biomedical data. Such diverse array of data can be retrieved and used to validate the markings and annotations. The annotation systems may be implemented and deployed over a computer network. They may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interactions.

  13. Visualization Techniques for Single Channel DPF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Maupin, Gary D.; Carlson, Shelley J.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Gallant, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    New techniques have been developed to visualize soot deposition in both traditional and new diesel particulate filter (DPF) substrate materials using a modified cyanoacrylate fuming technique. Loading experiments have been conducted on a variety of single channel DPF substrates to develop a deeper understanding of soot penetration, soot deposition characteristics, and to confirm modeling results. Early results indicate that stabilizing the soot layer using a vapor adhesive may allow analysis of the layer with new methods.

  14. The impact of the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform law on spine surgery patient payer-mix status and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelli, Nicolas W; Yan, Hong; Zou, Jian; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Several similarities exist between the Massachusetts health care reform law of 2006 and the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The authors' prior neurosurgical research showed a decrease in uninsured surgeries without a significant change in surgical volume after the Massachusetts reform. An analysis of the payer-mix status and the age of spine surgery patients, before and after the policy, should provide insight into the future impact of the ACA on spine surgery in the US. METHODS Using the Massachusetts State Inpatient Database and spine ICD-9-CM procedure codes, the authors obtained demographic information on patients undergoing spine surgery between 2001 and 2012. Payer-mix status was assigned as Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, uninsured, or other, which included government-funded programs and workers' compensation. A comparison of the payer-mix status and patient age, both before and after the policy, was performed. The New York State data were used as a control. RESULTS The authors analyzed 81,821 spine surgeries performed in Massachusetts and 248,757 in New York. After 2008, there was a decrease in uninsured and private insurance spine surgeries, with a subsequent increase in the Medicare and "other" categories for Massachusetts. Medicaid case numbers did not change. This correlated to an increase in surgeries performed in the age group of patients 65-84 years old, with a decrease in surgeries for those 18-44 years old. New York showed an increase in all insurance categories and all adult age groups. CONCLUSIONS After the Massachusetts reform, spine surgery decreased in private insurance and uninsured categories, with the majority of these surgeries transitioning to Medicare. Moreover, individuals who were younger than 65 years did not show an increase in spine surgeries, despite having greater access to health insurance. In a health care system that requires insurance, the decrease in private insurance is primarily due to an increasing elderly

  15. Systems interaction and single failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This study is a continued assessment of US research. All three of the systems interaction review methodologies which NRC's Systems Interaction Section (SIS) is studying are recommended. They are the Digraph-Matrix Analysis and Interactive Fault Tree/Failure Modes and Effects Analysis methodologies. A third methodology was developed for the Indian Point 3 system interaction review. It is recommended to developing the capability to perform and evaluate systems interaction reviews at Swedish nuclear plants. The Swedish demonstration studies should be performed on BWR's. (G.B.)

  16. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vella Bonanno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs will be a challenge for payers. The “introduction” of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

  17. Single board system for fuzzy inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, James R.; Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    The very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a fuzzy logic inference mechanism allows the use of rule-based control and decision making in demanding real-time applications. Researchers designed a full custom VLSI inference engine. The chip was fabricated using CMOS technology. The chip consists of 688,000 transistors of which 476,000 are used for RAM memory. The fuzzy logic inference engine board system incorporates the custom designed integrated circuit into a standard VMEbus environment. The Fuzzy Logic system uses Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) parts to provide the interface between the Fuzzy chip and a standard, double height VMEbus backplane, allowing the chip to perform application process control through the VMEbus host. High level C language functions hide details of the hardware system interface from the applications level programmer. The first version of the board was installed on a robot at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in January of 1990.

  18. Family Systems and the Single Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a counselor used a combination of systemic family counseling techniques with a divorced middle-aged male client. The counselor states that it proved to be an efficient and honoring combination that helped the client move differently, with more freedom and self-assurance, toward his goals. (MKA)

  19. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  20. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  1. Payer Coverage for Hereditary Cancer Panels: Barriers, Opportunities, and Implications for the Precision Medicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Julia R; Weldon, Christine B; Douglas, Michael P; Kurian, Allison W; Kelley, R Kate; Deverka, Patricia A; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2017-02-01

    Background: Hereditary cancer panels (HCPs), testing for multiple genes and syndromes, are rapidly transforming cancer risk assessment but are controversial and lack formal insurance coverage. We aimed to identify payers' perspectives on barriers to HCP coverage and opportunities to address them. Comprehensive cancer risk assessment is highly relevant to the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), and payers' considerations could inform PMI's efforts. We describe our findings and discuss them in the context of PMI priorities. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 major US payers, covering >160 million lives. We used the framework approach of qualitative research to design, conduct, and analyze interviews, and used simple frequencies to further describe findings. Results: Barriers to HCP coverage included poor fit with coverage frameworks (100%); insufficient evidence (100%); departure from pedigree/family history-based testing toward genetic screening (91%); lacking rigor in the HCP hybrid research/clinical setting (82%); and patient transparency and involvement concerns (82%). Addressing barriers requires refining HCP-indicated populations (82%); developing evidence of actionability (82%) and pathogenicity/penetrance (64%); creating infrastructure and standards for informing and recontacting patients (45%); separating research from clinical use in the hybrid clinical-research setting (44%); and adjusting coverage frameworks (18%). Conclusions: Leveraging opportunities suggested by payers to address HCP coverage barriers is essential to ensure patients' access to evolving HCPs. Our findings inform 3 areas of the PMI: addressing insurance coverage to secure access to future PMI discoveries; incorporating payers' evidentiary requirements into PMI's research agenda; and leveraging payers' recommendations and experience to keep patients informed and involved. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  2. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    and present a design procedure of the system. Finally, a personalised ventilation system will be described, which can be used together with the mixing ventilation system. The experiments are made in a full-scale, left side mock-up of a single-aisle (Boeing 737) cabin with four seats. The four passengers...

  3. Provider-Payer Partnerships as an Engine for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Zinn, Tylar E; Cason, Karena; Fox, Jerimya; Morales, Myra; Berdeja, Cesar; Gray, Jay

    2018-03-01

    The authors describe a quality improvement approach in which a crisis center and a payer collaborate to improve care. Each crisis visit is considered as a potentially missed opportunity for community stabilization. Daily data on crisis visits are sent to the payer for a more up-to-date analysis of trends than is possible with financial claims data, which may lag behind services provided by up to 90 days. Using these trend data, the two organizations collaborate to identify patterns that lead to opportunities for improvement and develop multiple rapid-cycle projects for better management of services, resulting in significant decreases in readmissions and in the number of high utilizers.

  4. Ownership, competition, and corruption : bribe takers versus bribe payers

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George R. G.; Lixin Colin Xu

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, many studies have looked at the macroeconomic, cultural, and institutional determinants of corruption. This study complements these cross-country studies by focusing on microeconomic factors that affect bribes paid in a single sector of the economy. Using enterprise-level data on bribes paid to utilities in 21 transition economies in Easter Europe and Central Asia,...

  5. Image reconstruction of dynamic infrared single-pixel imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Jiang, Yilin; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Limin

    2018-03-01

    Single-pixel imaging technique has recently received much attention. Most of the current single-pixel imaging is aimed at relatively static targets or the imaging system is fixed, which is limited by the number of measurements received through the single detector. In this paper, we proposed a novel dynamic compressive imaging method to solve the imaging problem, where exists imaging system motion behavior, for the infrared (IR) rosette scanning system. The relationship between adjacent target images and scene is analyzed under different system movement scenarios. These relationships are used to build dynamic compressive imaging models. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the reconstruction quality of IR image and enhance the contrast between the target and the background in the presence of system movement.

  6. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  7. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  8. The Analysis Of The Effects Of Regulatory Policy Finance Minister Number 91 In 2015 On The Factors That Influence The Willingnes To Pay Taxes Case Study On The Personal Tax Payers Registered In STO Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Alamsyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the Regulatory Policy of The Republic Indonesian PMKRI Number 91 in 2015 on Factors Affecting Tax Payer Willingness. This research is a kind of quantitative research using descriptive statistical approach.. this study uses the object in the form of personal tax payers registered in the tax office primary jember by questionnaire method. Sampling technique in this research is technique of Convinience Sampling. the sample used in this study are as many as 100 Individual Tax Payers who report the Annual SPT on 22 February to 30 March 2016 manually in KPP Pratama Jember. The results showed that the Regulatory Policy of The Republic Indonesian PMKRI Number 91 in 2015 has given a significant effect on the factors that influence the willingness to pay taxes that pay taxes awareness knowledge and understanding of the tax laws as well as good perception on the effectiveness of the tax system..

  9. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new control strategy for series active filter has been proposed for improvement of power quality problems in single phase system. Since the non linear loads in the system comprises of both voltage source harmonic and current source harmonic loads and the dominancy of each type of load varies from time to ...

  10. Melding regulatory, pharmaceutical industry, and U.S. payer perspectives on improving approaches to heterogeneity of treatment effect in research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Crown, William; Del Aguila, Michael; Cziraky, Mark J; Khan, Zeba M; Migliori, Richard

    2013-01-01

    propositions can lead to "win-win" scenarios for patients, individual payers, the health care system overall, and the future of drug development in producing new medicines. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

    OpenAIRE

    Irtaza M. Syed; Kaamran Raahemifar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regula...

  12. Payer decision making for next-generation sequencing-based genetic tests: insights from cell-free DNA prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, Andrew P; Deverka, Patricia A; Trosman, Julia R; Weldon, Christine B; Douglas, Michael P; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) prenatal screening tests have been rapidly adopted into clinical practice, due in part to positive insurance coverage. We evaluated the framework payers used in making coverage decisions to describe a process that should be informative for other sequencing tests. We analyzed coverage policies from the 19 largest US private payers with publicly available policies through February 2016, building from the University of California San Francisco TRANSPERS Payer Coverage Policy Registry. All payers studied cover cfDNA screening for detection of trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in high-risk, singleton pregnancies, based on robust clinical validity (CV) studies and modeled evidence of clinical utility (CU). Payers typically evaluated the evidence for each chromosomal abnormality separately, although results are offered as part of a panel. Starting in August 2015, 8 of the 19 payers also began covering cfDNA screening in average-risk pregnancies, citing recent CV studies and updated professional guidelines. Most payers attempted, but were unable, to independently assess analytic validity (AV). Payers utilized the standard evidentiary framework (AV/CV/CU) when evaluating cfDNA screening but varied in their interpretation of the sufficiency of the evidence. Professional guidelines, large CV studies, and decision analytic models regarding health outcomes appeared highly influential in coverage decisions.Genet Med advance online publication 22 September 2016.

  13. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  14. From imaging to reimbursement: what the pediatric radiologist needs to know about health care payers, documentation, coding and billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chul Y; Alson, Mark D; Duszak, Richard; Degnan, Andrew J

    2018-03-19

    Medical coding and billing processes in the United States are complex, cumbersome and poorly understood by radiologists. Despite the direct implications of radiology documentation on reimbursement, trainees and practicing radiologists typically receive limited relevant training. This article summarizes the payer structure including the state-based Children's Health Insurance Programs, discusses the essential processes by which radiologists request and receive reimbursement, details the mechanisms of coding diagnoses using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes and imaging services using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes, and explores reimbursement and coding-related issues specific to pediatric radiology. Appropriate documentation, informed by knowledge of coding, billing and reimbursement fundamentals, facilitates appropriate payment for clinically relevant services provided by pediatric radiologists.

  15. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin

    1998-01-01

    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  16. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements: U.S. Payer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Joseph A; Ung, Brian; van Boemmel-Wegmann, Sascha; Navarro, Robert P; Parece, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    As a result of global concern about rising drug costs, many U.S. payers and European agencies such as the National Health Service have partnered with pharmaceutical companies in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs) by which manufacturers share financial risk with health care purchasing entities and authorities. However, PBRSAs present many administrative and legal challenges that have minimized successful contract experiences in the United States. To (a) identify drug and disease characteristics and contract components that contribute to successful PBRSA experiences and the primary barriers to PBRSA execution and (b) explore solutions to facilitate contract negotiation and execution. A 37-item, web-based survey instrument (Qualtrics), approximately 20 minutes in duration, was open during July and August 2016. The survey was emailed to 90 pharmacy and medical directors of various health care organizations. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square tests to examine differences among payer responses. Survey responses were anonymized and data were aggregated. Twenty-seven individuals completed the survey (30% completion rate). The majority of respondents worked for regional health plans (52%, n = 14), covering at least 1 million lives (63%, n = 17), with at least 7 years of managed care experience (81%, n = 22). A total of 51 PBRSAs were active among respondents at the time of the survey. Easily obtainable and evaluable drug data and medical data were the most important drug and disease attributes for successful PBRSAs, respectively. Pharmacy claims and patient demographic data were assessed as "very easy and inexpensive" to collect. Type and amount of manufacturer payment for drug outcome performance failure, endpoint measurement, and necessary clinical data for drug performance measurement were all critical factors for successful PBRSAs. Standardized contract templates and transparent contract financial risk evaluation and

  17. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  18. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A performance comparison of single product kanban control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Ang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation experiment comparing the Single Stage, Single Product Base Stock (BS, Traditional Kanban Control System (TKCS and Extended Kanban Control System (EKCS. The results showed that BS incurs the highest cost in all scenarios; while EKCS is found to be effective only in a very niche scenario. TKCS is still a very powerful factory management system to date; and EKCS did not perform exceptionally well. The only time EKCS did outperform TKCS was during low demand arrival rates and low Backorder (Cb and Shortage costs (Cs. That is because during then, it holds no stock. The most important discovery made here is that EKCS becomes TKCS once it has base stock (or dispatched kanbans. The results have also evinced the strength of the pure kanban system, the TKCS over BS. Hence managers using BS should consider upgrading to TKCS to save cost.

  20. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  1. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melo G and Canesin C A 2013 Evaluation of the main MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60(3): 1156–1167. [7] Jain S and Agarwal V 2007 Comparison of the perfor- mance of maximum power point tracking schemes applied to single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems.

  2. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems ... Jain International Residential School, Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara Dist., Karnataka 562 112, India. Room No 425, SH-3 Ashoka University, Near Rai Police ...

  3. Bilateral single system ectopic ureters: Case report with literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral single system ureteral ectopia (BSSEU) is one of the rarest entities in urology, with less than 80 cases reported so far. Incontinence resulting from the underlying anomaly can be devastating to the child. It is generally agreed that suitable urinary continence and long dry intervals are seldom obtainable because of ...

  4. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  5. Health Spending By State 1991-2014: Measuring Per Capita Spending By Payers And Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassman, David; Sisko, Andrea M; Catlin, Aaron; Barron, Mary Carol; Benson, Joseph; Cuckler, Gigi A; Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Whittle, Lekha

    2017-07-01

    As the US health sector evolves and changes, it is informative to estimate and analyze health spending trends at the state level. These estimates, which provide information about consumption of health care by residents of a state, serve as a baseline for state and national-level policy discussions. This study examines per capita health spending by state of residence and per enrollee spending for the three largest payers (Medicare, Medicaid, and private health insurance) through 2014. Moreover, it discusses in detail the impacts of the Affordable Care Act implementation and the most recent economic recession and recovery on health spending at the state level. According to this analysis, these factors affected overall annual growth in state health spending and the payers and programs that paid for that care. They did not, however, substantially change state rankings based on per capita spending levels over the period. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  7. Image analysis driven single-cell analytics for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balomenos, Athanasios D; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Aspridou, Zafiro; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Manolakos, Elias S

    2017-04-04

    Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view. It combines advanced image processing and machine learning methods to deliver very accurate bacterial cell segmentation and tracking (F-measure over 95%) even when processing images of imperfect quality with several overcrowded colonies in the field of view. In addition, BaSCA extracts on the fly a plethora of single-cell properties, which get organized into a database summarizing the analysis of the cell movie. We present alternative ways to analyze and visually explore the spatiotemporal evolution of single-cell properties in order to understand trends and epigenetic effects across cell generations. The robustness of BaSCA is demonstrated across different imaging modalities and microscopy types. BaSCA can be used to analyze accurately and efficiently cell movies both at a high resolution (single-cell level) and at a large scale (communities with many dense colonies) as needed to shed light on e.g. how bacterial community effects and epigenetic information transfer play a role on important phenomena for human health, such as biofilm formation, persisters' emergence etc. Moreover, it enables studying the role of single-cell stochasticity without losing sight of community effects that may drive it.

  8. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerin, J.M.; Baker, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Casale, J.A. [Dept. of Urology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  9. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  10. Development of a Single-Axis Edge Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A SIP (Societe Genevoise d'Instruments de Physique) Trioptic coordinate measuring machine was modified for calibration of high quality single-axis glass standards to an uncertainty of {+-}0.000020 inch. The modification was accomplished through the addition of a frame grabber board, vision software, a high-resolution camera, stepper motors, a two-axis motor controller, and an HP-IB interface card. An existing temperature system (hygrometer, barometer, laser interferometer system, and optics) was retained as part of the system. An existing Hewlett Packard computer was replaced with a personal computer to accommodate the frame grabber board. Each component was integrated into the existing system using Visual Basic. The system was automated for unattended measurements by creating a machine programming language, which is recognized within the main program.

  11. Development of an air heating system for single family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...... source of the house - Thus the waterborne heating system can be eliminated....

  12. On the origin of nonclassicality in single systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of certain general probability theories of single systems, we identify various nonclassical features such as incompatibility, multiple pure-state decomposability, measurement disturbance, no-cloning and the impossibility of certain universal operations, with the non-simpliciality of the state space. This is shown to naturally suggest an underlying simplex as an ontological model. Contextuality turns out to be an independent nonclassical feature, arising from the intransitivity of compatibility. (paper)

  13. Introduction of a single chip TLD system for patient dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hranitzky, C.; Halda, M.; Mueller, G.; Stadtmann, H.; Obryk, B.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoluminescence dosimetry system with single detector chips was developed for patient dosimetry applications. LiF:Mg,Cu,P detector chips, dosimetry protocol, calibration, and dose calculation were prepared for measurements inside phantoms for determining organ and effective doses in medical diagnostic examinations. The first step was optimizing the readout time-temperature-profile for reaching a well resolved dosimetric peak and stability of the glow curves. A number of parameters was varied for the optimization process, e.g. preheating and heating rate. Individual chip sensitivities, residual dose and dose linearity were studied for establishing a reliable and accurate TL dosimetry system. (author)

  14. Synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using a single transmission channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yong; Yu Xinghuo; Sun Lixia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust sliding mode observer for synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. A new control strategy is proposed for the construction of the robust sliding mode observer, which can avoid the strict conditions in the design process of Walcott-Zak observer. A new method of multi-dimensional signal transmission via single transmission channel is proposed and applied to chaos synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. The simulation results are presented to validate the method

  15. Nickel-Titanium Single-file System in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagna, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    This work describes clinical cases treated with a innovative single-use and single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) system used in continuous rotation. Nickel-titanium files are commonly used for root canal treatment but they tend to break because of bending stresses and torsional stresses. Today new instruments used only for one treatment have been introduced. They help the clinician to make the root canal shaping easier and safer because they do not require sterilization and after use have to be discarded. A new sterile instrument is used for each treatment in order to reduce the possibility of fracture inside the canal. The new One Shape NiTi single-file instrument belongs to this group. One Shape is used for complete shaping of root canal after an adequate preflaring. Its protocol is simple and some clinical cases are presented. It is helpful for easy cases and reliable for difficult canals. After 2 years of clinical practice, One Shape seems to be helpful for the treatment of most of the root canals, with low risk of separation. After each treatment, the instrument is discarded and not sterilized in autoclave or re-used. This single-use file simplifies the endodontic therapy, because only one instrument is required for canal shaping of many cases. The respect of clinical protocol guarantees predictable good results.

  16. Using a single chip FEC for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onotera, L.; Nicholson, R.

    Information transmission over digital satellite communication channels is primarily power-limited, where forward error correction (FEC) codes can significantly improve performance. The use of FEC can reduce the required signal to noise ratio to sustain a given bit error rate. The use of forward error correction has become a standard part of present day digital satellite communication systems. Means of applying a new very large scale integration (VLSI) integrated circuit FEC chip into various kinds of systems is discussed. Specifically, some of the considerations and tradeoffs in continuous single channel per carrier (SCPC), multiple channels per carrier (MCPC), and burst systems are related to the new design. This new chip will provide an effective space and cost advantage by inserting a powerful forward error correction capability into most types of satellite digital communication links.

  17. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  18. Two-year continuation of intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants in a mixed-payer setting: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica N; Turok, David K; Gawron, Lori M; Law, Amy; Wen, Lonnie; Lynen, Richard

    2017-06-01

    As the popularity of long-acting reversible contraception increases, so does the need for accurate data on method continuation in diverse clinical settings. We determined 2-year continuation rates for the levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine device, the copper T380A intrauterine device, and the 68-mg etonogestrel contraceptive implant in an academic healthcare system with mixed-payer reimbursement. The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion and characteristics of women who continue intrauterine device and implant use to 2 years and to relate continuation to device type when controlling for patient characteristics. This retrospective chart review assessed University of Utah Healthcare System patients who had an intrauterine device or contraceptive implant inserted between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012. We identified users and dates of insertions and removals by querying billing, medication, and procedural data in the Electronic Data Warehouse. Multivariable Poisson regression was conducted to estimate incidence risk ratios and to relate the probability of 2-year continuous use to device type. Data on 8603 device insertions were obtained with the following distribution: levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine devices (6459; 75.1%), copper T380A intrauterine devices (1136; 13.2%), and 68-mg etonogestrel implant (1008; 11.7%). Two-year continuation rates were 77.8%, 73.1%, and 75.9%, respectively. There was no statistical difference in 2-year continuation between levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine device users (adjusted risk ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.1) and 68-mg etonogestrel implant users (adjusted risk ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.1) compared with copper device users, after we controlled for age, Hispanic ethnicity, payer type, and year of insertion. Older-age, self-pay, or public payer insurance (reference commercial payer) and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with 2-year continuation. Three-quarters of women with an

  19. Electron-assisted magnetization tunneling in single spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Timofey; Karlewski, Christian; Märkl, Tobias; Schön, Gerd; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic excitations of single atoms on surfaces have been widely studied experimentally in the past decade. Lately, systems with unprecedented magnetic stability started to emerge. Here, we present a general theoretical investigation of the stability of rare-earth magnetic atoms exposed to crystal or ligand fields of various symmetry and to exchange scattering with an electron bath. By analyzing the properties of the atomic wave function, we show that certain combinations of symmetry and total angular momentum are inherently stable against first or even higher-order interactions with electrons. Further, we investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the magnetic stability.

  20. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer...... components compared with its counterparts and only one switch conducts during the active states which enhance the inverter efficiency. The proposed inverter is analyzed in details and compared with some existing topologies. The performance of the proposed inverter is validated using the simulation results....

  1. Discounts and rebates granted to public payers for medicines in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Habl, Claudia; Piessnegger, Jutta; Bucsics, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview about the existence and types of discounts and rebates granted to public payers by the pharmaceutical industry in European countries. Data were collected via a questionnaire in spring 2011. Officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network provided the information and reviewed the compilation. Information is available from 31 European countries. Discounts and rebates granted to public payers by pharmaceutical industry were reported for 25 European countries. Such discounts exist both in the in- and out-patient sectors in 21 countries and in the in-patient sector only in four countries. Six countries reported not having any regulations or agreements regarding the discounts and rebates granted by industry. The most common discounts and rebates are price reductions and refunds linked to sales volume but types such as in-kind support, price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also in place. A mix of various types of discounts and rebates is common. Many of these arrangements are confidential. Differences regarding types, the organizational and legal framework, validity and frequency of updates and the amount of the discounts and rebates granted exist among the surveyed countries. In Europe, discounts and rebates on medicines granted by pharmaceutical industry to public payers are common tools to contain public pharmaceutical expenditure. They appear to be used as a complimentary measure when price regulation does not achieve the desired results and in the few European countries with no or limited price regulation. The confidential character of many of these arrangements impedes transparency and may lead to a distortion of medicines prices. An analysis of the impact on these measures is recommended.

  2. Risk sharing arrangements for pharmaceuticals: potential considerations and recommendations for European payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaba Marija

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increase in 'risk sharing' schemes for pharmaceuticals between healthcare institutions and pharmaceutical companies in Europe in recent years as an additional approach to provide continued comprehensive and equitable healthcare. There is though confusion surrounding the terminology as well as concerns with existing schemes. Methods Aliterature review was undertaken to identify existing schemes supplemented with additional internal documents or web-based references known to the authors. This was combined with the extensive knowledge of health authority personnel from 14 different countries and locations involved with these schemes. Results and discussion A large number of 'risk sharing' schemes with pharmaceuticals are in existence incorporating both financial-based models and performance-based/outcomes-based models. In view of this, a new logical definition is proposed. This is "risk sharing' schemes should be considered as agreements concluded by payers and pharmaceutical companies to diminish the impact on payers' budgets for new and existing schemes brought about by uncertainty and/or the need to work within finite budgets". There are a number of concerns with existing schemes. These include potentially high administration costs, lack of transparency, conflicts of interest, and whether health authorities will end up funding an appreciable proportion of a new drug's development costs. In addition, there is a paucity of published evaluations of existing schemes with pharmaceuticals. Conclusion We believe there are only a limited number of situations where 'risk sharing' schemes should be considered as well as factors that should be considered by payers in advance of implementation. This includes their objective, appropriateness, the availability of competent staff to fully evaluate proposed schemes as well as access to IT support. This also includes whether systematic evaluations have been built into

  3. Payers' Views of the Changes Arising through the Possible Adoption of Adaptive Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, Michael; Bucsics, Anna; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Fürst, Jurij; Garuolienė, Kristina; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Haycox, Alan; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Martin, Antony P; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; McCullagh, Laura; Magnusson, Einar; Nilsen, Ellen; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Sauermann, Robert; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Payers are a major stakeholder in any considerations and initiatives concerning adaptive licensing of new medicinal products, also referred to as Medicines Adaptive Pathways to patients (MAPPs). Firstly, the scope and necessity of MAPPs need further scrutiny, especially with regard to the definition of unmet need. Conditional approval pathways already exist for new medicines for seriously debilitating or life-threatening diseases and only a limited number of new medicines are innovative. Secondly, MAPPs will result in new medicines on the market with limited evidence about their effectiveness and safety. Additional data are to be collected after approval. Consequently, adaptive pathways may increase the risk of exposing patients to ineffective or unsafe medicines. We have already seen medicines approved conventionally that subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe amongst a wider, more co-morbid population as well as medicines that could have been considered for approval under MAPPs but subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe in Phase III trials and were never licensed. Thirdly, MAPPs also put high demands on payers. Routine collection of patient level data is difficult with high transaction costs. It is not clear who will fund these. Other challenges for payers include shifts in the risk governance framework, implications for evaluation and HTA, increased complexity of setting prices, difficulty with ensuring equity in the allocation of resources, definition of responsibility and liability and implementation of stratified use. Exit strategies also need to be agreed in advance, including price reductions, rebates, or reimbursement withdrawals when price premiums are not justified. These issues and concerns will be discussed in detail including potential ways forward.

  4. Single bunch transfer system for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J.; Singh, O.; Rambo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The accelerator system at the National Synchrotron Light Source consists of an S-band 85 MeV linac and three synchrotron rings. The electron beam from the linac is accelerated by the booster ring to 600 MeV and transferred to one of the two storage rings. The smaller of the two rings operates between 300 and 800 MeV emtting photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), while the larger storage ring operates up to 2.5 GeV and emits photons in the x-ray spectrum. A system is described for loading the storage rings by filling a single-phase space bunch in the booster ring and transferring it at the end of each booster cycle into a selected bucket in one of the storage rings. By controlling the timing of the transfer on successive transfer cycles, many fill patterns may be obtained

  5. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  6. Synchronization of impacting mechanical systems with a single constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Biemond, J. J. Benjamin; Leine, Remco I.; van de Wouw, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of mechanical systems subjected to a single geometric unilateral constraint. The impacts of the individual systems, induced by the unilateral constraint, generally do not coincide even if the solutions are arbitrarily 'close' to each other. The mismatch in the impact time instants demands a careful choice of the distance function to allow for an intuitively correct comparison of the discontinuous solutions resulting from the impacts. We propose a distance function induced by the quotient metric, which is based on an equivalence relation using the impact map. The distance function obtained in this way is continuous in time when evaluated along jumping solutions. The property of maximal monotonicity, which is fulfilled by most commonly used impact laws, is used to significantly reduce the complexity of the distance function. Based on the simplified distance function, a Lyapunov function is constructed to investigate the synchronization problem for two identical one-dimensional mechanical systems. Sufficient conditions for the uncoupled individual systems are provided under which local synchronization is guaranteed. Furthermore, we present an interaction law which ensures global synchronization, also in the presence of grazing trajectories and accumulation points (Zeno behavior). The results are illustrated using numerical examples of a 1-DOF mechanical impact oscillator which serves as stepping stone in the direction of more general systems.

  7. Differences in the rates of patient safety events by payer: implications for providers and policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Christine S; Roberts, Eric T; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-06-01

    The reduction of adverse patient safety events and the equitable treatment of patients in hospitals are clinical and policy priorities. Health services researchers have identified disparities in the quality of care provided to patients, both by demographic characteristics and insurance status. However, less is known about the extent to which disparities reflect differences in the places where patients obtain care, versus disparities in the quality of care provided to different groups of patients in the same hospital. In this study, we examine whether the rate of adverse patient safety events differs by the insurance status of patients within the same hospital. Using discharge data from hospitals in 11 states, we compared risk-adjusted rates for 13 AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators by Medicare, Medicaid, and Private payer insurance status, within the same hospitals. We used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between insurance status and rates of adverse patient safety events within hospitals. Medicare and Medicaid patients experienced significantly more adverse safety events than private pay patients for 12 and 7 Patient Safety Indicators, respectively (at P patients had significantly lower event rates than private payers on 2 Patient Safety Indicators. Risk-adjusted Patient Safety Indicator rates varied with patients' insurance within the same hospital. More research is needed to determine the cause of differences in care quality received by patients at the same hospital, especially if quality measures are to be used for payment.

  8. The ACR Managed Care Committee: focusing private payers on radiology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christopher G; Keysor, Kathryn J

    2007-02-01

    The ACR Managed Care/Private Payer Relations Committee is an important committee of the ACR Commission on Economics. This report reviews the committee's mission, structure, and processes and some of its current recommendations to ACR membership. The development of and participation in radiology advisory committees is a vital strategy in this process. Separating professional and technical charges, rather than submitting global charges, will help preserve radiology's professional integrity in the future. The Imaging Provider Report Card (IPRC) will allow radiology to define practice quality and performance in an era of pay-for-performance reimbursement. The IPRC also provides an external blueprint on what each practice needs to do to improve itself. American College of Radiology accreditation plays a key role in certifying radiology's quality to both payers and patients. Sound business management, group governance, and business size are also important elements of professional practice success. Working together through the ACR promotes the integrity of our profession and the quality of care patients want and deserve.

  9. Policy implications of first-dollar coverage: a qualitative examination from the payer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Emily F; Moore, Jonathan R; Whitmore, Heidi; O'Grady, Michael J; Shen, Angela K

    2011-01-01

    Immunization against potentially life-threatening illnesses for children and adults has proved to be one of the great public health successes of the 20th century and is extremely cost-effective. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a number of provisions to increase coverage and access to immunizations for the consumer, including a provision for health plans to cover all Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices-recommended vaccines at first dollar, or without cost sharing. In this study, we examined payers' perspectives on first-dollar coverage of vaccines and strategies to improve vaccination rates. This was a qualitative study, using a literature review and semistructured expert interviews with payers. Four key themes emerged, including (1) the cost implications of the first-dollar change; (2) the importance of examining barriers to children, adolescents, and adults separately to focus interventions more strategically; (3) the importance of provider knowledge and education in increasing immunization; and (4) the effect of first-dollar coverage on those who decline vaccination for personal reasons. We determined that, while reducing financial barriers through first-dollar coverage is an important first step to increasing immunization rates, there are structural and cultural barriers that also will require collaborative, strategic work among all vaccine stakeholders.

  10. A Single Deformed Bow Shock for Titan-Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Omidi, N.; Kurth, W. S.; Madanian, H.; Cravens, T.; Sergis, N.; Dougherty, M. K.; Edberg, N. J. T.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of high solar wind pressure, Saturn's bow shock is pushed inside Titan's orbit exposing the moon and its ionosphere to the supersonic solar wind. The Cassini spacecraft's T96 encounter with Titan occurred during such a period and is the subject of this presentation. The observations during this encounter show evidence for the presence of outbound and inbound shock crossings associated with Saturn and Titan. They also reveal the presence of two foreshocks: one between the outbound Kronian and inbound Titan bow shocks (foreshock-1) and the other between the outbound Titan and inbound Kronian bow shocks (foreshock-2). Using electromagnetic hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations and Cassini observations we show that the origin of foreshock-1 is tied to the formation of a single deformed bow shock for the Titan-Saturn system. We also report for the first time, the observations of spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs) in foreshock-1 making Saturn the fourth planet this phenomenon has been observed and indicating its universal nature. The results of hybrid simulations also show the generation of oblique fast magnetosonic waves upstream of the outbound Titan bow shock in agreement with the observations of large amplitude magnetosonic pulsations in foreshock-2. The formation of a single deformed bow shock results in unique foreshock-bow shock or foreshock-foreshock geometries. For example, the presence of Saturn's foreshock upstream of Titan's quasi-perpendicular bow shock result in ion acceleration through a combination of shock drift and Fermi processes. We also discuss the implications of a single deformed bow shock for Saturn's magnetopause and magnetosphere.

  11. The New Politics of US Health Care Prices: Institutional Reconfiguration and the Emergence of All-Payer Claims Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Philip; Kelly, Andrew S; Béland, Daniel; Kinane, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Prices are a significant driver of health care cost in the United States. Existing research on the politics of health system reform has emphasized the limited nature of policy entrepreneurs' efforts at solving the problem of rising prices through direct regulation at the state level. Yet this literature fails to account for how change agents in the states gradually reconfigured the politics of prices, forging new, transparency-based policy instruments called all-payer claims databases (APCDs), which are designed to empower consumers, purchasers, and states to make informed market and policy choices. Drawing on pragmatist institutional theory, this article shows how APCDs emerged as the dominant model for reforming health care prices. While APCD advocates faced significant institutional barriers to policy change, we show how they reconfigured existing ideas, tactical repertoires, and legal-technical infrastructures to develop a politically and technologically robust reform. Our analysis has important implications for theories of how change agents overcome structural barriers to health reform. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  12. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  13. An improved system of detecting single event effect in SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Teng; Wang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhangang; Liu Tianqi; Gu Song; Yang Zhenlei; Su Hong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    The material research center in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) have made a fruitful achievements in the research of single event effects (SEEs) occurring in static random access memory (SRAM). However, there are some drawbacks exist in the two systems of detecting SEE owning by the material research center. Therefore, an improved method of detecting SEE is proposed, and the method functionality is implemented in a circuit. Further, a sequence of experiments are carried out in the beam radiation terminal of the Heavy Ion Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and a bunch of experimental data are collected. The irradiation tests were carried out using 129 Xe for the SEE research of 65 nm SRAMs; Using 12 C for the SEE research of the 65, 130 and 150 nm SRAMs with ECC module; Using 129 Xe for the SEL research of the common commercial SRAMs and so on. These experiments provide a statistical evidence of the effectiveness and robustness of the improved system. It is believed that the proposed system will be beneficial for detecting SEE in diverse settings, and it could be taken advantage of as a platform for future research on SEE tests in more intricate devices. (authors)

  14. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Flagellates as model system for gravity detection of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Daiker, Viktor; Schuster, Martin; Tebart, Jenny; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Donat-Peter, H.

