WorldWideScience

Sample records for single pattern speed

  1. High-speed classification of coherent X-ray diffraction patterns on the K computer for high-resolution single biomolecule imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Arai, Junya [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Joti, Yasumasa [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Kameyama, Toyohisa; Yamamoto, Keiji; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Gerofi, Balazs; Shimada, Akio; Kurokawa, Motoyoshi; Shoji, Fumiyoshi [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Okada, Kensuke [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Sugimoto, Takashi [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Ryotaro [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Hori, Atsushi [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Ishikawa, Yutaka, E-mail: ishikawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki, E-mail: ishikawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Go, Nobuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A code with an algorithm for high-speed classification of X-ray diffraction patterns has been developed. Results obtained for a set of 1 × 10{sup 6} simulated diffraction patterns are also reported. Single-particle coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using an X-ray free-electron laser has the potential to reveal the three-dimensional structure of a biological supra-molecule at sub-nanometer resolution. In order to realise this method, it is necessary to analyze as many as 1 × 10{sup 6} noisy X-ray diffraction patterns, each for an unknown random target orientation. To cope with the severe quantum noise, patterns need to be classified according to their similarities and average similar patterns to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A high-speed scalable scheme has been developed to carry out classification on the K computer, a 10PFLOPS supercomputer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science. It is designed to work on the real-time basis with the experimental diffraction pattern collection at the X-ray free-electron laser facility SACLA so that the result of classification can be feedback for optimizing experimental parameters during the experiment. The present status of our effort developing the system and also a result of application to a set of simulated diffraction patterns is reported. About 1 × 10{sup 6} diffraction patterns were successfully classificatied by running 255 separate 1 h jobs in 385-node mode.

  2. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-06-12

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent. The success of emerging semiconductor materials depends on the manufacturability and cost as much as on the properties and performance they offer. Solution-based semiconductors are an emerging concept that offers the advantage of being compatible with large-scale manufacturing techniques and have the potential to yield high-quality electronic devices at a lower cost than currently available solutions. In this work, patterns of high-quality MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals in specific locations are achieved through the modification of the substrate properties and solvent engineering. The fabrication of the substrates involved modifying the surface adhesion forces through functionalization with self-assembled monolayers and patterning them by photolithography processes. Spin coating and blade coating were used to deposit the perovskite solution on the modified silicon substrates. While single crystal perovskites were obtained with the modification of substrates alone, solvent engineering helped with improving the Marangoni flows in the deposited droplets by increasing the contact angle and lowering the evaporation rate, therefore controlling and improving the shape of the grown perovskite crystals. The methodology is extended to other types of perovskites such as the transparent MAPbCl3 and the lead-free MABi2I9, demonstrating the adaptability of the process. Adapting the process to electrode arrays opened up the path towards the fabrication of optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and field-effect transistors, for which the first iterations are demonstrated. Overall, manufacturing and integration techniques permitting the fabrication of single crystalline devices, such as the method in this thesis work, are

  3. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  4. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  5. The influence of speed and grade on wheelchair propulsion hand pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-11-01

    The hand pattern used during manual wheelchair propulsion (i.e., full-cycle hand path) can provide insight into an individual's propulsion technique. However, previous analyses of hand patterns have been limited by their focus on a single propulsion condition and reliance on subjective qualitative characterization methods. The purpose of this study was to develop a set of objective quantitative parameters to characterize hand patterns and determine the influence of propulsion speed and grade of incline on the patterns preferred by manual wheelchair users. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 170 experienced manual wheelchair users on an ergometer during three conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed, level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed and graded propulsion (8%) at their level self-selected speed. Hand patterns were quantified using a set of objective parameters, and differences across conditions were identified. Increased propulsion speed resulted in a shift away from under-rim hand patterns. Increased grade of incline resulted in the hand remaining near the handrim throughout the cycle. Manual wheelchair users change their hand pattern based on task-specific constraints and goals. Further work is needed to investigate how differences between hand patterns influence upper extremity demand and potentially lead to the development of overuse injuries and pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic Tuning of Control Parameters for Single Speed Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2004-01-01

    In Scania’s single speed engines for industrial and marine use, the engine speed is controlled by a PI-controller. This controller is tuned independent of engine type and application. This brings certain disadvantages since the engines are used in a wide range of applications where the dynamics may differ. In this thesis, the possibility to tune the controller automatically for a specific engine installation has been investigated. The work shows that automatic tuning is possible. By performin...

  7. Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along the Gaborone- Tlokweng Border Post Highway, Southeast Botswana. ... Since 1988 Botswana has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in vehicular traffic which is suspected to be having contamination effects on soils along heavily used roads ...

  8. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  9. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  10. Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP. We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m·s), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N·cm), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate. The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82%) at 3.2 m·s to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54%) at 6.2 m·s. Approximately 44% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns. The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45% of the runners made one or even two "transitions" toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.

  11. Protein functional features are reflected in the patterns of mRNA translation speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-09

    The degeneracy of the genetic code makes it possible for the same amino acid string to be coded by different messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. These "synonymous mRNAs" may differ largely in a number of aspects related to their overall translational efficiency, such as secondary structure content and availability of the encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Consequently, they may render different yields of the translated polypeptides. These mRNA features related to translation efficiency are also playing a role locally, resulting in a non-uniform translation speed along the mRNA, which has been previously related to some protein structural features and also used to explain some dramatic effects of "silent" single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work we perform the first large scale analysis of the relationship between three experimental proxies of mRNA local translation efficiency and the local features of the corresponding encoded proteins. We found that a number of protein functional and structural features are reflected in the patterns of ribosome occupancy, secondary structure and tRNA availability along the mRNA. One or more of these proxies of translation speed have distinctive patterns around the mRNA regions coding for certain protein local features. In some cases the three patterns follow a similar trend. We also show specific examples where these patterns of translation speed point to the protein's important structural and functional features. This support the idea that the genome not only codes the protein functional features as sequences of amino acids, but also as subtle patterns of mRNA properties which, probably through local effects on the translation speed, have some consequence on the final polypeptide. These results open the possibility of predicting a protein's functional regions based on a single genomic sequence, and have implications for heterologous protein expression and fine-tuning protein function.

  12. High-speed single-photon signaling for daytime QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienfang, Joshua; Restelli, Alessandro; Clark, Charles

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of quantum-generated cryptographic key at high throughputs can be critically limited by the performance of the systems' single-photon detectors. While noise and afterpulsing are considerations for all single-photon QKD systems, high-transmission rate systems also have critical detector timing-resolution and recovery time requirements. We present experimental results exploiting the high timing resolution and count-rate stability of modified single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in our GHz QKD system operating over a 1.5 km free-space link that demonstrate the ability to apply extremely short temporal gates, enabling daytime free-space QKD with a 4% QBER. We also discuss recent advances in gating techniques for InGaAs SPADs that are suitable for high-speed fiber-based QKD. We present afterpulse-probability measurements that demonstrate the ability to support single-photon count rates above 100 MHz with low afterpulse probability. These results will benefit the design and characterization of free-space and fiber QKD systems. A. Restelli, J.C. Bienfang A. Mink, and C.W. Clark, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Electron 16, 1084 (2010).

  13. A nonlinear dynamics approach for incorporating wind-speed patterns into wind-power project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray; Bittelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wind-energy production may be expanded beyond regions with high-average wind speeds (such as the Midwest U.S.A.) to sites with lower-average speeds (such as the Southeast U.S.A.) by locating favorable regional matches between natural wind-speed and energy-demand patterns. A critical component of wind-power evaluation is to incorporate wind-speed dynamics reflecting documented diurnal and seasonal behavioral patterns. Conventional probabilistic approaches remove patterns from wind-speed data. These patterns must be restored synthetically before they can be matched with energy-demand patterns. How to accurately restore wind-speed patterns is a vexing problem spurring an expanding line of papers. We propose a paradigm shift in wind power evaluation that employs signal-detection and nonlinear-dynamics techniques to empirically diagnose whether synthetic pattern restoration can be avoided altogether. If the complex behavior of observed wind-speed records is due to nonlinear, low-dimensional, and deterministic system dynamics, then nonlinear dynamics techniques can reconstruct wind-speed dynamics from observed wind-speed data without recourse to conventional probabilistic approaches. In the first study of its kind, we test a nonlinear dynamics approach in an application to Sugarland Wind-the first utility-scale wind project proposed in Florida, USA. We find empirical evidence of a low-dimensional and nonlinear wind-speed attractor characterized by strong temporal patterns that match up well with regular daily and seasonal electricity demand patterns.

  14. On the Bar Pattern Speed Determination of NGC 3367

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Repetto, P.; Rosado, M.

    2009-09-01

    An important dynamic parameter of barred galaxies is the bar pattern speed, Ω P . Among several methods that are used for the determination of Ω P , the Tremaine-Weinberg method has the advantage of model independence and accuracy. In this work, we apply the method to a simulated bar including gas dynamics and study the effect of two-dimensional spectroscopy data quality on robustness of the method. We added white noise and a Gaussian random field to the data and measured the corresponding errors in Ω P . We found that a signal to noise ratio in surface density ~5 introduces errors of ~20% for the Gaussian noise, while for the white noise the corresponding errors reach ~50%. At the same time, the velocity field is less sensitive to contamination. On the basis of the performed study, we applied the method to the NGC 3367 spiral galaxy using Hα Fabry-Pérot interferometry data. We found Ω P = 43 ± 6 km s-1 kpc-1 for this galaxy.

  15. ON THE BAR PATTERN SPEED DETERMINATION OF NGC 3367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Repetto, P.; Rosado, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important dynamic parameter of barred galaxies is the bar pattern speed, Ω P . Among several methods that are used for the determination of Ω P , the Tremaine-Weinberg method has the advantage of model independence and accuracy. In this work, we apply the method to a simulated bar including gas dynamics and study the effect of two-dimensional spectroscopy data quality on robustness of the method. We added white noise and a Gaussian random field to the data and measured the corresponding errors in Ω P . We found that a signal to noise ratio in surface density ∼5 introduces errors of ∼20% for the Gaussian noise, while for the white noise the corresponding errors reach ∼50%. At the same time, the velocity field is less sensitive to contamination. On the basis of the performed study, we applied the method to the NGC 3367 spiral galaxy using Hα Fabry-Perot interferometry data. We found Ω P = 43 ± 6 km s -1 kpc -1 for this galaxy.

  16. On wind speed pattern and energy potential in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, M.S.; Oyewola, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review wind speed distribution and wind energy availability in Nigeria and discuss the potential of using this resource for generation of wind power in the country. The power output from a wind turbine is strongly dependent on the wind speed and accurate information about the wind data in a targeted location is essential. The annual mean wind speeds in Nigeria range from about 2 to 9.5 m/s and the annual power density range between 3.40 and 520 kW/m 2 based on recent reported data. The trend shows that wind speeds are low in the south and gradually increases to relatively high speeds in the north. The areas that are suitable for exploitation of wind energy for electricity generation as well as for water pumping were identified. Also some of the challenges facing the development of wind energy and suggested solutions were presented. - Research Highlights: → Review of wind speed distribution and wind energy availability in Nigeria in presented. → The annual mean wind speeds in Nigeria range from about 2 to 9.5 m/s and the annual power density range between 3.40 and 520 kW/m 2 based on recent reported data. → The areas that are suitable for exploitation of wind energy for electricity generation as well as for water pumping were identified.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) data over land areas. The Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at most locations according to R 2 , root mean square error, and power density error. The wind speed frequency distribution, as represented by the Weibull k parameter, exhibits a large amount of spatial variation, a regionally varying amount of seasonal variation, and relatively low decadal variation. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in non-negligible errors. While large-scale wind speed data are often presented in the form of mean wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed frequency distribution. (letter)

  18. Single-Photon Tracking for High-Speed Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Gyongy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quanta Imager Sensors provide photon detections at high frame rates, with negligible read-out noise, making them ideal for high-speed optical tracking. At the basic level of bit-planes or binary maps of photon detections, objects may present limited detail. However, through motion estimation and spatial reassignment of photon detections, the objects can be reconstructed with minimal motion artefacts. We here present the first demonstration of high-speed two-dimensional (2D tracking and reconstruction of rigid, planar objects with a Quanta Image Sensor, including a demonstration of depth-resolved tracking.

  19. Comparison of Electromyographic Activity Pattern of Knee Two-Joint Muscles between Youngs and Olders in Gait Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Khodaveisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, it has been focused much attention on gait analysis. Factors such as speed, age and gender affect gait parameters. The purpose of the present study was to compare the electromyographic activity pattern of knee two-joint muscles between younger and older subjects in different gait speeds. Matterials & Methods: The method of current study was analytical cross-sectional method in which 15 healthy young men and 15 old men, were selected conveniently. Electromyographic activity of rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinus and gastrocenemius were recorded during walking with preferred (100%, slow (80% and fast (120% speeds in a 10 meter walkway. Normalized RMSs of muscles were compared using RM-ANOVA and Tokey’s tests by SPSS 18 software. Results: According to results, RMSs of rectus femoris in midstance (P<0.01 and gastrocenemius in loading response (P=0.02 phases in all walking speeds were higher in older subjects than in younger ones, and it increased with speed in both age groups (P<0.01. Biceps femoris RMS in terminal stance at 80% speed, was lower in older subjects than in younger ones (P=0.01 and it increased with walking speed (P=0.01. Semitendinus activity in loading and midstance phases at 120% speed was higher in older subjects than in younger ones (P<0.01, and it increased with speed in both age groups in swing phase (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, older subjects have more muscle co-contraction around knee at high speed in midstance phase than younger subjects. These age-related changes in muscle activity, leads to increase in joint stiffness and stability during single support, and probably play a role in reducing push off power at faster speeds.