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular, photosynthetic organism which uses light and gravity as en-vironmental hints to reach and stay in horizons of the water column which are optimal for growth and reproduction. The orientation in respect to light (so called positive and nega-tive phototaxis, i.e. movement toward or away of a light source) was well known and fairly good understood. In contrast, knowledge about the movement away from the centre of gravity (negative gravitaxis) was rather scarce. Over a century it was unclear whether orientation in respect to the gravity vector is based on a physical or a physiological mechanism. Recent results clearly favour the latter. Knock-down mutants (RNAi) were characterized which define certain key components of the gravitactic signal transduction chain. These key components include a TRP-like channel, a gravitaxis-specific calmodulin and a protein kinase A. The molecular characterization of these components is currently performed and will be presented. Euglena is not only a model system for the close understanding of gravity detection in single cells, but can also be used as photosynthetic component, i.e. oxygen source and carbon dioxide as well as nitrogenic components sink in Closed Environmental Systems (CES). Due CES are systems of choice in times of scarce flight opportunities. They allow a massive sample sharing and combine possibilities to do microgravity research for biologists but also for engineers, physicists and material scientists. Recent attempts include Aquacells and Omegahab. In the near future miniaturized systems (Chinese ShenZhou) as well as advanced CES will be flown or tested, respectively. Current attempts and plans will be presented.

  16. Electrical conduction and photoresponses of gamma-ray-irradiated single-stranded DNA/single-walled carbon nanotube composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, D.W.; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. •Barrier for thermally activated conduction in the composite systems modified by the gamma-ray irradiation. •Photoresponses reveal photoexcitation and oxygen photodesorption modified by gamma-ray irradiation. -- Abstract: Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity and photoresponse have been studied for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the ssDNA/SWNT composite films, well described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicated modification of the barrier for thermally activated conduction by the gamma-ray irradiation. Besides, the photoresponse measurements indicated modified photoexcited charge carrier generation and oxygen photodesorption in the composite systems due to the gamma-ray irradiation.

  17. Delayed Consensus Problem for Single and Double Integrator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Velasco-Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis of the consensus problem for networks of agents constituted by single and double integrator systems. It is assumed that the communication among agents is affected by a constant time-delay. Previous and numerous analysis of the problem shows that the maximum communication time-delay that can be introduced to the network without affecting the consensus of the group of the agents depends on the considered topology. In this work, a control scheme that is based on the estimation of future states of the agents and that allows increasing the magnitude of a possible time-delay affecting the communication channels is proposed. How the proposed delay compensation strategy is independent of the network topology in the sense that the maximum allowable time-delay that could be supported by the network depends on a design parameter and not on the maximum eigenvalue of the corresponding Laplacian matrix is shown. It is formally proven that, under the proposed prediction scheme, the consensus of the group can be achieved by improving the maximum time-delay bounds previously reported in the literature. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  18. Single vs. dual color fire detection systems: operational tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Meir; Danan, Yossef; Sinvani, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    In attempt to supply a reasonable fire plume detection, multinational cooperation with significant capital is invested in the development of two major Infra-Red (IR) based fire detection alternatives, single-color IR (SCIR) and dual-color IR (DCIR). False alarm rate was expected to be high not only as a result of real heat sources but mainly due to the IR natural clutter especially solar reflections clutter. SCIR uses state-of-the-art technology and sophisticated algorithms to filter out threats from clutter. On the other hand, DCIR are aiming at using additional spectral band measurements (acting as a guard), to allow the implementation of a simpler and more robust approach for performing the same task. In this paper we present the basics of SCIR & DCIR architecture and the main differences between them. In addition, we will present the results from a thorough study conducted for the purpose of learning about the added value of the additional data available from the second spectral band. Here we consider the two CO2 bands of 4-5 micron and of 2.5-3 micron band as well as off peak band (guard). The findings of this study refer also to Missile warning systems (MWS) efficacy, in terms of operational value. We also present a new approach for tunable filter to such sensor.

  19. Implementation of a single sign-on system between practice, research and learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Saptarshi; Gichoya, Judy W; Addepally, Siva Abhishek

    2017-03-29

    Multiple specialized electronic medical systems are utilized in the health enterprise. Each of these systems has their own user management, authentication and authorization process, which makes it a complex web for navigation and use without a coherent process workflow. Users often have to remember multiple passwords, login/logout between systems that disrupt their clinical workflow. Challenges exist in managing permissions for various cadres of health care providers. This case report describes our experience of implementing a single sign-on system, used between an electronic medical records system and a learning management system at a large academic institution with an informatics department responsible for student education and a medical school affiliated with a hospital system caring for patients and conducting research. At our institution, we use OpenMRS for research registry tracking of interventional radiology patients as well as to provide access to medical records to students studying health informatics. To provide authentication across different users of the system with different permissions, we developed a Central Authentication Service (CAS) module for OpenMRS, released under the Mozilla Public License and deployed it for single sign-on across the academic enterprise. The module has been in implementation since August 2015 to present, and we assessed usability of the registry and education system before and after implementation of the CAS module. 54 students and 3 researchers were interviewed. The module authenticates users with appropriate privileges in the medical records system, providing secure access with minimal disruption to their workflow. No passwords requests were sent and users reported ease of use, with streamlined workflow. The project demonstrates that enterprise-wide single sign-on systems should be used in healthcare to reduce complexity like "password hell", improve usability and user navigation. We plan to extend this to work with other

  20. HIE sustainability secrets. NeHC report shares HIE success stories of alternate revenue streams and payer buy-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestigiacomo, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Getting effective stakeholder engagement, including that of payers, and creating innovative value-added services that provide alternate revenue streams beyond basic subscription services, are just a couple of the common traits of the flourishing health information exchanges profiled in the sustainability report released in August by the National eHealth Collaborative.

  1. OPE3 : A model system for single-molecule transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, charge-transport through individual organic molecules is investigated. The single molecules are contacted with two-terminal mechanically controllable break junction gold electrodes and their electrical and mechanical behavior studied at room and low temperature.

  2. Vibration isolation systems, considered as systems with single degree of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebilila Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research considers and analyzes vibration isolation systems, whose design schemes are single degree of freedom systems, including nonlinear elements - displacement limiter and viscous damper. Presented are calculation formulas in closed form for linear systems in operational modes (for harmonic and impulse loads, algorithms and examples of calculation of linear and nonlinear systems in operational and transient modes. The calculation method and the above dependences are written using the transfer (TF and impulse response functions (IRF of linear dynamical systems and dependencies that determine the relationship between these functions. The effectiveness of 2 options of vibration isolation systems in transient modes is analyzed. There is significant reduction of load from the equipment to the supporting structures in the starting-stopping modes by the use of displacement limiter.

  3. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...... and analyses light reflected from the polymer-based single- mode fibre-optic sensor system....

  4. ASSESSMENT of POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE in SINGLE ZONE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    requirements of a 400 m3 space in a multiuse facility in South Korea using two types of DCV systems—one CO2-based and the other uses a radio frequency...identification (RFID) device to detect zone occupancy 25 (Jeong et al., 2010). A dedicated outdoor air system supplies ventilation air to the zone...use a known control scheme (ASHRAE, 2010b). Carbon Dioxide Sensor Modeling Case Study 2 While the first case study examines a single multiuse

  5. Integrating Ground System Tools From Multiple Technologies Into a Single System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George H.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid technology changes and new and improved development techniques, it becomes extremely difficult to try to add capabilities to existing ground systems without wanting to replace the entire system. Replacing entire systems is not usually cost effective so there is a need to be able to slowly improve systems without long development times that introduce risk due to large amounts of change. The Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) ground system provides command, telemetry, and payload planning systems in support of the International Space Station. Our systems have continuously evolved with technology changes due to hardware end of life issues, and also due to user requirement changes. As changes have been implemented, we have tried to take advantage of some of the latest technologies while at the same time maintaining certain legacy capabilities that are not cost affective to replace. One of our biggest challenges is to integrate all of these implementations into a single system that is usable, maintainable, and scalable. Another challenge is to provide access to our tools in such a way that users are not aware of all the various implementation methods and tools being used. This approach not only makes our system much more usable, it allows us to continue to migrate capabilities and to add capabilities without impacting system usability. This paper will give an overview of the tools used for MSFC ISS payload operations and show an approach for integrating various technologies into a single environment that is maintainable, flexible, usable, cost effective, and that meets user needs.

  6. Denosumab for Elderly Men with Osteoporosis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis from the US Payer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Silverman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab versus other osteoporotic treatments in older men with osteoporosis from a US payer perspective. Methods. A lifetime cohort Markov model previously developed for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO was used. Men in the model were 78 years old, with a BMD T-score of −2.12 and a vertebral fracture prevalence of 23%. During each 6-month Markov cycle, patients could have experienced a hip, vertebral or nonhip, nonvertebral (NHNV osteoporotic fracture, remained in a nonfracture state, remained in a postfracture state, or died. Background fracture risks, mortality rates, persistence rates, health utilities, and medical and drug costs were derived from published sources. Previous PMO studies were used for drug efficacy in reducing fracture risk. Lifetime expected costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs were estimated for denosumab, generic alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, teriparatide, and zoledronate. Results. Denosumab had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of $16,888 compared to generic alendronate and dominated all other treatments. Results were most sensitive to changes in costs of denosumab and the relative risk of hip fracture. Conclusion. Despite a higher annual treatment cost compared to other medications, denosumab is cost-effective compared to other osteoporotic treatments in older osteoporotic US men.

  7. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. The exponentially rising application of power electronics based appliances in Domestic Consumer Voltage Distribution. System (DCVDS) has enhanced power quality problems even at the lowest voltage level in distribution system. Starting from transmission system to low voltage distribution system, quite a good ...

  8. Testing use of payers to facilitate evidence-based practice adoption: protocol for a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Todd; Kim, Jee-Seon; Quanbeck, Andrew; Patel-Porter, Terry; Starr, Sandy; McCarty, Dennis

    2013-05-10

    More effective methods are needed to implement evidence-based findings into practice. The Advancing Recovery Framework offers a multi-level approach to evidence-based practice implementation by aligning purchasing and regulatory policies at the payer level with organizational change strategies at the organizational level. The Advancing Recovery Buprenorphine Implementation Study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to increase use of the evidence-based practice buprenorphine medication to treat opiate addiction. Ohio Alcohol, Drug Addiction, and Mental Health Services Boards (ADAMHS), who are payers, and their addiction treatment organizations were recruited for a trial to assess the effects of payer and treatment organization changes (using the Advancing Recovery Framework) versus treatment organization changes alone on the use of buprenorphine. A matched-pair randomization, based on county characteristics, was applied, resulting in seven county ADAMHS boards and twenty-five treatment organizations in each arm. Opioid dependent patients are nested within cluster (treatment organization), and treatment organization clusters are nested within ADAMHS county board. The primary outcome is the percentage of individuals with an opioid dependence diagnosis who use buprenorphine during the 24-month intervention period and the 12-month sustainability period. The trial is currently in the baseline data collection stage. Although addiction treatment providers are under increasing pressure to implement evidence-based practices that have been proven to improve patient outcomes, adoption of these practices lags, compared to other areas of healthcare. Reasons frequently cited for the slow adoption of EBPs in addiction treatment include, regulatory issues, staff, or client resistance and lack of resources. Yet the way addiction treatment is funded, the payer's role-has not received a lot of attention in research on EBP adoption.This research is unique because it

  9. Arbitration Board Setting Reimbursement Amounts for Pharmaceutical Innovations in Germany When Price Negations between Payers and Manufacturers Fail: An Empirical Analysis of 5 Years' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Saskia; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2016-12-01

    In Germany, an arbitration board is setting reimbursement amounts for drug innovations when price negations between payers and manufacturers fail. To empirically analyze all arbitrations since the reform of Germany's Act to Reorganize the Pharmaceuticals' Market in the Statutory Health Insurance System came into effect. All available relevant documents up to January 2016 were screened and the identified contentious issues between the negotiation parties extracted. Reimbursement requests of both the negotiating parties and the arbitrations were transformed into a comparable format on the basis of defined daily doses and then contrasted among each other. In the given period, 16 arbitrations took place. The arbitration board is implementing the same criteria used in the negotiations between manufacturers and payers. Almost all arbitrations dealt with generic appropriate comparative therapies. Reimbursement amounts set by arbitration were on average 38.4% less than the mean of negotiation parties' requests (69.2% less than the manufacturers' requests). The corresponding prescription volumes were arranged rather centrally. All but one arbitration refer to a 1-year contract period. The arbitration board rarely decided on further technical contentious points. Hence, no heuristics referring to them were derivable. There is some evidence for a quasi-algorithmic approach of the arbitration board, even though it is legally determined that it has to decide while taking the peculiar conditions of each case into due consideration, including the characteristics of the respective therapeutic area. The balance of interests proved to be within a very narrow space albeit it concerns in principle discretionary decisions. Thus, the purpose of arbitration seems not to be achieved sufficiently. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A still booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the demand of “clean” power generation. Grid-connected PV systems will become an even active player in the future mixed power systems, which are linked by a vast of power electronics...

  11. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...

  12. Customized Pull Systems for Single-Product Flow Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaury, E.G.A.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Pierreval, H.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally pull production systems are managed through classic control systems such as Kanban, Conwip, or Base stock, but this paper proposes ‘customized’ pull control. Customization means that a given production line is managed through a pull control system that in principle connects each stage

  13. Testing use of payers to facilitate evidence-based practice adoption: protocol for a cluster-randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Todd; Kim, Jee-Seon; Quanbeck, Andrew; Patel-Porter, Terry; Starr, Sandy; McCarty, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background More effective methods are needed to implement evidence-based findings into practice. The Advancing Recovery Framework offers a multi-level approach to evidence-based practice implementation by aligning purchasing and regulatory policies at the payer level with organizational change strategies at the organizational level. Methods The Advancing Recovery Buprenorphine Implementation Study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to increase use of the evidence-based practice...

  14. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2016-02-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents.

  15. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  16. Clinical impact of a home-based palliative care program: a hospice-private payer partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Christopher W; Tangeman, John C; Rudra, Carole B; Grant, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L; Mylotte, Kathleen M; Riemer, William D; Marien, Melanie J; Serehali, Amin M

    2014-11-01

    Outpatient programs have been traditionally offered in the U.S. under programs such as the Medicare Hospice Benefit. Recommendations now emphasize a blended model in which palliative care is offered concurrently with curative approaches at the onset of serious or life-limiting disease. The efficacy of nonhospice outpatient palliative care programs is not well understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical impact of a home-based palliative care program, Home Connections, implemented as a partnership between a not-for-profit hospice and two private insurers. This was a prospective, observational, database study of 499 Home Connections participants enrolled between July 1, 2008, and May 31, 2013. Measured outcomes were advance directive completion, site of death, symptom severity over time, program satisfaction, and hospice referral and average length of stay. Seventy-one percent of participants completed actionable advance directives after enrollment, and the site of death was home for 47% of those who died during or after participation in the program. Six of eight symptom domains (anxiety, appetite, dyspnea, well-being, depression, and nausea) showed improvement. Patients, caregivers, and physicians gave high program satisfaction scores (93%-96%). Home Connections participants who subsequently enrolled in hospice care had a longer average length of stay of 77.9 days compared with all other hospice referrals (average length of stay 56.5 days). A home-based palliative care program was developed between two local commercial payers and a not-for-profit hospice. Not only did this program improve symptom management, advance directive completion, and satisfaction, but it also facilitated the transition of patients into hospice care, when appropriate. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Profilographic detection system for single-track scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.; Kula, J.

    1988-01-01

    A profilographic detection system is claimed for diagnosing the renal function by isotope nephrography, and the bladder filling in small children and infants. The configuration described guarantees good position resolution and sensitivity of the detection system. (E.J.). 2 figs

  18. Understanding the Political Economy of the Evolution and Future of Single-Payer Public Health Insurance in Canada (Technical Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to how we pay for health care affects how much we spend on health care. In this paper, the author discusses how non-contributory finance and effective subsidization of public health care spending with federal cost sharing crowded out demand for private insurance as voters opted for high levels of public health spending.

  19. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Post, E J

    1999-01-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction betw...

  20. Epistemic planning for single- and multi-agent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of event models for automated planning. Event models are the action defining structures used to define a semantics for dynamic epistemic logic. Using event models, two issues in planning can be addressed: Partial observability of the environment and knowledge...... the specification of a more complex class of planning domains, than those simply concerned with simple facts about the world. We show how to model multi-agent planning problems using Kripke-models for representing world states, and event models for representing actions. Our mechanism makes use of slight....... In planning, partial observability gives rise to an uncertainty about the world. For single-agent domains, this uncertainty can come from incomplete knowledge of the starting situation and from the nondeterminism of actions. In multi-agent domains, an additional uncertainty arises from the fact that other...

  1. Autonomous Manoeuvring Systems for Collision Avoidance on Single Carriageway Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José Eugenio; Gómez, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles’ positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed. PMID:23443391

  2. Autonomous manoeuvring systems for collision avoidance on single carriageway roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José Eugenio; Gómez, Oscar

    2012-11-29

    The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles' positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed.

  3. Autonomous Manoeuvring Systems for Collision Avoidance on Single Carriageway Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles’ positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed.

  4. A chaotic system with a single unstable node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprott, J.C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jafari, Sajad, E-mail: sajadjafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pham, Viet-Thanh [School of Electronics and Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 01 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hosseini, Zahra Sadat [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    This paper describes an unusual example of a three-dimensional dissipative chaotic flow with quadratic nonlinearities in which the only equilibrium is an unstable node. The region of parameter space with bounded solutions is relatively small as is the basin of attraction, which accounts for the difficulty of its discovery. Furthermore, for some values of the parameters, the system has an attracting torus, which is uncommon in three-dimensional systems, and this torus can coexist with a strange attractor or with a limit cycle. The limit cycle and strange attractor exhibit symmetry breaking and attractor merging. All the attractors appear to be hidden in that they cannot be found by starting with initial conditions in the vicinity of the equilibrium, and thus they represent a new type of hidden attractor with important and potentially problematic engineering consequences. - Highlights: • An unusual example of a three-dimensional dissipative chaotic flow is introduced. • In this system the only equilibrium is an unstable node. • For some values of the parameters, the system has an attracting torus. • This torus can coexist with a strange attractor or with a limit cycle. • These properties are uncommon in three-dimensional systems.

  5. Recurrent Neural Network for Single Machine Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Aribowo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recurrent neural network (RNN is used to design power system stabilizer (PSS due to its advantage on the dependence not only on present input but also on past condition. A RNN-PSS is able to capture the dynamic response of a system without any delays caused by external feedback, primarily by the internal feedback loop in recurrent neuron. In this paper, RNNPSS consists of a RNN-identifier and a RNN-controller. The RNN-Identifier functions as the tracker of dynamics characteristics of the plant, while the RNN-controller is used to damp the system’s low frequency oscillations. Simulation results using MATLAB demonstrate that the RNNPSS can successfully damp out oscillation and improve the performance of the system.

  6. High spectral efficient W-band optical/wireless system employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chun-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chi, Sien

    2014-02-24

    With broader available bandwidth, W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interests for future Giga-bit communication. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate W-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation with lower peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). To overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) of the penalty from uneven frequency response and SSB-SC modulation, frequency domain equalizer (FDE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) are implemented. We discuss the maximum available bandwidth of different modulation formats between SSB-SC and OFDM signals at the BER below forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)). Up to 50-Gbps 32-QAM SSB-SC signals with spectral efficiency of 5 bit/s/Hz can be achieved.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for single polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Single linear polymer chains in dilute solutions under good solvent conditions are studied by Monte Carlo simulations with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method up to the chain length N∼O(10 4 ). Based on the standard simple cubic lattice model (SCLM) with fixed bond length and the bond fluctuation model (BFM) with bond lengths in a range between 2 and √(10), we investigate the conformations of polymer chains described by self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice, and by random walks and non-reversible random walks in the absence of excluded volume interactions. In addition to flexible chains, we also extend our study to semiflexible chains for different stiffness controlled by a bending potential. The persistence lengths of chains extracted from the orientational correlations are estimated for all cases. We show that chains based on the BFM are more flexible than those based on the SCLM for a fixed bending energy. The microscopic differences between these two lattice models are discussed and the theoretical predictions of scaling laws given in the literature are checked and verified. Our simulations clarify that a different mapping ratio between the coarse-grained models and the atomistically realistic description of polymers is required in a coarse-graining approach due to the different crossovers to the asymptotic behavior

  8. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) can be easily integrated in residential buildings hence they will be the main responsible of making low-voltage grid power flow bidirectional. Control issues on both the PV side and on the grid side have received much attention from manufacturers, competing for efficiency...

  9. Single-channel digital command-detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, C. C.; Couvillon, L. A.; Goldstein, R. M.; Posner, E. C.; Green, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    System, fabricated of highly-reliable digital logic elements, operates on binary pulse-code-modulated signals and derives internal synchronization from data signal. All-digital implementation of detector develops synchronization from data signal by computer cross-correlation of command modulation signal with its expected forms in sequence and adjusts detector phases in accordance with correlation peaks.

  10. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tracking (MPPT) controller is used which enables the maximum power extraction under varying irradiation and temperature conditions. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulation as well as hardware implementation. Keywords. Current controller; MPPT; photovoltaic; PLL; PV inverter; voltage controller.

  11. Open Source Clinical NLP – More than Any Single System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanz, James; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Xu, Hua; Wu, Stephen T.; Chute, Christopher G.; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    The number of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and systems for processing clinical free-text has grown as interest and processing capability have surged. Unfortunately any two systems typically cannot simply interoperate, even when both are built upon a framework designed to facilitate the creation of pluggable components. We present two ongoing activities promoting open source clinical NLP. The Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) Consortium was originally founded to foster a collaborative community around clinical NLP, releasing UIMA-based open source software. OHNLP’s mission currently includes maintaining a catalog of clinical NLP software and providing interfaces to simplify the interaction of NLP systems. Meanwhile, Apache cTAKES aims to integrate best-of-breed annotators, providing a world-class NLP system for accessing clinical information within free-text. These two activities are complementary. OHNLP promotes open source clinical NLP activities in the research community and Apache cTAKES bridges research to the health information technology (HIT) practice. PMID:25954581

  12. Open Source Clinical NLP - More than Any Single System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanz, James; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Xu, Hua; Wu, Stephen T; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    The number of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and systems for processing clinical free-text has grown as interest and processing capability have surged. Unfortunately any two systems typically cannot simply interoperate, even when both are built upon a framework designed to facilitate the creation of pluggable components. We present two ongoing activities promoting open source clinical NLP. The Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) Consortium was originally founded to foster a collaborative community around clinical NLP, releasing UIMA-based open source software. OHNLP's mission currently includes maintaining a catalog of clinical NLP software and providing interfaces to simplify the interaction of NLP systems. Meanwhile, Apache cTAKES aims to integrate best-of-breed annotators, providing a world-class NLP system for accessing clinical information within free-text. These two activities are complementary. OHNLP promotes open source clinical NLP activities in the research community and Apache cTAKES bridges research to the health information technology (HIT) practice.

  13. Magmatic Processes and Systems Deduced from Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Bezard, R. C.; Morgan, D. J.; Ginibre, C.

    2014-12-01

    When crystals grow in liquids the composition of their outermost layer will reflect that of the host with which they are in equilibrium and will therefore record the liquid composition, pressure and temperature.. Following separation from their sources, magmas differentiate. This change in liquid composition is driven largely by crystallisation in response to cooling or decompression. Other open system processes such as mixing and contamination are common. These can lead to abrupt changes in trace element and isotopic composition, accompanied by petrographic features, such as dissolution surfaces or zones of melt inclusions. Where such careful mineral-scale studies have been performed, the prevalence of open system processes is clear. In many cases these are shown by core-rim isotopic variations. Crystal-scale compositional variations in the context of whole rock compositions and petrography have allowed us to show crustal assimilation even from regions of supposedly oceanic crust such as the Lesser Antilles. In tandem with tracking magma evolution, core-rim analyses of appropriate crystals have also provided diffusion profiles which reflect timescales of magmatic processes. A key point, long recognised by Bruce Marsh, is that in situ geochemical data should be considered in a petrographic context in order to gain the most (and most credible) insights on the workings of magma systems from hand specimen to whole volcano/pluton scales: The petrographic microscope is not dead yet Identification of magmatic processes from in situ scrutiny allows us to synthesise the architectures and inner workings of magma systems. The evidence for interaction among magmas in many systems is compelling and suggests that many exist as stacked dike-sill arrangements with wall-rock focussed crystal growth and mush zones. These are consistent with many of the systematics suggested some time ago by Bruce Marsh

  14. Double and triple entanglement in a single neutron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdösi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Single-neutron interferometry is used in various experiments to study the foundations of quantum mechanics. The drawback of this technique, however, is that the contrast of neutron interferometers is very prone to disturbances, in particular, temperature variations. In order to achieve very low degrading of the contrast, we develop new devices to manipulate the neutron-s spin and energy in the interferometer. These devices open the door for quantum state generation with much higher fidelities than it has been possible so far in neutron interferometry. Spin rotators with time-dependent (radio-frequency (RF)) field change both spin and energy. We improve our RF spin-rotators for the interferometer by equipping them with miniature Helmholtz coils, which allows to adjust the energy shift due to each RF coil independently. This is essential for the generation of certain quantum states. This improvement is made possible by a new coil cooling method. Furthermore, we also develop new Larmor precession accelerators and decelerators that do not consume energy and hence do not produce heat at all. We demonstrate two applications of the new spin and energy manipulators by generating bi- and tripartite entanglement between the neutron's spin, energy and path degrees of freedom in the interferometer: we succeed in generating a Bell-like state and GHZ- and W-like states. For Bell state generation we also introduce a convenient spin preparation scheme that uses our Larmor precession manipulator. We achieve a considerably more significant violation of a Bell-like inequality than with the previous method, thus further confirming quantum contextuality. With our RF spin rotators we achieve for the GHZ- and W-like states fidelities between 95 and 99%. (author) [de

  15. Study on irradiation effects of nucleus electromagnetic pulse on single chip computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Minsheng; Liu Shanghe; Wang Shuping

    2001-01-01

    Intense electromagnetic pulse, namely nucleus electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) and high power microwave (HPM), can disturb and destroy the single chip computer system. To study this issue, the authors made irradiation experiments by NEMPs generated by gigahertz transversal electromagnetic (GTEM) Cell. The experiments show that shutdown, restarting, communication errors of the single chip microcomputer system would occur when it was irradiated by the NEMPs. Based on the experiments, the cause on the effects on the single chip microcomputer system is discussed

  16. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  17. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Information Security in the Cloud: A Single Cache System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amany AlShawi

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the popularity of cloud computing is gradually increasing day by day. The purpose of this research was to enhance the security of the cloud using techniques such as data mining with specific reference to the single cache system. From the findings of the research, it was observed that the security in the cloud could be enhanced with the single cache system. For future purposes, an Apriori algorithm can be applied to the single cache system. This can be applied by all cloud providers...

  18. Limbic systems for emotion and for memory, but no single limbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a (single) limbic system is shown to be outmoded. Instead, anatomical, neurophysiological, functional neuroimaging, and neuropsychological evidence is described that anterior limbic and related structures including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in emotion, reward valuation, and reward-related decision-making (but not memory), with the value representations transmitted to the anterior cingulate cortex for action-outcome learning. In this 'emotion limbic system' a computational principle is that feedforward pattern association networks learn associations from visual, olfactory and auditory stimuli, to primary reinforcers such as taste, touch, and pain. In primates including humans this learning can be very rapid and rule-based, with the orbitofrontal cortex overshadowing the amygdala in this learning important for social and emotional behaviour. Complementary evidence is described showing that the hippocampus and limbic structures to which it is connected including the posterior cingulate cortex and the fornix-mammillary body-anterior thalamus-posterior cingulate circuit are involved in episodic or event memory, but not emotion. This 'hippocampal system' receives information from neocortical areas about spatial location, and objects, and can rapidly associate this information together by the different computational principle of autoassociation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus involving feedback. The system can later recall the whole of this information in the CA3 region from any component, a feedback process, and can recall the information back to neocortical areas, again a feedback (to neocortex) recall process. Emotion can enter this memory system from the orbitofrontal cortex etc., and be recalled back to the orbitofrontal cortex etc. during memory recall, but the emotional and hippocampal networks or 'limbic systems' operate by different computational principles, and operate independently of each other except insofar as an

  19. Analyzing System on A Chip Single Event Upset Responses using Single Event Upset Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)

  20. Single-Chip Computers With Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Magnetic Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carley, L. Richard; Bain, James A.; Fedder, Gary K.; Greve, David W.; Guillou, David F.; Lu, Michael S.C.; Mukherjee, Tamal; Santhanam, Suresh; Abelmann, Leon; Min, Seungook

    This article describes an approach for implementing a complete computer system (CPU, RAM, I/O, and nonvolatile mass memory) on a single integrated-circuit substrate (a chip)—hence, the name "single-chip computer." The approach presented combines advances in the field of microelectromechanical

  1. Joint impact of quantization and clipping on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Fledderus, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the joint impact of quantization and clipping, caused by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with low bit resolutions, on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems in wireless multipath environments. We consider single carrier block transmission with frequency

  2. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  3. Precoding Design for Single-RF Massive MIMO Systems: A Large System Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-08-26

    This work revisits a recently proposed precoding design for massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems that is based on the use of an instantaneous total power constraint. The main advantages of this technique lie in its suitability to the recently proposed single radio frequency (RF) MIMO transmitter coupled with a very-high power efficiency. Such features have been proven using simulations for uncorrelated channels. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we propose in this work to analyze the performance of this precoder for more involved channels accounting for spatial correlation. The obtained expressions are then optimized in order to maximize the signalto- interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the optimized precoder in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Attendance fingerprint identification system using arduino and single board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, M. A.; Seniman; Arisandi, D.; Hasanah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fingerprint is one of the most unique parts of the human body that distinguishes one person from others and is easily accessed. This uniqueness is supported by technology that can automatically identify or recognize a person called fingerprint sensor. Yet, the existing Fingerprint Sensor can only do fingerprint identification on one machine. For the mentioned reason, we need a method to be able to recognize each user in a different fingerprint sensor. The purpose of this research is to build fingerprint sensor system for fingerprint data management to be centralized so identification can be done in each Fingerprint Sensor. The result of this research shows that by using Arduino and Raspberry Pi, data processing can be centralized so that fingerprint identification can be done in each fingerprint sensor with 98.5 % success rate of centralized server recording.

  5. Mechanisms of gravitropism in single-celled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuel, Nicole; Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Wiemann, Katharina

    Physiological processes in plants are influenced by a variety of external stimuli. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides plants with reliable information for their orientation. Gravity-oriented growth responses, called gravitropism, enable plants to adapt to a diversity of habitats on Earth and to survive changing environmental conditions. For instance, the ability to respond gravitropically prevents crop, flattened by a windstorm, from decay. Even small deviations from the genetically programmed set-point angle of plant organs are recognized by specialized cells, the statocytes, in which dense particles, the statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate gravity sensors - membrane bound gravity-receptor proteins. Activation of receptor proteins creates a physiological signal that initiates a stimulus-specific signal transduction cascade causing the gravitropic response. To unravel the gravitropic signalling pathways in plant statocytes, our research focused on a unicellular model system, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara. Experiments under microgravity conditions during sounding-rocket and parabolic plane flights have shown that the actin cytoskeleton is a key element of the gravityinduced statolith-sedimentation process in characean rhizoids. Actomyosin, consisting of a dense meshwork of mainly axially oriented actin microfilaments and motor proteins (myosins), actively guides sedimenting statoliths to gravisensitive plasma membrane areas where gravireceptor molecules are exclusively located. TEXUS and MAXUS sounding rocket missions were performed to determine the threshold acceleration level (< 0.1g) required for lateral statolith displacement. parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have shown that sedimented but weightless statoliths are still capable of activating the membrane-bound gravireceptor in characean rhizoids. The results contradict the classical model of a mechanoreceptor that is activated by the

  6. Psoriasis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, Konstantinos; Yap, Kristy Su-Ying; Pakchotanon, Rattapol; Polachek, Ari; Su, Jiandong; Urowitz, Murray B; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-04-01

    The coexistence of psoriasis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported in limited case series, raising hypotheses about shared pathogenetic mechanisms. Nevertheless, important differences regarding treatment do exist. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of psoriasis in a defined cohort of lupus patients. Patients with psoriasis were retrieved from the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic from its inception in 1970 up to 2015. Charts were hand-searched to collect information concerning demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables. Patients were matched with non-psoriasis lupus patients to identify the impact of supervening psoriasis on lupus activity, damage accrual, and venous thromboembolic (VTEs) and cardiovascular events (CVEs). Psoriasis was diagnosed in 63 patients (49 females, 14 males) for a prevalence of 3.46% (63/1823). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in non-psoriasis patients (0.286 vs. 0.138, p = 0.017). Plaque psoriasis was the most prominent type (55/63, 87.3%) whereas three patients had pustular disease; one had psoriatic arthritis. Nine patients (14.3%) were administered systemic treatment with methotrexate (n = 5), azathioprine (n = 1), ustekinumab (n = 3), and etanercept (n = 1). Psoriasis was definitely deteriorated by hydroxychloroquine in one patient. There was no significant impact of psoriasis on disease activity, damage accrual, VTEs, and CVEs. The prevalence of psoriasis was twice as high as that of the general Canadian population in this lupus cohort. Plaque psoriasis was the most prominent subtype, and topical treatment was adequate in the majority of patients. Supervening psoriasis had no significant impact on lupus activity and damage accrual.

  7. Single Center Experience with the AngioVac Aspiration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsamendi, Jason, E-mail: jsalsamendi@med.miami.edu; Doshi, Mehul, E-mail: mdoshi@med.miami.edu; Bhatia, Shivank, E-mail: sbhatia1@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Bordegaray, Matthew, E-mail: matthewbordegaray@gmail.com [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department Radiology (United States); Arya, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.arya@jhsmiami.org [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Morton, Connor, E-mail: cmorton@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (United States); Narayanan, Govindarajan, E-mail: gnarayanan@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe AngioVac catheter system is a mechanical suction device designed for removal of intravascular material using extracorporeal veno-venous bypass circuit. The purpose of this study is to present the outcomes in patients treated with the AngioVac aspiration system and to discuss its efficacy in different vascular beds.Materials and MethodsA retrospectively review was performed of seven patients treated with AngioVac between October 2013 and December 2014. In 6/7 cases, the AngioVac cannula was inserted percutaneously and the patient was placed on veno-venous bypass. In one of the cases, the cannula was inserted directly into the Fontan circuit after sternotomy and the patient was maintained on cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombus location included iliocaval (2), SVC (1), pulmonary arteries (1), Fontan circuit and Glenn shunt with pulmonary artery extension (1), right atrium (1), and IVC with renal vein extension (1).ResultsThe majority of thrombus (50–95 %) was removed in 5/7 cases, and partial thrombus removal (<50 %) was confirmed in 2/7 cases. Mean follow-up was 205 days (range 64–403 days). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. Minor complications included three neck hematomas in two total patients. No major complications occurred.ConclusionAngioVac is a useful tool for acute thrombus removal in the large vessels. The setup and substantial cost may limit its application in straightforward cases. More studies are needed to establish the utility of AngioVac in treatment of intravascular and intracardiac material.

  8. Electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry towards the single-molecule level: Theoretical notions and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingdong; Chi Qijin; Albrecht, Tim; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.; Grubb, Mikala; Hansen, Allan G.; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Welinder, Anne C.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Surface structures controlled at the nanometer and single-molecule levels, with functions crucially determined by interfacial electron transfer (ET) are broadly reported in recent years, with different kinds of electrochemically controlled nanoscale/single molecule systems. One is the broad class of metallic and semiconductor-based nanoparticles, nano-arrays, nanotubes, and nanopits. Others are based on self-assembled molecular monolayers. The latter extend to bioelectrochemical systems with redox metalloproteins and DNA-based molecules as targets. We overview here some recent achievements in areas of interfacial electrochemical ET systems, mapped to the nanoscale and single-molecule levels. Focus is on both experimental and theoretical studies in our group. Systems addressed are organized monolayers of redox active transition metal complexes, and metalloproteins and metalloenzymes on single-crystal Au(1 1 1)-electrode surfaces. These systems have been investigated by voltammetry, spectroscopy, microcantilever technology, and scanning probe microscopy. A class of Os-complexes has shown suitable as targets for electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), with close to single-molecule scanning tunnelling spectroscopic (STS) features. Mapping of redox metalloproteins from the three major classes, i.e. blue copper proteins, heme proteins, and iron-sulfur proteins, at the monolayer and single-molecule levels have also been achieved. In situ STM and spectroscopy of redox molecules and biomolecules have been supported by new theoretical frames, which extend established theory of interfacial electrochemical ET. The electrochemical nanoscale and single-molecule systems discussed are compared with other recent nanoscale and single-molecule systems with conspicuous device-like properties, particularly unimolecular rectifiers and single-molecule transistors. Both of these show analogies to electrochemical in situ STM features of redox molecules and

  9. Single camera photogrammetry system for EEG electrode identification and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Uğur; Sengül, Gökhan

    2010-04-01

    In this study, photogrammetric coordinate measurement and color-based identification of EEG electrode positions on the human head are simultaneously implemented. A rotating, 2MP digital camera about 20 cm above the subject's head is used and the images are acquired at predefined stop points separated azimuthally at equal angular displacements. In order to realize full automation, the electrodes have been labeled by colored circular markers and an electrode recognition algorithm has been developed. The proposed method has been tested by using a plastic head phantom carrying 25 electrode markers. Electrode locations have been determined while incorporating three different methods: (i) the proposed photogrammetric method, (ii) conventional 3D radiofrequency (RF) digitizer, and (iii) coordinate measurement machine having about 6.5 mum accuracy. It is found that the proposed system automatically identifies electrodes and localizes them with a maximum error of 0.77 mm. It is suggested that this method may be used in EEG source localization applications in the human brain.

  10. A dynamical system perspective to understanding badminton singles game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jia Yi; Seifert, Ludovic; Hérault, Romain; Chia, Shannon Jing Yi; Lee, Miriam Chang Yi

    2014-02-01

    By altering the task constraints of cooperative and competitive game contexts in badminton, insights can be obtained from a dynamical systems perspective to investigate the underlying processes that results in either a gradual shift or transition of playing patterns. Positional data of three pairs of skilled female badminton players (average age 20.5±1.38years) were captured and analyzed. Local correlation coefficient, which provides information on the relationship of players' displacement data, between each pair of players was computed for angle and distance from base position. Speed scalar product was in turn established from speed vectors of the players. The results revealed two patterns of playing behaviors (i.e., in-phase and anti-phase patterns) for movement displacement. Anti-phase relation was the dominant coupling pattern for speed scalar relationships among the pairs of players. Speed scalar product, as a collective variable, was different between cooperative and competitive plays with a greater variability in amplitude seen in competitive plays leading to a winning point. The findings from this study provide evidence for increasing stroke variability to perturb existing stable patterns of play and highlights the potential for speed scalar product to be a collective variable to distinguish different patterns of play (e.g., cooperative and competitive). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-layer Ultralight, Flexible, Shielding Tension Shell System for Extreme Heat and Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a flexible thermal protection system (FTPS) with a Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT)-based single-layer, lightweight,...

  12. Single-Stage, Gelled Hydrazine System for Mars Ascent Vehicle Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, Inc. in cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne is presenting an innovative approach to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The single-stage monopropellant system...

  13. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Information Security in the Cloud: A Single Cache System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AlShawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the popularity of cloud computing is gradually increasing day by day. The purpose of this research was to enhance the security of the cloud using techniques such as data mining with specific reference to the single cache system. From the findings of the research, it was observed that the security in the cloud could be enhanced with the single cache system. For future purposes, an Apriori algorithm can be applied to the single cache system. This can be applied by all cloud providers, vendors, data distributors, and others. Further, data objects entered into the single cache system can be extended into 12 components. Database and SPSS modelers can be used to implement the same.

  14. Stated and Revealed Preferences for Funding New High-Cost Cancer Drugs: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Patients, the Public and Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Tatjana E; Harris, Anthony H; Mahal, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    The growing focus on patient-centred care has encouraged the inclusion of patient and public input into payer drug reimbursement decisions. Yet, little is known about patient/public priorities for funding high-cost medicines, and how they compare to payer priorities applied in public funding decisions for new cancer drugs. The aim was to identify and compare the funding preferences of cancer patients and the general public against the criteria used by payers making cancer drug funding decisions. A thorough review of the empirical, peer-reviewed English literature was conducted. Information sources were PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, and EconLit. Eligible studies (1) assessed the cancer drug funding preferences of patients, the general public or payers, (2) had pre-defined measures of funding preference, and (3) had outcomes with attributes or measures of 'value'. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a health technology assessment-based assessment tool, followed by extraction of general study characteristics and funding preferences, which were categorized using an established WHO-based framework. Twenty-five preference studies were retrieved (11 quantitative, seven qualitative, seven mixed-methods). Most studies were published from 2005 onward, with the oldest dating back to 1997. Two studies evaluated both patient and public perspectives, giving 27 total funding perspectives (41 % payer, 33 % public, 26 % patients). Of 41 identified funding criteria, payers consider the most (35), the general public considers fewer (23), and patients consider the fewest (12). We identify four unique patient criteria: financial protection, access to medical information, autonomy in treatment decision making, and the 'value of hope'. Sixteen countries/jurisdictions were represented. Our results suggest that (1) payers prioritize efficiency (health gains per dollar), while citizens (patients and the general public) prioritize

  15. Analisa Kecepatan Transfer Data Pada Perancangan Hotspot Sederhana Dengan System Single Sign On Di Perkantoran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Neziah Arum Pangesti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problems office in the utilization of wireless technology has widely used but sometimes without take into the number of users, so it is not mangkus. The networking system for small office can be use wireless simple system. Most of the office has applied hotspot but that is old system, one account for all people using internet access. Single sign-on is a system services of hotspot, this system verifying an account for each user so people have different and username dan a password. The methodology used is literature review, analysis, design, implementation, testing and analysis of the data transfer rate. The hotspot with a single sign-on system using mikrotik, and access point, the connected with networking devices in the office. Winbox tools is used to configuration. Testing with the user had been connected to the hotspot system single sign on. Methods of test to user login on the system single sign-on is the black box texting. Testing the speed of data transfer is used staff user and guest user who uploaded three types of files to the drive with diffrent bandwidth. Then the network sniffing is used tools wireshark. The results from this study is simple hotspot service with single sign-on system for office and from the analysis of the data transfer rate was known the data transfer rate on the staff user and guest user to the three types of file is a type of word files greater than PDF and PPT.

  16. Budget Impact Analysis to Estimate the Cost Dynamics of Treating Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Radiofrequency Energy: a Payer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, David; Scotti, Dennis J; Buck, Daniel; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2016-05-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic treatment that utilizes radio-frequency energy (RFE) has received increased attention as an appropriate middle-ground approach in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and as an alternative to complicated and invasive surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a longitudinal budget impact analysis from the payer perspective to estimate the direct medical costs of treatment for the refractory GERD patient population and to estimate the budgetary impact of further extending the RFE treatment option to other target populations. A retrospective analysis of claims designed to assess the longitudinal costs and budget impact on payer expenditures associated with managing and treating GERD surgically (Nissen fundoplication [NF]), endoscopically (RFE), or medically was performed. Both Medicare and commercially insured claims databases were interrogated for such population-level analyses. At current adoption rates (less than 1% of procedures), RFE demonstrated overall cost savings ranging from 7.3% to 50.5% in the 12-month time period following the index procedure (inclusive of procedure costs) when compared to medical management and fundoplication across the commercial and Medicare patient populations. Increasing the total number of RFE procedures to 2% of total cases performed generated per-member, per-month (PMPM) savings of $0.28 in the Medicare population and $0.37 in the commercially insured population. Further increases yielded higher PMPM savings. Adding to the clinical importance of RFE in filling the gap between medical and surgical management, this economic analysis demonstrates to payers that the adoption of RFE can create notable savings to their plans when compared to surgery or medical management.

  17. Level-statistics in Disordered Systems: A single parametric scaling and Connection to Brownian Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pragya

    2004-01-01

    We find that the statistics of levels undergoing metal-insulator transition in systems with multi-parametric Gaussian disorders and non-interacting electrons behaves in a way similar to that of the single parametric Brownian ensembles \\cite{dy}. The latter appear during a Poisson $\\to$ Wigner-Dyson transition, driven by a random perturbation. The analogy provides the analytical evidence for the single parameter scaling of the level-correlations in disordered systems as well as a tool to obtai...

  18. Single event monitoring system based on Java 3D and XML data binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhu Kejun; Zhao Jingwei

    2007-01-01

    Online single event monitoring is important to BESIII DAQ System. Java3D is extension of Java Language in 3D technology, XML data binding is more efficient to handle XML document than SAX and DOM. This paper mainly introduce the implementation of BESIII single event monitoring system with Java3D and XML data binding, and interface for track fitting software with JNI technology. (authors)

  19. 76 FR 66950 - Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse AGENCY: Office of the... systems, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse (SFHEDW). The revision to the record system...: Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse (SFHEDW). System location: The HUD Data Center, Hewlett...

  20. QSpec: online control and data analysis system for single-cell Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Ren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell phenotyping is critical to the success of biological reductionism. Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS has shown promise in resolving the dynamics of living cells at the individual level and to uncover population heterogeneities in comparison to established approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Given that the number of single-cells would be massive in any experiment, the power of Raman profiling technique for single-cell analysis would be fully utilized only when coupled with a high-throughput and intelligent process control and data analysis system. In this work, we established QSpec, an automatic system that supports high-throughput Raman-based single-cell phenotyping. Additionally, a single-cell Raman profile database has been established upon which data-mining could be applied to discover the heterogeneity among single-cells under different conditions. To test the effectiveness of this control and data analysis system, a sub-system was also developed to simulate the phenotypes of single-cells as well as the device features.

  1. Benchmarking of grid fault modes in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support...... capability. The control methods, together with grid synchronization techniques, are responsible for the generation of appropriate reference signals in order to handle ride-through grid faults. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the behaviors of grid synchronization methods and control possibilities in single...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant detection and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...

  2. A single-system model predicts recognition memory and repetition priming in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher J; Kessels, Roy P C; Wester, Arie J; Shanks, David R

    2014-08-13

    We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single-system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with amnesia categorized pictures of objects at study and then, at test, identified fragmented versions of studied (old) and nonstudied (new) objects (providing a measure of priming), and made a recognition memory judgment (old vs new) for each object. Numerous results in the amnesic patients were predicted in advance by the single-system model, as follows: (1) deficits in recognition memory and priming were evident relative to a control group; (2) items judged as old were identified at greater levels of fragmentation than items judged new, regardless of whether the items were actually old or new; and (3) the magnitude of the priming effect (the identification advantage for old vs new items) overall was greater than that of items judged new. Model evidence measures also favored the single-system model over two formal multiple-systems models. The findings support the single-system model, which explains the pattern of recognition and priming in amnesia primarily as a reduction in the strength of a single dimension of memory strength, rather than a selective explicit memory system deficit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410963-12$15.00/0.

  3. An Oxygen Scavenging System for Improvement of Dye Stability in Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Marshall, R. Andrew; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    The application of single-molecule fluorescence techniques to complex biological systems places demands on the performance of single fluorophores. We present an enzymatic oxygen scavenging system for improved dye stability in single-molecule experiments. We compared the previously described protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system to the currently employed glucose oxidase/catalase system. Under standardized conditions, we observed lower dissolved oxygen concentrations with the protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system. Furthermore, we observed increased initial lifetimes of single Cy3, Cy5, and Alexa488 fluorophores. We further tested the effects of chemical additives in this system. We found that biological reducing agents increase both the frequency and duration of blinking events of Cy5, an effect that scales with reducing potential. We observed increased stability of Cy3 and Alexa488 in the presence of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and n-propyl gallate. This new O2-scavenging system should have wide application for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. PMID:17921203

  4. Growth of single T cells and single thymocytes in a high cloning efficiency filler-cell free microculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W F; Ewing, T; Scollay, R; Shortman, K

    1988-01-01

    A high cloning-efficiency microculture system is described in which single T cells, stimulated to divide by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore, grow rapidly under the influence of purified growth factors in the absence of other cells. The kinetics of clonal growth has been monitored over a five day period by phase-contrast microscopy. Mature peripheral T cells, and mature subpopulations from the thymus, responded with a cloning efficiency over 80%; they required IL-2 as a minimum but several other factors enhanced growth. Ly2+L3T4- thymocytes (mean doubling time 10.4 hr) grew more rapidly than Ly2-L3T4+ thymocytes (mean doubling time 15.2 hr). Early (Ly2-L3T4-) thymocytes responded with a cloning efficiency of 60%; their efficient growth was dependent on both IL-1 and IL-2. The typical Ly2+L3T4+ cortical thymocyte did not grow under these conditions.

  5. A single mode method for the analysis and identification of nonlinear MDOF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Iwan, W. D.

    In order to apply mode approach to describe a nonlinear system, the concept of modal response of nonlinear systems is examined, and an amplitude-dependent modal model is presented based on an analysis of a single mode of response. The effectiveness of this model is examined under different types and various levels of excitation. A corresponding identification procedure for cubic systems is proposed and applied to the analysis of a 3DOF soltening nonlinear system.

  6. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  7. Benchmarking Insulin Treatment Persistence Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Across Different U.S. Payer Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenhui; Jiang, Jenny; Lou, Youbei; Ganguli, Sohini; Matusik, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Treatment persistence with basal insulins is crucial to achieving sustained glycemic control, which is associated with a reduced risk of microvascular disease and other complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, studies suggest that persistence with basal insulin treatment is often poor. To measure and benchmark real-world basal insulin treatment persistence among patients with T2D across different payer segments in the United States. This was a retrospective observational study of data from a national pharmacy database (Walgreen Co., Deerfield, IL). The analysis included patients with T2D aged ≥ 18 years who filled ≥ 1 prescription for basal insulins between January 2013 and June 2013 (the index prescription) and who had also filled prescriptions for ≥ 1 oral antidiabetes drug in the database. Patients with claims for premixed insulin were excluded. Treatment persistence was defined as remaining on the study medication(s) during the 1-year follow-up period. Patients were stratified according to treatment history (existing basal insulin users vs. new insulin users), payer segments (commercially insured, Medicare, Medicaid, or cash-pay), type of basal insulin (insulin glargine, insulin detemir, or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin [NPH]), and device for insulin administration (pen or vial/syringe). A total of 274,102 patients were included in this analysis, 82% of whom were existing insulin users. In terms of payer segments, 45.3% of patients were commercially insured, 47.8% had Medicare, 5.9% had Medicaid, and 1.1% were cash-pay. At the 1-year follow-up, basal insulin treatment persistence rate was 66.8% overall, 61.7% for new users, and 67.9% for existing users. In general, for both existing and new basal insulin users, higher persistence rate and duration were associated with Medicare versus cash-pay patients, use of insulin pens versus vial/syringe, and use of insulin glargine versus NPH. This large-scale study provides a benchmark of basal insulin

  8. An automated system for high-throughput single cell-based breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Kida, Akiko; Jie, Xu; Kurokawa, Masaya; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D.; Nikaido, Itoshi; Ueda, Hiroki R.; Tatematsu, Kenji; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Akihiko; Fujii, Ikuo; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    When establishing the most appropriate cells from the huge numbers of a cell library for practical use of cells in regenerative medicine and production of various biopharmaceuticals, cell heterogeneity often found in an isogenic cell population limits the refinement of clonal cell culture. Here, we demonstrated high-throughput screening of the most suitable cells in a cell library by an automated undisruptive single-cell analysis and isolation system, followed by expansion of isolated single cells. This system enabled establishment of the most suitable cells, such as embryonic stem cells with the highest expression of the pluripotency marker Rex1 and hybridomas with the highest antibody secretion, which could not be achieved by conventional high-throughput cell screening systems (e.g., a fluorescence-activated cell sorter). This single cell-based breeding system may be a powerful tool to analyze stochastic fluctuations and delineate their molecular mechanisms. PMID:23378922

  9. Comparison of the accuracy of the calibration model on the double and single integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the calibration model for the single and double integrating sphere systems are compared for a white light system. A calibration model is created from a matrix of samples with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients...

  10. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral...

  11. Single-Mask Fabrication of Temperature Triggered MEMS Switch for Cooling Control in SSL System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.; Ye, H.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) based, temperature triggered, switch is developed as a cost-effective solution for smart cooling control of solid-state-lighting systems. The switch (1.0x0.4 mm2) is embedded in a silicon substrate and fabricated with a single-mask 3D micro-machining process.

  12. System upgrade and its complications in patients with a single lead atrial pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Andersen, Henning Rud; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the indications for system upgrade with single lead atrial pacing (AAIR), complications associated with these re-interventions, and possible predictors for system upgrade among patients included in the Danish Multicenter Randomized Trial on AAIR vs. dual-chamber pacing (DDDR) in si...

  13. Modeling and Control of a Single-Phase Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two model-based control design approaches for a single-phase marine cooling system. Models are derived from first principles and aim at describing significant system dynamics including nonlinearities and transport delays, while keeping the model complexity low. The two...

  14. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  15. A single-system model predicts recognition memory and repetition priming in amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, C.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Wester, A.J.; Shanks, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single-system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with

  16. A Single-System Account of the Relationship between Priming, Recognition, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R.; Henson, Richard N. A.

    2008-01-01

    A single-system computational model of priming and recognition was applied to studies that have looked at the relationship between priming, recognition, and fluency in continuous identification paradigms. The model was applied to 3 findings that have been interpreted as evidence for a multiple-systems account: (a) priming can occur for items not…

  17. Simulation of a quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    level system; qutrit; three-level transitions; one-qutrit quantum gate. ... Because of the fact that the three-level atom defines a total normalized state composed of superposition of three different single-level states, it is assumed that such a system ...

  18. Medicaid Becomes the First Third-Party Payer to Cover Passive Remote Monitoring for Home Care: Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara

    2018-02-21

    Recent years have seen an influx of location-tracking, activity-monitoring sensors, and Web-cameras to remotely monitor the safety of older adults in their homes and to reduce reliance on in-person assistance. The state of research on these monitoring technologies leaves open crucial financial, social, and ethical cost-benefit questions, which have prevented widespread use. Medicaid is now the first large third-party payer in the United States to pay for these technologies, and their use is likely to increase as states transition to managed long-term services and supports (MLTSS). This is the first study to examine how state Medicaid programs are treating passive remote monitoring technologies. This study identifies (1) which states allow location tracking, sensor systems, and cameras; (2) what policies are in place to track their use; (3) what implementation processes and program monitoring mechanisms are in place; and (4) what related insights Medicaid program stakeholders would like to learn from researchers. Interviews were conducted with 43 state, federal, and managed care organization (MCO) Medicaid program stakeholders about how these technologies are used in state waivers serving community-dwelling older adults in 15 states, and what policies are in place to regulate them. The interviews were analyzed by the research team using the framework analysis method for applied policy research. Two-thirds of the states cover location tracking and activity-monitoring sensors and one-third cover cameras, but only 3 states have specific service categories that allow them to track when they are paying for any of these technologies, impeding regulation and understanding of their use at the state and federal level. Consideration of ethical and social risks is limited, and states struggle to understand which circumstances warrant use. They are further challenged by extreme resource restrictions and transitions to MLTSS by MCOs inexperienced in serving this growing "high

  19. A Comparison of Single and Multi-Stream Recycling Systems in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lakhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines differences in cost and recycling performance between single and multi-stream recycling systems in Ontario, Canada. Using panel data from 223 provincial municipalities spanning a ten year period, focus is placed on analyzing: (a Are material management costs for municipalities who implement single stream collection less than those that implement multi stream collection? (b Are recycling rates for single stream municipalities higher than municipalities with multi stream collection? (c Do municipalities with multi stream collection realize higher revenues from the sale of recyclable material? The results of the analysis show that while single stream recycling programs recycle more than multi stream programs, they face significantly higher material management costs. This was contrary to the prevailing opinion that single stream recycling is a cheaper alternative to multi-stream recycling. As far as can be ascertained, this is one of the few studies of its kind to examine the differences in material management costs and recycling performance between single and multi-stream recycling systems. This topic is of increasing importance, as single stream recycling is being touted as preferred waste management option in both Ontario and abroad.

  20. Tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we generalize the entanglement of three-qbit Bosonic systems beyond the single-mode approximation when one of the observers is accelerated. For this purpose, we review the effects of acceleration on field modes and quantum states. The single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods are introduced. After this brief introduction, the main problem of this paper, tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation is investigated. The tripartite entangled states have different classes with GHZ and W states being most important. Here, we choose &pi-tangle as a measure of tripartite entanglement. If the three parties share GHZ state, the corresponding &pi-tangle will increase by increasing acceleration for some Unruh modes. This phenomenon, increasing entanglement, has never been observed in the single-mode approximation for bosonic case. Moreover, the &pi-tangle dose not exhibit a monotonic behavior with increasing acceleration. In the infinite acceleration limit, the &pi-tangle goes to different nonzero values for distinct Unruh modes. Unlike GHZ state, the entanglement of the W state shows only monotonically increasing and decreasing behaviors with increasing acceleration. Also, the entanglement for all possible choices of Unruh modes approaches only 0.176 in the high acceleration limit. Therefore, according to the quantum entanglement, there is no distinction between the single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods in this limit.

  1. Single Microwave-Photon Detector using an Artificial Lambda-type Three-Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system Kunihiro Inomata,1∗†, Zhirong Lin,1†, Kazuki Koshino,2, William D...are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ-type...in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of mi- crowave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical

  2. Single Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor System for Simultaneous Multi-Pulmonary Hypertension Biomarker Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, GeonHui; Lee, JuKyung; Kim, JeongHoon; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, SangHoon; Lee, HeaYeon

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized microfluidic biosensors have recently been advanced for portable point-of-care diagnostics by integrating lab-on-a-chip technology and electrochemical analysis. However, the design of a small, integrated, and reliable biosensor for multiple and simultaneous electrochemical analyses in a single device remains a challenge. Here, we present a simultaneous microfluidic electrochemical biosensing system to detect multiple biomarkers of pulmonary hypertension diseases in a single devic...

  3. Electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry towards the single-molecule level: Theoretical notions and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Albrecht, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Surface structures controlled at the nanometer and single-molecule levels, with functions crucially determined by interfacial electron transfer (ET) are broadly reported in recent years, with different kinds of electrochemically controlled nanoscale/single molecule systems. One is the broad class...... tunnelling spectroscopic (STS) features. Mapping of redox metalloproteins from the three major classes, i.e. blue copper proteins, heme proteins, and iron-sulfur proteins, at the monolayer and single-molecule levels have also been achieved. In situ STM and spectroscopy of redox molecules and biomolecules...

  4. Three-dimensional (3-D) video systems: bi-channel or single-channel optics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, P; Kunert, W; Buess, G F

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison between two different three-dimensional (3-D) video systems, one with single-channel optics, the other with bi-channel optics. The latter integrates two lens systems, each transferring one half of the stereoscopic image; the former uses only one lens system, similar to a two-dimensional (2-D) endoscope, which transfers the complete stereoscopic picture. In our training centre for minimally invasive surgery, surgeons were involved in basic and advanced laparoscopic courses using both a 2-D system and the two 3-D video systems. They completed analog scale questionnaires in order to record a subjective impression of the relative convenience of operating in 2-D and 3-D vision, and to identify perceived deficiencies in the 3-D system. As an objective test, different experimental tasks were developed, in order to measure performance times and to count pre-defined errors made while using the two 3-D video systems and the 2-D system. Using the bi-channel optical system, the surgeon has a heightened spatial perception, and can work faster and more safely than with a single-channel system. However, single-channel optics allow the use of an angulated endoscope, and the free rotation of the optics relative to the camera, which is necessary for some operative applications.

  5. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  6. Single-Server Queueing System with Markov-Modulated Arrivals and Service Times

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Markov-modulated queues, waiting time, heavy traffic. Markov-modulated queueing systems are those in which the input process or service mechanism is influenced by an underlying Markov chain. Several models for such systems have been investigated. In this paper we present heavy traffic analysis of single queueing system with Poisson arrival process whose arrival rate is a function of the state of Markov chain and service times depend on the state of the same Markov chain at the e...

  7. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad N. A. A; Junita M. N; Aljunid Syed Alwi; Che Beson Mohd Rashidi; Endut Rosdisham

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC) code based on single photodiode detection (SPD). SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI) which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received...

  8. Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    System by Daniel E Jones, Drew Weninger, and Michael Brodsky Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System by Daniel E Jones and Michael Brodsky Computational...Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel E Jones

  9. Preliminary design requirements document for the initial single-shell tank retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The scope of this Preliminary Design Requirements Document is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to demonstrate and accomplish the initial single-shell tank saltcake retrieval from selected tanks. This document sets forth functions, requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System. System and physical interfaces between the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project and the Tank Waste Remediation are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design to be documented by the project.

  10. A Robust Single Primate Neuroepithelial Cell Clonal Expansion System for Neural Tube Development and Disease Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a model of primate neural tube (NT development is important to promote many NT disorder studies in model organisms. Here, we report a robust and stable system to allow for clonal expansion of single monkey neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs to develop into miniature NT-like structures. Single NESCs can produce functional neurons in vitro, survive, and extensively regenerate neuron axons in monkey brain. NT formation and NESC maintenance depend on high metabolism activity and Wnt signaling. NESCs are regionally restricted to a telencephalic fate. Moreover, single NESCs can turn into radial glial progenitors (RGPCs. The transition is accurately regulated by Wnt signaling through regulation of Notch signaling and adhesion molecules. Finally, using the “NESC-TO-NTs” system, we model the functions of folic acid (FA on NT closure and demonstrate that FA can regulate multiple mechanisms to prevent NT defects. Our system is ideal for studying NT development and diseases.

  11. Single-molecule imaging and manipulation of biomolecular machines and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Ryota; Iida, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Akihiko; Saita, Ei-Ichiro; You, Huijuan; Sako, Yasushi

    2018-02-01

    Biological molecular machines support various activities and behaviors of cells, such as energy production, signal transduction, growth, differentiation, and migration. We provide an overview of single-molecule imaging methods involving both small and large probes used to monitor the dynamic motions of molecular machines in vitro (purified proteins) and in living cells, and single-molecule manipulation methods used to measure the forces, mechanical properties and responses of biomolecules. We also introduce several examples of single-molecule analysis, focusing primarily on motor proteins and signal transduction systems. Single-molecule analysis is a powerful approach to unveil the operational mechanisms both of individual molecular machines and of systems consisting of many molecular machines. Quantitative, high-resolution single-molecule analyses of biomolecular systems at the various hierarchies of life will help to answer our fundamental question: "What is life?" This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of single-particle and pair condensates in Bose systems with arbitrary intensity of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Peletminskii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a superfluid Bose system with single-particle and pair condensates on the basis of a half-phenomenological theory of a Bose liquid not involving the weakness of interparticle interaction. The coupled equations describing the equilibrium state of such system are derived from the variational principle for entropy. These equations are analyzed at zero temperature both analytically and numerically. It is shown that the fraction of particles in the single-particle and pair condensates essentially depends on the total density of the system. At densities attainable in condensates of alkali-metal atoms, almost all particles are in the single-particle condensate. The pair condensate fraction grows with increasing total density and becomes dominant. It is shown that at density of liquid helium, the single-particle condensate fraction is less than 10% that agrees with experimental data on inelastic neutron scattering, Monte Carlo calculations and other theoretical predictions. The ground state energy, pressure, and compressibility are found for the system under consideration. The spectrum of single-particle excitations is also analyzed.

  13. Somatic growth in 94 single ventricle children -- comparing systemic right and left ventricle patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine witzner; Greisen, Gorm; Idorn, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We sought to compare and assess growth in single ventricle children with a systemic right or left ventricle in five time periods: at birth, before neonatal surgery, before the Glenn anastomosis and finally before and after the Fontan operation to 11 years of age.......We sought to compare and assess growth in single ventricle children with a systemic right or left ventricle in five time periods: at birth, before neonatal surgery, before the Glenn anastomosis and finally before and after the Fontan operation to 11 years of age....

  14. Common-Ground-Type Tansformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the o......This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter...

  15. Generation of robust tripartite entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Ling, Yang; Shao, Xuping; Xiao, Min

    2017-05-01

    We present a proposal to generate robust tripartite optomechanical entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system driven by a single input laser field. The produced stationary tripartite entanglement among two longitudinal cavity modes and a mirror oscillation mode via radiation pressure force exhibits robustness to the variation of the environment temperature when the cavity free spectral range is close to the mechanical oscillation frequency. The present optomechanical system can serve as an alternative intermediary for quantum-state exchange between two microwave (or optical) fields as well as between photons and the macroscopic mechanical oscillator, and may be potentially useful for quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  16. Benchmarking of Grid Fault Modes in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of singlephase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and grid support...... capability. The control methods, together with grid synchronization techniques, are responsible for the generation of appropriate reference signals in order to handle ride-through grid faults. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the behaviors of grid synchronization methods and control possibilities in single...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant synchronization and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...

  17. Fluidic Logic Used in a Systems Approach to Enable Integrated Single-cell Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of single cells has evolved over the past several years to include expression and genomic analysis of an increasing number of single cells. Several studies have demonstrated wide-spread variation and heterogeneity within cell populations of similar phenotype. While the characterization of these populations will likely set the foundation for our understanding of genomic- and expression-based diversity, it will not be able to link the functional differences of a single cell to its underlying genomic structure and activity. Currently, it is difficult to perturb single cells in a controlled environment, monitor and measure the response due to perturbation, and link these response measurements to downstream genomic and transcriptomic analysis. In order to address this challenge, we developed a platform to integrate and miniaturize many of the experimental steps required to study single-cell function. The heart of this platform is an elastomer-based Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC that uses fluidic logic to select and sequester specific single cells based on a phenotypic trait for downstream experimentation. Experiments with sequestered cells that have been performed include on-chip culture, exposure to a variety of stimulants, and post-exposure image-based response analysis, followed by preparation of the mRNA transcriptome for massively parallel sequencing analysis. The flexible system embodies experimental design and execution that enable routine functional studies of single cells.

  18. Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability of a Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic System Connected to the Low-Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The progressively growing of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems makes the Distribution System Operators (DSO) to update or revise the existing grid codes in order to guarantee the availability, quality and reliability of the electrical system. It is expected that the future PV systems connected...... to the low-voltage grid will be more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support capability, which is not the case today. In this paper, the operation principle is demonstrated for a single-phase grid-connected PV system in low voltage ride through operation in order...... to map future challenges. The system is verified by simulations and experiments. Test results show that the proposed power control method is effective and the single-phase PV inverters connected to low-voltage networks are ready to provide grid support and ride-through voltage fault capability...

  19. New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed

  20. Single-parameter scaling and maximum entropy inside disordered one-dimensional systems: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun; Ma, Xujun; Yépez, Miztli; Genack, Azriel Z.; Mello, Pier A.

    2017-11-01

    The single-parameter scaling hypothesis relating the average and variance of the logarithm of the conductance is a pillar of the theory of electronic transport. We use a maximum-entropy ansatz to explore the logarithm of the particle, or energy density lnW (x ) at a depth x into a random one-dimensional system. Single-parameter scaling would be the special case in which x =L (the system length). We find the result, confirmed in microwave measurements and computer simulations, that the average of lnW (x ) is independent of L and equal to -x /ℓ , with ℓ the mean free path. At the beginning of the sample, var [lnW (x )] rises linearly with x and is also independent of L , with a sublinear increase and then a drop near the sample output. At x =L we find a correction to the value of var [lnT ] predicted by single-parameter scaling.

  1. Privatization, competition and corruption: How characteristics of bribe takers and payers after bribe payments to utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George R. G.; Xu, Lixin Colin

    2002-01-01

    Many recent studies have looked at the macroeconomic, cultural and institutional determinants of corruption at the cross-national level. This study complements these existing cross-country studies by focusing on firm-level evidence of microeconomic factors affecting bribes paid in a single sector of the economy. Using enterprise-level data on bribes paid to utilities in 21 transition economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, we examine how characteristics of the utilities taking bribes an...

  2. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences

  3. A New Power Calculation Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    A new method to calculate average active power and reactive power for single-phase systems is proposed in this paper. It can be used in different applications where the output active power and reactive power need to be calculated accurately and fast. For example, a grid-connected photovoltaic...... system in low voltage ride through operation mode requires a power feedback for the power control loop. Commonly, a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based power calculation method can be adopted in such systems. However, the DFT method introduces at least a one-cycle time delay. The new power calculation...... method, which is based on the adaptive filtering technique, can achieve a faster response. The performance of the proposed method is verified by experiments and demonstrated in a 1 kW single-phase grid-connected system operating under different conditions.Experimental results show the effectiveness...