  20. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  1. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  2. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  3. Single nozzle spray drift measurements of drift reducing nozzles at two forward speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, H.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011‒2012 single nozzle field experiments were carried out to determine the effect of different flat fan spray nozzles of the spray drift reduction classes 50, 75, 90 and 95% on spray drift at two different forward speeds (7.2 km h-1 and 14.4 km h-1). Experiments were performed with a single

  4. A study of single multiplicative neuron model with nonlinear filters for hourly wind speed prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xuedong; Zhu, Zhiyu; Su, Xunliang; Fan, Shaosheng; Du, Zhaoping; Chang, Yanchao; Zeng, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    Wind speed prediction is one important methods to guarantee the wind energy integrated into the whole power system smoothly. However, wind power has a non–schedulable nature due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty nature of wind speed. Therefore, wind speed prediction is an indispensable requirement for power system operators. Two new approaches for hourly wind speed prediction are developed in this study by integrating the single multiplicative neuron model and the iterated nonlinear filters for updating the wind speed sequence accurately. In the presented methods, a nonlinear state–space model is first formed based on the single multiplicative neuron model and then the iterated nonlinear filters are employed to perform dynamic state estimation on wind speed sequence with stochastic uncertainty. The suggested approaches are demonstrated using three cases wind speed data and are compared with autoregressive moving average, artificial neural network, kernel ridge regression based residual active learning and single multiplicative neuron model methods. Three types of prediction errors, mean absolute error improvement ratio and running time are employed for different models’ performance comparison. Comparison results from Tables 1–3 indicate that the presented strategies have much better performance for hourly wind speed prediction than other technologies. - Highlights: • Developed two novel hybrid modeling methods for hourly wind speed prediction. • Uncertainty and fluctuations of wind speed can be better explained by novel methods. • Proposed strategies have online adaptive learning ability. • Proposed approaches have shown better performance compared with existed approaches. • Comparison and analysis of two proposed novel models for three cases are provided

  5. Novel Position and Speed Estimator for PM Single Phase Brushless D.C. Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu I.; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Iles, Doris

    2010-01-01

    A novel position and speed estimator for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PMBLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of ΨPM (θ) is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted in order to increase the robustness to noise and to reduce...... the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. A speed and current close loop control is employed based on the Hall signal and the motor is controlled at different speeds in order to validate the proposed estimation algorithm with satisfying results. The position correction effect is analyzed...

  6. Slow drilling speeds for single-drill implant bed preparation. Experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, R A; Velasco Ortega, E; Romanos, G E; Gerhke, S; Newen, I; Calvo-Guirado, J L

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the real-time bone temperature changes during the preparation of the implant bed with a single-drill protocol with different drill designs and different slow drilling speeds in artificial type IV bone. For this experimental in vitro study, 600 implant bed preparations were performed in 10 bovine bone disks using three test slow drilling speeds (50/150/300 rpm) and a control drilling speed (1200 rpm). The temperature at crestal and apical areas and time variations produced during drilling with three different drill designs with similar diameter and length but different geometry were recorded with real-life thermographic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way analysis of variance. Multiple comparisons of temperatures and time with the different drill designs and speeds were performed with the Tukey's test. T Max values for the control drilling speed with all the drill designs (D1 + 1200; D2 + 1200; D3 + 1200) were higher compared to those for the controls for 11 ± 1.32 °C (p drilling at 50 rpm resulted in the lowest temperature increment (22.11 ± 0.8 °C) compared to the other slow drilling speeds of 150 (24.752 ± 1.1 °C) and 300 rpm (25.977 ± 1.2 °C) (p drilling speeds compared to that for the control drilling speed. Slow drilling speeds required significantly more time to finish the preparation of the implant bed shown as follows: 50 rpm > 150 rpm > 300 rpm > control (p drill protocol with slow drilling speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) without irrigation in type IV bone increases the temperature at the coronal and apical levels but is below the critical threshold of 47 °C. The drill design in single-drill protocols using slow speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) does not have an influence on the thermal variations. The time to accomplish the implant bed preparation with a single-drill protocol in type IV bone is influenced by the drilling speed and not by the drill design. As the speed decreases, then

  7. Deriving the pattern speed using dynamical modelling of gas flows in barred galaxies .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, I.; Freeman, K. C.; Fux, R.; Zurita, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the methodology to derive the bar pattern speed from dynamical simulations. The results are robust to the changes in the vertical-scale height and in the mass-to-light (M/L) ratios. There is a small range of parameters for which the kinematics can be fitted. We have also

  8. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  9. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  10. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  11. The SAHR Setup-Controlling Hopping Speed and Height Using a Single Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherouvim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.

  12. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  13. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  14. Single-unit pattern generators for quadruped locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Gregory; Risi, Sebastian; Snyder, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Legged robots can potentially venture beyond the limits of wheeled vehicles. While creating controllers for such robots by hand is possible, evolutionary algorithms are an alternative that can reduce the burden of hand-crafting robotic controllers. Although major evolutionary approaches to legged...... on a new type of neuron called a single-unit pattern generator (SUPG). The SUPG, which is indirectly encoded by a compositional pattern producing network (CPPN) evolved by HyperNEAT, produces a flexible temporal activation pattern that can be reset and repeated at any time through an explicit trigger input...

  15. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  16. Frequency guided methods for demodulation of a single fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2009-08-17

    Phase demodulation from a single fringe pattern is a challenging task but of interest. A frequency-guided regularized phase tracker and a frequency-guided sequential demodulation method with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization are proposed to demodulate a single fringe pattern. Demodulation path guided by the local frequency from the highest to the lowest is applied in both methods. Since critical points have low local frequency values, they are processed last so that the spurious sign problem caused by these points is avoided. These two methods can be considered as alternatives to the effective fringe follower regularized phase tracker. Demodulation results from one computer-simulated and two experimental fringe patterns using the proposed methods will be demonstrated. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  17. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  18. Identification of the Viscous Superlayer on the Low-Speed Side of a Single-Stream Shear Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, John; Peabody, Jason

    2010-11-01

    Image pairs (elevation/plan views) have been acquired of a smoke streakline originating in the irrotational region on the low-speed side of a high Re single-stream shear layer of Morris and Foss (2003). The viscous superlayer (VSL) is identified as the terminus of the streak; 1800 such images provide VSL position statistics. Hot-wire data acquired concurrently at the shear layer edge and interior are used to investigate the relationship between these velocity magnitudes and the large-scale motions. Distinctive features (plumes) along the streakline are tracked between images to provide discrete irrotational region velocity magnitudes and material trajectories. A non-diffusive marker, introduced in the separating (high speed) boundary layer and imaged at x/θo=352, has revealed an unexpected bias in the streak-defined VSL locations. The interpretation of this bias clarifies the induced flow patterns in the entrainment region. The observations are consistent with a conception of the large-scale shear layer motions as "billows" of vortical fluid separated by re-entrant "wedges" of irrotational fluid, per Phillips (1972). Morris, S.C. and Foss, J.F. (2003). "Turbulent Boundary Layer to Single Stream Shear Layer: The Transition Region." Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 494, pp. 187-221. Phillips, O. M. (1972). "The Entrainment Interface." Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 51, pp. 97-118.

  19. Effects of temperature and torsion speed on torsional properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoei, A.R.; Ban, E.; Banihashemi, P.; Abdolhosseini Qomi, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent candidates for torsional elements used in nanoelectro-mechanical systems (NEMS). Simulations show that after being twisted to a certain angle, they buckle and lose their mechanical strength. In this paper, classical molecular dynamics simulations are performed on single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to investigate the effects of torsion speed and temperature on CNT torsional properties. The AIREBO potential is employed to describe the bonded interactions between carbon atoms. The MD simulations clearly show that the buckling of CNTs in torsion is a reversible process, in which by unloading the buckled CNT in opposite direction, it returns to its original configuration. In addition, the numerical results reveal that the torsional shear modulus of CNTs increases by increasing the temperature and decreasing the torsion speed. Furthermore, the buckling torsion angle of CNTs increases by increasing the torsion speed and decreasing the temperature. Finally, it is observed that torsional properties of CNTs are highly affected by speed of twist and temperature of the nanotubes.

  20. A design of a high speed dual spectrometer by single line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palawong, Kunakorn; Meemon, Panomsak

    2018-03-01

    A spectrometer that can capture two orthogonal polarization components of s light beam is demanded for polarization sensitive imaging system. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a high speed spectrometer for simultaneous capturing of two orthogonal polarization components, i.e. vertical and horizontal components, of light beam. The design consists of a polarization beam splitter, two polarization-maintain optical fibers, two collimators, a single line-scan camera, a focusing lens, and a reflection blaze grating. The alignment of two beam paths was designed to be symmetrically incident on the blaze side and reverse blaze side of reflection grating, respectively. The two diffracted beams were passed through the same focusing lens and focused on the single line-scan sensors of a CMOS camera. The two spectra of orthogonal polarization were imaged on 1000 pixels per spectrum. With the proposed setup, the amplitude and shape of the two detected spectra can be controlled by rotating the collimators. The technique for optical alignment of spectrometer will be presented and discussed. The two orthogonal polarization spectra can be simultaneously captured at a speed of 70,000 spectra per second. The high speed dual spectrometer can simultaneously detected two orthogonal polarizations, which is an important component for the development of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. The performance of the spectrometer have been measured and analyzed.

  1. Ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity color camera with 300,000-pixel single CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Hayashida, T.; Ohtake, H.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Namiki, J.; Yanagi, T.; Yoshida, T.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Etoh, T. G.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a new 300,000-pixel single CCD. The 300,000-pixel CCD, which has four times the number of pixels of our initial model, was developed by seamlessly joining two 150,000-pixel CCDs. A green-red-green-blue (GRGB) Bayer filter is used to realize a color camera with the single-chip CCD. The camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed video recording at up to 1,000,000 frames/sec, and small enough to be handheld. We also developed a technology for dividing the CCD output signal to enable parallel, highspeed readout and recording in external memory; this makes possible long, continuous shots up to 1,000 frames/second. As a result of an experiment, video footage was imaged at an athletics meet. Because of high-speed shooting, even detailed movements of athletes' muscles were captured. This camera can capture clear slow-motion videos, so it enables previously impossible live footage to be imaged for various TV broadcasting programs.

  2. PATTERN SPEEDS OF BARS AND SPIRAL ARMS FROM Hα VELOCITY FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, K.; Pinol-Ferrer, N.; Beckman, J. E.; MartInez-Valpuesta, I.; Hernandez, O.; Carignan, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method to 10 late-type barred spiral galaxies using data cubes, in Hα emission, from the FaNTOmM and GHAFAS Fabry-Perot spectrometers. We have combined the derived bar (and/or spiral) pattern speeds with angular frequency plots to measure the corotation radii for the bars in these galaxies. We base our results on a combination of this method with a morphological analysis designed to estimate the corotation radius to bar-length ratio using two independent techniques on archival near-infrared images, and although we are aware of the limitation of the application of the Tremaine-Weinberg method using Hα observations, we find consistently excellent agreement between bar and spiral arm parameters derived using different methods. In general, the corotation radius, measured using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, is closely related to the bar length, measured independently from photometry and consistent with previous studies. Our corotation/bar-length ratios and pattern speed values are in good agreement with general results from numerical simulations of bars. In systems with identified secondary bars, we measure higher Hα velocity dispersion in the circumnuclear regions, whereas in all the other galaxies, we detect flat velocity dispersion profiles. In the galaxies where the bar is almost purely stellar, Hα measurements are missing, and the Tremaine-Weinberg method yields the pattern speeds of the spiral arms. The excellent agreement between the Tremaine-Weinberg method results and the morphological analysis and bar parameters in numerical simulations suggests that although the Hα emitting gas does not obey the continuity equation, it can be used to derive the bar pattern speed. In addition, we have analyzed the Hα velocity dispersion maps to investigate signatures of secular evolution of the bars in these galaxies. The increased central velocity dispersion in the galaxies with secondary bars suggests that the formation of inner

  3. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  4. Gray matter volume covariance patterns associated with gait speed in older adults: a multi-cohort MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Helena M; Brown, Lucy L; Habeck, Christian; Allali, Gilles; Ayers, Emmeline; Beauchet, Olivier; Callisaya, Michele; Lipton, Richard B; Mathuranath, P S; Phan, Thanh G; Pradeep Kumar, V G; Srikanth, Velandai; Verghese, Joe

    2018-04-09

    Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics. In all three cohorts, we identified gray matter volume covariance patterns associated with gait speed that included brain stem, precuneus, fusiform, motor, supplementary motor, and prefrontal (particularly ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex regions. Greater expression of these gray matter volume covariance patterns linked to gait speed were associated with better processing speed in all three cohorts, and with better executive function in one cohort. These gray matter covariance patterns linked to gait speed were not associated with episodic memory in any of the cohorts. These findings suggest that gait speed, processing speed (and to some extent executive functions) rely on shared neural systems that are subject to age-related and dementia-related change. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of the development of interventions to compensate for age-related gait and cognitive decline.

  5. Subsurface damage mechanism of high speed grinding process in single crystal silicon revealed by atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Zhang, Liangchi; Liu, Youwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamic model of nanoscale high speed grinding of silicon workpiece has been established. • The effect of grinding speed on subsurface damage and grinding surface integrity by analyzing the chip, dislocation movement, and phase transformation during high speed grinding process are thoroughly investigated. • Subsurface damage is studied by the evolution of surface area at first time for more obvious observation on transition from ductile to brittle. • The hydrostatic stress and von Mises stress by the established analytical model are studied subsurface damage mechanism during nanoscale grinding. - Abstract: Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the nanoscale grinding process of single crystal silicon using diamond tool. The effect of grinding speed on subsurface damage and grinding surface integrity by analyzing the chip, dislocation movement, and phase transformation are studied. We also establish an analytical model to calculate several important stress fields including hydrostatic stress and von Mises stress for studying subsurface damage mechanism, and obtain the dislocation density on the grinding subsurface. The results show that a higher grinding velocity in machining brittle material silicon causes a larger chip and a higher temperature, and reduces subsurface damage. However, when grinding velocity is above 180 m s −1 , subsurface damage thickness slightly increases because a higher grinding speed leads to the increase in grinding force and temperature, which accelerate dislocation nucleation and motion. Subsurface damage is studied by the evolution of surface area at first time for more obvious observation on transition from ductile to brittle, that provides valuable reference for machining nanometer devices. The von Mises stress and the hydrostatic stress play an important role in the grinding process, and explain the subsurface damage though dislocation mechanism under high

  6. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  7. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  8. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  9. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  10. The Charging Process in a High-speed, Single-cylinder, Four-stroke Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Blake; Schecter, Harry; Taylor, E S

    1939-01-01

    Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were made on an aircraft-type, single cylinder engine, in order to determine the physical nature of the inlet process, especially at high piston speeds. The engine was run at speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m. (mean piston speeds of 1,370 to 2,380 feet per minute). Measurements were made of the cylinder pressure during the inlet stroke and of the power output and volumetric efficiency. Measurements were also made, with the engine not running, to determine the resistance and mass of air in the inlet valve port at various crank angles. Results of analysis indicate that mass has an appreciable effect, but friction plays the major part in restricting flow. The observed fact that the volumetric efficiency is considerably less than 100 percent is attributed to thermal effects. An estimate was made of the magnitude of these effects in the present case, and their general nature is discussed.