  4. A research on the positioning technology of vehicle navigation system from single source to "ASPN"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Haizhou; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hongyue; Sun, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Due to the suddenness and complexity of modern warfare, land-based weapon systems need to have precision strike capability on roads and railways. The vehicle navigation system is one of the most important equipments for the land-based weapon systems that have precision strick capability. There are inherent shortcomings for single source navigation systems to provide continuous and stable navigation information. To overcome the shortcomings, the multi-source positioning technology is developed. The All Source Positioning and Navigaiton (ASPN) program was proposed in 2010, which seeks to enable low cost, robust, and seamless navigation solutions for military to use on any operational platform and in any environment with or without GPS. The development trend of vehicle positioning technology was reviewed in this paper. The trend indicates that the positioning technology is developed from single source and multi-source to ASPN. The data fusion techniques based on multi-source and ASPN was analyzed in detail.

  5. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  6. A Novel Flying Capacitor Transformerless Inverter for Single-Phase Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase flying capacitor transformerless PV inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The neutral of the grid can be directly connected to the negative terminal of the source (PV). It consists of four power switches, one diode, one capacitor and a small...

  7. Addressing Single and Multiple Bad Data in the Modern PMU-based Power System State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Detection and analysis of bad data is an important sector of the static state estimation. This paper addresses single and multiple bad data in the modern phasor measurement unit (PMU)-based power system static state estimations. To accomplish this objective, available approaches in the PMU-based ...

  8. PI and repetitive control for single phase inverter based on virtual rotating coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Tong, Yibin; Jiang, Jiuchun; Liang, Jiangang

    2018-03-01

    Microgrid technology developed rapidly and nonlinear loads were connected increasingly. A new control strategy was proposed for single phase inverter when connected nonlinear loads under island condition. PI and repetitive compound controller was realized under synchronous rotating coordinate system and acquired high quality sinusoidal voltage output without voltage spike when loads step changed. Validity and correctness were verified by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.

  9. Single-grain results from an EMCCD-based imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.J.; Kook, M.; Murray, A.S.; Jain, M.; Lapp, T.

    2015-01-01

    Here we compare the performance of an EMCCD-based imaging system with the standard laser-based single-grain Risø attachment. We first compare gamma dose distributions and the relative sensitivity of the two instruments is investigated using a single sample, by comparing the number of grains accepted into a dose distribution. EMCCD cross-talk is shown to be of concern at low light levels. We also make use of the fact that the EMCCD can observe TL signals from individual grains to examine the use of the correlation between the quartz 110 °C TL peak and the fast component OSL signal to correct for sensitivity change. Finally, we present the OSL dose distributions from a set of both well-bleached and poorly-bleached sedimentary samples. From a comparison of the measured doses, we conclude that the two instruments give indistinguishable dose estimates and dispersions, despite the fact that the laser-based system is effectively about four times as sensitive as the EMCCD. - Highlights: • Using an EMCCD-based imaging system to measure quartz single-grain OSL and TL. • PMT based system more sensitive. • Quartz OSL decay rate variability caused by varying effective stimulation power. • EMCCD imaging can provide useful measurements of single-grain quartz doses.

  10. High-speed indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we experimentally investigate a gigabit indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver. It is shown that the use of single channel imaging receiver rejects most of the background light. This single channel imaging receiver is composed of an imaging lens and a small photo-sensitive area photodiode attached on a 2-axis actuator. The actuator and photodiode are placed on the focal plane of the lens to search for the focused light spot. The actuator is voice-coil based and it is low cost and commercially available. With this single channel imaging receiver, bit rate as high as 12.5 Gbps has been successfully demonstrated and the maximum error-free (BER20% has been achieved. When this system is integrated with our recently proposed optical wireless based indoor localization system, both high speed wireless communication and mobility can be provided to users over the entire room. Furthermore, theoretical analysis has been carried out and the simulation results agree well with the experiments. In addition, since the rough location information of the user is available in our proposed system, instead of searching for the focused light spot over a large area on the focal plane of the lens, only a small possible area needs to be scanned. By further pre-setting a proper comparison threshold when searching for the focused light spot, the time needed for searching can be further reduced.

  11. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-05-07

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  12. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List

  13. Single phase cascaded H5 inverter with leakage current elimination for transformerless photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Jia, X.; Lu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Leakage current reduction is one of the important issues for the transformelress PV systems. In this paper, the transformerless single-phase cascaded H-bridge PV inverter is investigated. The common mode model for the cascaded H4 inverter is analyzed. And the reason why the conventional cascade H...

  14. Contrasting single and multi-component working-memory systems in dual tasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Working memory can be a major source of interference in dual tasking. However, there is no consensus on whether this interference is the result of a single working memory bottleneck, or of interactions between different working memory components that together form a complete working-memory system.

  15. Efficiencies of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice particle systems with a single impurity

    KAUST Repository

    Novotny, M.A.

    2010-02-01

    The efficiency of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice systems composed of particles is studied for the case of a single impurity particle. The theoretical efficiencies of the rejection-free method and of the Monte Carlo with Absorbing Markov Chains method are given. Simulation results are presented to confirm the theoretical efficiencies. © 2010.

  16. Stability results for a reaction-diffusion system with a single measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramoul, Hichem [Centre universitaire de Khenchela, Route de Batna, BP 1252, Liberte, 40004 Khenchela (Algeria); Gaitan, Patricia [Laboratoire d' analyse, topologie, probabilites CNRS UMR 6632, Marseille (France) and Universite Aix-Marseille II (France); Cristofol, Michel [Laboratoire d' analyse, topologie, probabilites CNRS UMR 6632, Marseille, France and Universite Aix-Marseille III (France)

    2007-06-15

    For a two by two reaction-diffusion system on a bounded domain we give a simultaneous stability result for one coefficient and for the initial conditions. The key ingredient is a global Carleman-type estimate with a single observation acting on a subdomain.

  17. The optimal look-ahead policy for admission to a single server system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers a service system with a single server, finite waiting room, and a renewal arrival process. Customers who arrive while the server is busy are lost. Upon completing service, the server chooses between two actions: either he immediately starts a new service, provided a customer is

  18. Look-ahead policies for admission to a single server loss system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Consider a single server loss system in which the server, being idle, may reject or accept an arriving customer for service depending on the state at the arrival epoch. It is assumed that at every arrival epoch the server knows the service time of the arriving customer, the arrival time of the next

  19. Electrochemistry of single molecules and biomolecules, molecular scale nanostructures, and low-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemistry at ultra-small scales, where even the single molecule or biomolecule can be characterized and manipulated, is on the way to a consolidated status. At the same time molecular electrochemistry is expanding into other areas of sophisticated nano- and molecular scale systems including...

  20. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    under grid faults. The focus of this paper is put on the benchmarking of synchronization techniques, mainly about phase locked loop (PLL) based methods, in single-phase PV power systems operating under grid faults. Some faulty mode cases are studied at the end of this paper in order to compare...

  1. Span length and information rate optimisation in optical transmission systems using single-channel digital backpropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanov, Boris; Xu, Tianhua; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-10-16

    The optimisation of span length when designing optical communication systems is important from both performance and cost perspectives. In this paper, the optimisation of inter-amplifier spacing and the potential increase of span length at fixed information rates in optical communication systems with practically feasible nonlinearity compensation schemes have been investigated. It is found that in DP-16QAM, DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM systems with practical transceiver noise limitations, single-channel digital backpropagation can allow a 50% reduction in the number of amplifiers without sacrificing information rates compared to systems with optimal span lengths and linear compensation.

  2. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer...... in the combined solar heating/heat pump system type when the heat pump makes use of a horizontal ground source heat exchanger. The knowledge is gained by experimental investigations on a solar heating/heat pump system and forms the basis for improved marketed combined solar heating/heat pump systems....

  3. Properties of the single Jovian planet population and the pursuit of Solar system analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Matthew T.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Horner, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    While the number of exoplanets discovered continues to increase at a rapid rate, we are still to discover any system that truly resembles the Solar system. Existing and near future surveys will likely continue this trend of rapid discovery. To see if these systems are Solar system analogues, we will need to efficiently allocate resources to carry out intensive follow-up observations. We seek to uncover the properties and trends across systems that indicate how much of the habitable zone is stable in each system to provide focus for planet hunters. We study the dynamics of all known single Jovian planetary systems, to assess the dynamical stability of the habitable zone around their host stars. We perform a suite of simulations of all systems where the Jovian planet will interact gravitationally with the habitable zone, and broadly classify these systems. Besides the system's mass ratio (Mpl/Mstar), and the Jovian planet's semi-major axis (apl) and eccentricity (epl), we find that there are no underlying system properties which are observable that indicate the potential for planets to survive within the system's habitable zone. We use Mpl/Mstar, apl and epl to generate a parameter space over which the unstable systems cluster, thus allowing us to predict which systems to exclude from future observational or numerical searches for habitable exoplanets. We also provide a candidate list of 20 systems that have completely stable habitable zones and Jovian planets orbiting beyond the habitable zone as potential first order Solar system analogues.

  4. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  5. Financial efficiency of rainwater utilization system in single-family house

    OpenAIRE

    Stec Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Designing of sustainable water systems should be aimed at reducing the consumption of tap water and the use of alternative water sources, such as rainwater and graywater. Therefore, the aim of the researches conducted was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the economic exploitation of rainwater utilization system in single-family house. As a tool for the analysis, the methodology Life Cycle Cost was used. It provides a comparison of different investment options and the opportunity to choo...

  6. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF A SINGLE-ZONE HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut ŞENGİRGİN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, modelling and simulation results of a single-zone heating and ventilation system of a large office room are introduced. Heating system is controlled by an on-off controller. By considering the sinusoidal outdoor air tempareture variation and various outdoor/return air ratios as input parameters, dynamic behaviour of room air tempereture are investigated. For this purpose, MATLAB/Simulink code is used.

  7. Adaptive Morse-coded single-switch communication system for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C H; Shih, C H

    1996-04-01

    Automatic recognition of Morse-code is generally developed at a fixed typing rate. However, this is not suitable for the disabled due to their difficulty in maintaining a stable typing rate. In this paper, a system recognizing varying typing speeds is developed using an adaptive technique, the Least-Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. This system helps the disabled have a wide latitude and varying typing speeds in single-switch communication with the Morse-code.

  8. [Impact of single disease payment system on hospital delivery service providers' behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2012-06-18

    To find out whether single disease payment system would have an impact on hospital delivery service providers' behavior. Zhouzhi County in Shaanxi Province where there was a payment change from fee for service (FFS) to single disease payment in 2007 was selected as the treatment group, and Guangling County in Shanxi Province with FFS was selected as the control group. Using a difference-in-difference (DD) design, this study empirically examined the impact of single disease payment on the cost of hospital delivery and length of stay. The data of 1 050 samples were taken from the hospitalization medical records and list of charges in the hospitals between 2005-11-01 and 2010-12-31. When taking the expense as dependent variable, the estimated value of DD variable was -262.73 with parity, length of stay, delivery mode, and payment controlled, which was significant at the 1‰ level. It indicated that the expense had decreased by 262.73 yuan after single disease payment was introduced. When taking the length of stay as dependent variable, the estimated value of DD variable was 0.53, which was not significant at the 5% level,meaning that the length of stay was not different between single disease payment and FFS. The payment change from FFS to single disease payment has an impact on hospital delivery service providers' behavior. It could make hospitals try their best to reduce the expenses under the price ceiling to avoid paying for the exceeding cost, and it also can restrict induced demand, but it could not motivate hospitals to reduce length of stay. This research provides evidence for policy makers that compared with FFS, single disease payment system is an effective payment method for controlling the expense of hospital delivery under the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the policy of subsidy for rural hospital delivery (SRHD) .

  9. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  10. Partial Shading Detection in Solar System Using Single Short Pulse of Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Mateusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

  11. Single Phase Transformer-less Buck-Boost Inverter with Zero Leakage Current for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage single-phase transformer-less buck-boost inverter is proposed, in which a reduced number of passive components is used. The proposed inverter combines the conventional buck, boost, and buck-boost converters in one converter in order to obtain a sinusoidal output...... voltage. In the proposed inverter, the input DC source and the load or grid have the same ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem in photovoltaic (PV) systems is eliminated. Furthermore, the proposed inverter supports the bi-directional power flow capability and it can inject reactive power...

  12. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  13. 78 FR 10610 - TRICARE; Demonstration Project for Participation in Maryland Multi-Payer Patient Centered Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... through fee for service reimbursement, while creating a viable economic model for health care purchasers... a Military Health System (MHS) Demonstration project under the authority of Title 10, United States... has adopted the PCMH concept as the strategy of choice for the direct care system and is now using...

  14. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  15. Single-use surgical clothing system for reduction of airborne bacteria in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, A; Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B

    2013-07-01

    It is desirable to maintain a low bacterial count in the operating room air to prevent surgical site infection. This can be achieved by ventilation or by all staff in the operating room wearing clothes made from low-permeable material (i.e. clean air suits). We investigated whether there was a difference in protective efficacy between a single-use clothing system made of polypropylene and a reusable clothing system made of a mixed material (cotton/polyester) by testing both in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures. Counts of colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3) air were significantly lower when using the single-use clothing system in both settings. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Transaction Cost Economics to Capabilities-Based Acquisition: Exploring Single Service vs. Joint Service Programs and Single Systems vs. System-of-Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelis, Diana; Dillard, John; Franck, Raymond; Melese, Francois; Brown, Mary M; Flowe, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DoD) is in the process of radical transformation -- transformation to a national security strategy predicated on joint Service purchases and complex System-of-Systems (SoS) capabilities...

  17. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Debris Evaluation after Root Canal Shaping with Rotating and Reciprocating Single-File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dagna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules along the walls of each sample; Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups and shaped with OneShape (OS, F6 SkyTaper (F6, WaveOne (WO and Reciproc and irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Root canal walls were analyzed by SEM at a standard magnification of 2500×. The presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules at the coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were estimated using a five-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05; The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for debris score showed significant differences among the NiTi systems (P < 0.05. The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that reciprocating systems presented significantly higher score values than rotating files. The same results were assessed considering the smear layer scores. ANOVA confirmed that the apical third of the canal maintained a higher quantity of debris and smear layer after preparation of all the samples; Single-use NiTi systems used in continuous rotation appeared to be more effective than reciprocating instruments in leaving clean walls. The reciprocating systems produced more debris and smear layer than rotating instruments.

  19. Power quality improvement of single-phase photovoltaic systems through a robust synchronization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    An increasing amount of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems on the distribution network requires more advanced synchronization methods in order to meet the grid codes with respect to power quality and fault ride through capability. The response of the synchronization technique selected...... to the harmonic voltage distortion without affecting the dynamic response of the synchronization. Therefore, the accurate response of the proposed MHDC-PLL enhances the power quality of the PV inverter systems and additionally, the proper fault ride-through operation of PV systems can be enabled by the fast...

  20. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  1. A new intelligent curtain control system based on 51 single chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tuan; Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Mengmeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper uses 51 (single chip microcomputer) SCM as the operation and data processing center. According to the change of sunshine intensity and ambient temperature, a new type of intelligent curtain control system is designed by adopting photosensitive element and temperature sensor. In addition, the design also has a manual control mode. In the rain, when the light intensity is weak, the open position of the curtain can be set by the user. The system can maximize the user to provide user-friendly operation and comfortable living environment. The system can be applied to home or office environment, with a wide range of applications and simple operation and so on.

  2. A NEW FRACTIONAL MODEL OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM, BY USING GENERALIZED DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASHEM SABERI NAJAFI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized differential transform method (GDTM is a powerful method to solve the fractional differential equations. In this paper, a new fractional model for systems with single degree of freedom (SDOF is presented, by using the GDTM. The advantage of this method compared with some other numerical methods has been shown. The analysis of new approximations, damping and acceleration of systems are also described. Finally, by reducing damping and analysis of the errors, in one of the fractional cases, we have shown that in addition to having a suitable solution for the displacement close to the exact one, the system enjoys acceleration once crossing the equilibrium point.

  3. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  4. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  5. Performance evaluation of single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomri, R. [Constantine Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Genie Climatique

    2009-07-01

    Desalination of sea or brackish water can be used to produce potable water. The distillation process is the most developed and widely used technique for seawater desalination. The distillation of sea or brackish water can be achieved by using a thermal energy source. Among the many options to improve the energy efficiency of desalination plants is the absorption heat transformer, which is a device that can deliver heat at a higher temperature than the temperature of the fluid by which it is fed. Absorption heat transformer systems are attractive for using waste heat from industrial processes and renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy. This paper presented a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination. In order to simulate the performance of these combination systems, mathematical models were developed for a single absorption heat transformer and a double absorption heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide solution. A model was also developed for the overall desalination system. For the two systems, an identical heat source temperature was used to simulate the heat input to an absorption heat transformer. Energy and exergy analysis of the two systems were performed. Simulation results were used to examine and to compare the influence of the absorber temperature on the energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and water production of the two systems. 19 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  6. Development of a hybrid earthquake early warning system based on single sensor technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravirov, V.V.; Kislov, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    There are two methods to earthquake early warning system: the method based on a network of seismic stations and the single-sensor method. Both have advantages and drawbacks. The current systems rely on high density seismic networks. Attempts at implementing techniques based on the single-station principle encounter difficulties in the identification of earthquake in noise. The noise may be very diverse, from stationary to impulsive. It seems a promising line of research to develop hybrid warning systems with single-sensors being incorporated in the overall early warning network. This will permit using all advantages and will help reduce the radius of the hazardous zone where no earthquake warning can be produced. The main problems are highlighted and the solutions of these are discussed. The system is implemented to include three detection processes in parallel. The first is based on the study of the co-occurrence matrix of the signal wavelet transform. The second consists in using the method of a change point in a random process and signal detection in a moving time window. The third uses artificial neural networks. Further, applying a decision rule out the final earthquake detection is carried out and estimate its reliability. (author)

  7. A novel locally operated master-slave robot system for single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horise, Yuki; Matsumoto, Toshinobu; Ikeda, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamasaki, Makoto; Sawada, Genta; Tsukao, Yukiko; Nakahara, Yujiro; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Takiguchi, Shuji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Kawai, Toshikazu; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-12-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) provides more cosmetic benefits than conventional laparoscopic surgery but presents operational difficulties. To overcome this technical problem, we have developed a locally operated master-slave robot system that provides operability and a visual field similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery. A surgeon grasps the master device with the left hand, which is placed above the abdominal wall, and holds a normal instrument with the right hand. A laparoscope, a slave robot, and the right-sided instrument are inserted through one incision. The slave robot is bent in the body cavity and its length, pose, and tip angle are changed by manipulating the master device; thus the surgeon has almost the same operability as with normal laparoscopic surgery. To evaluate our proposed system, we conducted a basic task and an ex vivo experiment. In basic task experiments, the average object-passing task time was 9.50 sec (SILS cross), 22.25 sec (SILS parallel), and 7.23 sec (proposed SILS). The average number of instrument collisions was 3.67 (SILS cross), 14 (SILS parallel), and 0.33 (proposed SILS). In the ex vivo experiment, we confirmed the applicability of our system for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We demonstrated that our proposed robot system is useful for single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  8. Single molecule tools for enzymology, structural biology, systems biology and nanotechnology: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Julia R.; Dhakal, Soma; Heinicke, Laurie A.; Walter, Nils G.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicology is the highly interdisciplinary field studying the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It requires sensitive tools to detect such effects. After their initial implementation during the 1990s, single-molecule fluorescence detection tools were quickly recognized for their potential to contribute greatly to many different areas of scientific inquiry. In the intervening time, technical advances in the field have generated ever-improving spatial and temporal resolution, and have enabled the application of single-molecule fluorescence to increasingly complex systems, such as live cells. In this review, we give an overview of the optical components necessary to implement the most common versions of single-molecule fluorescence detection. We then discuss current applications to enzymology and structural studies, systems biology, and nanotechnology, presenting the technical considerations that are unique to each area of study, along with noteworthy recent results. We also highlight future directions that have the potential to revolutionize these areas of study by further exploiting the capabilities of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25212907

  9. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete `click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66+/-0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014+/-0.001 and a reset time of ~400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing.

  10. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael

    2015-12-14

    The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

  11. Clinical performance and material properties of single-implant overdenture attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabeeha, Nabeel H M; Swain, Michael V; Payne, Alan G T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of different attachment systems used for mandibular single-implant overdentures and to compare their wear/deformation features with clinical performance in patients after 1 year. Three attachment systems were evaluated: large 5.9-mm titanium nitride-coated ball attachments with plastic matrices, standard 2.25-mm uncoated titanium alloy ball attachments with Dalla Bona-type gold alloy matrices, and Locator attachments of titanium nitride-coated patrices and nylon matrices. The hardness and elastic modulus of the systems were determined using the nanoindentation technique. Twelve attachments from each system were used in 36 edentulous patients to support mandibular single-implant overdentures. After 1 year, 5 samples from each system were retrieved and evaluated for wear changes under a scanning electron microscope. The titanium nitride-coated patrices, regardless of system, appeared unchanged and did not require any maintenance. Extensive wear was evident in the uncoated titanium alloy patrices and Dalla Bona-type gold alloy matrices, resulting in high maintenance (15 activations). Minimal wear was observed in the plastic matrices with minimal maintenance (2 replacements). The Locator nylon matrices showed extensive deformation and deterioration with a substantial need for maintenance (16 replacements). The performance of the patrices was related to hardness, while that of the matrices was related to the creep response. Large ball attachment systems of titanium nitride-coated patrices and plastic matrices reflect favorable wear behavior and clinical performance. These attachments are recommended for patients receiving mandibular single-implant overdentures.

  12. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. A. A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC code based on single photodiode detection (SPD. SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received power. The hybrid SCM OCDMA system shows better performance compare to conventional OCDMA system although the number of users involved is very high. This is because, for hybrid SCM OCDMA system, the number of users can be increased by increasing the number of subcarriers without affect the number of code length and optical codes. Increasing the number of subcarriers will enhance the power consumption by applying hybrid SCM system in OCDMA compared to the conventional OCDMA system. This is because increasing the number of users for hybrid SCM system does not affects the number of code length and the number of optical codes but only increase the number of subcarriers. Thus, hybrid SCM OCDMA system has to increase spectral efficiency and produce better performance compared to conventional of OCDMA system.

  13. Immunoadsorption with regenerating systems in neurological disorders --A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Bernd; Passauer, Jens; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Julius, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, immunoadsorption is increasingly recognized as an alternative treatment approach replacing therapeutic plasma exchange in a variety of neurological disorders. While most experience is based on the application of single-use tryptophan adsorbers, less data exists on the application of more efficient regenerating adsorber columns. We here report the systematic use of a regenerating adsorber system in various neurological indications such as multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, providing the expected treatment success in regard to reduction of immunoglobulins and antibody clearance, together with a low rate of adverse events. As it has been shown for single-use columns before, immunoadsorption with regenerating adsorbers can be successfully applied in disorders without known specific antibodies such as multiple sclerosis. Regenerating systems offer the perspective to provide a more efficacious long term treatment perspective for such patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified Single Photo-diode (MSPD) Detection Technique for SAC-OCDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqader, Sarah G.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new detection technique called modified single photo-diode (MSPD) detection for SAC-OCDMA system is proposed. The proposed system based on the single photo-diode (SPD) detection technique. The new detection technique is proposed to overcome the limitation of phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) in SPD detection technique. However, the proposed detection is based on an optical hard limiter (OHL) followed by a SPD and a low-pass filter (LPF) in order to suppress the phase intensity noise (PIIN) at the receiver side. The results show that the MSPD detection based on OHL has a good performance even when the transmission distance is long, which is different from the case of SPD detection technique. Therefore, the MSPD detection technique is shown to be effective to improve the bit error rate (BER<10-9) and to suppress the noise in the practical optical fiber network.

  15. Single-stage quintuplet for upgrading triplet based lens system: Simulation for Atomki microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarov, Artem; Rajta, Istvan; Nagy, Gyula; Romanenko, Oleksandr V.

    2017-08-01

    Among different configurations of lens systems for nuclear microprobes, the most common one is a triplet of magnetic quadrupole lenses. Nowadays, microanalysis and material modification will undoubtedly benefit from an improvement in spatial resolution. This work presents the results of simulations for improvement of the Oxford Triplet lens system at the Atomki microprobe with consideration of its system parameters and measured beam brightness distribution. For this purpose, an additional single-unit doublet of lenses with two power supplies was introduced. Using earlier developed methods, such a quintuplet system was optimized in order to determine the parameters which provided the highest resolution for different current operational modes with the same microprobe geometry. The tolerances for lens positioning accuracy were also calculated. The obtained quintuplet parameters indicate a resolution improvement for the Atomki microprobe compared to the Oxford Triplet system and these results validate further experimental testing of the proposed quintuplet.

  16. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  17. Zero-voltage ride-through capability of single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ruiqing

    2017-01-01

    Distributed renewable energy systems play an increasing role in today’s energy paradigm. Thus, intensive research activities have been centered on improving the performance of renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, which should be of multiple-functionality. That is, the PV...... systems should be more intelligent in the consideration of grid stability, reliability, and fault protection. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of single-phase grid-connected PV systems under an extreme grid fault (i.e., when the grid voltage dips to zero) is explored. It has been revealed...... that combining a fast and accurate synchronization mechanism with appropriate control strategies for the zero-voltage ride-through (ZVRT) operation is mandatory. Accordingly, the representative synchronization techniques (i.e., the phase-locked loop (PLL) methods) in the ZVRT operation are compared in terms...

  18. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  19. Development of Microfluidic Systems Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Protein Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Beiyuan; Li, Xiufeng; Chen, Deyong; Peng, Hongshang; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic systems enabling high-throughput characterization of single-cell proteins. Four key perspectives of microfluidic platforms are included in this review: (1) microfluidic fluorescent flow cytometry; (2) droplet based microfluidic flow cytometry; (3) large-array micro wells (microengraving); and (4) large-array micro chambers (barcode microchips). We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research oppor...

  20. Optimal Pilot and Payload Power Control in Single-Cell Massive MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hei Victor; Björnson, Emil; Larsson, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the jointly optimal pilot and data power allocation in single-cell uplink massive multiple-input-multiple- output systems. Using the spectral efficiency (SE) as performance metric and setting a total energy budget per coherence interval, the power control is formulated as optimization problems for two different objective functions: the weighted minimum SE among the users and the weighted sum SE. A closed form solution for the optimal length of the pilot sequence is derive...

  1. Single, Integrated, Service-Centric Model of Military Health System Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    that keeps pace with the operational agility and organizational flexibility requirements to support globally integrated operations is clear. This...of the research is to establish what the model of governance of the Military Health System should be. That, with other recommendations, should be the...foundation for the impending transformation. The research found that the model of governance should be a single service model with regional health

  2. Laparoscopic ureteric reimplantation of a single-system ectopic ureter in a girl: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with continuous dribbling of urine along with normal voiding pattern since childhood. Cystourethroscopy showed absence of right ureteric opening, and vaginoscopy showed right ureter opening into vaginal vault. Radiological images showed small right kidney with normal excretory function with single-system ectopic ureter. Patient underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal extravesical ureteric reimplantation. At 3 months′ follow-up, intravenous urography (IVU and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU showed no obstruction and reflux.

  3. An Optical Tracking System based on Hybrid Stereo/Single-View Registration and Controlled Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes , Guillaume; Marchand , Eric; Ardouin , Jérôme; Lécuyer , Anatole

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Optical tracking is widely used in robotics applications such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) localization. Unfortunately, such systems require many cameras and are, consequently, expensive. In this paper, we propose an approach to considerably increase the optical tracking volume without adding cameras. First, when the target becomes no longer visible by at least two cameras we propose a single-view tracking mode which requires only one camera. Furthermore, we propos...

  4. Decoupling of Fluctuating Power in Single-Phase Systems Through a Symmetrical Half-Bridge Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Single-phase ac/dc or dc/ac systems are inherently subject to the harmonic disturbance that is caused by the well-known double-line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc link. Unfortunately, such passive filtering...... power decoupling method, and both the input current and output voltage of the converter can be well regulated even when very small dc-link capacitors are employed....

  5. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  6. Primer System for Single Cell Detection of Double Mutation for Tay-Sachs Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ming Cheng; Drury, Kenneth C.; Kipersztok, Simon; Zheng, Wenrong; Williams, R. Stan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Nearly 100% of infantile Tay-Sachs disease isproduced by two mutations occurring in the alpha chain ofthe lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HEXA)in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Although others havedescribed primer systems used to amplify both sitessimultaneously, few discuss the allele dropout problems inherent inthis test. Our goal was to construct a more robust testenabling stronger signal generation for single cellpreimplantation genetic diagnosis and to investigat...

  7. Primer system for single cell detection of double mutation for Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M C; Drury, K C; Kipersztok, S; Zheng, W; Williams, R S

    2000-02-01

    Nearly 100% of infantile Tay-Sachs disease is produced by two mutations occurring in the alpha chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HEXA) in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Although others have described primer systems used to amplify both sites simultaneously, few discuss the allele dropout problems inherent in this test. Our goal was to construct a more robust test enabling stronger signal generation for single cell preimplantation genetic diagnosis and to investigate the occurrence of allele dropout. New nested primers were designed to optimize detection of both major Tay-Sachs mutations. Four hundred fifty-seven single cells, including normal cells and those carrying mutations of either the 4bp insertion exon 11 or splice-site intron 12 defects, were used to screen a new primer system. Based on PCR amplified product analysis, total efficiency of amplification was 85.3%, (390/457). The allele dropout rate for the 4bp insertion mutation in exon 11 and splice-site mutation in intron 12 was 4.8% and 5.8%, respectively. Multiple mutation detection and analysis within the Tay-Sachs disease gene (HEXA) is possible using single cells for clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Alternative PCR primers and conditions offer various methods for developing systems compatible to specific program requirements.

  8. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz-invariant low-energy theory

  9. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-02-27

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz

  10. Cost to primary care practices of responding to payer requests for quality and performance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Stearns, Sally C; Wroth, Thomas; Spragens, Lynn; Hofstetter, Sara; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to determine how much it costs primary care practices to participate in programs that require them to gather and report data on care quality indicators. Using mixed quantitative-qualitative methods, we gathered data from 8 practices in North Carolina that were selected purposively to be diverse by size, ownership, type, location, and medical records. Formal practice visits occurred between January 2008 and May 2008. Four quality-reporting programs were studied: Medicare's Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI), Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC), Bridges to Excellence (BTE), and Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP). We estimated direct costs to the practice and on-site costs to the quality organization for implementation and maintenance phases of program participation. Major expenses included personnel time for planning, training, registry maintenance, visit coding, data gathering and entry, and modification of electronic systems. Costs per full-time equivalent clinician ranged from less than $1,000 to $11,100 during program implementation phases and ranged from less than $100 to $4,300 annually during maintenance phases. Main sources of variation included program characteristics, amount of on-site assistance provided, experience and expertise of practice personnel, and the extent of data system problems encountered. The costs of a quality-reporting program vary greatly by program and are important to anticipate and understand when undertaking quality improvement work. Incentives that would likely improve practice participation include financial payment, quality improvement skills training, and technical assistance with electronic system troubleshooting.

  11. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... of the entire system. Regarding the advance control of DPGS, an active damping technique for grid-connected systems using inductor-capacitorinductor (LCL) filters was proposed in the thesis. The method is based on a notch filter, whose stopband can be automatically adjusted in relation with an estimated value...

  12. Application of Viral Systems for Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Budi; Affandi, Umar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively new algorithm inspired by the viral replication system called Viral Systems is used to solve the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness (SMTWTP). SMTWTP is a job scheduling problem which is one of classical combinatorial problems known as np-hard problems. This algorithm makes the process of finding solutions through neighborhood and mutation mechanism. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance. There are seven parameters which are required to tune in to find best solution. The experiment was implemented on data sets of 40 jobs, 50 jobs, and 100 jobs. The results show that the algorithm can solve 235 optimally out of 275 problems.

  13. Ice Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water II : Single-offset-duct System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, Uwe

    1948-01-01

    Investigation of a single-offset-duct system designed to prevent entrance of water into a turbojet engine was conducted on a half-scale nacelle model. An investigation was made to determine ram-pressure recovery and radial velocity profiles at the compressor section and icing characteristics of such a duct system. At a design inlet velocity of 0.77, the maximum ram-pressure recovery attained with effective water-separating inlet was 77 percent, which is considerably less than attainable with a direct-ram inlet. Continuous heating of the accessory-housing surface would be required for inlets that have a small ice storage space.

  14. Integrated single grating compressor for variable pulse front tilt in simultaneously spatially and temporally focused systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Erica; Thomas, Jens; Durfee, Charles; Squier, Jeff

    2014-12-15

    A Ti:Al(3)O(2) multipass chirped pulse amplification system is outfitted with a single-grating, simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) compressor platform. For the first time, this novel design has the ability to easily vary the beam aspect ratio of an SSTF beam, and thus the degree of pulse-front tilt at focus, while maintaining a net zero-dispersion system. Accessible variation of pulse front tilt gives full spatiotemporal control over the intensity distribution at the focus and could lead to better understanding of effects such as nonreciprocal writing and SSTF-material interactions.

  15. Acoustic Feedback and Echo Cancellation Strategies for Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic feedback/echo cancellation in a multiple-microphone and single-loudspeaker system is often carried out using a cancellation filter for each microphone channel, and the filters are adaptively estimated, independently of each other. In this work, we consider another strategy by estimating...... all the cancellation filters jointly and in this way exploit information from all microphone channels. We determine the statistical system behavior for the joint estimation strategy in terms of the convergence rate and steady-state behavior across time and frequency. We assess if an improved...

  16. Energy loss of the electron system in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Chudow, Joel D; Prober, Daniel E; Purewal, Meninder S; Kim, Philip

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the energy loss of the nonequilibrium electron system in individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature. Using Johnson noise thermometry, we demonstrate that, for a nanotube with Ohmic contacts, the dc resistance at finite bias current directly reflects the average electron temperature. This enables a straightforward determination of the thermal conductance associated with cooling of the nanotube electron system. In analyzing the temperature- and length-dependence of the thermal conductance, we consider contributions from acoustic phonon emission, optical phonon emission, and hot electron outdiffusion.

  17. Feasibility study to damp power system multi-mode oscillations by using a single FACTS device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, W.; Wu, X. [School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wang, H.F. [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Dunn, R. [University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    To damp power system multi-mode oscillations, the commonly-used method is to arrange multiple decentralized stabilizers, such as PSS (Power System Stabilizer) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) stabilizers. In order to overcome the problem of interactions between stabilizers, coordinated design of multiple decentralized stabilizers has been proposed to simultaneously set parameters of all stabilizers. However, in practice it could be very difficult to implement the coordinated design of multiple stabilizers. This is because those stabilizers are often at different geographical locations in a power system and cross-location simultaneous field tuning of stabilizers' parameters is a tremendous task due to their interactions. Hence this paper proposes a novel scheme of damping power system multi-mode oscillations by using a single FACTS device and presents the results of feasibility study of the proposed scheme. It is demonstrated that multiple stabilizers can be arranged in a single FACTS device to effectively damp power system multi-mode oscillations. Under this scheme, multiple stabilizers are at a same geographical location in the power system and hence their parameters can be tuned simultaneously in coordination in the field. In the paper, three examples of multi-machine power systems installed with a UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller), a STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator)/BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) and a MUPFC (Multiple-terminal UPFC) respectively are presented. Parameters of multiple stabilizers are designed in coordination by using a newly appeared method of optimisation-artificial fish swarm algorithm. Simulation results in the paper are compared with those obtained from applying the conventional scheme of decentralized control involving multiple PSSs. They demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of proposed scheme in the paper. (author)

  18. 32-channel time-correlated-single-photon-counting system for high-throughput lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P; Labanca, I; Acconcia, G; Ruggeri, A; Lavdas, A A; Hicks, A A; Pramstaller, P P; Ghioni, M; Rech, I

    2017-08-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a very efficient technique for measuring weak and fast optical signals, but it is mainly limited by the relatively "long" measurement time. Multichannel systems have been developed in recent years aiming to overcome this limitation by managing several detectors or TCSPC devices in parallel. Nevertheless, if we look at state-of-the-art systems, there is still a strong trade-off between the parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels, the poorer the performance. In 2013, we presented a complete and compact 32 × 1 TCSPC system, composed of an array of 32 single-photon avalanche diodes connected to 32 time-to-amplitude converters, which showed that it was possible to overcome the existing trade-off. In this paper, we present an evolution of the previous work that is conceived for high-throughput fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. This application can be addressed by the new system thanks to a centralized logic, fast data management and an interface to a microscope. The new conceived hardware structure is presented, as well as the firmware developed to manage the operation of the module. Finally, preliminary results, obtained from the practical application of the technology, are shown to validate the developed system.

  19. 32-channel time-correlated-single-photon-counting system for high-throughput lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P.; Labanca, I.; Acconcia, G.; Ruggeri, A.; Lavdas, A. A.; Hicks, A. A.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Ghioni, M.; Rech, I.

    2017-08-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a very efficient technique for measuring weak and fast optical signals, but it is mainly limited by the relatively "long" measurement time. Multichannel systems have been developed in recent years aiming to overcome this limitation by managing several detectors or TCSPC devices in parallel. Nevertheless, if we look at state-of-the-art systems, there is still a strong trade-off between the parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels, the poorer the performance. In 2013, we presented a complete and compact 32 × 1 TCSPC system, composed of an array of 32 single-photon avalanche diodes connected to 32 time-to-amplitude converters, which showed that it was possible to overcome the existing trade-off. In this paper, we present an evolution of the previous work that is conceived for high-throughput fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. This application can be addressed by the new system thanks to a centralized logic, fast data management and an interface to a microscope. The new conceived hardware structure is presented, as well as the firmware developed to manage the operation of the module. Finally, preliminary results, obtained from the practical application of the technology, are shown to validate the developed system.

  20. Task-oriented control of Single-Master Multi-Slave Manipulator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Jun; Furuta, Katsuhisa; Hariki, Kazuo; Sakai, Masaru.

    1994-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator system, in general, consists of a master arm manipulated by a human and a slave arm used for real tasks. Some tasks, such as manipulation of a heavy object, etc., require two or more slave arms operated simultaneously. A Single-Master Multi-Slave Manipulator System consists of a master arm with six degrees of freedom and two or more slave arms, each of which has six or more degrees of freedom. In this system, a master arm controls the task-oriented variables using Virtual Internal Model (VIM) based on the concept of 'Task-Oriented Control'. VIM is a reference model driven by sensory information and used to describe the desired relation between the motion of a master arm and task-oriented variables. The motion of slave arms are controlled based on the task oriented variables generated by VIM and tailors the system to meet specific tasks. A single-master multi-slave manipulator system, having two slave arms, is experimentally developed and illustrates the concept. (author)

  1. Simulation Performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems Employing Single-Carrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saglam, Halil D

    2004-01-01

    ...) systems utilizing Alamouti-based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. The MIMO communication systems using STBC technique employing both single-carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  2. Coverage of newborn and adult male circumcision varies among public and private US payers despite health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Kilmarx, Peter H; Kretsinger, Katrina

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that male circumcision greatly reduces the risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, infant urinary tract infections, penile cancer, and other adverse health outcomes. Given recent data regarding these health benefits and the cost-effectiveness of newborn male circumcision, national policy makers are developing new recommendations regarding circumcision for newborn, adolescent, and adult males. To investigate the implications, this study assessed insurance coverage and reimbursement for routine newborn and adult male circumcision in private and public health plans in 2009. We found that coverage varies across private and public payers. Private insurance provides far broader coverage than state Medicaid programs for routine newborn male circumcision. Specifically, Medicaid programs in seventeen states do not cover it, even though low-income populations have a higher risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to higher-income groups. For adult male circumcision, coverage is generally sparse across public and private plans. Presentation of evidence-based recommendations--for example, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--may be necessary if coverage for newborn and adult male circumcision is to be expanded.

  3. Embedding the dynamics of a single delay system into a feed-forward ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir; Shchapin, Dmitry; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Wolfrum, Matthias; D'Huys, Otti; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the relation between the dynamics of a single oscillator with delayed self-feedback and a feed-forward ring of such oscillators, where each unit is coupled to its next neighbor in the same way as in the self-feedback case. We show that periodic solutions of the delayed oscillator give rise to families of rotating waves with different wave numbers in the corresponding ring. In particular, if for the single oscillator the periodic solution is resonant to the delay, it can be embedded into a ring with instantaneous couplings. We discover several cases where the stability of a periodic solution for the single unit can be related to the stability of the corresponding rotating wave in the ring. As a specific example, we demonstrate how the complex bifurcation scenario of simultaneously emerging multijittering solutions can be transferred from a single oscillator with delayed pulse feedback to multijittering rotating waves in a sufficiently large ring of oscillators with instantaneous pulse coupling. Finally, we present an experimental realization of this dynamical phenomenon in a system of coupled electronic circuits of FitzHugh-Nagumo type.

  4. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  5. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  6. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Construction Economics and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Ugursal, V. Ismet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Good, Joel [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-07-14

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-a-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2kW{sub e}) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces. (author)

  7. Comparison of digital intraoral scanners by single-image capture system and full-color movie system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Meguru; Kataoka, Yu; Manabe, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    The use of dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restoration is rapidly increasing. This study was performed to evaluate the marginal and internal cement thickness and the adhesive gap of internal cavities comprising CAD/CAM materials using two digital impression acquisition methods and micro-computed tomography. Images obtained by a single-image acquisition system (Bluecam Ver. 4.0) and a full-color video acquisition system (Omnicam Ver. 4.2) were divided into the BL and OM groups, respectively. Silicone impressions were prepared from an ISO-standard metal mold, and CEREC Stone BC and New Fuji Rock IMP were used to create working models (n=20) in the BL and OM groups (n=10 per group), respectively. Individual inlays were designed in a conventional manner using designated software, and all restorations were prepared using CEREC inLab MC XL. These were assembled with the corresponding working models used for measurement, and the level of fit was examined by three-dimensional analysis based on micro-computed tomography. Significant differences in the marginal and internal cement thickness and adhesive gap spacing were found between the OM and BL groups. The full-color movie capture system appears to be a more optimal restoration system than the single-image capture system.

  8. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  9. Selection rules for single-chain-magnet behaviour in non-collinear Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vindigni, Alessandro; Pini, Maria Gloria

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic behaviour of molecular single-chain magnets is investigated in the framework of a one-dimensional Ising model with single spin-flip Glauber dynamics. Opportune modifications to the original theory are required in order to account for non-collinearity of local anisotropy axes between themselves and with respect to the crystallographic (laboratory) frame. The extension of Glauber's theory to the case of a collinear Ising ferrimagnetic chain is also discussed. Within this formalism, both the dynamics of magnetization reversal in zero field and the response of the system to a weak magnetic field, oscillating in time, are studied. Depending on the experimental geometry, selection rules are found for the occurrence of slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures, as well as for resonant behaviour of the a.c. susceptibility as a function of temperature at low frequencies. The present theory applies successfully to some real systems, namely Mn-, Dy- and Co-based molecular magnetic chains, showing that single-chain-magnet behaviour is not only a feature of collinear ferro- and ferrimagnetic, but also of canted antiferromagnetic chains.

  10. A throttle-less single-rod hydraulic cylinder positioning system: Design and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jalayeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern industrial tote dumpers and lifters are equipped with long-stroke single-rod hydraulic cylinders. For years, valve-controlled cylinders have been used in tote dumpers. Valve-controlled actuators are highly inefficient due to huge power losses in throttling valves. They also need a cooling system to remove the wasted heat energy from the hydraulic oil. This article introduces a low-cost throttle-less hydraulic circuit to control the single-rod cylinder of a tote dumper. The system consists of a motor-driven gear pump, an On/Off solenoid valve, to redirect the differential flow of the single-rod hydraulic cylinder and a counterbalance valve, which makes the circuit controllable for assisting loads and keeps the load in position with no effort from the hydraulic pump. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the circuit. A test rig has been designed to simulate a lifting load. The energy efficiency of the circuit is determined by comparing a valve-controlled circuit with the proposed circuit. The proposed circuit composition is not only efficient and simple but is also accurate in terms of position response using a proportional controller. The circuit is easy to control since the only needed measurement is the displacement of the actuator. The circuit, however, does not recycle energy.

  11. Clinical application of single-tooth replacement with ankylos implant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Liu Xue; Zhang Heng; Deng Yan; Guo Zhaozhong; Zhang Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Ankylos implant system to restore the loss of single-tooth. Methods: 90 cases with loss of single-tooth were selected and treated with routinely two-stage surgery. When the patients presented with deficient alveolar ridge, guided bone regeneration (GBR), osteotome sinus floor elevation, lateral antrostomy surgery with simultaneous placement of implant were applied. They were restored with platinum ceramic crown. All the implants were followed up, and the records were kept about stability of the implant and abutment, the status of surrounding soft tissue, sealability of implant abutment junction and the marginal bone lossing through X-ray checking,and satisfaction of the patients to mastication and aspect of the restorations. The follow-up time was 1-2.5 years. Results: Among the cases,one case had peri-implant inflammation, and one case had porcelain dropped. No loosening occurred in the other implants and abuments. Implant abutment junction was sealed well. The marginal bone loss 1 year after final restoration was less than 1 mm. Soft tissue surrounding implants was healthy. The satisfaction rate was 98.9% (89/90). According to standard of implant success, 88 cases were successful, the 2.5-year cumulative success rate was 97.8%, 2 cases failed, and the failure rate was 2.2 %. Conclusion: A satisfactory treatment effects could be gotten by using Ankylos implant system to restore the loss of single-tooth. (authors)

  12. Selection rules for single-chain-magnet behaviour in non-collinear Ising systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindigni, Alessandro [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Pini, Maria Gloria [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: vindigni@phys.ethz.ch

    2009-06-10

    The magnetic behaviour of molecular single-chain magnets is investigated in the framework of a one-dimensional Ising model with single spin-flip Glauber dynamics. Opportune modifications to the original theory are required in order to account for non-collinearity of local anisotropy axes between themselves and with respect to the crystallographic (laboratory) frame. The extension of Glauber's theory to the case of a collinear Ising ferrimagnetic chain is also discussed. Within this formalism, both the dynamics of magnetization reversal in zero field and the response of the system to a weak magnetic field, oscillating in time, are studied. Depending on the experimental geometry, selection rules are found for the occurrence of slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures, as well as for resonant behaviour of the a.c. susceptibility as a function of temperature at low frequencies. The present theory applies successfully to some real systems, namely Mn-, Dy- and Co-based molecular magnetic chains, showing that single-chain-magnet behaviour is not only a feature of collinear ferro- and ferrimagnetic, but also of canted antiferromagnetic chains.

  13. NONLINEAR SYSTEM MODELING USING SINGLE NEURON CASCADED NEURAL NETWORK FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Himavathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural Networks (NN have proved its efficacy for nonlinear system modeling. NN based controllers and estimators for nonlinear systems provide promising alternatives to the conventional counterpart. However, NN models have to meet the stringent requirements on execution time for its effective use in real time applications. This requires the NN model to be structurally compact and computationally less complex. In this paper a parametric method of analysis is adopted to determine the compact and faster NN model among various neural network architectures. This work proves through analysis and examples that the Single Neuron Cascaded (SNC architecture is distinct in providing compact and simpler models requiring lower execution time. The unique structural growth of SNC architecture enables automation in design. The SNC Network is shown to combine the advantages of both single and multilayer neural network architectures. Extensive analysis on selected architectures and their models for four benchmark nonlinear theoretical plants and a practical application are tested. A performance comparison of the NN models is presented to demonstrate the superiority of the single neuron cascaded architecture for online real time applications.

  14. Regeneration and reuse of a seaweed-based biosorbent in single and multi-metal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakir, Adil; McLoughlin, Peter; Fitzgerald, Eddy [Estuarine Research Group, Eco-Innovation Research Centre, Department of Chemical and Life Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    A seaweed-waste material resulting from the processing of ascophyllum nodosum was previously shown to be very efficient at removing Zn(II), Ni(II) and Al(III) both in single and multi-metal waste streams. In this study, the regeneration of the biosorbent using an acid wash resulted in the release of high metal concentrations during multiple desorption cycles. Maximum desorption efficiencies (DE) of 183, 122 and 91% were achieved for Zn(II), Ni(II) and Al(III), respectively, for subsequent metal loading cycles, significantly exceeding the desorption rates observed for conventional sorbents. The regeneration of the sorbent was accomplished with very little loss in metal removal efficiency (RE) for both single and multi-metal systems. Values of 92, 96 and 94% RE were achieved for Zn(II), Ni(II) and Al(III), respectively, for the 5{sup th}sorption cycle in single metal aqueous solutions. A slight decrease was observed for the same metals in multi-metal systems with maximum REs of 85, 82 and 82% for Zn(II), Ni(II) and Al(III), respectively. This study showed that the novel sorbent derived from a seaweed industrial waste would be suitable for multiple metal sorption cycles without any significant loss in RE. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Single Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor System for Simultaneous Multi-Pulmonary Hypertension Biomarker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, GeonHui; Lee, JuKyung; Kim, JeongHoon; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, SangHoon; Lee, HeaYeon

    2017-08-08

    Miniaturized microfluidic biosensors have recently been advanced for portable point-of-care diagnostics by integrating lab-on-a-chip technology and electrochemical analysis. However, the design of a small, integrated, and reliable biosensor for multiple and simultaneous electrochemical analyses in a single device remains a challenge. Here, we present a simultaneous microfluidic electrochemical biosensing system to detect multiple biomarkers of pulmonary hypertension diseases in a single device. The miniaturized biosensor, which is composed of five chambers, is precisely and individually controlled using in-house-built pneumatic microvalves to manipulate the flow pathway. Each chamber is connected to an electrochemical sensor designed to detect four different biomarkers plus a reference control. Our design allows for loading of multiple reagents for simultaneous analyses. On the basis of the developed microfluidic electrochemical sensor system, we successfully detected four well-defined pulmonary hypertension-associated biomarkers, namely, fibrinogen, adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein, and 8-isoprostane. This novel approach offers a new platform for a rapid, miniaturized, and sensitive diagnostic sensor in a single device for various human diseases.

  16. Directed self-assembly of nanoparticle array: A single electron device platform to make novel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang

    The biggest attraction of building nanometer structures is the emergence of novel properties and phenomena at these length scales. In the discipline of electronics particularly, nanoscale bridges the gap between the microscopic quantum world to the macroscopic classical world. The bridge can be tailored to effectively affect the material properties. One of the well-known phenomena that is altered at the nanoscale is the electron transport through a metal, i.e. the Ohm's law. As the size of the metal particle reduces to nanometer, Ohm's law breaks down due to trapping of a single electron charge, i.e. local charging, that prohibits the subsequent steam of electrons to pass through. This phenomenon is referred to as the Coulomb blockade, where the current is blocked below a threshold bias, VT. However, to observe a robust VT, the system has to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Here, fabrication and construction of a nano-system using directed self-assembled network of 1D necklace of 10 nm Au particles are described, which exhibits a robust single electron effect with a record high VT of 7.5 V at room temperature and a subsequent current, I rise as ( V/VT -- 1)ζ, where ζ is a critical constant, usually around 2. These physical parameters can be precisely tuned by tailoring the dimension and topology of the ensemble. The finding is important as nanoparticle based Single Electron Devices (SEDs) have become of great interest due to their orders of magnitude high sensitivity to gating. For over six decades of research on SEDs, it is clear that V T > 2 V at room temperature is required to make a robust device to eliminate the omnipresent "quantum noise" in these systems. Our system has not only shown a room temperature VT of well above 2 V but also its easy integrability with microelectronics circuits. Detailed scientific studies have been performed on the formation and structure of necklace array to understand the assembly process. Subsequent modification of the

  17. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  18. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Gerritsen, A E; van Spijker, A; Creugers, N H J

    2013-02-01

    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary. These guidelines are based on the border movements and positions of the mandible in the orofacial system, and on the location and modelling of the occlusal contacts in the occlusal system. The modelling of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses must harmonize with the occlusal system. Moreover, an important feature is the relation of the anterior teeth which enables mutually protected occlusion. Characteristics of a healthy orofacial and occlusal system are: absence of pathology, perceived sufficient oral functions, variability inform and function, and adaptive capacity. When designing single- or multiunit fixed dental prostheses, a pragmatic starting point is to maintain the existing occlusion and the existing speech pattern unless arguments can be provided for alterations. The occlusal design should aim at optimizing oral functions, such as mandibular and occlusal stability.

  19. The reverse effects of random perturbation on discrete systems for single and multiple population models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Li; Tang, Sanyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The discrete single species and multiple species models with random perturbation are proposed. • The complex dynamics and interesting bifurcation behavior have been investigated. • The reverse effects of random perturbation on discrete systems have been discussed and revealed. • The main results can be applied for pest control and resources management. - Abstract: The natural species are likely to present several interesting and complex phenomena under random perturbations, which have been confirmed by simple mathematical models. The important questions are: how the random perturbations influence the dynamics of the discrete population models with multiple steady states or multiple species interactions? and is there any different effects for single species and multiple species models with random perturbation? To address those interesting questions, we have proposed the discrete single species model with two stable equilibria and the host-parasitoid model with Holling type functional response functions to address how the random perturbation affects the dynamics. The main results indicate that the random perturbation does not change the number of blurred orbits of the single species model with two stable steady states compared with results for the classical Ricker model with same random perturbation, but it can strength the stability. However, extensive numerical investigations depict that the random perturbation does not influence the complexities of the host-parasitoid models compared with the results for the models without perturbation, while it does increase the period of periodic orbits doubly. All those confirm that the random perturbation has a reverse effect on the dynamics of the discrete single and multiple population models, which could be applied in reality including pest control and resources management.

  20. Tunable single-photon multi-channel quantum router based on an optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Yan, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-01-01

    Routing of photons plays a key role in optical communication networks and quantum networks. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated for various systems, both in theory and experiment, the general form of a quantum router with multi-output terminals still needs to be explored. Here, we propose an experimentally accessible tunable single-photon multi-channel routing scheme using an optomechanics cavity which is Coulomb coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. The router can extract single photons from the coherent input signal and directly modulate them into three different output channels. More importantly, the two output signal frequencies can be selected by adjusting the Coulomb coupling strength. For application purposes, we justify that there is insignificant influence from the vacuum and thermal noises on the performance of the router under cryogenic conditions. Our proposal may pave a new avenue towards multi-channel routers and quantum networks.

  1. Evaluation of accelerometer based multi-sensor versus single-sensor activity recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Bourke, A K; Nelson, John

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity has a positive impact on people's well-being and it had been shown to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases in the older adult population. To date, a substantial amount of research studies exist, which focus on activity recognition using inertial sensors. Many of these studies adopt a single sensor approach and focus on proposing novel features combined with complex classifiers to improve the overall recognition accuracy. In addition, the implementation of the advanced feature extraction algorithms and the complex classifiers exceed the computing ability of most current wearable sensor platforms. This paper proposes a method to adopt multiple sensors on distributed body locations to overcome this problem. The objective of the proposed system is to achieve higher recognition accuracy with "light-weight" signal processing algorithms, which run on a distributed computing based sensor system comprised of computationally efficient nodes. For analysing and evaluating the multi-sensor system, eight subjects were recruited to perform eight normal scripted activities in different life scenarios, each repeated three times. Thus a total of 192 activities were recorded resulting in 864 separate annotated activity states. The methods for designing such a multi-sensor system required consideration of the following: signal pre-processing algorithms, sampling rate, feature selection and classifier selection. Each has been investigated and the most appropriate approach is selected to achieve a trade-off between recognition accuracy and computing execution time. A comparison of six different systems, which employ single or multiple sensors, is presented. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed multi-sensor system can achieve an overall recognition accuracy of 96.4% by adopting the mean and variance features, using the Decision Tree classifier. The results demonstrate that elaborate classifiers and feature sets are not required to achieve high

  2. Clinical comparison of 2 implantation systems for single-level cervical disk replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Li, Juan; Liu, Hao; Ding, Chen; Hu, Tao; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan

    2014-02-01

    The safety and effectiveness of 2 implantation systems for single-segment cervical disk replacement-the Bryan Cervical Disc System (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota) and the ACCEL system (Medtronic Inc)-have not been clinically compared. A prospective, nonrandomized controlled study in consecutive patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up was performed. Fifty patients with single-level cervical disk degeneration who responded poorly to conservative treatment and underwent Bryan Cervical Disc replacement were involved. Fifty patients were included (24 in group A [Bryan Cervical Disc System] and 26 in group B [ACCEL system]).The patients' visual analog scale scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores, Odom scores, operative time, blood loss, and complications were compared. Patients' baseline statuses were similar (P>.05). Visual analog scale for neck and arm pain, NDI, and SF-36 were significantly improved postoperatively (P.05). All Odom scores were better than good. Mean operative time and average blood loss in group A (173±42.5 minutes and 250±159.8 mL, respectively), were both significantly higher than the values in group B (137.5±19.3 minutes and 138.1±86.7 mL, respectively) (Pprosthesis; there was no significant difference in the total complication rates between the 2 groups (P>.05). The 2 implantation systems displayed equal clinical effectiveness and safety, but the ACCEL system appears to have the advantages of shorter operative time and less blood loss. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen-bonded systems: Two recent examples from IPNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetzle, Thomas F. [IPNS Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: tkoetzle@anl.gov; Piccoli, Paula M.B.; Schultz, Arthur J. [IPNS Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-02-21

    Beginning with work in the 1950s at the first generation of research reactors, studies of hydrogen-bonded systems have been a prime application for single-crystal neutron diffraction. The range of systems studied was extended in the 1960s and 1970s, with the advent of high flux reactor sources, and beginning around 1980 studies at pulsed neutron sources have made increasingly important contributions. Recently at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), working with collaborators, we completed two studies of hydrogen-bonded systems that will serve to illustrate topics of current interest. In the first study, on andrographolide, an active diterpenoid natural product, our neutron diffraction results definitively characterize the hydrogen-bonding interactions. The second IPNS study is on tetraacetylethane (TAE), a {beta}-diketone enol system with a very short, strong intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bond. At IPNS, we have determined the neutron crystal structure of TAE at five temperatures between 20 and 298 K to investigate changes in the structure with temperature and to probe for disorder. Despite the successes illustrated by the two examples presented here and by many other studies, at present applications of single-crystal neutron diffraction continue to be extremely flux limited and constrained by the requirement for mm-size crystals for many problems. These limitations are being addressed through the realization of powerful instruments at a new generation of pulsed neutron sources, including in the USA the TOPAZ and MaNDi single-crystal diffractometers that are under development at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

  4. Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen-bonded systems: Two recent examples from IPNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetzle, Thomas F.; Piccoli, Paula M. B.; Schultz, Arthur J.

    2009-02-01

    Beginning with work in the 1950s at the first generation of research reactors, studies of hydrogen-bonded systems have been a prime application for single-crystal neutron diffraction. The range of systems studied was extended in the 1960s and 1970s, with the advent of high flux reactor sources, and beginning around 1980 studies at pulsed neutron sources have made increasingly important contributions. Recently at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), working with collaborators, we completed two studies of hydrogen-bonded systems that will serve to illustrate topics of current interest. In the first study, on andrographolide, an active diterpenoid natural product, our neutron diffraction results definitively characterize the hydrogen-bonding interactions. The second IPNS study is on tetraacetylethane (TAE), a β-diketone enol system with a very short, strong intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. At IPNS, we have determined the neutron crystal structure of TAE at five temperatures between 20 and 298 K to investigate changes in the structure with temperature and to probe for disorder. Despite the successes illustrated by the two examples presented here and by many other studies, at present applications of single-crystal neutron diffraction continue to be extremely flux limited and constrained by the requirement for mm-size crystals for many problems. These limitations are being addressed through the realization of powerful instruments at a new generation of pulsed neutron sources, including in the USA the TOPAZ and MaNDi single-crystal diffractometers that are under development at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  5. Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen-bonded systems: Two recent examples from IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetzle, Thomas F.; Piccoli, Paula M.B.; Schultz, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with work in the 1950s at the first generation of research reactors, studies of hydrogen-bonded systems have been a prime application for single-crystal neutron diffraction. The range of systems studied was extended in the 1960s and 1970s, with the advent of high flux reactor sources, and beginning around 1980 studies at pulsed neutron sources have made increasingly important contributions. Recently at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), working with collaborators, we completed two studies of hydrogen-bonded systems that will serve to illustrate topics of current interest. In the first study, on andrographolide, an active diterpenoid natural product, our neutron diffraction results definitively characterize the hydrogen-bonding interactions. The second IPNS study is on tetraacetylethane (TAE), a β-diketone enol system with a very short, strong intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bond. At IPNS, we have determined the neutron crystal structure of TAE at five temperatures between 20 and 298 K to investigate changes in the structure with temperature and to probe for disorder. Despite the successes illustrated by the two examples presented here and by many other studies, at present applications of single-crystal neutron diffraction continue to be extremely flux limited and constrained by the requirement for mm-size crystals for many problems. These limitations are being addressed through the realization of powerful instruments at a new generation of pulsed neutron sources, including in the USA the TOPAZ and MaNDi single-crystal diffractometers that are under development at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  6. The effect of collagen removal on shear bond strength of four single bottle adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasraie Sh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Achieving adhesion between restorative materials and dentin as a wet and dynamic surface is an important topic in restorative and especially in conservative dentistry. Adhesion of new dentin bonding systems depends on the formation of hybrid layer and micromechanical retention. Nevertheless, an ideal adhesive system has not yet been introduced .Recent studies reveal an increase in bonding stability when the collagen is removed from demineralized dentin surfaces. This study investigates the effect of collagen removal on the shear bond strength of four single bottle dentin bonding systems regarding their structural differences. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 56 intact human premolar teeth. Smooth surfaces of dentin were prepared on buccal & lingual aspects of teeth, providing 112 dentin surfaces. The dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and then rinsed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. Single bottle adhesive systems [Single Bond (3M, One-Step (Bisco, Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply, and Excite (Vivadent] were then applied on the dentin surfaces of 4 groups using the wet bonding technique. In the other 4 groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite for one minute in order to remove the surface organic components. The adhesive systems mentioned before were applied to these 4 groups with the same wet bonding technique. A cylinder of Z100 (3M dental composite with a 3 mm diameter and 2 mm height was placed on the adhesive covered dentin surface of all groups and light-cured (400 mW/cm2 ,40 sec on each side. The specimens were kept in distilled water at room temperature for one week and then thermocycled for 3000 times (5-55 oc. Shear bond strength of specimens was measured using an Instron (1495 universal mechanical testing machine with cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute and chisel form shearing blade. Data were

  7. Measuring Hospital Quality: Can Medicare Data Substitute for All-Payer Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Jack; Buerhaus, Peter I; Mattke, Soeren; Stewart, Maureen; Zelevinsky, Katya

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether adverse outcomes in Medicare patients can be used as a surrogate for measures from all patients in quality-of-care research using administrative datasets. Data Sources Patient discharge abstracts from state data systems for 799 hospitals in 11 states. National MedPAR discharge data for Medicare patients from 3,357 hospitals. State hospital staffing surveys or financial reports. American Hospital Association Annual Survey. Study Design We calculate rates for 10 adverse patient outcomes, examine the correlation between all-patient and Medicare rates, and conduct negative binomial regressions of counts of adverse outcomes on expected counts, hospital nurse staffing, and other variables to compare results using all-patient and Medicare patient data. Data Collection/Extraction Coding rules were established for eight adverse outcomes applicable to medical and surgical patients plus two outcomes applicable only to surgical patients. The presence of these outcomes was coded for 3 samples: all patients in the 11-state sample, Medicare patients in the 11-state sample, and Medicare patients in the national Medicare MedPAR sample. Logistic regression models were used to construct estimates of expected counts of the outcomes for each hospital. Variables for teaching, metropolitan status, and bed size were obtained from the AHA Annual Survey. Principal Findings For medical patients, Medicare rates were consistently higher than all-patient rates, but the two were highly correlated. Results from regression analysis were consistent across the 11-state all-patient, 11-state Medicare, and national Medicare samples. For surgery patients, Medicare rates were generally higher than all-patient rates, but correlations of Medicare and all-patient rates were lower, and regression results less consistent. Conclusions Analyses of quality of care for medical patients using Medicare-only and all-patient data are likely to have similar findings. Measures applied to

  8. A Complex Overview of Modeling and Control of the Rotary Single Inverted Pendulum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Jadlovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth survey of the rotary single inverted pendulum system from a control engineer's point of view. The scope of the survey includes modeling and open-loop analysis of the system as well as design and verification of balancing and swing up controllers which ensure successful stabilization of the pendulum in the unstable upright equilibrium. All relevant tasks and simulation experiments are conducted using the appropriate function blocks, GUI applications and demonstration schemes from a Simulink block library developed by the authors of the paper. The library is called Inverted Pendula Modeling and Control (IPMaC and offers comprehensive program support for modeling, simulation and control of classical (linear and rotary inverted pendulum systems.

  9. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed...

  10. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...... possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The thermal optimized control strategy...

  11. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  12. A single-server Markovian queuing system with discouraged arrivals and retention of reneged customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has a very negative impact on the queuing system under investigation. If we talk from business point of view, the firms lose their potential customers due to customer impatience, which affects their business as a whole. If the firms employ certain customer retention strategies, then there are chances that a certain fraction of impatient customers can be retained in the queuing system. A reneged customer may be convinced to stay in the queuing system for his further service with some probability, say q and he may abandon the queue without receiving the service with a probability p(=1− q. A finite waiting space Markovian single-server queuing model with discouraged arrivals, reneging and retention of reneged customers is studied. The steady state solution of the model is derived iteratively. The measures of effectiveness of the queuing model are also obtained. Some important queuing models are derived as special cases of this model.

  13. A single-step lithography system based on an enhanced robotic adhesive dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiyao; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Ding; Wang, Lefeng; Sun, Lining

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, we present a single-step lithography system whereby the robotically controlled micro-extrusion of resist adhesive onto a substrate surface to directly create resist adhesive patterns of interest. This system is modified from a robotic adhesive dispenser by shrinking the aperture of the nozzle to a few micrometers aiming to realize patterns at microscale. From experimental investigation, it is found that working factors including writing speed, working time, and applied pressure can be adopted to conveniently regulate the feature size (the width of the line features and the diameter of the dot features). To test its functionality, the system was used to pattern line features on silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and generate an array of square-like silicon microstructure by combining with wet etching. It provides a simple and flexible alternative tool to facilitate the development of microfabrication.

  14. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  15. Improvement on image quality of single photon ECT with converging collimator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Nohara, Norimasa; Tanaka, Eiichi

    1986-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with converging collimator system was proposed to improve quality of reconstructed images. The collimator system was designed to enhance sensitivity at the center region of field-of-view, where the probability photons escape the attenuating medium is smaller than at the off-center region. In order to evaluate efficiency of the improvement on image quality, the weighting function of projection, which is defined as relative sensitivity to the average on the lateral sampling of projection, was adopted to the image reconstruction algorithm of Radial Post Correction method. Statistical mean square noise in a reconstructed image was formulated in this method. Simulation studies using typical weighting function showed that center-enhanced weighting function brings effective improvement on image quality, especially, at the center region of cold area surrounded by annularly distributed activity. A new SPECT system was proposed as one example of the converging collimator systems. The system is composed of four gamma cameras with four fan-beam collimators, which have different focal distances one another. Simple simulation studies showed that the proposed system has reasonable center-enhanced weighting function, and the image quality based on the proposed system was fairly improved as compared with one based on uniform weighting function at the center region of the field-of-view. (author)

  16. Kajian dan Implementasi Real Time Operating System pada Single Board Computer Berbasis Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedjaja A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating System is an important software in computer system. For personal and office use the operating system is sufficient. However, to critical mission applications such as nuclear power plants and braking system on the car (auto braking system which need a high level of reliability, it requires operating system which operates in real time. The study aims to assess the implementation of the Linux-based operating system on a Single Board Computer (SBC ARM-based, namely Pandaboard ES with the Dual-core ARM Cortex-A9, TI OMAP 4460 type. Research was conducted by the method of implementation of the General Purpose OS Ubuntu 12:04 OMAP4-armhf-RTOS and Linux 3.4.0-rt17 + on PandaBoard ES. Then research compared the latency value of each OS on no-load and with full-load condition. The results obtained show the maximum latency value of RTOS on full load condition is at 45 uS, much smaller than the maximum value of GPOS at full-load at 17.712 uS. The lower value of latency demontrates that the RTOS has ability to run the process in a certain period of time much better than the GPOS.

  17. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  18. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  19. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raheel eBhutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into true and lie classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  20. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  1. Supernova: A Versatile Vector System for Single-Cell Labeling and Gene Function Studies in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Mizuno, Hidenobu; Iwata, Ryohei; Nakazawa, Shingo; Yasuda, Kosuke; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Iwasato, Takuji

    2016-10-24

    Here we describe "Supernova" series of vector systems that enable single-cell labeling and labeled cell-specific gene manipulation, when introduced by in utero electroporation (IUE) or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery. In Supernova, sparse labeling relies on low TRE leakage. In a small population of cells with over-threshold leakage, initial tTA-independent weak expression is enhanced by tTA/TRE-positive feedback along with a site-specific recombination system (e.g., Cre/loxP, Flpe/FRT). Sparse and bright labeling by Supernova with little background enables the visualization of the morphological details of individual neurons in densely packed brain areas such as the cortex and hippocampus, both during development and in adulthood. Sparseness levels are adjustable. Labeled cell-specific gene knockout was accomplished by introducing Cre/loxP-based Supernova vectors into floxed mice. Furthermore, by combining with RNAi, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, IUE-based Supernova achieved labeled cell-specific gene knockdown and editing/knockout without requiring genetically altered mice. Thus, Supernova system is highly extensible and widely applicable for single-cell analyses in complex organs, such as the mammalian brain.