  11. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  12. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  13. High-speed single-shot optical focusing through dynamic scattering media with full-phase wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Ashton S.; Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-11-01

    In biological applications, optical focusing is limited by the diffusion of light, which prevents focusing at depths greater than ˜1 mm in soft tissue. Wavefront shaping extends the depth by compensating for phase distortions induced by scattering and thus allows for focusing light through biological tissue beyond the optical diffusion limit by using constructive interference. However, due to physiological motion, light scattering in tissue is deterministic only within a brief speckle correlation time. In in vivo tissue, this speckle correlation time is on the order of milliseconds, and so the wavefront must be optimized within this brief period. The speed of digital wavefront shaping has typically been limited by the relatively long time required to measure and display the optimal phase pattern. This limitation stems from the low speeds of cameras, data transfer and processing, and spatial light modulators. While binary-phase modulation requiring only two images for the phase measurement has recently been reported, most techniques require at least three frames for the full-phase measurement. Here, we present a full-phase digital optical phase conjugation method based on off-axis holography for single-shot optical focusing through scattering media. By using off-axis holography in conjunction with graphics processing unit based processing, we take advantage of the single-shot full-phase measurement while using parallel computation to quickly reconstruct the phase map. With this system, we can focus light through scattering media with a system latency of approximately 9 ms, on the order of the in vivo speckle correlation time.

  14. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  15. An equilibrium-point model for fast, single-joint movement: I. Emergence of strategy-dependent EMG patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gottlieb, G L

    1991-09-01

    We describe a model for the regulation of fast, single-joint movements, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Limb movement follows constant rate shifts of independently regulated neuromuscular variables. The independently regulated variables are tentatively identified as thresholds of a length sensitive reflex for each of the participating muscles. We use the model to predict EMG patterns associated with changes in the conditions of movement execution, specifically, changes in movement times, velocities, amplitudes, and moments of limb inertia. The approach provides a theoretical neural framework for the dual-strategy hypothesis, which considers certain movements to be results of one of two basic, speed-sensitive or speed-insensitive strategies. This model is advanced as an alternative to pattern-imposing models based on explicit regulation of timing and amplitudes of signals that are explicitly manifest in the EMG patterns.

  16. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 μm in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be

  17. Dynamic response analysis of single-span guideway caused by high speed maglev train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Shi

    Full Text Available High speed maglev is one of the most important reformations in the ground transportation systems because of its no physical contact nature. This paper intends to study the dynamic response of the single-span guideway induced by moving maglev train. The dynamic model of the maglev train-guideway system is established. In this model, a maglev train consists of three vehicles and each vehicle is regarded as a multibody system with 34 degrees-of-freedom. The guideway is modeled as a simply supported beam. Considering the motion-dependent nature of electromagnetic forces in the maglev system, an iterative approach is presented to compute the dynamic response of a maglev train-guideway system. The histories of the train traversing the guideways are simulated and the dynamic responses of the guideway and the train vehicles are calculated. A field experiment is carried out to verify the results of the analysis. The resonant conditions of single-span guideway are analyzed. The results show that all the dynamic indexes of train-guideway system are far less than permissive values of railway and maglev system, the vertical resonant of guideways caused by periodical excitations of the train will not happen.

  18. End effect braking force reduction in high-speed single-sided linear induction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiri, Abbas; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new analytical equation to model the end effect braking force of SLIM is derived. ► Equations for efficiency, power factor and output thrust are analytically derived. ► The effect of design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. ► An optimization method is employed to minimize the end effect braking force (EEBF). ► The results show that EEBF is minimized by appropriate selection of motor parameters. - Abstract: Linear induction motors have been widely employed in industry because of their simple structure and low construction cost. However, they suffer from low efficiency and power factor. In addition, existence of so called end effect influences their performance especially in high speeds. The end effect deteriorates the performance of the motor by producing braking force. So, in this paper, by using Duncan equivalent circuit model, a new analytical equation is proposed to model end effect braking force. Employing the proposed equation and considering all phenomena involved in the single-sided linear induction motor, a simple design procedure is presented and the effect of different design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. A multi-objective optimization method based on genetic algorithm is introduced to maximize efficiency and power factor, as well as to minimize the end effect braking force, simultaneously. Finally, to validate the optimization results, 2D finite element method is employed.

  19. Speed Sensorless vector control of parallel-connected three-phase two-motor single-inverter drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunabalan, Ramachandiran; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    to noise and parameter uncertainty. The gain matrix is absent in the natural observer. The rotor speed is estimated from the load torque, stator current, and rotor flux. Under symmetrical load conditions, the difference in speed between two induction motors is reduced by considering the motor parameters......This paper presents the characteristic behavior of direct vector control of two induction motors with sensorless speed feedback having the same rating parameters, paralleled combination, and supplied from a single current-controlled pulse-width-modulated voltage-source inverter drive. Natural...... observer design technique is known for its simple construction, which estimates the speed and rotor fluxes. Load torque is estimated by load torque adaptation and the average rotor flux was maintained constant by rotor flux feedback control. The technique’s convergence rate is very fast and is robust...

  20. [Hypothesis on the equilibrium point and variability of amplitude, speed and time of single-joint movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M; Gottleib, G

    1990-01-01

    Problems of single-joint movement variability are analysed in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (the lambda-model). Control of the movements is described with three parameters related to movement amplitude speed, and time. Three strategies emerge from this description. Only one of them is likely to lead to a Fitts' type speed-accuracy trade-off. Experiments were performed to test one of the predictions of the model. Subjects performed identical sets of single-joint fast movements with open or closed eyes and some-what different instructions. Movements performed with closed eyes were characterized with higher peak speeds and unchanged variability in seeming violation of the Fitt's law and in a good correspondence to the model.

  1. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  2. Non Linear, Time Variant Speed Control of a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    A high torque ripple in a given motor always presents a challenge for the speed control, since this ripple may lead to excessive actuation and ultimately may even lead to instability. The conventional solution is to low pass filter the measured speed, but this lowers dynamic control performance...

  3. High-speed digital imaging of cytosolic Ca2+ and contraction in single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, B; Reibel, D K; Thomas, A P

    1990-07-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, with the capacity for simultaneous spatially resolved photon counting and rapid frame transfer, was utilized for high-speed digital image collection from an inverted epifluorescence microscope. The unique properties of the CCD detector were applied to an analysis of cell shortening and the Ca2+ transient from fluorescence images of fura-2-loaded [corrected] cardiomyocytes. On electrical stimulation of the cell, a series of sequential subimages was collected and used to create images of Ca2+ within the cell during contraction. The high photosensitivity of the camera, combined with a detector-based frame storage technique, permitted collection of fluorescence images 10 ms apart. This rate of image collection was sufficient to resolve the rapid events of contraction, e.g., the upstroke of the Ca2+ transient (less than 40 ms) and the time to peak shortening (less than 80 ms). The technique was used to examine the effects of beta-adrenoceptor activation, fura-2 load, and stimulus frequency on cytosolic Ca2+ transients and contractions of single cardiomyocytes. beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation resulted in pronounced increases in peak Ca2+, maximal rates of rise and decay of Ca2+, extent of shortening, and maximal velocities of shortening and relaxation. Raising the intracellular load of fura-2 had little effect on the rising phase of Ca2+ or the extent of shortening but extended the duration of the Ca2+ transient and contraction. In related experiments utilizing differential-interference contrast microscopy, the same technique was applied to visualize sarcomere dynamics in contracting cells. This newly developed technique is a versatile tool for analyzing the Ca2+ transient and mechanical events in studies of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes.

  4. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  5. Offline identification of imagined speed of wrist movements in paralyzed ALS patients from single-trial EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the possibility of identifying the speed of an imagined movement from EEG recordings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients. EEG signals were acquired from four ALS patients during imagination of wrist extensions at two speeds (fast and slow, each repeated up to 100 times in random order. The movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs and averaged sensorimotor rhythm associated with the two tasks were obtained from the EEG recordings. Moreover, offline single-trial EEG classification was performed with discrete wavelet transform for feature extraction and support vector machine for classification. The speed of the task was encoded in the time delay of peak negativity in the MRCPs, which was shorter for faster than for slower movements. The average single-trial misclassification rate between speeds was 30.4 ± 3.5 % when the best scalp location and time interval were selected for each individual. The scalp location and time interval leading to the lowest misclassification rate varied among patients. The results indicate that the imagination of movements at different speeds is a viable strategy for controlling a brain-computer interface system by ALS patients.

  6. Wind Speed Pattern in Nigeria (A Case Study of Some Coastal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Department of Physics and Solar Energy, Bowen University Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria ... ABSTRACT: In this study, wind speeds were analysed using the daily wind data obtained from Nigeria ..... Selected sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in.

  7. Using GPS-derived speed patterns for recognition of transport modes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-10-11

    Identification of active or sedentary modes of transport is of relevance for studies assessing physical activity or addressing exposure assessment. We assessed in a proof-of-principle study if speed as logged by GPSs could be used to identify modes of transport (walking, bicycling, and motorized transport: car, bus or train). 12 persons commuting to work walking, bicycling or with motorized transport carried GPSs for two commutes and recorded their mode of transport. We evaluated seven speed metrics: mean, 95th percentile of speed, standard deviation of the mean, rate-of-change, standardized-rate-of-change, acceleration and deceleration. We assessed which speed metric would best identify the transport mode using discriminant analyses. We applied cross validation and calculated agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between actual and derived modes of transport. Mode of transport was reliably classified whenever a person used a mode of transport for longer than one minute. Best results were observed when using the 95th percentile of speed, acceleration and deceleration (kappa 0.73). When we combined all motorized traffic into one category, kappa increased to 0.95. GPS-measured speed enable the identification of modes of transport. Given the current low costs of GPS devices and the built-in capacity of GPS tracking in most smartphones, the use of such devices in large epidemiological studies may facilitate the assessment of physical activity related to transport modes, or improve exposure assessment using automated travel mode detection.

  8. An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Goodman, S R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered emergent properties of hypothetical control patterns that are equally affected by the control signals and peripheral feedback reflecting actual movement trajectory. A computer model generated the EMG patterns based on simulated movement kinematics and hypothetical control signals derived from the reconstructed joint compliant characteristics. The model predictions have been compared to published recordings of movement kinematics and EMG patterns in a variety of movement conditions, including movements over different distances, at different speeds, against different-known inertial loads, and in conditions of possible unexpected decrease in the inertial load. Changes in task parameters within the model led to simulated EMG patterns qualitatively similar to the experimentally recorded EMG patterns. The model's predictive power compares it favourably to the existing models of the EMG patterns. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. MICROSTRUCTURING OF SILICON SINGLE CRYSTALS BY FIBER LASER IN HIGH-SPEED SCANNING MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Trifonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The surface structure of the silicon wafers (substrate with a thermally grown silicon dioxide on the surface (of SiO2/Si is studied after irradiation by pulse fiber laser of ILI-1-20 type. The main requirements for exposure modes of the system are: the preservation of the integrity of the film of silicon dioxide in the process of microstructuring and the absence of interference of surrounding irradiated areas of the substrate. Method. Studies were carried out on silicon wafers KEF-4,5 oriented in the crystallographic plane (111 with the source (natural silicon dioxide (SiO2 with thickness of about 4 nm, and SiO2 with 40 nm and 150 nm thickness, grown by thermal oxidation in moist oxygen. Also, wafers KHB-10 oriented in the plane (100 with 500 nm thickness of thermal oxide were investigated. Irradiation of SiO2/Si system was produced by laser complex based on ytterbium fiber pulse laser ILI-1-20. Nominal output power of the laser was 20 W, and the laser wavelength was λ = 1062 nm. Irradiation was carried out by a focused beam spot with a diameter of 25 microns and a pulse repetition rate of 99 kHz. The samples with 150 nm and 40 nm thickness of SiO2 were irradiated at a power density equal to 1,2·102 W/cm2, and the samples of SiO2 with 500 nm thickness were irradiated at a power density equal to 2,0·102 W/cm2. Scanning was performed using a two-axis Coordinate Scanning Device based on VM2500+ drives with control via a PC with the software package "SinMarkTM." Only one scan line was used at the maximum speed of the beam equal to 8750 mm/s. Morphology control of the irradiated samples was conducted by an optical microscope ZeissA1M with high-resolution CCD array. A scanning probe microscope Nanoedicator of the NT-MDT company was used for structural measurements. Main Results. It has been shown that at a single exposure of high-frequency pulsed laser radiation on SiO2/Si system, with maintaining the integrity of the SiO2 film

  10. Discrimination of gender-, speed-, and shoe-dependent movement patterns in runners using full-body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Stirling, Lisa; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-05-01

    Changes in gait kinematics have often been analyzed using pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). It is usually just the first few principal components that are analyzed, because they describe the main variability within a dataset and thus represent the main movement patterns. However, while subtle changes in gait pattern (for instance, due to different footwear) may not change main movement patterns, they may affect movements represented by higher principal components. This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) speed and gender differences can be observed in the first principal components, and (2) small interventions such as changing footwear change the gait characteristics of higher principal components. Kinematic changes due to different running conditions (speed - 3.1m/s and 4.9 m/s, gender, and footwear - control shoe and adidas MicroBounce shoe) were investigated by applying PCA and support vector machine (SVM) to a full-body reflective marker setup. Differences in speed changed the basic movement pattern, as was reflected by a change in the time-dependent coefficient derived from the first principal. Gender was differentiated by using the time-dependent coefficient derived from intermediate principal components. (Intermediate principal components are characterized by limb rotations of the thigh and shank.) Different shoe conditions were identified in higher principal components. This study showed that different interventions can be analyzed using a full-body kinematic approach. Within the well-defined vector space spanned by the data of all subjects, higher principal components should also be considered because these components show the differences that result from small interventions such as footwear changes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-trial detection of visual evoked potentials by common spatial patterns and wavelet filtering for brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Huang, Gan; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems as input signals conveying a subject's intention. A fast and reliable single-trial ERP detection method can be used to develop a BCI system with both high speed and high accuracy. However, most of single-trial ERP detection methods are developed for offline EEG analysis and thus have a high computational complexity and need manual operations. Therefore, they are not applicable to practical BCI systems, which require a low-complexity and automatic ERP detection method. This work presents a joint spatial-time-frequency filter that combines common spatial patterns (CSP) and wavelet filtering (WF) for improving the signal-to-noise (SNR) of visual evoked potentials (VEP), which can lead to a single-trial ERP-based BCI.

  12. High-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection technology for three-dimensional shape precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yixin

    2014-01-10

    A high-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection system is designed. A high-speed rotating polygon mirror and a line-structured laser cooperate to produce stable and unambiguous stroboscopic fringe patterns. The system combines the rapidity of the grating projection with the high accuracy of the line-structured laser light source. The fringe patterns have fast frame rate, great density, high precision, and high brightness, with convenience and accuracy in adjusting brightness, frequency, linewidth, and the amount of phase shift. The characteristics and the stability of this system are verified by experiments. Experimental results show that the finest linewidth can reach 40 μm and that the minimum fringe cycle is 80 μm. Circuit modulation makes the light source system flexibly adjustable, easy to control in real time, and convenient to project various fringe patterns. Combined with different light intensity adjustment algorithms and 3D computation models, the 3D topography with high accuracy can be obtained for objects measured under different environments or objects with different sizes, morphologies, and optical properties. The proposed system shows a broad application prospect for fast 3D shape precision measurements, particularly in the industrial field of 3D online detection for precision devices.

  13. Using GPS-derived speed patterns for recognition of transport modes in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of active or sedentary modes of transport is of relevance for studies assessing physical activity or addressing exposure assessment. We assessed in a proof-of-principle study if speed as logged by GPSs could be used to identify modes of transport (walking, bicycling, and

  14. High-Speed Rapid-Single-Flux-Quantum Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-22

    Herr, N. Vukovic , C. A. Mancini, M. F. Bocko, and M. J . Feldman, "High speed testing of a four-bit RSFQ decimation digital filter," IEEE Trans. Appl...61] A. M. Herr, C. A. Mancini, N. Vukovic , M. F. Bocko, and M. J . Feldman, "High-speed operation of a 64-bit circular shift register," IEEE Trans...10-19 J . A rich library of basic cells such as flip-flops, buffers, adders, multipliers, clock generator circuits, and phase-locking circuits have been

  15. High-speed precise cell patterning by pulsed electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaev, A. V.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Karpov, V. R.; Zubarev, I. V.; Shur, V. Ya; El'kina, O. S.

    2017-10-01

    The generation of micro-droplets of nutrient medium with living cells by pulsed electrohydrodynamic printing has been studied. In-situ visualization by high-speed camera made it possible to measure the characteristic times of droplet generation process and to determine the optimal printing parameters. Maximal frequency of stable generation was achieved at 700 Hz. This technique was applied successfully for drop-on-demand printing of culture medium with live HeLa cells and yeasts.

  16. Detecting Different Road Infrastructural Elements Based on the Stochastic Characterization of Speed Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic detection of road related information using data from sensors while driving has many potential applications such as traffic congestion detection or automatic routable map generation. This paper focuses on the automatic detection of road elements based on GPS data from on-vehicle systems. A new algorithm is developed that uses the total variation distance instead of the statistical moments to improve the classification accuracy. The algorithm is validated for detecting traffic lights, roundabouts, and street-crossings in a real scenario and the obtained accuracy (0.75 improves the best results using previous approaches based on statistical moments based features (0.71. Each road element to be detected is characterized as a vector of speeds measured when a driver goes through it. We first eliminate the speed samples in congested traffic conditions which are not comparable with clear traffic conditions and would contaminate the dataset. Then, we calculate the probability mass function for the speed (in 1 m/s intervals at each point. The total variation distance is then used to find the similarity among different points of interest (which can contain a similar road element or a different one. Finally, a k-NN approach is used for assigning a class to each unlabelled element.

  17. Motion stability of high-speed maglev systems in consideration of aerodynamic effects: a study of a single magnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the intrinsic mechanism of aerodynamic effects on the motion stability of a high-speed maglev system was investigated. The concept of a critical speed for maglev vehicles considering the aerodynamic effect is proposed. The study was carried out based on a single magnetic suspension system, which is convenient for proposing relevant concepts and obtaining explicit expressions. This study shows that the motion stability of the suspension system is closely related to the vehicle speed when aerodynamic effects are considered. With increases of the vehicle speed, the stability behavior of the system changes. At a certain vehicle speed, the stability of the system reaches a critical state, followed by instability. The speed corresponding to the critical state is the critical speed. Analysis reveals that when the system reaches the critical state, it takes two forms, with two critical speeds, and thus two expressions for the critical speed are obtained. The conditions of the existence of the critical speed were determined, and the effects of the control parameters and the lift coefficient on the critical speed were analyzed by numerical analysis. The results show that the first critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is upward, and the second critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is downward. Moreover, both critical speeds decrease with the increase of the lift coefficient.

  18. Intercommunications of indexes of speed and power qualities of sportsmen single combat on the stage of the specialized base preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Nykytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is a study of interdependence between indexes specially-preparatory and general preparatory exercises of sportsmen (boxing, sporting hand-to-hand fight hopak, fencing. 42 sportsmen took part in researches. Statistical reliable intercommunications are set: a indexes of force of shots by hands with the indexes of rate of single movement; b indexes of force of shots by feet with indexes from maximal force of muscles (tractive forces; c indexes of speed of shots by hands (pricking with the indexes of distance of shove of balls by mass 300 gramme; d indexes of speed of movement a step in a battle bar with indexes: speeds of shots by hands (pricking; e indexes of frequency of shots of boxers and sportsmen hand-to-hand fight hopak with the indexes of frequency of movement (manoeuvring on feet. Facilities which it is expedient to apply in the training process of single combats on this stage of long-term preparation are certain.

  19. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone ... want to know how things work, why they speak and work the way they do. What then is the ... conversations as negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give ... males and females communication style that makes them so different?

  20. Intrinsic imperfection of self-differencing single-photon detectors harms the security of high-speed quantum cryptography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-12-01

    Thanks to the high-speed self-differencing single-photon detector (SD-SPD), the secret key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), which can, in principle, offer unconditionally secure private communications between two users (Alice and Bob), can exceed 1 Mbit/s. However, the SD-SPD may contain loopholes, which can be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to hack into the unconditional security of the high-speed QKD systems. In this paper, we analyze the fact that the SD-SPD can be remotely controlled by Eve in order to spy on full information without being discovered, then proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. Here, we point out that this loophole is introduced directly by the operating principle of the SD-SPD, thus, it cannot be removed, except for the fact that some active countermeasures are applied by the legitimate parties.

  1. Spiral arm amplitude variations and pattern speeds in the grand design galaxies M51, M81, and M100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Seiden, P.E.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the modal theory of galactic spiral structure, the amplitude of a prominent two-arm spiral pattern should oscillate slightly with galactocentric distance because of an interference between the outward and inward propagating waves. In the stellar dynamical theory, the spiral arm amplitudes should oscillate because of differential crowding near and between wave-orbit resonances. Two and three cycles of such oscillations have been found in computer-enhanced images at B and I passbands of the grand design galaxies M81 and M100, respectively, and what is probably one cycle of such an amplitude variation in M51. These three galaxies are the most symmetric and global of the two-arm spirals in the near-IR survey of Elmegreen (1981), so the occurrence of such spiral amplitude oscillations could be common among galaxies of this type. The positions of the features discussed are used to suggest possible arm pattern speeds. 23 refs

  2. Disruptive Innovation Patterns Driven by Mega-Projects: A Sustainable Development Pattern Case of China’s High-Speed Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxiu Gui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of mega-projects has drawn many concerns around the world. The theory of disruptive innovation in mega-projects is a typical sustainable development pattern but still lacks systematic understanding. This article takes China’s high-speed rail (CHSR project as an example to analyze the disruptive innovation pattern of mega-projects. First, this paper systematically traces the theories of disruptive innovation and summarizes the connotations of disruptive innovation. Simultaneously, from the historical development of several typical mega-projects in China, this paper summarizes the connotations of mega-projects. Based on two connotations, this paper summarizes the theoretical basis of disruptive innovation in mega-projects. Second, this paper takes the CHSR project as a case to analyze its innovation pattern from the analysis of the development process, operation mechanism and influence in sustainability; the disruptive innovation pattern is put forward afterward. Third, the discussion is drawn from the perspectives of the characteristics, scope of application and innovation environment of the disruptive innovation of CHSR. Last, the conclusions of this article are summarized.

  3. High-Speed Single Quantum Dot Imaging of Artificial Lipids in Live Cells Reveal Partial Hop Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Clausen, Mathias P.; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2010-01-01

    -81). These findings have yet to be independently confirmed. In this work, we show that high-speed single particle tracking with quantum dots(QDs)and using a standard wide-field fluorescence microscope and an EMCCD is possible at image acquisition rates of up to ~2000 Hz with an image integration time of ~0.5 msec....... The spatial precision in these experiments is ~40 nm (as determined from the standard deviation of repeated position measurements of an immobile QD on a cell). Using this system, we further show that an artificial lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, inserted in a mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF), labeled with sAv-QD655...

  4. Study of high speed complex number algorithms. [for determining antenna for field radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, R.

    1981-01-01

    A method of evaluating the radiation integral on the curved surface of a reflecting antenna is presented. A three dimensional Fourier transform approach is used to generate a two dimensional radiation cross-section along a planer cut at any angle phi through the far field pattern. Salient to the method is an algorithm for evaluating a subset of the total three dimensional discrete Fourier transform results. The subset elements are selectively evaluated to yield data along a geometric plane of constant. The algorithm is extremely efficient so that computation of the induced surface currents via the physical optics approximation dominates the computer time required to compute a radiation pattern. Application to paraboloid reflectors with off-focus feeds in presented, but the method is easily extended to offset antenna systems and reflectors of arbitrary shapes. Numerical results were computed for both gain and phase and are compared with other published work.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency and reduced speeds for single photons in a fully quantized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator

  6. Single software platform used for high speed data transfer implementation in a 65k pixel camera working in single photon counting mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maj, P.; Kasiński, K.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Kozioł, A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuits designed for specific applications generally use non-standard communication methods. Hybrid pixel detector readout electronics produces a huge amount of data as a result of number of frames per seconds. The data needs to be transmitted to a higher level system without limiting the ASIC's capabilities. Nowadays, the Camera Link interface is still one of the fastest communication methods, allowing transmission speeds up to 800 MB/s. In order to communicate between a higher level system and the ASIC with a dedicated protocol, an FPGA with dedicated code is required. The configuration data is received from the PC and written to the ASIC. At the same time, the same FPGA should be able to transmit the data from the ASIC to the PC at the very high speed. The camera should be an embedded system enabling autonomous operation and self-monitoring. In the presented solution, at least three different hardware platforms are used—FPGA, microprocessor with real-time operating system and the PC with end-user software. We present the use of a single software platform for high speed data transfer from 65k pixel camera to the personal computer

  7. Single software platform used for high speed data transfer implementation in a 65k pixel camera working in single photon counting mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Kasiński, K.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Kozioł, A.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated circuits designed for specific applications generally use non-standard communication methods. Hybrid pixel detector readout electronics produces a huge amount of data as a result of number of frames per seconds. The data needs to be transmitted to a higher level system without limiting the ASIC's capabilities. Nowadays, the Camera Link interface is still one of the fastest communication methods, allowing transmission speeds up to 800 MB/s. In order to communicate between a higher level system and the ASIC with a dedicated protocol, an FPGA with dedicated code is required. The configuration data is received from the PC and written to the ASIC. At the same time, the same FPGA should be able to transmit the data from the ASIC to the PC at the very high speed. The camera should be an embedded system enabling autonomous operation and self-monitoring. In the presented solution, at least three different hardware platforms are used—FPGA, microprocessor with real-time operating system and the PC with end-user software. We present the use of a single software platform for high speed data transfer from 65k pixel camera to the personal computer.

  8. Advances in single-molecule magnet surface patterning through microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Matteo; Bonacchi, Daniele; Zobbi, Laura; Piras, Federica M; Speets, Emiel A; Caneschi, Andrea; Cornia, Andrea; Magnani, Agnese; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2005-07-01

    We present an implementation of strategies to deposit single-molecule magnets (SMMs) using microcontact printing microCP). We describe different approaches of microCP to print stripes of a sulfur-functionalized dodecamanganese (III, IV) cluster on gold surfaces. Comparison by atomic force microscopy profile analysis of the patterned structures confirms the formation of a chemically stable single layer of SMMs. Images based on chemical contrast, obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, confirm the patterned structure.

  9. Single camera analyses in studying pattern forming dynamics of player interactions in team sports.

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandes, Orlando; Folgado, Hugo; Araújo, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A network of patterned interactions between players characterises team ball sports. Thus, interpersonal coordination patterns are an important topic in the study of performance in such sports. A very useful method has been the study of inter-individual interactions captured by a single camera filming an extended performance area. The appropriate collection of positional data allows investigating the pattern forming dynamics emerging in different performance sub-phases of team ball sports. Thi...