  2. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M Raheel; Hong, Melissa J; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into "true" and "lie" classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  3. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-07-07

    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. An integrated system for optical and electrical detection of single molecules/particles inside a solid-state nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Gao, Rui; Ying, Yi-Lun; Si, Wei; Chen, Yunfei; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore techniques have proven to be useful tools for single-molecule detection. The combination of optical detection and ionic current measurements enables a new possibility for the parallel readout of multiple nanopores without complex nanofluidics and embedded electrodes. In this study, we developed a new integrated system for the label-free optical and electrical detection of single molecules based on a metal-coated nanopore. The entire system, containing a dark-field microscopy system and an ultralow current detection system with high temporal resolution, was designed and fabricated. An Au-coated nanopore was used to generate the optical signal. Light scattering from a single Au-coated nanopore was measured under a dark-field microscope. A lab-built ultralow current detection system was designed for the correlated optical and electrical readout. This integrated system might provide more direct and detailed information on single analytes inside the nanopore compared with classical ionic current measurements.

  5. Decision Making on Medical Innovations in a Changing Health Care Environment: Insights from Accountable Care Organizations and Payers on Personalized Medicine and Other Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Julia R; Weldon, Christine B; Douglas, Michael P; Deverka, Patricia A; Watkins, John B; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2017-01-01

    New payment and care organization approaches, such as those of accountable care organizations (ACOs), are reshaping accountability and shifting risk, as well as decision making, from payers to providers, within the Triple Aim context of health reform. The Triple Aim calls for improving experience of care, improving health of populations, and reducing health care costs. To understand how the transition to the ACO model impacts decision making on adoption and use of innovative technologies in the era of accelerating scientific advancement of personalized medicine and other innovations. We interviewed representatives from 10 private payers and 6 provider institutions involved in implementing the ACO model (i.e., ACOs) to understand changes, challenges, and facilitators of decision making on medical innovations, including personalized medicine. We used the framework approach of qualitative research for study design and thematic analysis. We found that representatives from the participating payer companies and ACOs perceive similar challenges to ACOs' decision making in terms of achieving a balance between the components of the Triple Aim-improving care experience, improving population health, and reducing costs. The challenges include the prevalence of cost over care quality considerations in ACOs' decisions and ACOs' insufficient analytical and technology assessment capacity to evaluate complex innovations such as personalized medicine. Decision-making facilitators included increased competition across ACOs and patients' interest in personalized medicine. As new payment models evolve, payers, ACOs, and other stakeholders should address challenges and leverage opportunities to arm ACOs with robust, consistent, rigorous, and transparent approaches to decision making on medical innovations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interstitial pregnancy treated with a single-dose of systemic methotrexate: A successful management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Corioni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy at high hemorrhagic risk. It often poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician, with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. It presents a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care; the most appropriate treatment technique for these pregnancies remains controversial. We describe a case of unruptured interstitial pregnancy successfully treated with a single-dose of systemic methotrexate with subsequent ultrasound and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin monitoring. Medical management can be a safe and successful option in selected cases that satisfy specific criteria and in women who are able to be monitored after treatment.

  7. A novel Alamouti transmission technique via a single RF source and a miniaturized antenna system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2010-01-01

    A novel space-time transmission technique that emulates Alamouti code with a single RF source is proposed in this paper. An orthogonal block of two BPSK signals is transmitted over a duration of two symbol periods by exciting one RF port of a two-element antenna system every symbol period while...... terminating the other port with its matching impedance. Besides the orthogonality of the signals, the array far-field is a linear mixture of two orthonormal basis functions onto which the BPSK signals are mapped, hence independent fading among the signals is almost always guaranteed....

  8. Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-20

    The N≡N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Reliability modelling for wear out failure period of a single unit system

    OpenAIRE

    Arekar, Kirti; Ailawadi, Satish; Jain, Rinku

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with two time-shifted density models for wear out failure period of a single unit system. The study, considered the time-shifted Gamma and Normal distributions. Wear out failures occur as a result of deterioration processes or mechanical wear and its probability of occurrence increases with time. A failure rate as a function of time deceases in an early failure period and it increases in wear out period. Failure rates for time shifted distributions and expression for m...

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  11. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  12. Maxillary single-tooth replacement utilizing a novel ceramic restorative system: results to 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormianer, Zeev; Schiroli, Guido

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the first longitudinal results of an alumina (70%)-zirconia (30%) ceramic restorative system for implant-supported, single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxillary jaw. Eighteen patients (9 men, 9 women, mean age = 42.4 years) were treated with 22 implants placed into 19 extraction sockets and 3 residual ridges. Eight implants were immediately loaded with nonoccluding provisional prostheses. All implants were definitively loaded with fully occluding ceramic restorations after osseointegration and soft tissue maturation. Patients were monitored from 7 to 30 months (mean = 18.1 months) after loading. All implants osseointegrated and were successfully restored. One case of abutment screw loosening occurred because of patient parafunction (bruxing), and another patient reported chewing pain attributed to malocclusion. Both problems were successfully resolved without further incidence. Within the context of this study, single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxillary jaw was successfully achieved with alumina-zirconia ceramic single-tooth restorations with up to 30 months of clinical function.

  13. Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.

  14. A novel optimal coordinated control strategy for the updated robot system for single port surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weibang; Cao, Qixin; Leng, Chuntao; Cao, Yang; Fujie, Masakatsu G; Pan, Tiewen

    2017-09-01

    Research into robotic systems for single port surgery (SPS) has become widespread around the world in recent years. A new robot arm system for SPS was developed, but its positioning platform and other hardware components were not efficient. Special features of the developed surgical robot system make good teleoperation with safety and efficiency difficult. A robot arm is combined and used as new positioning platform, and the remote center motion is realized by a new method using active motion control. A new mapping strategy based on kinematics computation and a novel optimal coordinated control strategy based on real-time approaching to a defined anthropopathic criterion configuration that is referred to the customary ease state of human arms and especially the configuration of boxers' habitual preparation posture are developed. The hardware components, control architecture, control system, and mapping strategy of the robotic system has been updated. A novel optimal coordinated control strategy is proposed and tested. The new robot system can be more dexterous, intelligent, convenient and safer for preoperative positioning and intraoperative adjustment. The mapping strategy can achieve good following and representation for the slave manipulator arms. And the proposed novel control strategy can enable them to complete tasks with higher maneuverability, lower possibility of self-interference and singularity free while teleoperating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Autonomous Gait Event Detection with Portable Single-Camera Gait Kinematics Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based nonwearable motion analysis systems have significantly advanced with robust objective measurement of the limb motion, resulting in quantified, standardized, and reliable outcome measures compared with traditional, semisubjective, observational gait analysis. However, the requirement for large laboratory space and operational expertise makes these systems impractical for gait analysis at local clinics and homes. In this paper, we focus on autonomous gait event detection with our bespoke, relatively inexpensive, and portable, single-camera gait kinematics analysis system. Our proposed system includes video acquisition with camera calibration, Kalman filter + Structural-Similarity-based marker tracking, autonomous knee angle calculation, video-frame-identification-based autonomous gait event detection, and result visualization. The only operational effort required is the marker-template selection for tracking initialization, aided by an easy-to-use graphic user interface. The knee angle validation on 10 stroke patients and 5 healthy volunteers against a gold standard optical motion analysis system indicates very good agreement. The autonomous gait event detection shows high detection rates for all gait events. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can automatically measure the knee angle and detect gait events with good accuracy and thus offer an alternative, cost-effective, and convenient solution for clinical gait kinematics analysis.

  16. Adsorption of Geosmin and MIB on Activated Carbon Fibers-Single and Binary Solute System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Rangesh; Sorial, George A., E-mail: george.sorial@uc.ed [University of Cincinnati, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The adsorption of two taste- and odor-causing compounds, namely MIB (2-methyl isoborneol-C{sub 11}H{sub 20}O) and geosmin (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O) on activated carbon was investigated in this study. The impact of adsorbent pore size distribution on adsorption of MIB and geosmin was evaluated through single solute and multicomponent adsorption of these compounds on three types of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and one granular activated carbon (GAC). The ACFs (ACC-15, ACC-20, and ACC-25) with different degrees of activation had narrow pore size distributions and specific critical pore diameters whereas the GAC (F-400) had a wider pore size distribution and lesser microporosity. The effect of the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) on MIB and geosmin adsorption was also studied for both the single solute and binary systems. The Myers equation was used to evaluate the single solute isotherms as it converges to Henry's law at low coverage and also serves as an input for predicting multicomponent adsorption. The single solute adsorption isotherms fit the Myers equation well and pore size distribution significantly influenced adsorption on the ACFs and GAC. The ideal adsorbed solute theory (IAST), which is a well-established thermodynamic model for multicomponent adsorption, was used to predict the binary adsorption of MIB and geosmin. The IAST predicted well the binary adsorption on the ACFs and GAC. Binary adsorption isotherms were also conducted in the presence of oxygen (oxic) and absence of oxygen (anoxic). There were no significant differences in the binary isotherm between the oxic and anoxic conditions, indicating that adsorption was purely through physical adsorption and no oligomerization was taking place. Binary adsorptions for the four adsorbents were also conducted in the presence of humic acid to determine the effect of NOM and to compare with IAST predictions. The presence of NOM interestingly resulted in deviation from IAST behavior in case of two

  17. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  18. Realization of a Cascaded Quantum System: Heralded Absorption of a Single Photon Qubit by a Single-Electron Charged Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delteil, Aymeric; Sun, Zhe; Fält, Stefan; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-04-28

    Photonic losses pose a major limitation for the implementation of a quantum state transfer between nodes of a quantum network. A measurement that heralds a successful transfer without revealing any information about the qubit may alleviate this limitation. Here, we demonstrate the heralded absorption of a single photonic qubit, generated by a single neutral quantum dot, by a single-electron charged quantum dot that is located 5 m away. The transfer of quantum information to the spin degree of freedom takes place upon the emission of a photon; for a properly chosen or prepared quantum dot, the detection of this photon yields no information about the qubit. We show that this process can be combined with local operations optically performed on the destination node by measuring classical correlations between the absorbed photon color and the final state of the electron spin. Our work suggests alternative avenues for the realization of quantum information protocols based on cascaded quantum systems.

  19. Saving tax payers' money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staak, Thorsten; Günzel, Franziska

    During the last years major market-oriented economies have installed differently designed promoting institutions. Most of them declare in their statutes ‘correcting market failure’ as a fundamental goal regarding start-up support. But recent studies have shown that other economic goals outrank th...

  20. Scaling of the steady state and stability behaviour of single and two-phase natural circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Bade, M.H.; Kumar, N.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Scaling methods for both single-phase and two-phase natural circulation systems have been presented. For single-phase systems, simulation of the steady state flow can be achieved by preserving just one nondimensional parameter. For uniform diameter two-phase systems also, it is possible to simulate the steady state behaviour with just one non-dimensional parameter. Simulation of the stability behaviour requires geometric similarity in addition to the similarity of the physical parameters appearing in the governing equations. The scaling laws proposed have been tested with experimental data in case of single-phase natural circulation. (author)

  1. Evaluation of solvent systems for optimized extractables studies of single use bioprocessing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorival-García, Noemí; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Despite their advantages, there is concern that single-use systems used in biopharmaceutical manufacture might release potentially toxic substances during standard unit operations that negatively impact cell growth. Characterization of the extractables profile for single-use systems is necessary to know which compounds potentially become leachables under operational cell culture conditions. A key issue in the design of extractables studies is the composition of the model solvent, in particular its pH and polarity. In this study, a new approach, based on design of experiments (DoE), has been applied to determine the composition of the model solvent for extractable profiling of single-use bags (SUBs). Particular focus was placed on the determination of the degradation products of the antioxidant Irgafos 168 ® , due to evidence that some of these degradation products have cytotoxic effects on CHO cells. Results indicated that 2-propanol:water is the most appropriate solvent for the extraction of highly hydrophobic compounds with polar groups and/or acid-base properties from SUBs. The described DoE approach simplifies the number of experiments, evaluates all possible solvent water mixtures to select the best extraction solvent based on polarity, establishes the influence of each variable and provides information about variable interaction, which represents an important improvement over current best practice. The developed approach was applied to seven SUBs from different vendors and production dates facilitating the identification of potentially non-satisfactory films for cultivation of CHO cell lines under process conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Mark; Itzler, Mark A.; Chen, Jim; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir

    2012-06-01

    The unparalleled sensitivity of 3D LADAR imaging sensors based on single photon detection provides substantial benefits for imaging at long stand-off distances and minimizing laser pulse energy requirements. To obtain 3D LADAR images with single photon sensitivity, we have demonstrated focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) optimized for use at either 1.06 μm or 1.55 μm. These state-of-the-art FPAs exhibit excellent pixel-level performance and the capability for 100% pixel yield on a 32 x 32 format. To realize the full potential of these FPAs, we have recently developed an integrated camera system providing turnkey operation based on FPGA control. This system implementation enables the extremely high frame-rate capability of the GmAPD FPA, and frame rates in excess of 250 kHz (for 0.4 μs range gates) can be accommodated using an industry-standard CameraLink interface in full configuration. Real-time data streaming for continuous acquisition of 2 μs range gate point cloud data with 13-bit time-stamp resolution at 186 kHz frame rates has been established using multiple solid-state storage drives. Range gate durations spanning 4 ns to 10 μs provide broad operational flexibility. The camera also provides real-time signal processing in the form of multi-frame gray-scale contrast images and single-frame time-stamp histograms, and automated bias control has been implemented to maintain a constant photon detection efficiency in the presence of ambient temperature changes. A comprehensive graphical user interface has been developed to provide complete camera control using a simple serial command set, and this command set supports highly flexible end-user customization.

  3. Modeling of the interplay between single-file diffusion and conversion reaction in mesoporous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-11

    We analyze the spatiotemporal behavior of species concentrations in a diffusion-mediated conversion reaction which occurs at catalytic sites within linear pores of nanometer diameter. A strict single-file (no passing) constraint occurs in the diffusion within such narrow pores. Both transient and steady-state behavior is precisely characterized by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a spatially discrete lattice–gas model for this reaction–diffusion process considering various distributions of catalytic sites. Exact hierarchical master equations can also be developed for this model. Their analysis, after application of mean-field type truncation approximations, produces discrete reaction–diffusion type equations (mf-RDE). For slowly varying concentrations, we further develop coarse-grained continuum hydrodynamic reaction–diffusion equations (h-RDE) incorporating a precise treatment of single-file diffusion (SFD) in this multispecies system. Noting the shortcomings of mf-RDE and h-RDE, we then develop a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) formulation of appropriate gh-RDE which incorporates an unconventional description of chemical diffusion in mixed-component quasi-single-file systems based on a refined picture of tracer diffusion for finite-length pores. The gh-RDE elucidate the non-exponential decay of the steady-state reactant concentration into the pore and the non-mean-field scaling of the reactant penetration depth. Then an extended model of a catalytic conversion reaction within a functionalized nanoporous material is developed to assess the effect of varying the reaction product – pore interior interaction from attractive to repulsive. The analysis is performed utilizing the generalized hydrodynamic formulation of the reaction-diffusion equations which can reliably capture the complex interplay between reaction and restricted transport for both irreversible and reversible reactions.

  4. Distributed MPC based consensus for single-integrator multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaomeng; Fan, Ming-Can; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses model predictive control schemes for consensus in multi-agent systems (MASs) with discrete-time single-integrator dynamics under switching directed interaction graphs. The control horizon is extended to be greater than one which endows the closed-loop system with extra degree of freedom. We derive sufficient conditions on the sampling period and the interaction graph to achieve consensus by using the property of infinite products of stochastic matrices. Consensus can be achieved asymptotically if the sampling period is selected such that the interaction graph among agents has a directed spanning tree jointly. Significantly, if the interaction graph always has a spanning tree, one can select an arbitrary large sampling period to guarantee consensus. Finally, several simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance Analysis of Single Photon Avalanche Diode Underwater VLC System Using ARQ

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiqu, Taniya

    2017-08-24

    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) has recently been introduced as a powerful detector for long distance underwater visible light (UVLC) communication. In this paper, the performance of the SPAD detector in UVLC is analyzed considering the effect of the turbulence induced fading resulting from air bubbles in addition to the combined effect of attenuation and scattering. Automatic repeat request (ARQ) system is adopted to mitigate different underwater impairments and reduce the error probability at the receiver side. Approximate packet error rate (PER) expressions are derived using Laguerre Gauss polynomial for a finite number of transmission. Next, the average energy efficiency and throughput are analyzed to account for the increased energy consumption cost and the decreased effective transmission rate, which results from adopting the ARQ scheme. Finally, different numerical results are introduced to verify the derived PER expressions, demonstrate the ability of the proposed ARQ system in extending the transmission range, and show the trade-off between energy efficiency (EE) and throughput.

  6. Remarks on the stabilization of the systems a single unstable leading mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsaftis, M.

    1978-07-01

    Different types of stabilization were proposed for cancelling the plasma motion due to instabilities. The problem of the conventional feedback systems of 'passive' type currently used is rediscussed. The analysis is dealing with the simple case of a plasma with a single leading unstable mode. It is shown that whereas the usual passive feedback cannot achieve a compplete stability on the full interval some other type of more convenient control loops can be used in such a way that the plasma comes back to its original state after a given time, with a power consumption much weaker than in the first case. These properties are also shown to be saved under rather large assumptions in more general situations including the adjunction of delay terms, nonlinear or decoupling terms in the evolution equations of the plasma system [fr

  7. Development of a 10-decade single-mode reactor flux monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, K.H.; Shepard, R.L.; Falter, K.G.; Reese, W.B.

    1988-03-31

    Conventional wide-range neutron channels employ three optional modes to monitor the required flux range from source levels to full power (typically 10 or more decades). Difficult calibrations are necessary to provide a continuous output signal when such a system switches from counting mode in the source range to mean-square voltage mode in the midrange to dc current mode in the power range. In an ORNL proof-of-principle test, a method of extended range counting was implemented with a fission counter and conventional wide-band pulse processing electronics to provide a single-mode, monotonically increasing signal that spanned /approximately 10/ decades of neutron flux. Ongoing work includes design, fabrication, and testing of a comlpete neutron flux monitoring system suitable for advanced liquid metal reactor designs. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Mobile Robot Self-Localization System Using Single Webcam Distance Measurement Technology in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsum Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment.

  9. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  10. Development of a 10-decade single-mode reactor flux monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Shepard, R.L.; Falter, K.G.; Reese, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wide-range neutron channels employ three optional modes to monitor the required flux range from source levels to full power (typically 10 or more decades). Difficult calibrations are necessary to provide a continuous output signal when such a system switches from counting mode in the source range to mean-square voltage mode in the midrange to dc current mode in the power range. In an ORNL proof-of-principle test, a method of extended range counting was implemented with a fission counter and conventional wide-band pulse processing electronics to provide a single-mode, monotonically increasing signal that spanned /approximately 10/ decades of neutron flux. Ongoing work includes design, fabrication, and testing of a comlpete neutron flux monitoring system suitable for advanced liquid metal reactor designs. 6 refs., 4 figs

  11. [Ease of access revealed by users of the Single Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhen de Pontes, Ana Paula; Cesso, Rachel Garcia Dantas; Cristina de Oliveira, Denize; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the perceptions of users about the ease of access to actions and services of the Single Health System (SHS). Qualitative study conducted with 24 users of SHS in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro. In collecting data was used the technique of semi-structured, the analysis was performed using the technique of analysis of thematic content. The Subjects recognize the access to various services of the SUS, as well as factors associated with such access, as the referral process, the luck and the belief in God. It was possible to verify the existence of a positive attitude about the health system, as well the identification of a set of its principles.

  12. Steps towards single source--collecting data about quality of life within clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Ständer, Sonja; Breil, Bernhard; Dugas, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Information about the quality of life from patients being treated in routine medical care is important for the attending physician. This data is also needed in research for example to evaluate the therapy and the course of the disease respectively. Especially skin diseases often negatively affect the quality of life. Therefore we aimed to design a concept to collect such data during treatment and use it for both medical care and research in the setting of dermatology. We performed a workflow analysis and implemented a designated form using the tools of the local clinical information system. Quality of life data is now collected within the clinical information system during treatment and is used for discharge letters, progress overviews as well as research about the treatment and course of disease. This concept which contributes to the single source approach was feasible within dermatology and is ready to be expanded into other domains.

  13. Single-Particle Momentum Distributions of Efimov States in Mixed-Species Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Yamashita, M.; F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.

    2013-01-01

    to derive formulas for the scaling factor of the Efimov spectrum for any mass ratio assuming either that two or three of the two-body subsystems have a bound state at zero energy. We consider the single-particle momentum distribution analytically and numerically and analyse the tail of the momentum......We solve the three-body bound state problem in three dimensions for mass imbalanced systems of two identical bosons and a third particle in the universal limit where the interactions are assumed to be of zero-range. The system displays the Efimov effect and we use the momentum-space wave equation...... distribution to obtain the three-body contact parameter. Our finding demonstrate that the functional form of the three-body contact term depends on the mass ratio and we obtain an analytic expression for this behavior. To exemplify our results, we consider mixtures of Lithium with either two Caesium or Rubium...

  14. Comparison of functional results of two fixation systems using single-row suturing of rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa-Herrero, M P; Torres-Campos, A; Urgel-Granados, A; Blanco-Llorca, J A; Floría-Arnal, L J; Roncal-Boj, J C; Castro-Sauras, A

    2018-03-21

    Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff disorders is a technically demanding but successful procedure. Many anchor and suture alternatives are now available. The choice of the implant by the surgeon is less important than the configuration of the suture used to fix the tendon, however it is necessary to know if there are differences in the results, using each one of them. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there are differences between the knotted and non-knotted implant in terms of functional and satisfaction results. A retrospective study was carried out on 83 patients operated between 2010 and 2014 in our center using 2anchoring systems with and without knotting (39 versus 44 patients respectively), with single row in complete rupture of the rotator cuff. At the end of the follow-up, an average score was obtained on the Constant scale of 74.6 points. 98% of the patients considered the result of the surgery satisfactory. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the 2groups in terms of functionality, satisfaction or reincorporation to activities. The functional results of the single-row cuff suture are satisfactory, although biomechanical studies show advantages in favor of sutures that reproduce a transoseo system. It our series of patients the presence of knotting does not show per se a significant functional difference being both superimposable techniques in absolute values of functionality and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Endoscopic incision of protruding right ureterocele in a single collecting system: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinto Hariwibowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protruding ureterocele is a very rare case found in the literature. We are reporting a 21 year-old female with an intermittent protruding mass from urethra, accompanied by dysuria, hematuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Inspection of the external genitalia revealed a protruding mass from the urethra which could be reduced manually. Excretory urography showed bilateral single collecting systems, grade II hydronephrosis of the right kidney, and a cobra head appearance of the lower right pelvis. The patient was diagnosed with a protruding right ureterocele in a single collecting system, and thus, endoscopic incision of a ureterocele was performed. Ultrasonography which was carried out three weeks after the procedure confirmed no residual hydronephrosis or ureterocele in the bladder. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG underwent at a three-month-follow up revealed a grade 5 vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR on the right side. Surgical reimplantation was then considered. In conclusion, endoscopic incision was safe and yielded good result for protruding ureteroceles, but the need for secondary surgery in several conditions should be considered.

  16. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  17. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery in a survival animal model using a transabdominal magnetic anchoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Beom; Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2011-12-01

    Though single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) can reduce operative scarring and facilitates postoperative recovery, it does have some limitations, such as reduction in instrument working, difficulty in triangulation, and collision of instruments. To overcome these limitations, development of new instruments is needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a magnetic anchoring system in performing SILS ileocecectomy. Experiments were performed in a living dog model. Five dogs (26.3-29.2 kg) underwent ileocecectomy using a multichannel single port (OCTO port; Darim, Seoul, Korea). The port was inserted at the umbilicus and maintained a CO(2) pneumoperitoneum. Two magnet-fixated vascular clips were attached to the colon using an endoclip applicator, and it was held together across the abdominal wall by using an external handheld magnet. The cecum was then retracted in an upward direction by moving the external handheld magnet, and the mesocolon was dissected with Ultracision(®). Extracorporeal functional end-to-end anastomosis was done using a linear stapler. All animals survived during the observational period of 2 weeks, and then re-exploration was performed under general anesthesia for evaluation of intra-abdominal healing and complications. Mean operation time was 70 min (range 55-100 min), with each subsequent case taking less time. The magnetic anchoring system was effective in achieving adequate exposure in all cases. All animals survived and convalesced normally without evidence of clinical complication during the observation period. At re-exploration, all anastomoses were completely healed and there were no complications such as abscess, bleeding or organ injury. SILS ileocecectomy using a magnetic anchoring system was safe and effective in a dog model. The development of magnetic anchoring systems may be beneficial for overcoming the limitations of SILS.

  18. 8-channel acquisition system for time-correlated single-photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, S.; Miari, L.; Cuccato, A.; Crotti, M.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of applications require high-performance analytical instruments capable to detect the temporal trend of weak and fast light signals with picosecond time resolution. The Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique is currently one of the preferable solutions when such critical optical signals have to be analyzed and it is fully exploited in biomedical and chemical research fields, as well as in security and space applications. Recent progress in the field of single-photon detector arrays is pushing research towards the development of high performance multichannel TCSPC systems, opening the way to modern time-resolved multi-dimensional optical analysis. In this paper we describe a new 8-channel high-performance TCSPC acquisition system, designed to be compact and versatile, to be used in modern TCSPC measurement setups. We designed a novel integrated circuit including a multichannel Time-to-Amplitude Converter with variable full-scale range, a D/A converter, and a parallel adder stage. The latter is used to adapt each converter output to the input dynamic range of a commercial 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter, while the integrated DAC implements the dithering technique with as small as possible area occupation. The use of this monolithic circuit made the design of a scalable system of very small dimensions (95 × 40 mm) and low power consumption (6 W) possible. Data acquired from the TCSPC measurement are digitally processed and stored inside an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array), while a USB transceiver allows real-time transmission of up to eight TCSPC histograms to a remote PC. Eventually, the experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system performs TCSPC measurements with high conversion rate (up to 5 MHz/channel), extremely low differential nonlinearity (<0.04 peak-to-peak of the time bin width), high time resolution (down to 20 ps Full-Width Half-Maximum), and very low crosstalk between channels.

  19. Assessing the Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in a Quenched Quantum Many-Body System via Single Projective Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, L.; Pigeon, S.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Xuereb, A.; Mazzola, L.; Campisi, M.; Ferraro, A.; Paternostro, M.; De Chiara, G.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the nature of the statistics of the work done on or by a quantum many-body system brought out of equilibrium. We show that, for the sudden quench and for an initial state that commutes with the initial Hamiltonian, it is possible to retrieve the whole nonequilibrium thermodynamics via single projective measurements of observables. We highlight, in a physically clear way, the qualitative implications for the statistics of work coming from considering processes described by operators that either commute or do not commute with the unperturbed Hamiltonian of a given system. We consider a quantum many-body system and derive an expression that allows us to give a physical interpretation, for a thermal initial state, to all of the cumulants of the work in the case of quenched operators commuting with the unperturbed Hamiltonian. In the commuting case, the observables that we need to measure have an intuitive physical meaning. Conversely, in the noncommuting case, we show that, although it is possible to operate fully within the single-measurement framework irrespectively of the size of the quench, some difficulties are faced in providing a clear-cut physical interpretation to the cumulants. This circumstance makes the study of the physics of the system nontrivial and highlights the nonintuitive phenomenology of the emergence of thermodynamics from the fully quantum microscopic description. We illustrate our ideas with the example of the Ising model in a transverse field showing the interesting behavior of the high-order statistical moments of the work distribution for a generic thermal state and linking them to the critical nature of the model itself.

  20. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  1. Coupled dynamic analysis of a single gimbal control moment gyro cluster integrated with an isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Control moment gyros (CMGs) are widely used as actuators for attitude control in spacecraft. However, micro-vibrations produced by CMGs will degrade the pointing performance of high-sensitivity instruments on-board the spacecraft. This paper addresses dynamic modelling and performs an analysis on the micro-vibration isolation for a single gimbal CMG (SGCMG) cluster. First, an analytical model was developed to describe both the coupled SGCMG cluster and the multi-axis isolation system that can express the dynamic outputs. This analytical model accurately reflects the mass and inertia properties, the gyroscopic effects and flexible modes of the coupled system, which can be generalized for isolation applications of SGCMG clusters. Second, the analytical model was validated using MSC.NASTRAN software based on the finite element technique. The dynamic characteristics of the coupled system are affected by the mass distribution and the gyroscopic effects of the SGCMGs. The gyroscopic effects produced by the rotary flywheel will stiffen or soften several of the structural modes of the coupled system. In addition, the gyroscopic effect of each SGCMG can interact with or counteract that of others, which induce vibration modes coupled together. Finally, the performance of the passive isolation was analysed. It was demonstrated that the gyroscopic effects should be considered in isolation studies on SGCMG clusters; otherwise, the isolation performance will be underestimated if they are ignored.

  2. Parsimonious data: How a single Facebook like predicts voting behavior in multiparty systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bæk Kristensen

    Full Text Available This study shows how liking politicians' public Facebook posts can be used as an accurate measure for predicting present-day voter intention in a multiparty system. We highlight that a few, but selective digital traces produce prediction accuracies that are on par or even greater than most current approaches based upon bigger and broader datasets. Combining the online and offline, we connect a subsample of surveyed respondents to their public Facebook activity and apply machine learning classifiers to explore the link between their political liking behaviour and actual voting intention. Through this work, we show that even a single selective Facebook like can reveal as much about political voter intention as hundreds of heterogeneous likes. Further, by including the entire political like history of the respondents, our model reaches prediction accuracies above previous multiparty studies (60-70%. The main contribution of this paper is to show how public like-activity on Facebook allows political profiling of individual users in a multiparty system with accuracies above previous studies. Beside increased accuracies, the paper shows how such parsimonious measures allows us to generalize our findings to the entire population of a country and even across national borders, to other political multiparty systems. The approach in this study relies on data that are publicly available, and the simple setup we propose can with some limitations, be generalized to millions of users in other multiparty systems.

  3. Effects of implant diameter and prosthesis retention system on the reliability of single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Almeida, Erika O; Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-01-01

    The probability of survival of implant-supported prostheses may be affected by the interplay between different implant diameters supporting screwed or cemented crowns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of implant diameter and prosthesis retention system on the reliability and failure modes of single crowns. Internal-hexagon implants were divided into six groups (n = 21 each) according to implant diameter (3.3, 4.0, or 5.0 mm) and crown retention system (screwed or cemented). Abutments were torqued to the implants, and crowns were then fixed and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Use-level probability Weibull curves and reliability for missions of 50,000 cycles at 100, 150, and 200 N were calculated. Failure analysis was performed. Cemented systems presented higher reliability than screwed ones, except between 3.3-mm-diameter cemented and screwed systems at a load of 100 or 150 N. Failure modes were restricted to the abutment screw and varied with implant diameter only in the cement-retained groups. Higher reliability was observed for cement-retained crowns and implants of larger diameter compared to screw-retained and smaller diameter. Failure modes differed between groups.

  4. Imaging properties of the Medipix2 system exploiting single and dual energy thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H M; Kincade, Karla Lorraine; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier; Stejskal, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Low noise, high resolution and high dose efficiency are the common requirements for most X-ray imaging applications. Especially in medical applications the dose efficiency is a necessity for detector systems. We present the imaging performance of the Medipix2 readout chip bump bonded to a 300 mu m thick Si detector as a function of the detection threshold, a free parameter not available in conventional integrating imaging systems. Spatial resolution has been measured using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and it varies between 8.2 Ip/mm and 11.0 Ip/mm at 70%. An associated measurement of noise power spectrum (NPS) permits us to derive the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) which can be as a high as 25.5 % for a broadband incoming spectrum. The influence of charge diffusion in the sensor together with threshold variation in the readout chip is discussed. Although the Medipix2 system is used in photon counting mode with a single threshold in energy, the system is also capable of counting within a given en...

  5. Financial efficiency of rainwater utilization system in single-family house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stec Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing of sustainable water systems should be aimed at reducing the consumption of tap water and the use of alternative water sources, such as rainwater and graywater. Therefore, the aim of the researches conducted was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the economic exploitation of rainwater utilization system in single-family house. As a tool for the analysis, the methodology Life Cycle Cost was used. It provides a comparison of different investment options and the opportunity to choose the one that is characterized by the lowest costs over the entire period of exploitation of the object. The research was conducted for four installation variants: the traditional solution and a solution in which rainwater was used for flushing toilets, washing and watering the garden. Variable parameters for calculations applied in the model were, among other things, different number of occupants and different length of exploitation of the installations. Additionally, the study included co-financing for the initial investment, which could be an incentive for residents to undertake this type of installation. The analysis conducted has shown that the systems with the use of rainwater enable significant reductions in the consumption of drinking water, while the variant with the traditional system was a most cost-effective solution only in few cases.