  10. Initial multicentre experience of high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison between high-speed and conventional single-photon emission computed tomography with angiographic validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Johanne [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Prvulovich, Elizabeth M.; Bomanji, Jamshed B. [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Fish, Matthews B. [Sacred Heart Medical Center (SHMC), Springfield, OR (United States); Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sharir, Tali [Procardia Maccabi Healthcare Services (PMHS), Tel Aviv (Israel); Martin, William H. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), Nashville, TN (United States); DiCarli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital (BWH), Boston, MA (United States); Ziffer, Jack A. [Baptist Hospital of Miami (BHM), Miami, FL (United States); Shiti, Dalia [Spectrum-Dynamics, Caesarea (Israel); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    2013-07-15

    High-speed (HS) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a recently developed solid-state camera shows comparable myocardial perfusion abnormalities to those seen in conventional SPECT. We aimed to compare HS and conventional SPECT images from multiple centres with coronary angiographic findings. The study included 50 patients who had sequential conventional SPECT and HS SPECT myocardial perfusion studies and coronary angiography within 3 months. Stress and rest perfusion images were visually analysed and scored semiquantitatively using a 17-segment model by two experienced blinded readers. Global and coronary territorial summed stress scores (SSS) and summed rest scores (SRS) were calculated. Global SSS {>=}3 or coronary territorial SSS {>=}2 was considered abnormal. In addition the total perfusion deficit (TPD) was automatically derived. TPD >5 % and coronary territorial TPD {>=}3 % were defined as abnormal. Coronary angiograms were analysed for site and severity of coronary stenosis; {>=}50 % was considered significant. Of the 50 patients, 13 (26 %) had no stenosis, 22 (44 %) had single-vessel disease, 6 (12 %) had double-vessel disease and 9 (18 %) had triple-vessel disease. There was a good linear correlation between the visual global SSS and SRS (Spearman's {rho} 0.897 and 0.866, respectively; p < 0.001). In relation to coronary angiography, the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT by visual assessment were 92 % (35/38), 83 % (10/12) and 90 % (45/50) vs. 84 % (32/38), 50 % (6/12) and 76 % (38/50), respectively (p < 0.001). The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT in relation to automated TPD assessment were 89 % (31/35), 57 % (8/14) and 80 % (39/49) vs. 86 % (31/36), 77 % (10/13) and 84 % (41/49), respectively. HS SPECT allows fast acquisition of myocardial perfusion images that correlate well with angiographic findings with overall accuracy by visual

  11. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).

  12. The effects of bending speed on the lumbo-pelvic kinematics and movement pattern during forward bending in people with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Li, Linda M K; Wong, Dim C M; Yip, Millie M P; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2017-04-17

    Impaired lumbo-pelvic movement in people with low back pain during bending task has been reported previously. However, the regional mobility and the pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement were found to vary across studies. The inconsistency of the findings may partly be related to variations in the speed at which the task was executed. This study examined the effects of bending speeds on the kinematics and the coordination lumbo-pelvic movement during forward bending, and to compare the performance of individuals with and without low back pain. The angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of the lumbo-pelvic movement during the repeated forward bending executed at five selected speeds were acquired using the three dimensional motion tracking system in seventeen males with low back pain and eighteen males who were asymptomatic. The regional kinematics and the degree of coordination of the lumbo-pelvic movement during bending was compared and analysed between two groups. Significantly compromised performance in velocity and acceleration of the lumbar spine and hip joint during bending task at various speed levels was shown in back pain group (p back pain group adopted a uniform lumbo-pelvic pattern across all the speed levels examined. The present findings show that bending speed imposes different levels of demand on the kinematics and pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement. The ability to regulate the lumbo-pelvic movement pattern during the bending task that executed at various speed levels was shown only in pain-free individuals but not in those with low back pain. Individuals with low back pain moved with a stereotyped strategy at their lumbar spine and hip joints. This specific aberrant lumbo-pelvic movement pattern may have a crucial role in the maintenance of the chronicity in back pain.

  13. FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3 single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya eNikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The A allele of the Fras1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3 rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS, and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (192 women, mean age 19.7±1.2. Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trails Making Test (TMT. The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8±14.9. The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p<0.04, as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p=0.056. In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele, was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p=0.066, reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187 was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and Extraversion (p<0.05. Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of

  14. Pulse patterning effect in optical pulse division multiplexing for flexible single wavelength multiple access optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Chang-Hun; Han, Sang-Kook

    2018-05-01

    A demand for high spectral efficiency requires multiple access within a single wavelength, but the uplink signals are significantly degraded because of optical beat interference (OBI) in intensity modulation/direct detection system. An optical pulse division multiplexing (OPDM) technique was proposed that could effectively reduce the OBI via a simple method as long as near-orthogonality is satisfied, but the condition was strict, and thus, the number of multiplexing units was very limited. We propose pulse pattern enhanced OPDM (e-OPDM) to reduce the OBI and improve the flexibility in multiple access within a single wavelength. The performance of the e-OPDM and patterning effect are experimentally verified after 23-km single mode fiber transmission. By employing pulse patterning in OPDM, the tight requirement was relaxed by extending the optical delay dynamic range. This could support more number of access with reduced OBI, which could eventually enhance a multiple access function.

  15. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  16. Navigated Pattern Laser System versus Single-Spot Laser System for Postoperative 360-Degree Laser Retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexei N; Maltsev, Dmitrii S; Boiko, Ernest V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . To compare three 360°-laser retinopexy (LRP) approaches (using navigated pattern laser system, single-spot slit-lamp (SL) laser delivery, and single-spot indirect ophthalmoscope (IO) laser delivery) in regard to procedure duration, procedural pain score, technical difficulties, and the ability to achieve surgical goals. Material and Methods . Eighty-six rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients (86 eyes) were included in this prospective randomized study. The mean procedural time, procedural pain score (using 4-point Verbal Rating Scale), number of laser burns, and achievement of the surgical goals were compared between three groups (pattern LRP (Navilas® laser system), 36 patients; SL-LRP, 28 patients; and IO-LRP, 22 patients). Results . In the pattern LRP group, the amount of time needed for LRP and pain level were statistically significantly lower, whereas the number of applied laser burns was higher compared to those in the SL-LRP group and in the IO-LRP group. In the pattern LRP, SL-LRP, and IO-LRP groups, surgical goals were fully achieved in 28 (77.8%), 17 (60.7%), and 13 patients (59.1%), respectively ( p > 0.05). Conclusion . The navigated pattern approach allows improving the treatment time and pain in postoperative 360° LRP. Moreover, 360° pattern LRP is at least as effective in achieving the surgical goal as the conventional (slit-lamp or indirect ophthalmoscope) approaches with a single-spot laser.

  17. Evaluation of single tracks of 17-4PH steel manufactured at different power densities and scanning speeds by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoana, N. W.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Selective Laser Melting, the initial units produced are single tracks that overlap to create a single layer; from the sequence of layers, a 3D object is manufactured. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend heavily on the properties of each single track and each layer formed by these tracks. This study evaluates the effect of processing parameters on the geometrical characteristics of single tracks manufactured from 17-4PH stainless steel powder. A single-mode continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser was used to manufacture single tracks at laser powers in the range of 100-300 W with a constant spot size of ∼80μm. The single tracks produced were subjected to standard metallographic preparation techniques for further analysis with an optical microscope. Deep molten pool shapes were observed at low scan speeds, while shallow molten pool shapes were observed at high scan speeds. At higher laser power densities, under-cutting and humping effects were also observed. The dimensions of single tracks processed without powder generally decrease with increasing scan speed at constant laser power. However, the geometrical features of the single tracks processed with powder revealed pronounced irregularities believed to be caused by non-homogeneity in the deposited powder layer.

  18. Laser direct-write of single microbeads into spatially-ordered patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phamduy, Theresa B; Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Chrisey, Douglas B; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing; Yan Zijie; Huang Yong

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of heterogeneous microbead patterns on a bead-by-bead basis promotes new opportunities for sensors, lab-on-a-chip technology and cell-culturing systems within the context of customizable constructs. Laser direct-write (LDW) was utilized to target and deposit solid polystyrene and stem cell-laden alginate hydrogel beads into computer-programmed patterns. We successfully demonstrated single-bead printing resolution and fabricated spatially-ordered patterns of microbeads. The probability of successful microbead transfer from the ribbon surface increased from 0 to 80% with decreasing diameter of 600 to 45 µm, respectively. Direct-written microbeads retained spatial pattern registry, even after 10 min of ultrasonication treatment. SEM imaging confirmed immobilization of microbeads. Viability of cells encapsulated in transferred hydrogel microbeads achieved 37 ± 11% immediately after the transfer process, whereas randomly-patterned pipetted control beads achieved a viability of 51 ± 25%. Individual placement of >10 µm diameter microbeads onto planar surfaces has previously been unattainable. We have demonstrated LDW as a valuable tool for the patterning of single, micrometer-diameter beads into spatially-ordered patterns. (paper)

  19. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  20. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The diurnal salivary cortisol pattern of adolescents from families with single, ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents of single and/or chronically ill parents (target groups) reportedly have elevated psychological stress. However, their salivary cortisol pattern as part of the physiological stress system has not been compared to controls. The aim of this study is to examine differential

  2. The diurnal salivary cortisol pattern of adolescents from families with single, ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, Dominik S.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents of single and/or chronically ill parents (target groups) reportedly have elevated psychological stress. However, their salivary cortisol pattern as part of the physiological stress system has not been compared to controls. The aim of this study is to examine differential outcomes in the

  3. Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern by using empirical wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical metrology. In this paper, we present a new method for phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern based on empirical wavelet transform. In the proposed method, a fringe pattern can be effectively divided into three components: nonuniform background, fringes and random noise, which are described in different sub-pass. So the phase distribution information can be robustly extracted from fringes representing a fundamental frequency component. In simulation and a practical projection fringes test, the performance of the present method is successfully verified by comparing with the conventional wavelet transform method in terms of both image quality and phase estimation errors. (paper)

  4. Research on the speed of light transmission in a dual-frequency laser pumped single fiber with two directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Wang, Yuda; Yang, Yujing; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Pin; Jiang, Qiuli

    2018-01-01

    In this article a general theory of the coherent population oscillation effect in an erbium-doped fiber at room temperature is presented. We use dual pumping light waves with a simplified two-level system. Thus the time delay equations can be calculated from rate equations and the transmission equation. Using numerical simulation, in the case of dual-frequency pump light waves (1480 nm and 980 nm) with two directions, we analyze the influence of the pump power ratio on the group speed of light propagation. In addition, we compare slow light propagation with a single-pumping light and slow light propagation with a dual-pumping light at room temperature. The discussion shows that a larger time delay of slow light propagation can be obtained with a dual-frequency pumping laser. Compared to previous research methods, a dual-frequency laser pumped fiber with two directions is more controllable. Moreover, we conclude that the group velocity of light can be varied by changing the pump ratio.

  5. Impulsive shock induced single drop steam explosion visualized by high-speed x-ray radiography and photography - metallic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Hansson, R. C.; Sehgal, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental investigation of fine fragmentation process during vapor explosion was conducted in a small-scale single drop system employing continuous high-speed X-ray radiography and photography. A molten tin drop of about 0.7 g at approximately 1000 .deg. C was dropped into a water pool, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 .deg. C, and the explosion was triggered by an external shock pulse of about 1 MPa. X-ray radiographs show that finely fragmented melt particles accelerates to the vapor bubble boundary and forms a particle shell during the period of vapor bubble expansion due to vapor explosions. From the photographs, it was possible to observe a number of counter-jets on the vapor boundary. For tests with highly subcooled coolant, local explosion due to external impulsive shock trigger initiates the stratified mode of explosion along the entire melt surface. For tests with lower subcooled coolant local explosions were initiated by an external impulsive shock trigger and by collapse of vapor/gas pocket attached on the top of the melt drop. Transient spatial distribution map of melt fragments during vapor explosion was obtained by a series of image processing and calibration tests

  6. GraMi: Generalized Frequent Pattern Mining in a Single Large Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Saeedy, Mohammed El

    2011-11-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper the authors propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. The authors developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. The authors also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. The experiments on real data demonstrate that the authors framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  7. A microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments. (orig.)

  8. In-situ TEM study of dislocation patterning during deformation in single crystal aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, P; Shneck, R Z; Makov, G; Venkert, A

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of dislocation patterns in single crystal aluminum was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ tensile tests of single crystals were carried out in a manner that activated double slip. Cross slip of dislocations, which is prominent in all stages of work hardening, plays an important role in dislocation motion and microstructural evolution. In spite of the limitations of in-situ straining to represent bulk phenomena, due to surface effects and the thickness of the samples, it is shown that experiments on prestrained samples can represent the early stages of deformation. Transition between stage I and stage II of work hardening and evolution during stage III were observed.

  9. Microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments

  10. Patterning solution-processed organic single-crystal transistors with high device performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the patterning of organic single-crystal transistors with high device performance fabricated via a solution process under ambient conditions. The semiconductor was patterned on substrates via surface selective deposition. Subsequently, solvent-vapor annealing was performed to reorganize the semiconductor into single crystals. The transistors exhibited field-effect mobility (μFET of up to 3.5 cm2/V s. Good reliability under bias-stress conditions indicates low density of intrinsic defects in crystals and low density of traps at the active interfaces. Furthermore, the Y function method clearly suggests that the variation of μFET of organic crystal transistors was caused by contact resistance. Further improvement of the device with higher μFET with smaller variation can be expected when lower and more uniform contact resistance is achieved.

  11. Focused ion beam patterning to dielectrophoretically assemble single nanowire based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ferrara, V; Massera, E; Francia, G Di; Alfano, B

    2010-01-01

    Direct-write processing is increasingly taking place in nanodevice fabrication. In this work, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), a powerful tool in maskless micromachining, is used for electrode patterning onto a silicon/silicon nitride substrate. Then a single palladium nanowire is assembled between electrodes by means of dielectrophoresis (DEP). The nanowire morphology depends on the electrode pattern when DEP conditions are fixed. FIB/DEP combination overcomes the problem of nanowire electrical contamination due to gallium ion bombardment and the as-grown nanowire retains its basic electrical properties. Single nanowire based devices have been fabricated with this novel approach and have been tested as hydrogen sensors, confirming the reliability of this technology.

  12. Accurate prediction of complex free surface flow around a high speed craft using a single-phase level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, Riccardo; Durante, Danilo

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a challenging free surface flow problem involving a surface vessel moving at high speeds, or planing. The investigation is performed using a general purpose high Reynolds free surface solver developed at CNR-INSEAN. The methodology is based on a second order finite volume discretization of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Di Mascio et al. in A second order Godunov—type scheme for naval hydrodynamics, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 253-261, 2001; Proceedings of 16th international offshore and polar engineering conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006; J Mar Sci Technol 14:19-29, 2009); air/water interface dynamics is accurately modeled by a non standard level set approach (Di Mascio et al. in Comput Fluids 36(5):868-886, 2007a), known as the single-phase level set method. In this algorithm the governing equations are solved only in the water phase, whereas the numerical domain in the air phase is used for a suitable extension of the fluid dynamic variables. The level set function is used to track the free surface evolution; dynamic boundary conditions are enforced directly on the interface. This approach allows to accurately predict the evolution of the free surface even in the presence of violent breaking waves phenomena, maintaining the interface sharp, without any need to smear out the fluid properties across the two phases. This paper is aimed at the prediction of the complex free-surface flow field generated by a deep-V planing boat at medium and high Froude numbers (from 0.6 up to 1.2). In the present work, the planing hull is treated as a two-degree-of-freedom rigid object. Flow field is characterized by the presence of thin water sheets, several energetic breaking waves and plungings. The computational results include convergence of the trim angle, sinkage and resistance under grid refinement; high-quality experimental data are used for the purposes of validation, allowing to

  13. Facile growth of a single-crystal pattern: a case study of HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaozhou; Lu, Guang; Huang, Xiao; Li, Hai; Sun, Yinghui; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Xiaodong; Huo, Fengwei

    2012-12-18

    In order to fabricate metal-organic framework (MOF) based devices, it is desirable to precisely position high-quality and mono-sized MOF crystals on supports. In this work, we demonstrate a facile solution procedure for the fabrication of oriented and monodispersed single-crystal MOF pattern. We expect that such capability will expand the scope of applications of MOFs to advanced fields.

  14. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  15. Behavioral and Single-Neuron Sensitivity to Millisecond Variations in Temporally Patterned Communication Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christa A; Ma, Lisa; Casareale, Chelsea R; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-08-24

    In many sensory pathways, central neurons serve as temporal filters for timing patterns in communication signals. However, how a population of neurons with diverse temporal filtering properties codes for natural variation in communication signals is unknown. Here we addressed this question in the weakly electric fish Brienomyrus brachyistius, which varies the time intervals between successive electric organ discharges to communicate. These fish produce an individually stereotyped signal called a scallop, which consists of a distinctive temporal pattern of ∼8-12 electric pulses. We manipulated the temporal structure of natural scallops during behavioral playback and in vivo electrophysiology experiments to probe the temporal sensitivity of scallop encoding and recognition. We found that presenting time-reversed, randomized, or jittered scallops increased behavioral response thresholds, demonstrating that fish's electric signaling behavior was sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Next, using in vivo intracellular recordings and discriminant function analysis, we found that the responses of interval-selective midbrain neurons were also sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Subthreshold changes in membrane potential recorded from single neurons discriminated natural scallops from time-reversed, randomized, and jittered sequences. Pooling the responses of multiple neurons improved the discriminability of natural sequences from temporally manipulated sequences. Finally, we found that single-neuron responses were sensitive to interindividual variation in scallop sequences, raising the question of whether fish may analyze scallop structure to gain information about the sender. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a population of interval-selective neurons can encode behaviorally relevant temporal patterns with millisecond precision. The timing patterns of action potentials, or spikes, play important roles in representing

  16. Perbandingan Passive LC Filter Dan Passve Single Tuned Filter Untuk Mereduksi Harmonisa Variable Speed Drive Dengan Beban Motor Induksi Tiga Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Mustamam

    2016-01-01

    Most of the tools that used as speed control of three phase induction motors rotation is 1 phase Variable Speed Drive (VSD), where VSD is a harmonic generator. Therefore the harmonics that arise in the VSD can be reduced by using passive LC filters fasif namely passive single tuned filter that meet the standards IEC61000-3-2 Class A.The results obtained through passive LC filter could reduce the total distortion of harmonic current (THDi) from 102.9% to 23.78% while passive sin...

  17. Functional effects of treadmill-based gait training at faster speeds in stroke survivors: a prospective, single-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Roghayeh; Ershad, Navid; Rezayinejad, Marziyeh; Fatemi, Elham; Phadke, Chetan P

    2017-09-01

    To examine the functional effects of walking retraining at faster than self-selected speed (SSS). Ten individuals with chronic stroke participated in a 4-week training over a treadmill at walking speeds 40% faster than SSS, three times per week, 30 min/session. Outcome measures assessed before, after, and 2 months after the end of intervention were the Timed Up and Go, the 6-Minute Walk, the 10-Meter Walk test, the Modified Ashworth Scale, SSS, and fastest comfortable speed. After 4 weeks of training, all outcome measures showed clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements (Ptraining. The results showed that a strategy of training at a speed 40% faster than SSS can improve functional activity in individuals with chronic stroke, with effects lasting up to 2 months after the intervention.

  18. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  20. GRAMI: Frequent subgraph and pattern mining in a single large graph

    KAUST Repository

    Elseidy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs; it is defined as finding all subgraphs that appear frequently in a database according to a given frequency threshold. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs, or proteinprotein interactions in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. In this paper we present GRAMI, a novel framework for frequent subgraph mining in a single large graph. GRAMI undertakes a novel approach that only finds the minimal set of instances to satisfy the frequency threshold and avoids the costly enumeration of all instances required by previous approaches. We accompany our approach with a heuristic and optimizations that significantly improve performance. Additionally, we present an extension of GRAMI that mines frequent patterns. Compared to subgraphs, patterns offer a more powerful version of matching that captures transitive interactions between graph nodes (like friend of a friend) which are very common in modern applications. Finally, we present CGRAMI, a version supporting structural and semantic constraints, and AGRAMI, an approximate version producing results with no false positives. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 2 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches. 2014 VLDB Endowment.

  1. Reactivation of Reward-Related Patterns from Single Past Episodes Supports Memory-Based Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Büchel, Christian

    2016-03-09

    Rewarding experiences exert a strong influence on later decision making. While decades of neuroscience research have shown how reinforcement gradually shapes preferences, decisions are often influenced by single past experiences. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the influence of single learning episodes. Although recent work has proposed a role for episodes in decision making, it is largely unknown whether and how episodic experiences contribute to value-based decision making and how the values of single episodes are represented in the brain. In multiple behavioral experiments and an fMRI experiment, we tested whether and how rewarding episodes could support later decision making. Participants experienced episodes of high reward or low reward in conjunction with incidental, trial-unique neutral pictures. In a surprise test phase, we found that participants could indeed remember the associated level of reward, as evidenced by accurate source memory for value and preferences to re-engage with rewarded objects. Further, in a separate experiment, we found that high-reward objects shown as primes before a gambling task increased financial risk taking. Neurally, re-exposure to objects in the test phase led to significant reactivation of reward-related patterns. Importantly, individual variability in the strength of reactivation predicted value memory performance. Our results provide a novel demonstration that affect-related neural patterns are reactivated during later experience. Reactivation of value information represents a mechanism by which memory can guide decision making. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362868-13$15.00/0.

  2. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xie, Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  3. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  4. Fabrication of an infrared Shack-Hartmann sensor by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Wenchen; Naples, Neil J; Yi, Allen Y

    2018-05-01

    A novel fabrication method by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes for fabrication of discontinuous freeform microlens arrays was proposed. Compared with slow tool servo diamond broaching, high-speed single-point diamond milling was selected for its flexibility in the fabrication of true 3D optical surfaces with discontinuous features. The advantage of single-point diamond milling is that the surface features can be constructed sequentially by spacing the axes of a virtual spindle at arbitrary positions based on the combination of rotational and translational motions of both the high-speed spindle and linear slides. By employing this method, each micro-lenslet was regarded as a microstructure cell by passing the axis of the virtual spindle through the vertex of each cell. An optimization arithmetic based on minimum-area fabrication was introduced to the machining process to further increase the machining efficiency. After the mold insert was machined, it was employed to replicate the microlens array onto chalcogenide glass. In the ensuing optical measurement, the self-built Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was proven to be accurate in detecting an infrared wavefront by both experiments and numerical simulation. The combined results showed that precision compression molding of chalcogenide glasses could be an economic and precision optical fabrication technology for high-volume production of infrared optics.

  5. Computing and Learning Year-Round Daily Patterns of Hourly Wind Speed and Direction and Their Global Associations with Meteorological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ti Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daily wind patterns and their relational associations with other metocean (oceanographic and meteorological variables were algorithmically computed and extracted from a year-long wind and weather dataset, which was collected hourly from an ocean buoy located in the Penghu archipelago of Taiwan. The computational algorithm is called data cloud geometry (DCG. This DCG algorithm is a clustering-based nonparametric learning approach that was constructed and developed implicitly based on various entropy concepts. Regarding the bivariate aspect of wind speed and wind direction, the resulting multiscale clustering hierarchy revealed well-known wind characteristics of year-round pattern cycles pertaining to the particular geographic location of the buoy. A wind pattern due to a set of extreme weather days was also identified. Moreover, in terms of the relational aspect of wind and other weather variables, causal patterns were revealed through applying the DCG algorithm alternatively on the row and column axes of a data matrix by iteratively adapting distance measures to computed DCG tree structures. This adaptation technically constructed and integrated a multiscale, two-sample testing into the distance measure. These computed wind patterns and pattern-based causal relationships are useful for both general sailing and competition planning.

  6. Plasmonic detection and visualization of directed adsorption of charged single nanoparticles to patterned surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherbahn, Vitali; Nizamov, Shavkat; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that surface plasmon microscopy (SPM) allows single nanoparticles (NPs) on sensor surfaces to be detected and analyzed. The authors have applied this technique to study the adsorption of single metallic and plastic NPs. Binding of gold NPs (40, 60 and 100 nm in size) and of 100 nm polystyrene NPs to gold surfaces modified by differently ω-functionalized alkyl thiols was studied first. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) with varying terminal functions including amino, carboxy, oligo(ethylene glycol), methyl, or trimethylammonium groups were deposited on gold films to form surfaces possessing different charge and hydrophobicity. The affinity of NPs to these surfaces depends strongly on the type of coating. SAMs terminated with trimethylammonium groups and carboxy group display highly different affinity and therefore were preferred when creating patterned charged surfaces. Citrate-stabilized gold NPs and sulfate-terminated polystyrene NPs were used as negatively charged NPs, while branched polyethylenimine-coated silver NPs were used as positively charged NPs. It is shown that the charged patterned areas on the gold films are capable of selectively adsorbing oppositely charged NPs that can be detected and analyzed with an ∼1 ng⋅mL −1 detection limit. (author)

  7. The determination of time-stationary two-dimensional convection patterns with single-station radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.P.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    At the present time, most ground-based radar estimations of ionospheric convection use observations from single-station facilities. This approach requires certain assumptions as to the spatial and/or temporal uniformity of the convection. In this paper the authors present a critical examination of the accuracy of these vector velocity determinations, using realistic modeled flow patterns that are time-stationary but not spatially uniform. They find that under certain circumstances the actual and inferred flow fields show considerable discrepancy, sometimes not even agreeing in the sense of flow direction. Specifically, they show that the natural curvature present in ionospheric convection on varying spatial scales can introduce significant error in the velocity estimate, particularly when the radius of curvature of the flow structure is less than or equal to the radar range to the scattering volume. The presence of flow curvature cannot be detected by radars which determine velocities from measurements in two viewing directions, and it might not be detected by radars using azimuth scanning techniques. Thus they argue that every effort should be made to measure the ionospheric convection by bidirectional or multidirectional observations of a common ionospheric volume and that a synthesis of coherent and incoherent radar observations from different sites is preferable to multidirectional single-station observations using either radar alone. These conclusions are applicable to any Doppler measurement technique and are equally valid for high-latitude wind patterns using Fabry-Perot interferometer techniques

  8. Single-step laser-based fabrication and patterning of cell-encapsulated alginate microbeads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, D M; Dias, A D; Corr, D T; Chrisey, D B

    2013-01-01

    Alginate can be used to encapsulate mammalian cells and for the slow release of small molecules. Packaging alginate as microbead structures allows customizable delivery for tissue engineering, drug release, or contrast agents for imaging. However, state-of-the-art microbead fabrication has a limited range in achievable bead sizes, and poor control over bead placement, which may be desired to localize cellular signaling or delivery. Herein, we present a novel, laser-based method for single-step fabrication and precise planar placement of alginate microbeads. Our results show that bead size is controllable within 8%, and fabricated microbeads can remain immobilized within 2% of their target placement. Demonstration of this technique using human breast cancer cells shows that cells encapsulated within these microbeads survive at a rate of 89.6%, decreasing to 84.3% after five days in culture. Infusing rhodamine dye into microbeads prior to fluorescent microscopy shows their 3D spheroidal geometry and the ability to sequester small molecules. Microbead fabrication and patterning is compatible with conventional cellular transfer and patterning by laser direct-write, allowing location-based cellular studies. While this method can also be used to fabricate microbeads en masse for collection, the greatest value to tissue engineering and drug delivery studies and applications lies in the pattern registry of printed microbeads. (paper)

  9. Single-event transient imaging with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Futa; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Okihara, Shin-ichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Zhang, Bo; Takasawa, Taishi; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-02-22

    In the work described in this paper, an image reproduction scheme with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor was demonstrated. The sensor captures an object by compressing a sequence of images with focal-plane temporally random-coded shutters, followed by reconstruction of time-resolved images. Because signals are modulated pixel-by-pixel during capturing, the maximum frame rate is defined only by the charge transfer speed and can thus be higher than those of conventional ultra-high-speed cameras. The frame rate and optical efficiency of the multi-aperture scheme are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed imaging method, a 5×3 multi-aperture image sensor was fabricated. The average rising and falling times of the shutters were 1.53 ns and 1.69 ns, respectively. The maximum skew among the shutters was 3 ns. The sensor observed plasma emission by compressing it to 15 frames, and a series of 32 images at 200 Mfps was reconstructed. In the experiment, by correcting disparities and considering temporal pixel responses, artifacts in the reconstructed images were reduced. An improvement in PSNR from 25.8 dB to 30.8 dB was confirmed in simulations.

  10. Vertical dynamics of a single-span beam subjected to moving mass-suspended payload system with variable speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the vertical dynamics of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass-suspended payload system of variable velocities. A planar theoretical model of the moving mass-suspended payload system of variable speeds is developed based on several assumptions: the rope is massless and rigid, and its length keeps constant; the stiffness of the gantry beam is much greater than the supporting beam, and the gantry beam can be treated as a mass particle traveling along the supporting beam; the supporting beam is assumed as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The model can be degenerated to consider two classical cases-the moving mass case and the moving payload case. The proposed model is verified using both numerical and experimental methods. To further investigate the effect of possible influential factors, numerical examples are conducted covering a range of parameters, such as variable speeds (acceleration or deceleration), mass ratios of the payload to the total moving load, and the pendulum lengths. The effect of beam flexibility on swing response of the payload is also investigated. It is shown that the effect of a variable speed is significant for the deflections of the beam. The accelerating movement tends to induce larger beam deflections, while the decelerating movement smaller ones. For accelerating or decelerating movements, the moving mass model may underestimate the deflections of the beam compared with the presented model; while for uniform motion, both the moving mass model and the moving mass-payload model lead to same beam responses. Furthermore, it is observed that the swing response of the payload is not sensitive to the stiffness of the beam for operational cases of a moving crane, thus a simple moving payload model can be employed in the swing control of the payload.