  6. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  7. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm 2 )], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  8. Adsorption of Cr(VI) on cerium immobilized cross-linked chitosan composite in single system and coexisted with Orange II in binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianyi; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Lingfan; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Wenqing

    2017-10-01

    In this work, cerium immobilized cross-linked chitosan (CTS-Ce) composite, employed as an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) in single system and coexisted with Orange II (OII) in binary system, was prepared by co-precipitation method. The as-obtained adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDS and XPS before and after adsorption. The adsorption behaviors of Cr(VI) in single and binary system were systematically studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) on CTS-Ce (202.8mg/g) was calculated by Langmuir equation in single metal system, but it decreased to 112.9mg/g with initial concentration of 100mg/L OII in binary system at pH 2 and 293K. The adsorption data for Cr(VI) followed the Langmuir model in single system, while fitted Temkin model well in binary system. In both single and binary system, the kinetics of adsorption exhibited pseudo-second order behavior and adsorption capacity increased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the data of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°0) indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Besides, |ΔG Cr |>|ΔG Cr-OII | at the same temperature further suggested that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on the CTS-Ce composite faster in binary system than in single system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclops: single-pixel imaging lidar system based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, F.; Correia, M. V.; Farahi, F.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Araújo, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Mars and the Moon are envisaged as major destinations of future space exploration missions in the upcoming decades. Imaging LIDARs are seen as a key enabling technology in the support of autonomous guidance, navigation and control operations, as they can provide very accurate, wide range, high-resolution distance measurements as required for the exploration missions. Imaging LIDARs can be used at critical stages of these exploration missions, such as descent and selection of safe landing sites, rendezvous and docking manoeuvres, or robotic surface navigation and exploration. Despite these devices have been commercially available and used for long in diverse metrology and ranging applications, their size, mass and power consumption are still far from being suitable and attractive for space exploratory missions. Here, we describe a compact Single-Pixel Imaging LIDAR System that is based on a compressive sensing technique. The application of the compressive codes to a DMD array enables compression of the spatial information, while the collection of timing histograms correlated to the pulsed laser source ensures image reconstruction at the ranged distances. Single-pixel cameras have been compared with raster scanning and array based counterparts in terms of noise performance, and proved to be superior. Since a single photodetector is used, a better SNR and higher reliability is expected in contrast with systems using large format photodetector arrays. Furthermore, the event of failure of one or more micromirror elements in the DMD does not prevent full reconstruction of the images. This brings additional robustness to the proposed 3D imaging LIDAR. The prototype that was implemented has three modes of operation. Range Finder: outputs the average distance between the system and the area of the target under illumination; Attitude Meter: provides the slope of the target surface based on distance measurements in three areas of the target; 3D Imager: produces 3D ranged

  10. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  11. A Direct Algorithm for Pole Placement by State-derivative Feedback for Single-input Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. S. Abdelaziz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the direct solution of the pole placement problem for single-input linear systems using state-derivative feedback. This pole placement problem is always solvable for any controllable systems if all eigenvalues of the original system are nonzero. Then any arbitrary closed-loop poles can be placed in order to achieve the desired system performance. The solving procedure results in a formula similar to the Ackermann formula. Its derivation is based on the transformation of a linear single-input system into Frobenius canonical form by a special coordinate transformation, then solving the pole placement problem by state derivative feedback. Finally the solution is extended also for single-input time-varying control systems. The simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Primary single event effect studies on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Shuhuan, E-mail: shuhuanliu@126.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Du, Xuecheng; Yuan, Yuan; He, Chaohui [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaotang [Peking University, Beijing 100000 (China); Du, Xiaozhi; Li, Yonghong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Single Event Effect (SEE) on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC) was investigated by both simulation and experiments in this study. In the simulation process, typical structure of NAND gate and flip-flop in SoC were designed using Cadence tool. Various kinds of radiation were simulated as pulsed current source in consideration of multilayer wiring and energy loss before reaching the sensitive area. The circuit modules were simulated as SEE occurred and malfunctioned when pulsed current source existed. The changes of the circuit modules output were observed when pulsed current signals were placed at different sensitive nodes or the circuit operated under different conditions. The sensitive nodes in typical modules and the possible reasons of test program malfunction were primarily studied. In the experimental process, SoC chip was irradiated with α particles, protons and laser respectively. The irradiation test results showed that Single Event Upset (SEU) occurred in typical modules of SoC, in accordance with the simulation results.

  13. Systems biology. Conditional density-based analysis of T cell signaling in single-cell data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Smita; Spitzer, Matthew H; Mingueneau, Michael; Bendall, Sean C; Litvin, Oren; Stone, Erica; Pe'er, Dana; Nolan, Garry P

    2014-11-28

    Cellular circuits sense the environment, process signals, and compute decisions using networks of interacting proteins. To model such a system, the abundance of each activated protein species can be described as a stochastic function of the abundance of other proteins. High-dimensional single-cell technologies, such as mass cytometry, offer an opportunity to characterize signaling circuit-wide. However, the challenge of developing and applying computational approaches to interpret such complex data remains. Here, we developed computational methods, based on established statistical concepts, to characterize signaling network relationships by quantifying the strengths of network edges and deriving signaling response functions. In comparing signaling between naïve and antigen-exposed CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we find that although these two cell subtypes had similarly wired networks, naïve cells transmitted more information along a key signaling cascade than did antigen-exposed cells. We validated our characterization on mice lacking the extracellular-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK2, which showed stronger influence of pERK on pS6 (phosphorylated-ribosomal protein S6), in naïve cells as compared with antigen-exposed cells, as predicted. We demonstrate that by using cell-to-cell variation inherent in single-cell data, we can derive response functions underlying molecular circuits and drive the understanding of how cells process signals. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.

    2018-02-01

    Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.

  15. Towards hybrid quantum systems: Trapping a single atom near a nanoscale solid-state structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecke T.G.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and demonstrate a method to deterministically trap single atoms near nanoscale solid-state objects. The trap is formed by the interference of an optical tweezer and its reflection from the nano object, creating a one-dimensional optical lattice where the first lattice site is at z0 ∼ λ/4 from the surface. Using a tapered optical fiber as the nanoscopic object, we characterize the loading into different lattice sites by means of the AC-Stark shift induced by a guided fiber mode. We demonstrate a loading efficiency of 94(6% into the first lattice site, and measure the cooperativity for the emission of the atom into the guided mode of the nanofiber. We show that by tailoring the dimensions of the nanofiber the distance of the trap to the surface can be adjusted. This method is applicable to a large variety of nanostructures and represents a promising starting point for interfacing single atoms with arbitrary nanoscale solid-state systems.

  16. Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, S Vulgarakis; Cointault, F; Vangeyte, J; Pieters, J G; Hijazi, B; Nuyttens, D

    2012-01-01

    The spray droplets generated by agricultural nozzles play an important role in the application accuracy and efficiency of plant protection products. The limitations of the non-imaging techniques and the recent improvements in digital image acquisition and processing increased the interest in using high speed imaging techniques in pesticide spray characterisation. The goal of this study was to develop an imaging technique to evaluate the characteristics of a single spray droplet using a piezoelectric single droplet generator and a high speed imaging technique. Tests were done with different camera settings, lenses, diffusers and light sources. The experiments have shown the necessity for having a good image acquisition and processing system. Image analysis results contributed in selecting the optimal set-up for measuring droplet size and velocity which consisted of a high speed camera with a 6 micros exposure time, a microscope lens at a working distance of 43 cm resulting in a field of view of 1.0 cm x 0.8 cm and a Xenon light source without diffuser used as a backlight. For measuring macro-spray characteristics as the droplet trajectory, the spray angle and the spray shape, a Macro Video Zoom lens at a working distance of 14.3 cm with a bigger field of view of 7.5 cm x 9.5 cm in combination with a halogen spotlight with a diffuser and the high speed camera can be used.

  17. Single-phase pump model for analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.

    1978-05-01

    A single-phase pump model for transient and steady-state analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems is presented. Fundamental equations of the model are angular momentum balance to determine transient impeller speed and mass balance (including thermal expansion effects) to determine the level of sodium in the pump tank. Pump characteristics are modeled by homologous head and torque relations. All regions of pump operation are represented with reverse rotation allowed. The model also includes option for enthalpy rise calculations and pony motor operation. During steady state, the pump operating speed is determined by matching required head with total load in the circuit. Calculated transient results are presented for pump coastdown and double-ended pipe break accidents. The report examines the influence of frictional torque and specific speed on predicted response for the pump coastdown to natural circulation transient. The results for a double-ended pipe break accident indicate the necessity of including all regions of operation for pump characteristics

  18. A luminescence imaging system for the routine measurement of single-grain OSL dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, M.; Lapp, T.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Jain, M.

    2015-01-01

    In optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and other retrospective dosimetry studies there is considerable demand for the ability to measure luminescence from individual dosimeters in the size range 50–500 μm diameter, either as separate grains or as part of a matrix. This work tests the potential of an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD), providing extremely low level light detection. We characterize the performance of the device by discussing reproducibility and evaluating uncertainties in OSL signals. Finally we derive a typical single grain natural dose distribution with associated uncertainties. - Highlights: • A luminescence imaging system for the routine measurement is described. • Optimization of detection efficiency and crosstalk are described. • Noise analysis of EMCCD is described. • The dose response curve and dose distribution of the natural sample are consistent with expectation.

  19. Decoupling of fluctuating power in single-phase systems through a symmetrical half-bridge circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase AC/DC or DC/AC systems inherently subject to harmonic disturbance which is caused by the well-known double line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc-link, but such passive filtering approach may inevitably...... or film capacitors to store the ripple power, and this again leads to increased component costs. In view of this, this paper presents a symmetrical half-bridge circuit which utilizes the dc-link capacitors to absorb the ripple power, and the only additional components are a pair of switches and a small...... filtering inductor. A design example is presented and the proposed circuit concept is also verified with simulation and experimental results. It shows that at least ten times capacitance reduction can be achieved with the proposed active power decoupling method, which proves its effectiveness....

  20. An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatskiy Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED with a natural circulation of the coolant capable of removing a heat flux density of more than 1 kW / cm2 is created. It is shown that on the finned surfaces the overheating relative to the saturation temperature in comparison with a smooth surface decreases up to three times for the heater with a diameter of 5 mm. There is up to two times increase in heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones. For finned surfaces on the heater with a diameter of 1 mm the surface overheating relative to the saturation temperature decreases in four times. More than three times increase is observed for the heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones.

  1. An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskiy, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    An experimental model of the evaporative cooling system of a single powerful LED with a natural circulation of the coolant capable of removing a heat flux density of more than 1 kW / cm2 is created. It is shown that on the finned surfaces the overheating relative to the saturation temperature in comparison with a smooth surface decreases up to three times for the heater with a diameter of 5 mm. There is up to two times increase in heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones. For finned surfaces on the heater with a diameter of 1 mm the surface overheating relative to the saturation temperature decreases in four times. More than three times increase is observed for the heat transfer coefficient on finned surfaces as compared to the smooth ones.

  2. Single walled carbon nanotubes: a model system for excitons in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, J.; Finnie, P.

    2011-03-01

    The semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNTs) with its direct bandgap and its strong 1D character absorbs and emits light efficiently. In contrast with other nanomaterials, the structure of an SWNT is uniquely defined and is set by a discrete number of carbon rings along its tubular section. Experimentally, optical spectroscopy has recently revealed this remarkable quantization. In our group, we focus primarily on the luminescence properties of individual s-SWNTs. Using imaging techniques, we reveal unambiguously that each s-SWNT with its quantized structure is characterized by a specific manifold of excitonic states. With the large diameter tunability achieved in SWNTs, we show that the material represents a model system for 1D photophysics. This proceeding is meant to be a review of past work and includes complementary data that have been presented at conferences but otherwise have never been published. Some emphasis is given on experimental details for luminescence imaging and spectroscopy.

  3. A mathematical model for order splitting in a multiple supplier single-item inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Rezapour, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    The policy of simultaneously splitting replenishment orders among several suppliers has received considerable attention in the last few years and continues to attract the attention of researchers. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which considers multiple-supplier single-item inventory...... systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total......, procurement cost, inventory holding cost, and shortage cost, is minimized. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the advantages of our model compared with the models in the literature. According to our extensive experiments, the model developed in this paper is the best model...

  4. Experimental Adiabatic Quantum Factorization under Ambient Conditions Based on a Solid-State Single Spin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-03-31

    The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.

  5. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...... the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  6. A single camera photogrammetry system for multi-angle fast localization of EEG electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuo; Sheng, Yang

    2011-11-01

    Photogrammetry has become an effective method for the determination of electroencephalography (EEG) electrode positions in three dimensions (3D). Capturing multi-angle images of the electrodes on the head is a fundamental objective in the design of photogrammetry system for EEG localization. Methods in previous studies are all based on the use of either a rotating camera or multiple cameras, which are time-consuming or not cost-effective. This study aims to present a novel photogrammetry system that can realize simultaneous acquisition of multi-angle head images in a single camera position. Aligning two planar mirrors with the angle of 51.4°, seven views of the head with 25 electrodes are captured simultaneously by the digital camera placed in front of them. A complete set of algorithms for electrode recognition, matching, and 3D reconstruction is developed. It is found that the elapsed time of the whole localization procedure is about 3 min, and camera calibration computation takes about 1 min, after the measurement of calibration points. The positioning accuracy with the maximum error of 1.19 mm is acceptable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides a fast and cost-effective method for the EEG positioning.

  7. The ARM-GCSS Intercomparison Study of Single-Column Models and Cloud System Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, R.T.; Rodriques, D.J.; Krueger, S.K.; Randall, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Single-Column Model (SCM) Working Group (WC) and the Cloud Working Group (CWG) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program have begun a collaboration with the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) WGs. The forcing data sets derived from the special ARM radiosonde measurements made during the SCM Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), the wealth of cloud and related data sets collected by the ARM Program, and the ARM infrastructure support of the SCM WG are of great value to GCSS. In return, GCSS brings the efforts of an international group of cloud system modelers to bear on ARM data sets and ARM-related scientific questions. The first major activity of the ARM-GCSS collaboration is a model intercomparison study involving SCMs and cloud system models (CSMs), also known as cloud-resolving or cloud-ensemble models. The SCM methodologies developed in the ARM Program have matured to the point where an intercomparison will help identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches. CSM simulations will bring much additional information about clouds to evaluate cloud parameterizations used in the SCMs. CSMs and SCMs have been compared successfully in previous GCSS intercomparison studies for tropical conditions. The ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site offers an opportunity for GCSS to test their models in continental, mid-latitude conditions. The Summer 1997 SCM IOP has been chosen since it provides a wide range of summertime weather events that will be a challenging test of these models

  8. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the proposed CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&OCPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  9. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control method (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the presented CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&O-CPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  10. A Taxonomy of Reconfigurable Single-/Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Runtime adaptivity of hardware in processor architectures is a novel trend, which is under investigation in a variety of research labs all over the world. The runtime exchange of modules, implemented on a reconfigurable hardware, affects the instruction flow (e.g., in reconfigurable instruction set processors or the data flow, which has a strong impact on the performance of an application. Furthermore, the choice of a certain processor architecture related to the class of target applications is a crucial point in application development. A simple example is the domain of high-performance computing applications found in meteorology or high-energy physics, where vector processors are the optimal choice. A classification scheme for computer systems was provided in 1966 by Flynn where single/multiple data and instruction streams were combined to four types of architectures. This classification is now used as a foundation for an extended classification scheme including runtime adaptivity as further degree of freedom for processor architecture design. The developed scheme is validated by a multiprocessor system implemented on reconfigurable hardware as well as by a classification of existing static and reconfigurable processor systems.

  11. Characterisation of a single photon counting pixel system for imaging of low-contrast objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, B; Dipasquale, G; Schwarz, C; Watt, J

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix collaboration the PCC, a single photon counting pixel chip, has been developed with the aim of improving the contrast resolution in medical imaging applications. The PCC consists of a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 170 mm side length, each pixel comprising a 15 bit counter and a pulse height discriminator. The chip has been bump bonded to equally segmented 200 mm thick SI-LEC GaAs detectors showing a very high absorption energy for X-rays used in diagnostics. An absolute calibration of the system with a radioactive source and a synchrotron beam are described resulting in the value of the test input capacitance of ~24.7 fF. Using this value a full characterisation of the system from electrical measurements is presented. The entire system can reach a minimum threshold of ~2100 e- with ~250e- rms noise. One of the characteristics of the PCC is the possibility to adjust the thresholds of all pixels on a pixel-by-pixel basis with 3-bit precision. The threshold distribution after...

  12. Interaction of anticancer Ru(III) complexes with single stranded and duplex DNA model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Domenica; Rozza, Lucia; Merlino, Antonello; Paduano, Luigi; Marzo, Tiziano; Massai, Lara; Messori, Luigi; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-08-21

    The interaction of the anticancer Ru(iii) complex AziRu - in comparison with its analogue NAMI-A, currently in advanced clinical trials as an antimetastatic agent - with DNA model systems, both single stranded and duplex oligonucleotides, was investigated using a combined approach, including absorption UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques. UV-vis absorption spectra of the Ru complexes were recorded at different times in a pseudo-physiological solution, to monitor the ligand exchange processes in the absence and in the presence of the examined oligonucleotides. CD experiments provided information on the overall conformational changes of the DNA model systems induced by these metal complexes. UV- and CD-monitored thermal denaturation studies were performed to analyse the effects of AziRu and NAMI-A on the stability of the duplex structures. ESI-MS experiments, carried out on the oligonucleotide/metal complex mixtures under investigation, allowed us to detect the formation of stable adducts between the guanine-containing oligomers and the ruthenium complexes. These data unambiguously demonstrate that both AziRu and NAMI-A can interact with the DNA model systems. Although very similar in their structures, the two metal compounds manifest a markedly different reactivity with the examined sequences, respectively, with either a naked Ru(3+) ion or a Ru(Im)(3+) (Im = imidazole) fragment being incorporated into the oligonucleotide structure via stable linkages.

  13. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  14. Development of a high-performance multichannel system for time-correlated single photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P.; Cominelli, A.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2017-05-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is one of the most effective techniques for measuring weak and fast optical signals. It outperforms traditional "analog" techniques due to its high sensitivity along with high temporal resolution. Despite those significant advantages, a main drawback still exists, which is related to the long acquisition time needed to perform a measurement. In past years many TCSPC systems have been developed with higher and higher number of channels, aimed to dealing with that limitation. Nevertheless, modern systems suffer from a strong trade-off between parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels the poorer the performance. In this work we present the design of a 32x32 TCSPC system meant for overtaking the existing trade-off. To this aim different technologies has been employed, to get the best performance both from detectors and sensing circuits. The exploitation of different technologies will be enabled by Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) which will be investigated as a possible solution for connecting the detectors to the sensing circuits. When dealing with a high number of channels, the count rate is inevitably set by the affordable throughput to the external PC. We targeted a throughput of 10Gb/s, which is beyond the state of the art, and designed the number of TCSPC channels accordingly. A dynamic-routing logic will connect the detectors to the lower number of acquisition chains.

  15. The giant acoustic atom - a single quantum system with a deterministic time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Grimsmo, Arne; Frisk Kockum, Anton; Pletyukhov, Mikhail; Johansson, Göran

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a single transmon qubit coupled to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) via two distant connection points. Since the acoustic speed is five orders of magnitude slower than the speed of light, the travelling time between the two connection points needs to be taken into account. Therefore, we treat the transmon qubit as a giant atom with a deterministic time delay. We find that the spontaneous emission of the system, formed by the giant atom and the SAWs between its connection points, initially follows a polynomial decay law instead of an exponential one, as would be the case for a small atom. We obtain exact analytical results for the scattering properties of the giant atom up to two-phonon processes by using a diagrammatic approach. The time delay gives rise to novel features in the reflection, transmission, power spectra, and second-order correlation functions of the system. Furthermore, we find the short-time dynamics of the giant atom for arbitrary drive strength by a numerically exact method for open quantum systems with a finite-time-delay feedback loop. L. G. acknowledges financial support from Carl-Zeiss Stiftung (0563-2.8/508/2).

  16. A portable respiratory rate estimation system with a passive single-lead electrocardiogram acquisition module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Nazrul Anuar; Risman, Nur Sabrina; Jaafar, Rosmina

    2016-07-27

    Among vital signs of acutely ill hospital patients, respiratory rate (RR) is a highly accurate predictor of health deterioration. This study proposes a system that consists of a passive and non-invasive single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition module and an ECG-derived respiratory (EDR) algorithm in the working prototype of a mobile application. Before estimating RR that produces the EDR rate, ECG signals were evaluated based on the signal quality index (SQI). The SQI algorithm was validated quantitatively using the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011 training data set. The RR extraction algorithm was validated by adopting 40 MIT PhysioNet Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II data set. The estimated RR showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.4 compared with the ``gold standard'' RR. The proposed system was used to record 20 ECGs of healthy subjects and obtained the estimated RR with MAE of 0.7 bpm. Results indicate that the proposed hardware and algorithm could replace the manual counting method, uncomfortable nasal airflow sensor, chest band, and impedance pneumotachography often used in hospitals. The system also takes advantage of the prevalence of smartphone usage and increase the monitoring frequency of the current ECG of patients with critical illnesses.

  17. Single Vacuum Bagging and Autoclave Curing System Influence on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mirzapour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of thermoset composite components involves the application of a vacuum bagging and autoclave pressure to minimize void percentage, usually to less than 5%. Phenolic resin systems generate water as a reaction byproduct via condensation reactions during curing at elevated temperatures. In this paper, vacuum bagging and simple manufactured autoclave curing systems are used for manufacturing of asbestos/phenolic composites and the effects of processing conditions on manufactured composites are investigated. The traditional single-vacuum-bag process is unable to manage the volatiles effectively, resulting in inferior laminates having voids. The autoclave process cure cycle (temperature/pressure profiles for the selected composite system is designed to emit volatiles during curing reactions effectively and produce composites with low void contents and excellent mechanical properties. Laminate consolidation quality is characterized by optical photomicrography for the cross-sections and measurements of void content and mechanical properties. The void content of phenolic composites as opposed to other composites increases as pressure increases up to 3 bar and it is then decreased beyond it. A product of 124% lower void content, 13% higher density, 24% higher flexural strength and 27% higher flexural modulus can be fabricated in composites obtainedby autoclave processing.

  18. Single molar replacement with a progressive thread design implant system: a retrospective clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, G E; Nentwig, G H

    2000-01-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that replacement of molars with only 1 implant is commonly associated with various functional complications, such as implant fracture and screw loosening. Thus, multiple implants have been recommended to withstand the high occlusal forces present in the molar region. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical response to the use of single implants with a progressive thread design (Ankylos) in the replacement of molar teeth. Fifty-eight implants (10 in the maxilla and 48 in the mandible) were placed in 51 patients. The implants were in situ for 29.30 +/- 16.52 months and in function for 20.60 +/- 16.64 months. All crowns were cemented to the abutments. The crown occlusion was adjusted to obtain minimal normal contacts in the centric occlusion and eccentric positions. Implants were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and clinical indices (Plaque Index, Sulcus Bleeding Index, probing pocket depth, keratinized mucosa width, Perio-test) were recorded immediately before the placement of the prosthesis and once annually. Vertical and horizontal bone loss were also examined radiographically. Two implants were lost (1 because of fracture in a patient who was a bruxer and another because of abutment fracture in the endosseous part of the implant). All clinical and radiographic parameters of most of the implants were comparable to the values found for the same type of implant in other clinical indications. The reduced incidence of failure (96.55% survival rate) found in this study with the Ankylos implant system compared to the results reported in the literature indicate that this system can be used for the replacement of molars using single-implant-supported restorations.

  19. A Single-Phase Multilevel PV Generation System with an Improved Ripple Correlation Control MPPT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hammami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT schemes by the ripple correlation control (RCC algorithm is presented in this paper. A reference is made to single-phase single-stage multilevel photovoltaic (PV generation systems, when the inverter input variables (PV voltage and PV current have multiple low-frequency (ripple harmonics. The harmonic analysis is carried out with reference to a multilevel configuration consisting of an H-bridge inverter and level doubling network (LDN cell, leading to the multilevel inverter having double the output voltage levels as compared to the basic H-bridge inverter topology (i.e., five levels vs. three levels. The LDN cell is basically a half-bridge fed by a floating capacitor, with self-balancing voltage capability. The multilevel configuration introduces additional PV voltage and current low-frequency harmonics, perturbing the basic implementation of the RCC scheme (based on the second harmonic component, leading to malfunctioning. The proposed RCC algorithm employs the PV current and voltage harmonics at a specific frequency for the estimation of the voltage derivative of power dP/dV (or dI/dV, driving the PV operating point toward the maximum power point (MPP in a faster and more precise manner. The steady-state and transient performances of the proposed RCC-MPPT schemes have been preliminarily tested and compared using MATLAB/Simulink. Results have been verified by experimental tests considering the whole multilevel PV generation system, including real PV modules, multilevel insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT inverters, and utility grids.

  20. Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2017-09-18

    As a promising solution for short-to-medium transmission systems, direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT) has been intensively investigated in last decade. Benefitting from the advantages of peak-to-average power (PAPR) reduction and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equalization, precoding techniques are widely applied to enhance the performance of DDO-OFDM systems. However, the conventional method of partitioning precoding sets limits the ability of precoding schemes to optimize the SNR variation and the allocation of modulation formats. Thus, the precoding transmission systems are hard to reach the capacity that traditional bit-power loading (BPL) techniques, like the Levin-Campello (LC) algorithm, can achieve. In this paper, we investigate the principle of SNR variation for precoded DDO-OFDM systems and theoretically demonstrate that the SNR equalization effect of precoding techniques is actually determined by the noise equalization process. Based on this fact, we propose an adaptively partitioned precoding (APP) algorithm to unlock the ability to control the SNR of each subcarrier. As demonstrated by the simulation and experimental results, the proposed APP algorithm achieves the transmission capacity as high as the LC algorithm and has nearly 1 dB PAPR reduction. Besides, the look-up table (LUT) operation ensures low complexity of the proposed APP algorithm compared with LC algorithm. To avoid severe chromatic dispersion (CD) induced spectral fading, single sideband (SSB) modulation is also implemented. We find that SSB modulation can reach the capacity of double sideband (DSB) modulation in optical back-to-back (OB2B) configuration by optimizing the modulation index. Therefore, the APP based SSB-DDO-OFDM scheme can sufficiently enhance the performance of cost-sensitive short-to-medium reach optical fiber communication systems.

  1. A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded templates grown in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolner, D E; Guilfoyle, R A; Smith, L M

    1994-01-01

    A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded M13 sequencing templates is described. Supernatants from clones grown in 48-well plates are treated with a chaotropic agent to dissociate the phage coat protein. Using a semi-automated cell harvester, the free nucleic acid is bound to a glass fiber filter in the presence of chaotrope and then washed with ethanol by aspiration. Individual glass fiber discs are punched out on the cell harvester and dried briefly. The DNA samples are then eluted in water by centrifugation. The processing time from 96 microcultures to sequence quality templates is approximately 1 hr. Assuming the ability to sequence 400 bases per clone, a 0.5 megabase per day genome sequencing facility will require 6250 purified templates a week. Toward accomplishing this goal we have developed a procedure which is a modification of a method that uses a chaotropic agent and glass fiber filter (Kristensen et al., 1987). By exploiting the ability of a cell harvester to uniformly aspirate and wash 96 samples, a rapid system for high quality template preparation has been developed. Other semi-automated systems for template preparation have been developed using commercially available robotic workstations like the Biomek (Mardis and Roe, 1989). Although minimal human intervention is required, processing time is at least twice as long. Custom systems based on paramagnetic beads (Hawkins et al., 1992) produce DNA in insufficient quantity for direct sequencing and therefore require cycle sequencing. These systems require custom programing, have a fairly high initial cost and have not proven to be as fast as the method reported here.

  2. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  3. Measurement of joint kinematics using a conventional clinical single-perspective flat-panel radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seslija, Petar; Teeter, Matthew G.; Yuan Xunhua; Naudie, Douglas D. R.; Bourne, Robert B.; MacDonald, Steven J.; Peters, Terry M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to accurately measure joint kinematics is an important tool in studying both normal joint function and pathologies associated with injury and disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, accuracy, precision, and clinical safety of measuring 3D joint motion using a conventional flat-panel radiography system prior to its application in an in vivo study. Methods: An automated, image-based tracking algorithm was implemented to measure the three-dimensional pose of a sparse object from a two-dimensional radiographic projection. The algorithm was tested to determine its efficiency and failure rate, defined as the number of image frames where automated tracking failed, or required user intervention. The accuracy and precision of measuring three-dimensional motion were assessed using a robotic controlled, tibiofemoral knee phantom programmed to mimic a subject with a total knee replacement performing a stair ascent activity. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the measurements of the single-plane radiographic tracking technique to those of an optical tracking system, and quantified by the measurement discrepancy between the two systems using the Bland–Altman technique. Precision was assessed through a series of repeated measurements of the tibiofemoral kinematics, and was quantified using the across-trial deviations of the repeated kinematic measurements. The safety of the imaging procedure was assessed by measuring the effective dose of ionizing radiation associated with the x-ray exposures, and analyzing its relative risk to a human subject. Results: The automated tracking algorithm displayed a failure rate of 2% and achieved an average computational throughput of 8 image frames/s. Mean differences between the radiographic and optical measurements for translations and rotations were less than 0.08 mm and 0.07° in-plane, and 0.24 mm and 0.6° out-of-plane. The repeatability of kinematics measurements performed using the

  4. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  5. Ultra-compact 32-channel system for time-correlated single-photon counting measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, S.; Cuccato, A.; Miari, L.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-05-01

    Modern Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting applications require to detect spectral and temporal fluorescence data simultaneously and from different areas of the analyzed sample. These rising quests have led the development of multichannel systems able to perform high count rate and high performance analysis. In this work we describe a new 32-channel TCSPC system designed to be used in modern setups. The presented module consists of four independent 8-channel TCSPC boards, each of them including two 4-channel Time-Amplitude Converter arrays. These TAC arrays are built-in 0.35 μm Si-Ge BiCMOS technology and are characterized by low crosstalk, high resolution, high conversion rate and variable full-scale range. The 8-channel TCSPC board implements an 8-channel ADC to sample the TAC outputs, an FPGA to record and organize the measurement results and a USB 2.0 interface to enable real-time data transmission to and from an external PC. Experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system ensures high performance TCSPC measurements, in particular: high conversion rate (5 MHz), good time resolution (down to 30 psFWHM with the full scale range set to 11 ns) and low differential non-linearity (rms value lower than 0.15% of the time bin width). We design the module to be very compact and, thanks to the reduced dimensions of the 8-channel TCSPC board (95×40 mm), the whole system can be enclosed in a small aluminum case (160×125×30 mm).

  6. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  7. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  8. SSD for R: A Comprehensive Statistical Package to Analyze Single-System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin

    2013-01-01

    The need for statistical analysis in single-subject designs presents a challenge, as analytical methods that are applied to group comparison studies are often not appropriate in single-subject research. "SSD for R" is a robust set of statistical functions with wide applicability to single-subject research. It is a comprehensive package…

  9. DISTINGUISHING A HYPOTHETICAL ABIOTIC PLANET–MOON SYSTEM FROM A SINGLE INHABITED PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low–moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet–moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH{sub 4} absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet–moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  10. Visible Watermarking Technique Based on Human Visual System for Single Sensor Digital Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Santoyo-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a visible watermarking algorithm, in which a visible watermark is embedded into the Bayer Colour Filter Array (CFA domain. The Bayer CFA is the most common raw image representation for images captured by single sensor digital cameras equipped in almost all mobile devices. In proposed scheme, the captured image is watermarked before it is compressed and stored in the storage system. Then this method enforces the rightful ownership of the watermarked image, since there is no other version of the image rather than the watermarked one. We also take into consideration the Human Visual System (HVS so that the proposed technique provides desired characteristics of a visible watermarking scheme, such that the embedded watermark is sufficiently perceptible and at same time not obtrusive in colour and grey-scale images. Unlike other Bayer CFA domain visible watermarking algorithms, in which only binary watermark pattern is supported, proposed watermarking algorithm allows grey-scale and colour images as watermark patterns. It is suitable for advertisement purpose, such as digital library and e-commerce, besides copyright protection.

  11. Single Lens Dual-Aperture 3D Imaging System: Color Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Korniski, Ronald; Ream, Allen; Fritz, Eric; Shearn, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to miniaturize a 3D imaging system, we created two viewpoints in a single objective lens camera. This was accomplished by placing a pair of Complementary Multi-band Bandpass Filters (CMBFs) in the aperture area. Two key characteristics about the CMBFs are that the passbands are staggered so only one viewpoint is opened at a time when a light band matched to that passband is illuminated, and the passbands are positioned throughout the visible spectrum, so each viewpoint can render color by taking RGB spectral images. Each viewpoint takes a different spectral image from the other viewpoint hence yielding a different color image relative to the other. This color mismatch in the two viewpoints could lead to color rivalry, where the human vision system fails to resolve two different colors. The difference will be closer if the number of passbands in a CMBF increases. (However, the number of passbands is constrained by cost and fabrication technique.) In this paper, simulation predicting the color mismatch is reported.

  12. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniely Amorin Meireles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.

  13. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-03-30

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm.

  14. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Takai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD with enhanced near-infrared (NIR sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE without compromising the fill factor (FF and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm.

  15. Two-Branch Break-up Systems by a Single Mantle Plume: Insights from Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniest, A.; Koptev, A.; Leroy, S.; Sassi, W.; Guichet, X.

    2017-10-01

    Thermomechanical modeling of plume-induced continental break-up reveals that the initial location of a mantle anomaly relative to a lithosphere inhomogeneity has a major impact on the geometry and timing of a rift-to-spreading system. Models with a warmer Moho temperature are more likely to result in "plume-centered" mode, where the rift and subsequent spreading axis grow directly above the plume. Models with weak far-field forcing are inclined to develop a "structural-inherited" mode, with lithosphere deformation localized at the lateral lithospheric boundary. Models of a third group cultivate two break-up branches (both "plume-centered" and "structural inherited") that form consecutively with a few million years delay. With our experimental setup, this break-up mode is sensitive to relatively small lateral variations of the initial anomaly position. We argue that one single mantle anomaly can be responsible for nonsimultaneous initiation and development of two rift-to-spreading systems in a lithosphere with a lateral strength contrast.

  16. Bit and Power Allocation in Constrained Multicarrier Systems: The Single-User Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Antonakopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Multicarrier modulation is a powerful transmission technique that provides improved performance in various communication fields. A fundamental topic of multicarrier communication systems is the bit and power loading, which is addressed in this article as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization problem. In particular, we present the main classes of loading problems, namely, rate maximization and margin maximization, and we discuss their optimal solutions for the single-user case. Initially, the classical water-filling solution subject to a total power constraint is presented using the Lagrange multipliers optimization approach. Next, the peak-power constraint is included and the concept of cup-limited waterfilling is introduced. The loading problem is also addressed subject to the integer-bit restriction and the optimal discrete solution is examined using combinatorial optimization methods. Furthermore, we investigate the duality conditions of the rate maximization and margin maximization problems and we highlight various ideas for low-complexity loading algorithms. This article surveys and reviews existing results on resource allocation in constrained multicarrier systems and presents new trends in this area.

  17. Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained

  18. Computing a constrained control policy for a single-server queueing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    n different processing times. Hence, we must subdivide the infinite state space into n disjoint sets and for each set decide which processing time to use. We show how to derive a mathematical expression for the long-run average cost per time unit. We also present an algorithm to find the optimal......We consider a single-server queueing system designed to serve homogeneous jobs. The jobs arrive to the system after a Poisson process and all processing times are deterministic. There is a set-up cost for starting up production and a holding cost rate is incurred for each job present. Also......, there is a service cost per job, which is a convex function of the service time. The control policy specifies when the server is on or off. It also specifies the state-dependent processing times. In order to avoid a very detailed control policy (which could be hard to implement) we will only allow the server to use...

  19. Benchmarking Further Single Board Computers for Building a Mini Supercomputer for Simulation of Telecommunication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel Discrete Event Simulation (PDES with the conservative synchronization method can be efficiently used for the performance analysis of telecommunication systems because of their good lookahead properties. For PDES, a cost effective execution platform may be built by using single board computers (SBCs, which offer relatively high computation capacity compared to their price or power consumption and especially to the space they take up. A benchmarking method is proposed and its operation is demonstrated by benchmarking ten different SBCs, namely Banana Pi, Beaglebone Black, Cubieboard2, Odroid-C1+, Odroid-U3+, Odroid-XU3 Lite, Orange Pi Plus, Radxa Rock Lite, Raspberry Pi Model B+, and Raspberry Pi 2 Model B+. Their benchmarking results are compared to find out which one should be used for building a mini supercomputer for parallel discrete-event simulation of telecommunication systems. The SBCs are also used to build a heterogeneous cluster and the performance of the cluster is tested, too.