  11. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -m.......3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....

  12. 风速波动下变速机组风电场的单机等值建模方法%Single machine equivalent modeling method of wind farms with variable speed wind turbines under wind speed fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏勋文; 秦浩宇; 杨荣峰; 岳红轩

    2017-01-01

    由于风电机组的输出功率滞后于风速波动,等值风计算不能反映实际工况,采用DIg-SILENT/Powerfactory搭建变速机组风电场详细模型和单机等值模型,研究风速波动下双馈机组和直驱永磁机组风电场模型的并网点输出特性.研究表明:对于双馈机组风电场,与详细模型相比,单机等值模型会出现一定误差;对于直驱永磁机组风电场,使用等值风的优于使用平均风的等值模型.利用单机表征法建立的风电场等值模型与详细模型的动态响应基本一致.该研究验证了单机等值方法的有效性和适用性.%This paper seeks to explore an efficient and simple wind farm equivalent modeling meth-od. The exploration involves the following process:providing the calculation method of the equivalent pa-rameters and equivalent wind in the single machine equivalent model; developing a detailed model of wind farm and a single machine equivalent model using the simulation software DIgSILENT/Powerfactory;investigating dynamic response at point of interconnection of wind farm with doubly fed induction genera-tor wind turbines and directly driven permanent magnet wind turbines under wind speed fluctuation. The results demonstrate that, in the case of wind farm with doubly fed induction generator wind turbines, where wind turbine operates at the output power lagging behind the wind speed fluctuation, equivalent wind calculation fails to reflect the actual operating conditions; there occurs a certain error in the single machine equivalent model compared;equivalent wind is better than the average wind for wind farm with directly driven permanent magnet wind turbines;and the dynamic response is basically same between the equivalent model of wind farm based on the single machine representation method and the detailed model of wind farm. The research verifies the validity and applicability of the single machine equivalent method.

  13. Integrating single-point vibrometer and full-field electronic speckle pattern interferometer to evaluate a micro-speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chien, Chih-Jen; Wang, An-Bang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2011-04-01

    A testing system contains an advanced vibrometer/interferometer device (AVID) and a high-speed electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) was developed. AVID is a laser Doppler vibrometer that can be used to detect single-point linear and angular velocity with DC to 20 MHz bandwidth and with nanometer resolution. In swept frequency mode, frequency response from mHz to MHz of the structure of interest can be measured. The ESPI experimental setup can be used to measure full-field out-of-plane displacement. A 5-1 phase shifting method and a correlation algorithm were used to analyze the phase difference between the reference signal and the speckle signal scattered from the sample surface. In order to show the efficiency and effectiveness of AVID and ESPI, we designed a micro-speaker composed of a plate with fixed boundaries and two piezo-actuators attached to the sides of the plate. The AVID was used to measure the vibration of one of the piezo-actuators and the ESPI was adopted to measure the two-dimensional out-of-plane displacement of the plate. A microphone was used to measure the acoustic response created by the micro-speaker. Driving signal includes random signal, sinusoidal signal, amplitude modulated high-frequency carrier signal, etc. Angular response induced by amplitude modulated high-frequency carrier signal was found to be significantly narrower than the frequency responses created by other types of driving signals. The validity of our newly developed NDE system are detailed by comparing the relationship between the vibration signal of the micro-speaker and the acoustic field generated.

  14. Pattern selection in single-component systems coupling Benard convection and solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.H.; Mueller, U.; Dietsche, C.

    1983-12-01

    A horizontal layer is heated from below and cooled from above so that the enclosed single-component liquid is frozen in the upper part of the layer. When the imposed temperature difference is such that the Rayleigh number across the liquid is supercritical, there is Benard convection coupled with the dynamics of the solidification interface. An experiment is presented which shows that the interfacial corrugations that result are two-dimensional when this ''ice'' is thin but hexagonal when the ''ice'' is thick. A weakly-nonlinear convective instability theory is presented which explains this behavior, and isolates the mechanism of the pattern selection. Jump behavior is seen in the liquid-layer thickness at the onset of hexagonal convection. (orig.) [de

  15. X-ray diffraction patterns of single crystals implanted with high-energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of silicon and gallium arsenide single crystals implanted with high-energy protons and α-particles were studied. A various models of lattice parameter changes were analysed. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice parameter depth-distribution can be assumed to be proportional to vacancy distribution obtained by Monte-Carlo method and from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. Most of the X-ray experiments were performed using synchrotron source of X-ray radiation in particular in the case of back-reflection and transmission section topographic methods. The new method of direct determination of the implanted ion ranges was proposed using synchrotron radiation back-reflection section topography. A number of new interference phenomena was revealed and explained. These interferences are important in the applications of diffraction theory in studying of the real structure of implanted layers. (author)

  16. Pattern scan laser versus single spot laser in panretinal photocoagulation treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the efficacy of 577-nm pattern scan laser in panretinal photocoagulation(PRPtreatment in newly diagnosed proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Prospective and comparative observation was performed in totally 32 patients with high-risk PDR. They were randomly divided into group 1(using pattern scan laser, PSLand 2(using single spot laser, SSL, each containing 16 subjects to which totally 20 eyes received PRP. Non-perfusion region was identified with fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAbefore and 3mo after final PRP. The advantage of PSL was verified in terms of the number and the duration of PRP sessions needed for satisfactory outcomes, and the pain score.RESULTS: Three PRP sessions were needed for each eye to complete the treatment using PSL, while 4 sessions were needed using SSL. The duration of each session with PSL in group 1 was 7.3±2.3min, which was significantly shorter than that with SSL in group 2(13.2±4.1, t38=5.596, PPCONCLUSION: PSL showed clear advantages over SSL in the PRP treatment of PDR, not only in the improved efficacy, but also in the reduction of pain and the improvement of effectiveness.

  17. Exploring the potential of open big data from ticketing websites to characterize travel patterns within the Chinese high-speed rail system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wei

    Full Text Available Big data have contributed to deepen our understanding in regards to many human systems, particularly human mobility patterns and the structure and functioning of transportation systems. Resonating the recent call for 'open big data,' big data from various sources on a range of scales have become increasingly accessible to the public. However, open big data relevant to travelers within public transit tools remain scarce, hindering any further in-depth study on human mobility patterns. Here, we explore ticketing-website derived data that are publically available but have been largely neglected. We demonstrate the power, potential and limitations of this open big data, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR system as an example. Using an application programming interface, we automatically collected the data on the remaining tickets (RTD for scheduled trains at the last second before departure in order to retrieve information on unused transit capacity, occupancy rate of trains, and passenger flux at stations. We show that this information is highly useful in characterizing the spatiotemporal patterns of traveling behaviors on the Chinese HSR, such as weekend traveling behavior, imbalanced commuting behavior, and station functionality. Our work facilitates the understanding of human traveling patterns along the Chinese HSR, and the functionality of the largest HSR system in the world. We expect our work to attract attention regarding this unique open big data source for the study of analogous transportation systems.

  18. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  19. Automated patterning and probing with multiple nanoscale tools for single-cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Kim, Yeonuk; Liu, Boyin; Qin, Ruwen; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms. Scheduling of serial FOVs for imaging and probing of multiple cells was considered as a rectangle covering problem, and optimal or near-optimal solutions were obtained with the heuristics developed. FIB milling was then employed automatically followed by downstream analysis using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to probe the cellular interior. Our strategy was applied to examine bacterial cells (Klebsiella pneumoniae) and achieved high efficiency with limited human interference. The developed algorithms can be easily adapted and integrated with different imaging platforms towards high-throughput imaging analysis of single cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel application of Recursive Equation Method for determining thermodynamic properties of single phase fluids from density and speed-of-sound measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, S.; Giuliano Albo, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method for calculating the isobaric specific heat capacity is presented. ► Heat capacity (C p ) was determined only by speed-of-sound and density measurements. ► (C p ) temperature dependence has been related to speed-of-sound by a new expression. ► Heat capacity for water, nonane, undecane, and rapeseed oil methyl ester are obtained. -- Abstract: The determination of thermal quantities from mechanical properties is still a challenge in the thermodynamic field. In this work, the authors suggest a preliminary numerical calculation which allows to determine the constant pressure specific heat capacity, starting from density and speed-of-sound experimental values, as input data. This method is a variant of the well characterized Recursive Equation Method (REM) [1] and permits to develop empirical equations of state for single phase fluids. In particular, the isobaric specific heat capacity has been obtained, in a wide range of temperatures and pressures, for pure water, n-nonane, n-undecane, and rapeseed oil methyl ester. The results have been compared with those available in the literature, when it was possible. Moreover, the typical uncertainty of heat capacity has been estimated to be in the order of 1.5%; however it has been shown that it can be improved when proper distributions of the experimental points are available

  1. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Patterns of use of medical cannabis among Israeli cancer patients: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waissengrin, Barliz; Urban, Damien; Leshem, Yasmin; Garty, Meital; Wolf, Ido

    2015-02-01

    The use of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) for the palliative treatment of cancer patients has been legalized in multiple jurisdictions including Israel. Yet, not much is currently known regarding the efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis in this setting. To analyze the indications for the administration of cannabis among adult Israeli cancer patients and evaluate its efficacy. Efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis were evaluated using physician-completed application forms, medical files, and a detailed questionnaire in adult cancer patients treated at a single institution. Of approximately 17,000 cancer patients seen, 279 (cannabis from an authorized institutional oncologist. The median age of cannabis users was 60 years (range 19-93 years), 160 (57%) were female, and 234 (84%) had metastatic disease. Of 151 (54%) patients alive at six months, 70 (46%) renewed their cannabis permit. Renewal was more common among younger patients and those with metastatic disease. Of 113 patients alive and using cannabis at one month, 69 (61%) responded to the detailed questionnaire. Improvement in pain, general well-being, appetite, and nausea were reported by 70%, 70%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Side effects were mild and consisted mostly of fatigue and dizziness. Cannabis use is perceived as highly effective by some patients with advanced cancer and its administration can be regulated, even by local authorities. Additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis as part of the palliative treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spray Droplet Characterization from a Single Nozzle by High Speed Image Analysis Using an In-Focus Droplet Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Sofija Vulgarakis; Cointault, Frédéric; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2016-02-06

    Accurate spray characterization helps to better understand the pesticide spray application process. The goal of this research was to present the proof of principle of a droplet size and velocity measuring technique for different types of hydraulic spray nozzles using a high speed backlight image acquisition and analysis system. As only part of the drops of an agricultural spray can be in focus at any given moment, an in-focus criterion based on the gray level gradient was proposed to decide whether a given droplet is in focus or not. In a first experiment, differently sized droplets were generated with a piezoelectric generator and studied to establish the relationship between size and in-focus characteristics. In a second experiment, it was demonstrated that droplet sizes and velocities from a real sprayer could be measured reliably in a non-intrusive way using the newly developed image acquisition set-up and image processing. Measured droplet sizes ranged from 24 μm to 543 μm, depending on the nozzle type and size. Droplet velocities ranged from around 0.5 m/s to 12 m/s. The droplet size and velocity results were compared and related well with the results obtained with a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  4. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  5. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. → Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. → Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. → The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  6. Use of Pattern Classification Algorithms to Interpret Passive and Active Data Streams from a Walking-Speed Robotic Sensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckman, Eric Allen

    In order to perform useful tasks for us, robots must have the ability to notice, recognize, and respond to objects and events in their environment. This requires the acquisition and synthesis of information from a variety of sensors. Here we investigate the performance of a number of sensor modalities in an unstructured outdoor environment, including the Microsoft Kinect, thermal infrared camera, and coffee can radar. Special attention is given to acoustic echolocation measurements of approaching vehicles, where an acoustic parametric array propagates an audible signal to the oncoming target and the Kinect microphone array records the reflected backscattered signal. Although useful information about the target is hidden inside the noisy time domain measurements, the Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint process (DWFP) is used to create a time-frequency representation of the data. A small-dimensional feature vector is created for each measurement using an intelligent feature selection process for use in statistical pattern classification routines. Using our experimentally measured data from real vehicles at 50 m, this process is able to correctly classify vehicles into one of five classes with 94% accuracy. Fully three-dimensional simulations allow us to study the nonlinear beam propagation and interaction with real-world targets to improve classification results.

  7. Using of FPGA coprocessor for improving the execution speed of the pattern recognition algorithm for ATLAS - high energy physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkelbein, C; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Miiller, M

    2004-01-01

    Pattern recognition algorithms are used in experimental High Energy physics for getting parameters (features) of particles tracks in detectors. It is particularly important to have fast algorithms in trigger system. This paper investigates the suitability of using FPGA coprocessor for speedup of the TRT-LUT algorithm - one of the feature extraction algorithms for second level trigger for ATLAS experiment (CERN). Two realization of the same algorithm have been compared: C++ realization tested on a computer equipped with dual Xeon 2.4 GHz CPU, 64-bit, 66MHz PCI bus, 1024Mb DDR RAM main memories with Red Hat Linux 7.1 and hybrid C++ - VHDL realisation tested on same PC equipped in addition by MPRACE board (FPGA-Coprocessor board based on Xilinx Virtex-II FPGA and made as 64-bit, 66 MHz PCI card developed at the University of Mannheim). Usage of the FPGA coprocessor can give some reasonable speedup in contrast to general purpose processor only for those algorithms (or parts of algorithms), for which there is a po...

  8. Single shot fringe pattern phase demodulation using Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Służewski, Łukasz; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-22

    Hybrid single shot algorithm for accurate phase demodulation of complex fringe patterns is proposed. It employs empirical mode decomposition based adaptive fringe pattern enhancement (i.e., denoising, background removal and amplitude normalization) and subsequent boosted phase demodulation using 2D Hilbert spiral transform aided by the Principal Component Analysis method for novel, correct and accurate local fringe direction map calculation. Robustness to fringe pattern significant noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation as well as local fringe period and shape variations is corroborated by numerical simulations and experiments. Proposed automatic, adaptive, fast and comprehensive fringe analysis solution compares favorably with other previously reported techniques.