  20. Alteration of the systemic and microcirculation by a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodai Ingawa

    Full Text Available Several systematic reviews have reported that flow mediated dilatation (FMD was significantly increased in subjects after ingestion of chocolate that contains flavan-3-ols; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols on the systemic circulation and microcirculation in the cremaster muscle using intravital video microscopy in vivo. The cremaster muscle in rats was spread over a plastic chamber and a gastric tube was placed into the stomach. Blood flow in the cremasteric artery was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter, while blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. Red blood cell velocity in arterioles and blood flow in the artery were significantly increased 5 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg flavan-3-ols compared with distilled water treatment. The number of capillaries recruited in the cremaster muscle was also significantly increased 15 min after treatment. Microscopic observation confirmed that increased shear stress on endothelial cells was maintained during the measurement period. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were also significantly elevated soon after administration and returned to baseline before the end of the observation period. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, and NO phosphorylation of aortic tissue were significantly increased at 60 min after administration of flavan-3-ols. According to these results, a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols elevates blood pressure and flow transiently, and these effects induce NO production through increased shear stress on endothelial cells.

  1. Role of third party payers in addressing the financial impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Malaysian patients: Preliminary results from a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthini Thevi Bhoo-Pathy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of third party payers in alleviating financial burden following breast cancer diagnosis remains poorly understood in low and middle income settings. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the role of third party payers in addressing the financial impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Malaysian patients. Methods: Breast cancer patients aged 35–67 years from various economic backgrounds in Hospital Kuala Lumpur and University Malaya Medical Centre participated in this qualitative study. To date, 6 focus group discussions (FGDs have been conducted in English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil languages. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results: More than half of the patients were supported by employer provided health insurance while few had private health insurance. A majority were unaware of their coverage plans until after cancer diagnosis and regretted not understanding their benefits beforehand. Most of the insurance packages require patients to pay first and claim later, which served as a huge financial hurdle. Furthermore, many reported that the insurance claim process was lengthy and tedious. While some patients stated that they were fully satisfied with their coverage plan and grateful that they were covered by third party payers, some patients expressed dissatisfaction with their coverage plans due to the hidden clauses that limit their claims. Besides that, employed patients were upset with the Social Security Organization (SOCSO, citing a lack of transparency in outlining the eligibility to receive invalidity benefits and unacceptable behavior of its front-line staff.  The main reasons given for not having a private health insurance was the unaffordable premium rates and low awareness on existing medical coverage plans. Conclusions: While third party payers may play an important role in reducing the financial burden faced by breast cancer patients, there is a need to improve insurance regulation

  2. An in vivo evaluation of fit of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns, generated with two CAD/CAM systems, in comparison to metal ceramic single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Leonello; Bonfiglioli, Roberto; Soattin, Massimo; Vigolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vivo the marginal fit of single crowns produced using two CAD/CAM all-ceramic systems, in comparison to more traditional metal ceramic crowns. Thirty vital, caries-free, and previously untreated teeth were chosen in five patients who needed extraction for implant placement and therefore were included in this study. In the control group (C), 10 regular metal ceramic crowns with porcelain occlusal surfaces were fabricated. In the other two groups (Z and E), CAD/CAM technology was used for the fabrication of 20 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns with two systems. All zirconia crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer cement, always following the manufacturer's instructions. The same dentist carried out all clinical phases. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at a magnification of 50×. On completion of microscopic evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for ESEM evaluation. Mean and standard deviations of the four landmarks (mesial, distal, buccal, palatal) at each single crown were calculated for each group. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to determine whether the four landmarks, taken into consideration together, differed between groups. Two-way ANOVA was performed to study in detail, for each landmark, how the three systems used to produce the FPDs affected the gap measurements. Differences were considered to be significant at p compared to more traditional metal ceramic crowns. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Open quantum systems and the two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Stefanescu, E.

    1987-07-01

    On the basis of Lindblad theory of open quantum systems we obtain new optical equations for the system of two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field. The conventional Block equations in a generalized form with field phases are obtained in the hypothesis that all the terms are slowly varying in the rotating frame.(authors)

  4. Green systems biology - From single genomes, proteomes and metabolomes to ecosystems research and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-12-10

    Plants have shaped our human life form from the outset. With the emerging recognition of world population feeding, global climate change and limited energy resources with fossil fuels, the relevance of plant biology and biotechnology is becoming dramatically important. One key issue is to improve plant productivity and abiotic/biotic stress resistance in agriculture due to restricted land area and increasing environmental pressures. Another aspect is the development of CO(2)-neutral plant resources for fiber/biomass and biofuels: a transition from first generation plants like sugar cane, maize and other important nutritional crops to second and third generation energy crops such as Miscanthus and trees for lignocellulose and algae for biomass and feed, hydrogen and lipid production. At the same time we have to conserve and protect natural diversity and species richness as a foundation of our life on earth. Here, biodiversity banks are discussed as a foundation of current and future plant breeding research. Consequently, it can be anticipated that plant biology and ecology will have more indispensable future roles in all socio-economic aspects of our life than ever before. We therefore need an in-depth understanding of the physiology of single plant species for practical applications as well as the translation of this knowledge into complex natural as well as anthropogenic ecosystems. Latest developments in biological and bioanalytical research will lead into a paradigm shift towards trying to understand organisms at a systems level and in their ecosystemic context: (i) shotgun and next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, (ii) genome-scale molecular analysis using OMICS technologies and (iii) computer-assisted analysis, modeling and interpretation of biological data. Systems biology combines these molecular data, genetic evolution, environmental cues and species interaction with the understanding, modeling and prediction of active

  5. Nuclear fusion as new energy option in a global single-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eherer, C.; Baumann, M.; Dueweke, J.; Hamacher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a window of opportunity for fusion on the electricity market under 'business as usual' conditions, and if not, how do the boundary conditions have to look like to open such a window? This question is addressed within a subtask of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme of the European Commission. The most advanced energy-modelling framework, the TIMES model generator developed by the Energy Technology System Analysis Project group of the IEA (ETSAP) has been used to implement a global single-regional partial equilibrium energy model. Within the current activities the potential role of fusion power in various future energy scenarios is studied. The final energy demand projections of the baseline of the investigations are based on IIASA-WEC Scenario B. Under the quite conservative baseline assumptions fusion only enters the model solution with 35 GW in 2100 and it can be observed that coal technologies dominate electricity production in 2100. Scenario variations show that the role of fusion power is strongly affected by the availability of GEN IV fission breeding technologies as energy option and by CO 2 emission caps. The former appear to be a major competitor of fusion power while the latter open a window of opportunity for fusion power on the electricity market. An interesting outcome is furthermore that the possible share of fusion electricity is more sensitive to the potential of primary resources like coal, gas and uranium, than to the share of solar and wind power in the system. This indicates that both kinds of technologies, renewables and fusion power, can coexist in future energy systems in case of CO 2 emission policies and/or resource scarcity scenarios. It is shown that Endogenous Technological Learning (ETL), a more consistent description of technological progress than mere time series, has an impact on the model results. (author)

  6. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  7. Comparison of Multi-Beam and Single-Beam Cytofluorometers for an Automated Screening System in Gynecologic Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Norihito

    1983-09-01

    Clumps of cells often give a false nuclear fluorescence intensity in a measuring system using flow cytofluorometry. In this study, we examined signal selection procedures in multi-beam and single-beam cytofluorometers with the aim of eliminating such false signals. The signal selection in the multi-beam cytofluorometer was found to be far superior to that in a single-beam cytofluorometer, and the problem of false nuclear fluorescence intensity is effectively obviated by using the former type of cytofluarometer.

  8. A practical one-shot multispectral imaging system using a single image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monno, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Sunao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2015-10-01

    Single-sensor imaging using the Bayer color filter array (CFA) and demosaicking is well established for current compact and low-cost color digital cameras. An extension from the CFA to a multispectral filter array (MSFA) enables us to acquire a multispectral image in one shot without increased size or cost. However, multispectral demosaicking for the MSFA has been a challenging problem because of very sparse sampling of each spectral band in the MSFA. In this paper, we propose a high-performance multispectral demosaicking algorithm, and at the same time, a novel MSFA pattern that is suitable for our proposed algorithm. Our key idea is the use of the guided filter to interpolate each spectral band. To generate an effective guide image, in our proposed MSFA pattern, we maintain the sampling density of the G -band as high as the Bayer CFA, and we array each spectral band so that an adaptive kernel can be estimated directly from raw MSFA data. Given these two advantages, we effectively generate the guide image from the most densely sampled G -band using the adaptive kernel. In the experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed algorithm with our proposed MSFA pattern outperforms existing algorithms and provides better color fidelity compared with a conventional color imaging system with the Bayer CFA. We also show some real applications using a multispectral camera prototype we built.

  9. DC proton beam measurements in a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Schafstall, P.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Zaugg, T.; Taylor, T.

    1994-01-01

    High current, CW proton accelerators are being considered for a number of applications including disposition of nuclear wastes, reduction of fissionable nuclear material inventories, safe production of critical nuclear materials, and energy production. All these applications require the development of high current, reliable, hydrogen ion injectors. In 1986, a program using CW RFQ technology was undertaken at CRL in collaboration with LANL and was continued there until 1993. During this time, an accelerator was built which produced 600 keV, 75 mA and 1,250 keV, 55 mA CW proton beams. The present program at Los Alamos using this accelerator is aimed at continuing the CRL work to demonstrate long-term reliability. In the present work, the authors are seeking to determine the optimal match to and the current limit of the 1,250-keV RFQ. This paper discusses the characterization of the 50 keV beams at the exit of the single-solenoid LEBT and presents both the experimental measurements and the beam simulations done to model this system

  10. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%endash 7% over a 600-μm-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-μm and 60-μm wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-μm-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-μm perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-μm case when compared to targets without foam. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Effects of 6 Single-File Systems on Dentinal Crack Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, Eugenio; Genovesi, Francesco; Rapisarda, Silvia; La Rosa, Giusy R M; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Adorno, Carlos G

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the formation of microcracks after canal preparation performed with different single-file systems as One Shape (Micro-Mega, Besancon, Cedex, France), F6 SkyTaper (Komet Italia Srl, Milan, Italy), HyFlex EDM (Coltene/Whaledent AG, Altstatten, Switzerland), WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), and WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Maillefer). Eighty-four human extracted mandibular central incisors (40-60 y) were selected and divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 12 teeth) and a control group (unprepared teeth): One Shape (group 1), F6 SkyTaper (group 2), HyFlex EDM (group 3), WaveOne (group 4), Reciproc (group 5), and WaveOne Gold (group 6). Roots were then sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex, and the surface was observed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using logistic regression (P  .05). There was no difference among the other experimental groups (P > .05). All the instruments tested created dentinal cracks. Within the limitations of this study, the flexibility of nickel-titanium instruments because of heat treatment seems to have a significant influence on dentinal crack formation. HyFlex EDM and WaveOne Gold caused less microcracks than the other instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  13. Dissecting miRNA gene repression on single cell level with an advanced fluorescent reporter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Diaz, Nicolas; Böker, Kai O.; Rodriguez-Polo, Ignacio; Mitter, Michael; Preis, Jasmin; Arlt, Maximilian; Gruber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis. This approach integrates and adapts a mathematical model for miRNA-driven gene repression. This model predicts three distinct miRNA-groups with unique repression activities (low, mid and high) governed not just by expression levels but also by miRNA/target-binding capability. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the system by applying controlled concentrations of synthetic siRNAs and in parallel, altering target-binding capability on corresponding reporter-constructs. Furthermore, we compared miRNA-profiles with the modeled predictions of 29 individual candidates. We demonstrate that expression levels only partially reflect the miRNA function, fitting to the model-projected groups of different activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of miRNAs impacts functionality. Our results imply that miRNA profiling alone cannot define their repression activity. The gene regulatory function is a dynamic and complex process beyond a minimalistic conception of “highly expressed equals high repression”. PMID:28338079

  14. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  15. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  16. Single-Step Purification of Ovalbumin from Egg White Using Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Cruz, Rafaela A P; Almeida, Mafalda R; Lima, Álvaro S; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-06-01

    The ability of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 400, 600 and 1000) and buffered aqueous solutions of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH = 5.0 - 8.0) to selectively extract ovalbumin from egg white was here investigated. Phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC and the partitioning of ovalbumin in these systems was then evaluated. Aiming at optimizing the selective extraction of ovalbumin in the studied ABS, factors such as pH, PEG molecular weight and amount of the phase-forming components were initially investigated with pure commercial ovalbumin. In almost all ABS, it was observed a preferential partitioning of ovalbumin to the polymer-rich phase, with extraction efficiencies higher than 90%. The best ABS were then applied in the purification of ovalbumin from the real egg white matrix. In order to ascertain on the ovalbumin purity and yield, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) analyses were conducted, confirming that the isolation/purification of ovalbumin from egg white was completely achieved in a single-step with a recovery yield of 65%. The results obtained show that polymer-salt-based ABS allow the selective extraction of ovalbumin from egg white with a simpler approach and better performance than previously reported. Finally, it is shown that ovalbumin can be completely recovered from the PEG-rich phase by an induced precipitation using an inexpensive and sustainable separation platform which can be easily applied on an industrial scale.

  17. Gravisensing in single-celled systems - update on characean rhizoids and protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    Single-celled and tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata of the characean algae have been intensively studied and there is considerable progress in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying gravisensing and gravity-dependent growth. In higher plant statocytes, the role of actin in both processes is still a matter of intense debate, but there is clear evidence that actin coordinates both processes in characean rhizoids and protonemata. The multiple functions and dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton in these cells are based on the concerted action of a variety of actin-binding proteins. Profilin, actin-depolymerizing factor, a spectrin-like protein, villin and fimbrin have been detected which control apical actin polymerization and regulate the dynamic remodeling of the actin arrangement. An actomyosin-based system was shown to (i) mediate the transport of secretory vesicles to the growing tip, (ii) establish the incorporation of cell wall material and (iii) coordinate the tip-focussed distribution of calcium channels which establish the tip-high calcium gradient for local exocytosis. Experiments performed in microgravity have shown that the actomyosin system precisely coordinates the position of statoliths in rhizoids and protonemata and, upon a change in orientation, directs sedimenting statoliths to specific areas at the plasma membrane where physical contact with gravisensor molecules initiates growth reorientation. The upward growth response of protonemata was shown to be preceded by a statolith-induced and actin-dependent relocalization of the Ca2+-gradient to the upper flank that does not occur in positively gravitropic rhizoids, in which sedimented statoliths cause differential growth of the opposite subapical cell flank. Thus, constant actin polymerization in the growing tip and the spatiotemporal control of actin remodeling by numerous actin-binding proteins are essential for gravity sensing and polarized growth of characean

  18. Hospital revenue cycle management and payer mix: do Medicare and Medicaid undermine hospitals' ability to generate and collect patient care revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-01-01

    The continuing efforts of government payers to contain hospital costs have raised concerns among hospital managers that serving publicly insured patients may undermine their ability to manage the revenue cycle successfully. This study uses financial information from two sources-Medicare cost reports for all US hospitals for 2002 to 2007 and audited financial statements for all bond-issuing, not-for-profit hospitals for 2000 to 2006 to examine the relationship between hospitals' shares of Medicare and Medicaid patients and the amount of patient care revenue they generate as well as the speed with which they collect their revenue. Hospital-level fixed effects regression analysis finds that hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid payer mix collect somewhat higher average patient care revenues than hospitals with more privately insured and self-pay patients. Hospitals with more Medicare patients also collect on this revenue faster; serving more Medicaid patients is not associated with the speed of patient revenue collection. For hospital managers, these findings may represent good news. They suggest that, despite increases in the number of publicly insured patients served, managers have frequently been able to generate adequate amounts of patient revenue and collect it in a timely fashion.

  19. Home monitoring report from a single lead Lumax DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator: New observations in a new system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Konstantino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old man underwent a single lead Lumax 640 DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A DX system consists of a single lead, which provides atrial as well as ventricular electrograms, and enhances atrial arrhythmia detection. Three months after the implantation, high-frequency episodes were detected on the far field and the atrial channels, but not on the bipolar right ventricular channel; these were classified as atrial tachycardia. In the present report, we discussed the unusual pattern of the artifacts that was related to an electromagnetic interference detected by the novel DX system.

  20. Biosorption Behavior of Basic Red 46 and Violet 3 by Dead Pleurotus mutilus from Single- and Multicomponent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yeddou Mezenner, N.; Hamadi, A.; Kaddour, S.; Bensaadi, Z.; Bensmaili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of nonviable P. mutilus for removal of Crystal Violet (CV) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) was investigated in single and binary systems. Batch kinetic studies were carried out as a function of pH, temperature, biomass amount, and dye concentration to determine the decolorization efficiency of biosorbent. In single system, the biosorption capacities of P. M. reached 166 and 76.92 mg/g for CV and BR46, respectively. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of basic dyes...

  1. Energetics of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes: Singly and Doubly doped Ceria Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkilic, Salih

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have potential to convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy with high efficiency, with only water vapor as a by-product. However, the requirement of extremely high operating temperatures (~1000 °C) limits the use of SOFCs to only in large scale stationary applications. In order to make SOFCs a viable energy solution, enormous effort has been focused on lowering the operating temperatures below 700 °C. A low temperature operation would reduce manufacturing costs by slowing component degradation, lessening thermal mismatch problems, and sharply reducing costs of operation. In order to optimize SOFC applications, it is critical to understand the thermodynamic stabilities of electrolytes since they directly influence device stability, sustainability and performance. Rare-earth doped ceria electrolytes have emerged as promising materials for SOFC applications due to their high ionic conductivity at the intermediate temperatures (500--700 °C). However there is a fundamental lack of understanding regarding their structure, thermodynamic stability and properties. Therefore, the enthalpies of formation from constituent oxides and ionic conductivities were determined to investigate a relationship between the stability, composition, structural defects and ionic conductivity in rare earth doped ceria systems. For singly doped ceria electrolytes, we investigated the solid solution phase of bulk Ce1-xLnxO2-0.5x where Ln = Sm and Nd (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) and analyzed their enthalpies of formation, mixing and association, and bulk ionic conductivities while considering cation size mismatch and defect associations. It was shown that for ambient temperatures in the dilute dopant region, the positive heat of formation reaches a maximum as the system becomes increasingly less stable due to size mismatch. In concentrated region, stabilization to a certain solubility limit was observed probably due to the defect association of trivalent cations

  2. Analysis of Adaptive Feedback and Echo Cancelation Algorithms in A General Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a general multiple-microphone and single-loudspeaker system, where an adaptive algorithm is used to cancel acoustic feedback/echo and a beamformer processes the feedback/echo canceled signals. This system can be viewed as part of a typical hearing aid system and....../or a traditional acoustic echo cancelation system. We introduce and derive an approximation of a useful frequency domain measure - the power transfer function - and show how to predict the system stability bound, convergence rate and the steady-state behavior across time and frequency. Furthermore, we show how...

  3. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately...... estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active voltage regulation, active power control, and fault ride-through.Simulation and experimental results...... demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed closed-loop control system....

  4. SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground Fault Location in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground fault location methods in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System, including ungrounded system, resonant grounded system and high-resistance grounded system which are widely used in Northern Europe and China. This type of fault is hard to detect and location because fault current is the sum of capacitance current of the system which is always small(about tens of amperes. The characteristics of SLG fault in NUGS and the fault location methods are introduced in the paper.

  5. Toward Single Enzyme Analysis in a Droplet-based Micro and Nanofluidic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the application of a micro- and nanofluidic device for the single-enzyme analysis by encapsulating single enzymes into the generated aqueous droplets in oil. This thesis consists of the introduction (chapter 1), a review of the generation and manipulation of droplets

  6. Toward single enzyme analysis in a droplet-based micro and nanofluidic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have demonstrated the application of micro- and nanofluidic devices to generate an array of aqueous droplets in oil phase for single-enzyme encapsulation and activity measurement. We chose droplet-based microfluidics for this purpose of monitoring single-enzyme reactions since the

  7. Skill transfer from symmetric and asymmetric bimanual training using a robotic system to single limb performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlep, Matic; Mihelj, Matjaž; Munih, Marko

    2012-07-17

    . Transfer of learned skills from bimanual training to unimanual movements was also observed, as bimanual training also improved single limb performance with the dominant arm. Changes of force symmetry did not have an effect on motor learning. As motor learning is believed to be an important mechanism of rehabilitation, our findings could be tested for future post-stroke rehabilitation systems.

  8. Transmission of 2.5 Gbit/s Spectrum-sliced WDM System for 50 km Single-mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Sayed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlisha; Fadil, Hilal Adnan; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of a spectrum-sliced WDM channel at 2.5 Gbit/s for 50 km of single mode fiber using an system channel spacing only 0.4 nm is reported. We have investigated the system performance using NRZ modulation format. The proposed system is compared with conventional system. The system performance is characterized as the bit-error-rate (BER) received against the system bit rates. Simulation results show that the NRZ modulation format performs well for 2.5 Gbit/s system bit rates. Using this narrow channel spectrum-sliced technique, the total number of multiplexed channels can be increased greatly in WDM system. Therefore, 0.4 nm channel spacing spectrum-sliced WDM system is highly recommended for the long distance optical access networks, like the Metro Area Network (MAN), Fiber-to-the-Building (FTTB) and Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH).

  9. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Verdon, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 μm diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 μm wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. The role of private non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems: Implications for the Portuguese hospital devolution program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Álvaro S

    2017-06-01

    The national health services (NHS) of England, Portugal, Finland and other single-payer universalist systems financed by general taxation, are based on the theoretical principle of an integrated public sector payer-provider. However, in practice one can find different forms of participation of non-public healthcare providers in those NHS, including private for profit providers, but also third sector non-profit organizations (NPO). This paper reviews the role of non-public non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems. By crossing a literature review on privatization of national health services with a literature review on the comparative performance of non-profit and for-profit healthcare organizations, this paper assesses the impact of contracting private non-profit healthcare organizations on the efficiency, quality and responsiveness of services, in public universal health care systems. The results of the review were then compared to the existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution to NPO program. The evidence in this paper suggests that NHS health system reforms that transfer some public-sector hospitals to NPO should deliver improvements to the health system with minimal downside risks. The very limited existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution program suggests it improved efficiency and access, without sacrificing quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Flp-nick system to study repair of a single protein-bound nick in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Lisby, Michael

    2009-01-01

    recombinase recognition target site that has been integrated in the yeast genome. The genetic requirement for cells to cope with this insult is the same as for cells treated with camptothecin, which traps topoisomerase I-DNA cleavage complexes genome-wide. Hence, a single protein-bound nick is enough to kill......We present the Flp-nick system, which allows introduction of a protein-bound nick at a single genomic site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thus mimics a stabilized topoisomerase I-DNA cleavage complex. We took advantage of a mutant Flp recombinase that can introduce a nick at a specific Flp...... cells if functional repair pathways are lacking. The Flp-nick system can be used to dissect repair, checkpoint and replication fork management pathways activated by a single genomic insult, and it allows the study of events at the damage site, which so far has been impossible to address....

  12. Development of a Hemispherical Metal Diaphragm for Single-Cycle Liquid-Metal Positive Expulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorland, Sol

    1965-01-01

    This report presents experimental results pertaining to the design and development of a metallic expulsion diaphragm for single-cycle positive expulsion of high-temperature liquid in an agravity condition...

  13. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  14. Renal dysplasia with single system ectopic ureter: Diagnosis using magnetic resonance urography and management with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy in pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion : Single system ectopic ureter associated with congenital renal dysplasia is exceedingly rare. MRU is definitely the better investigation for the diagnosis of this condition as compared to the conventional radiological investigations. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is a very good procedure for the management of these cases.

  15. Single-mirror beam steering system: analysis and synthesis of high-order conic-section scan patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun

    2008-01-01

    The vector approach introduced in an early paper for modeling mirror-scanning devices [Y. Li, Appl. Opt. 34, 6417 (1995)] provides the basis of a rigorous study of the scan field generated by a single-mirror beam steering system, in which a hinged movable mirror is able to turn about a fixed pivot point to steering a single laser beam. Because of fewer constraints on mirror angular motion, the system may behave like a true point source for both vector and raster scanning applications. After a summary of the expressions for scan fields generated under different conditions, some fundamental and advanced topics of the single-mirror system are addressed: (1) basic parameters of high-order conic-section scan patterns, (2) scanning spot kinematics, (3) effect of input offset and pixels distortions on two-dimensional images displayed on screens of different formats, (4) mapping and its inverse between the mirror vector space and the scan vector space, and (5) single-mirror beam steering system as a one-element reflective and continuous image zooming device.

  16. Single-sludge denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems: effects of pre-fermentation and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Prat Busquets, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Single-sludge denitrification (DN) reactors in aquaculture use the carbonous solid fish waste produced in the system to reduce the discharged nitrate load. The solid waste is available for denitrifiers when present in soluble, readily biodegradable form, and the transformation is accomplished...

  17. Single-sludge denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems: Effects of pre-fermentation and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Letelier Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Prat Busquets, Pau

    2014-01-01

    Single-sludge denitrification (DN) reactors in aquaculture utilize the solid fish waste produced in the system to reduce the nitrate load discharged. The solid waste is available for denitrifiers when present in soluble readily biodegradable form. A transformation accomplished by bacterial...

  18. The field performance of a 558 kWp ground mounted single-axis PV system in Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kitessa T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available in sunniest parts of the world where the direct normal irradiance (DNI) component of sunlight is relatively high. However, very few studies have been reported on the field performance of single axis tracking systems installed and operated in the Southern...

  19. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...

  20. Channel characterization for single- and multiple-antenna wearable systems used for indoor body-to-body communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotton, Simon L.; Scanlon, W.G.

    In this paper, an analysis of radio channel characteristics for single- and multiple-antenna bodyworn systems for use in body-to-body communications is presented. The work was based on an extensive measurement campaign conducted at 2.45 GHz representative of an indoor sweep and search scenario for

  1. Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetsche, Bernd; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Abudayyeh, Omar O.; Slaymaker, Ian M.; Makarova, Kira S.; Essletzbichler, Patrick; Volz, Sara E.; Joung, Julia; Oost, van der John; Regev, Aviv; Koonin, Eugene V.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial adaptive immune system CRISPR mediates defense against foreign genetic elements through two classes of RNA-guided nuclease effectors. Class 1 effectors utilize multi-protein complexes, whereas class 2 effectors rely on single-component effector proteins such as the well-characterized

  2. A Single-Phase Voltage-Controlled Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System With Power Quality Conditioner Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. Also low power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase photovoltaic system that provides grid voltage support and compensation...... of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC) thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage...

  3. Multi-channeled NbN superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) system with NbN meander nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Miki, Shigehito; Wang Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting single photon detector (SSPD) is promising candidate of the detector in a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, because of its low dark count and high speed repetition rate. We have developed the SSPD system cooled by a GM cryocooler. In this system, and the work surface can be cooled 2.95 K and up to 6 SSPDs can be installed. The active areas of SSPDs are 10x10 μm 2 or 20x20 μm 2 , and the system detection efficiency at dark count rate of 100 Hz reached 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  4. Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors and chaos synchronization of different order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming; Chen Yensheng

    2006-01-01

    Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors (BLDCM) and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied in this paper. By addition of an external nonlinear term, we can obtain anti-control of chaos. Then, by addition of the coupling terms, by the use of Lyapunov stability theorem and by the linearization of the error dynamics, chaos synchronization between a third-order BLDCM and a second-order Duffing system are presented

  5. First-principle study of single TM atoms X (X=Fe, Ru or Os) doped monolayer WS2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    We report the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of the pristine and single TM atoms X (X = Fe, Ru or Os) doped monolayer WS2 systems based on first-principle calculations. The results show that the W-S bond shows a stronger covalent bond, but the covalency is obviously weakened after the substitution of W atom with single X atoms, especially for Ru (4d75s1) with the easily lost electronic configuration. The smaller total energies of the doped systems reveal that the spin-polarized states are energetically favorable than the non-spin-polarized states, and the smallest total energy of -373.918 eV shows the spin-polarized state of the Os doped monolayer WS2 system is most stable among three doped systems. In addition, although the pristine monolayer WS2 system is a nonmagnetic-semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.813 eV, single TM atoms Fe and Ru doped monolayer WS2 systems transfer to magnetic-HM with the total moments Mtot of 1.993 and 1.962 μB , while single TM atom Os doped monolayer WS2 systems changes to magnetic-metal with the total moments Mtot of 1.569 μB . Moreover, the impurity states with a positive spin splitting energies of 0.543, 0.276 and 0.1999 eV near the Fermi level EF are mainly contributed by X-dxy and X-dx2-y2 states hybridized with its nearest-neighbor atom W-dz2 states for Fe, Ru and Os doped monolayer WS2 system, respectively. Finally, we hope that the present study on monolayer WS2 will provide a useful theoretical guideline for exploring low-dimensional spintronic materials in future experiments.

  6. Supramolecular Systems and Chemical Reactions in Single-Molecule Break Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Duan; Tan, Zhibing; Bai, Jie; Xiao, Zongyuan; Yang, Yang; Shi, Jia; Hong, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    The major challenges of molecular electronics are the understanding and manipulation of the electron transport through the single-molecule junction. With the single-molecule break junction techniques, including scanning tunneling microscope break junction technique and mechanically controllable break junction technique, the charge transport through various single-molecule and supramolecular junctions has been studied during the dynamic fabrication and continuous characterization of molecular junctions. This review starts from the charge transport characterization of supramolecular junctions through a variety of noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bond, π-π interaction, and electrostatic force. We further review the recent progress in constructing highly conductive molecular junctions via chemical reactions, the response of molecular junctions to external stimuli, as well as the application of break junction techniques in controlling and monitoring chemical reactions in situ. We suggest that beyond the measurement of single molecular conductance, the single-molecule break junction techniques provide a promising access to study molecular assembly and chemical reactions at the single-molecule scale.

  7. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    OpenAIRE

    Menxi Xie; CanYan Zhu; BingWei Shi; Yong Yang

    2017-01-01

    High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL) uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD). As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF) applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of...

  8. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  9. Single-Photon Switching and Entanglement of Solid- State Qubits in an Integrated Nanophotonic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ruffin; Sipahigil, Alp; Sukachev, Denis; Burek, Michael; Borregaard, Johannes; Bhaskar, Mihir; Nguyen, Christian; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Loncar, Marko; Lukin, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Efficient interfaces between photons and quantum emitters form the basis for quantum networks and enable optical nonlinearities at the single-photon level. We demonstrate a platform for scalable quantum nanophotonics based on silicon-vacancy (SiV) color centers coupled to diamond nanodevices. By placing SiV centers inside diamond photonic crystal cavities, we realize a quantum-optical switch controlled by a single color center. We control the switch using SiV metastable states and observe switching at the single-photon level. Raman transitions are used to realize a single-photon source with a tunable frequency and bandwidth in a diamond waveguide. By measuring intensity correlations of indistinguishable Raman photons emitted into a single waveguide, we observe quantum interference resulting from the superradiant emission of two entangled SiV centers. We also discuss current work to extend the coherence time of the SiV spin degree of freedom, engineer deterministic multi-emitter interactions via the cavity mode, and related work with the Germanium-Vacancy center.

  10. The distribution of 32P in the rice plant applied to a single root and to the whole root system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Gandanegara, S.; Sisworo, W.H.; Rasyid, H.; Sumarna, Nana

    1982-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments to study the distribution of 32 P applied to a single root and to the whole root system have been carried out. Data from experiment 1 showed that 32 P activity in shoots rose with the progress of time; where 32 P was applied to a single root 6 hours after isotope application the 32 P activity in the shoots of plants was higher than if the isotope was applied to the whole root system. Three hours after 32 P application, plants with 50% of roots had a higher 32 P activity than plants with no root cutting. Data from experiment 2 showed that 32 P activity of plants that received 32 P through a single root only was lower than those that received 32 P through the whole root system. This was in contradiction with the data obtained in experiment 1. Experiment 2 also showed that 32 P activity increased with time. Autoradiographs of plants in experiment 1 and 2 showed that 32 P was distributed through the whole plant, although when the isotope was only applied to a single root. (author)

  11. Single Carrier Cyclic Prefix-Assisted CDMA System with Frequency Domain Equalization for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukumar A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-access interference and interfinger interference limit the capacity of conventional single-carrier DS-CDMA systems. Even though multicarrier CDMA posses the advantages of conventional CDMA and OFDM, it suffers from two major implementation difficulties such as peak-to-average power ratio and high sensitivity to frequency offset and RF phase noise. A novel approach based on single-carrier cyclic prefix-assisted CDMA has been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of single-carrier CDMA and multicarrier modulation. The usefulness of the proposed approach for high-speed packet access with simplified channel estimation procedures are investigated in this paper. The paper also proposes a data-dependent pilot structure for the downlink transmission of the proposed system for enhancing pilot-assisted channel estimation in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed pilot structure is compared against the data-independent common pilot structure. The proposed system is extensively simulated for different channel parameters with different channel estimation and equalization methods and the results are compared against conventional multicarrier CDMA systems with identical system specifications.

  12. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Ikeda, Shogo; Tsutui, Ken; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    1990-01-01

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  13. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  14. It's the System, Stupid: How Systems Biology Is Transforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    So far, little is known about systems biology and its potential for changing how we diagnose and treat disease. That will change soon, say the systems experts, who advise payers to begin learning now about how it could make healthcare efficient.

  15. A modified P&O MPPT algorithm for single-phase PV systems based on deadbeat control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A modified perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is presented to improve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This modified algorithm is applied to a single-phase PV system based on deadbeat control in order to test the tracking accuracy and its impact...... on the reliability of the whole system. Both simulations and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm offers a fast response as well as smaller steady-state oscillations even under low irradiance condition compared with classical methods....

  16. Analysing the effectiveness of vendor-managed inventory in a single-warehouse, multiple-retailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul; Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Limère, Veronique; Raa, Birger

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain, consisting of a single warehouse and multiple retailers facing deterministic demands, under a vendor-managed inventory (VMI) policy. It presents a two-phase optimisation approach for coordinating the shipments in this VMI system. The first phase uses direct shipping from the supplier to all retailers to minimise the overall inventory costs. Then, in the second phase, the retailers are clustered using a construction heuristic in order to optimise the transportation costs while satisfying some additional restrictions. The improvement of the system's performance through coordinated VMI replenishments against the system with direct shipping only is shown and discussed in the comparative analysis section.

  17. Tunable ultra-wide band-stop filter based on single-stub plasmonic-waveguide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei; Zhao, Mingzhuo

    2016-10-01

    A nanoscale plasmonic filter based on a single-stub coupled metal-dielectric-metal waveguide system is investigated theoretically and numerically. A tunable wide band-stop can be achieved by loading a metal bar into the stub. The band-stop originates from the direct coupling between the resonance modes. The bandwidth and the center wavelength of the band-stop can be tuned by changing the parameters of the metal bar. Compared with previously reported filters, the plasmonic system has the advantages of easy fabrication and compactness. Our results indicate that the proposed system has potential to be utilized in integrated optical circuits and tunable filters.

  18. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km...

  19. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  20. Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...