  9. [Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Factors that influence the intra-articular rupture pattern of the ACL graft following single-bundle reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Kropf, Eric J.; Romanowski, James R.; Lesniak, Bryson P.; Tranovich, Michael J.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2011-01-01

    The number of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgeries performed annually continues to rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common rupture pattern in ACL revision cases after previous single-bundle reconstruction. The second aim was to determine the relationship

  11. Patterns of care and treatment outcomes for primary thyroid lymphoma: A single institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hye Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June Won; Lee, Jeong Shim; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of care and treatment outcomes in patients with primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) in a single institution. Medical records of 29 patients with PTL treated between April 1994 and February 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy (n = 17) or thyroidectomy (n = 12). Treatment modality and outcome were analyzed according to lymphoma grade. The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 3.8 to 220.8 months). The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 21 to 83 years) and 24 (82.8%) patients were female. Twenty-five (86.2%) patients had PTL with stage IEA and IIEA. There were 8 (27.6%) patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the remaining patients had high-grade lymphoma. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 2), chemotherapy (n = 7), radiotherapy (n = 3) alone, or a combination of these methods (n = 17). Treatment modalities evolved over time and a combination of modalities was preferred, especially for the treatment of high-grade lymphoma in recent years. There was no death or relapse among MALT lymphoma patients. Among high-grade lymphoma patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 75.6% and 73.9%, respectively. Complete remission after initial treatment was the only significant prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.037) and PFS (p = 0.003). Patients with PTL showed a favorable outcome, especially with MALT lymphoma. Radiotherapy alone for MALT lymphoma and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy for high-grade lymphoma can be effective treatment options for PTL.

  12. FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3) single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed: An accelerated aging pathway of depression risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Iruku, Swetha P.; Lin, Chien-Wei; Conley, Emily Drabant; Puralewski, Rachel; French, Beverly; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The A allele of the FRAS1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3) rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD) in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here, we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (192 women, mean age 19.7 ± 1.2). Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8 ± 14.9). The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p < 0.04), as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p = 0.056). In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele), was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p = 0.066), reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187) was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and extraversion (p < 0.05). Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of

  13. Using a combination of weighting factor method and imperialist competitive algorithm to improve speed and enhance process of reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Yashar, E-mail: yashar.rahmani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvari, Yaser [Department of Computer Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kia, Faezeh [Golestan Institute of Higher Education, Gorgan 49139-83635 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • This article was an attempt to optimize reloading pattern of Bushehr VVER-1000 reactor. • A combination of weighting factor method and the imperialist competitive algorithm was used. • The speed of optimization and desirability of the proposed pattern increased considerably. • To evaluate arrangements, a coupling of WIMSD5-B, CITATION-LDI2 and WERL codes was used. • Results reflected the considerable superiority of the proposed method over direct optimization. - Abstract: In this research, an innovative solution is described which can be used with a combination of the new imperialist competitive algorithm and the weighting factor method to improve speed and increase globality of search in reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles and even obtain more desirable results than conventional direct method. In this regard, to reduce the scope of the assumed searchable arrangements, first using the weighting factor method and based on values of these coefficients in each of the 16 types of loadable fuel assemblies in the second cycle, the fuel assemblies were classified in more limited groups. In consequence, the types of fuel assemblies were reduced from 16 to 6 and consequently the number of possible arrangements was reduced considerably. Afterwards, in the first phase of optimization the imperialist competitive algorithm was used to propose an optimum reloading pattern with 6 groups. In the second phase, the algorithm was reused for finding desirable placement of the subset assemblies of each group in the optimum arrangement obtained from the previous phase, and thus the retransformation of the optimum arrangement takes place from the virtual 6-group mode to the real mode with 16 fuel types. In this research, the optimization process was conducted in two states. In the first state, it was tried to obtain an arrangement with the maximum effective multiplication factor and the smallest maximum power peaking factor. In

  14. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  15. Regulation of stroke pattern and swim speed across a range of current velocities: Diving by common eiders wintering in polynyas in the Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Swim speed during diving has important energetic consequences. Not only do costs increase as drag rises non-linearly with increasing speed, but speed also affects travel time to foraging patches and therefore time and energy budgets over the entire dive cycle. However, diving behaviour has rarely

  16. Shape measurement system for single point incremental forming (SPIF) manufacts by using trinocular vision and random pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Francesco; Bini, Ruggero; Lunardelli, Massimo; Bosetti, Paolo; Bruschi, Stefania; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Many contemporary works show the interest of the scientific community in measuring the shape of artefacts made by single point incremental forming. In this paper, we will present an algorithm able to detect feature points with a random pattern, check the compatibility of associations exploiting multi-stereo constraints and reject outliers and perform a 3D reconstruction by dense random patterns. The algorithm is suitable for a real-time application, in fact it needs just three images and a synchronous relatively fast processing. The proposed method has been tested on a simple geometry and results have been compared with a coordinate measurement machine acquisition. (paper)

  17. Soil wetting patterns of vegetation and inter-patches following single and repeated wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Although wildfires spread in Mediterranean areas are considered a natural processes, the expected increase in fire frequency has raised concerns about the systems' future resilience (Pausas, 2004). Besides more frequent, future wildfires can become more severe and produce more pronounced changes in topsoil properties, vegetation and litter (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). To deal with challenges, the EU funded CASCADE and RECARE projects, which are currently assessing soil threats and tipping-points for land degradation in a climatic gradient across Europe. The present research was developed in Portugal and aims to find relationships between fire frequency and soil wetting patterns following single versus repeated wildfires. In September 2012, a wildfire burnt 3000 ha. of Pine stands and shrub vegetation in the vicinity of Viseu district, North-Central Portugal. Analyses according to the available burnt-area maps (1975-2012), discriminated areas that has been burned 1x (called SD) and 4x (called D) times. In order to evaluate the post-fire soil surface moisture patterns, 6 slopes (3 in SD and 3 in D) were selected and a balanced experimental design with 72 soil moisture sensors (EC5 and GS3, from Decagon devices) was implemented under shrubs (n=18) and on bare (n=18) soil environments, at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth each. The spatio-temporal occurrence of soil water repellence (SWR) (Keizer et al., 2008; Prats et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2014) was monthly assessed through the MED test at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth into 5 sampling points located at regular distances along a transect running from the top to bottom of a selected slope in SD and D. Automatic and totalize rainfall gauges were also installed across the study area. Preliminary results showed that soil wetting patterns and SWR occurrence differs between SD, D sites and, between soil environment (under shrubs and on bare soil areas). SWR were more pronounced on the SD than in D, affecting soil wetting

  18. Temporal-pattern recognition by single neurons in a sensory pathway devoted to social communication behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2009-07-29

    Sensory systems often encode stimulus information into the temporal pattern of action potential activity. However, little is known about how the information contained within these patterns is extracted by postsynaptic neurons. Similar to temporal coding by sensory neurons, social information in mormyrid fish is encoded into the temporal patterning of an electric organ discharge. In the current study, sensitivity to temporal patterns of electrosensory stimuli was found to arise within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp). Whole-cell patch recordings from ELp neurons in vivo revealed three patterns of interpulse interval (IPI) tuning: low-pass neurons tuned to long intervals, high-pass neurons tuned to short intervals, and bandpass neurons tuned to intermediate intervals. Many neurons within each class also responded preferentially to either increasing or decreasing IPIs. Playback of electric signaling patterns recorded from freely behaving fish revealed that the IPI and direction tuning of ELp neurons resulted in selective responses to particular social communication displays characterized by distinct IPI patterns. The postsynaptic potential responses of many neurons indicated a combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input, and the IPI tuning of ELp neurons was directly related to rate-dependent changes in the direction and amplitude of postsynaptic potentials. These results suggest that differences in the dynamics of short-term synaptic plasticity in excitatory and inhibitory pathways may tune central sensory neurons to particular temporal patterns of presynaptic activity. This may represent a general mechanism for the processing of behaviorally relevant stimulus information encoded into temporal patterns of activity by sensory neurons.

  19. GraMi: Generalized Frequent Pattern Mining in a Single Large Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Saeedy, Mohammed El; Kalnis, Panos

    2011-01-01

    resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. The authors also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI

  20. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  1. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Bender, H A; Wilcox, N S

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  2. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  3. Broad Beam and Ion Microprobe Studies of Single-Event Upsets in High Speed 0.18micron Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Pickel, Jim; Carts, Martin A.; Irwin, TIm; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Fritz, Karl; Riggs, Pam

    2003-01-01

    SiGe based technology is widely recognized for its tremendous potential to impact the high speed microelectronic industry, and therefore the space industry, by monolithic incorporation of low power complementary logic with extremely high speed SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) logic. A variety of studies have examined the ionizing dose, displacement damage and single event characteristics, and are reported. Accessibility to SiGe through an increasing number of manufacturers adds to the importance of understanding its intrinsic radiation characteristics, and in particular the single event effect (SEE) characteristics of the high bandwidth HBT based circuits. IBM is now manufacturing in its 3rd generation of their commercial SiGe processes, and access is currently available to the first two generations (known as and 6HP) through the MOSIS shared mask services with anticipated future release of the latest (7HP) process. The 5 HP process is described and is characterized by a emitter spacing of 0.5 micron and a cutoff frequency ff of 50 GHz, whereas the fully scaled 7HP HBT employs a 0.18 micron emitter and has an fT of 120 GHz. Previous investigations have the examined SEE response of 5 HP HBT circuits through both circuit testing and modeling. Charge collection modeling studies in the 5 H P process have also been conducted, but to date no measurements have been reported of charge collection in any SiGe HBT structures. Nor have circuit models for charge collection been developed in any version other than the 5 HP HBT structure. Our investigation reports the first indications of both charge collection and circuit response in IBM s 7HP-based SiGe process. We compare broad beam heavy ion SEU test results in a fully function Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) sequence generator up to frequencies of 12 Gbps versus effective LET, and also report proton test results in the same circuit. In addition, we examine the charge collection characteristics of individual 7HP HBT

  4. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  5. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Linda Rae

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how single women in the regional Indonesian city of Mataram express sexual desire in a social, cultural and political climate that idealizes the confinement of female sexuality within marriage. It is based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with single women, their families and health care providers. Success for young women in negotiating sexual desire is dependent upon their ability to maintain a faultless public reputation and mediate between their desires and those of men. Many single women find ways to pursue their desires by bending the rules of courtship conventions, performing sexual purity in public, while resisting from within the hegemonic sexual culture. However, women who visibly transgress dominant sexual ideals (and in doing so offend the status quo) are stigmatized and ostracized. Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage.

  6. Using micro-patterned sensors and cell self-assembly for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzkorn, James R; Parviz, Babak A; Wu, Wen-Chung; Tian, Zhiyuan; Kim, Prince; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for self-assembling arrays of live single cells on a glass chip using a photopatternable polymer to form micro-traps. We have studied the single-cell self-assembly method and optimized the process to obtain a 52% yield of single-trapped cells. We also report a method to measure the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using micro-patterned sensors. These molecular oxygen sensors were fabricated around each micro-trap allowing optical interrogation of oxygen concentration in the immediate environment of the trapped cell. Micromachined micro-wells were then used to seal the trap, sensor and cell in order to determine the oxygen consumption rate of single cells. These techniques reported here add to the collection of tools for performing 'singe-cell' biology. An oxygen consumption rate of 1.05 ± 0.28 fmol min −1 was found for a data set consisting of 25 single A549 cells.

  7. Operant conditioning of synaptic and spiking activity patterns in single hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-04-02

    Learning is a process of plastic adaptation through which a neural circuit generates a more preferable outcome; however, at a microscopic level, little is known about how synaptic activity is patterned into a desired configuration. Here, we report that animals can generate a specific form of synaptic activity in a given neuron in the hippocampus. In awake, head-restricted mice, we applied electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus, a reward-associated brain region, when whole-cell patch-clamped CA1 neurons exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity that met preset criteria. Within 15 min, the mice learned to generate frequently the excitatory synaptic input pattern that satisfied the criteria. This reinforcement learning of synaptic activity was not observed for inhibitory input patterns. When a burst unit activity pattern was conditioned in paired and nonpaired paradigms, the frequency of burst-spiking events increased and decreased, respectively. The burst reinforcement occurred in the conditioned neuron but not in other adjacent neurons; however, ripple field oscillations were concomitantly reinforced. Neural conditioning depended on activation of NMDA receptors and dopamine D1 receptors. Acutely stressed mice and depression model mice that were subjected to forced swimming failed to exhibit the neural conditioning. This learning deficit was rescued by repetitive treatment with fluoxetine, an antidepressant. Therefore, internally motivated animals are capable of routing an ongoing action potential series into a specific neural pathway of the hippocampal network.

  8. Advances in single-molecule magnet surface patterning through microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannini, Matteo; Bonacchi, D.; Bonacchi, Daniele; Zobbi, Laura; Piras, Federica M.; Speets, E.A.; Caneschi, Andrea; Cornia, Andrea; Magnani, Agnese; Ravoo, B.J.; Reinhoudt, David; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2005-01-01

    We present an implementation of strategies to deposit single-molecule magnets (SMMs) using microcontact printing (uCP). We describe different approaches of CP to print stripes of a sulfur-functionalized dodecamanganese(III,IV) cluster on gold surfaces. Comparison by atomic force microscopy profile

  9. Bilinear common spatial pattern for single-trial ERP-based rapid serial visual presentation triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Shen, K.; Shao, S.; Ng, W. C.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) analysis is a useful tool for the feature extraction of event-related potentials (ERP). However, CSP is essentially time invariant, and thus unable to exploit the temporal information of ERP. This paper proposes a variant of CSP, namely bilinear common spatial pattern (BCSP), which is capable of accommodating both spatial and temporal information. BCSP generalizes CSP through iteratively optimizing bilinear filters. These bilinear filters constitute a spatio-temporal subspace in which the separation between two conditions is maximized. The method is unique in the sense that it is mathematically intuitive and simple, as all the bilinear filters are obtained by maximizing the power ratio as CSP does. The proposed method was evaluated on 20 subjects’ ERP data collected in rapid serial visual presentation triage experiments. The results show that BCSP achieved significantly higher average test accuracy (12.3% higher, p < 0.001).

  10. Pediatric - specific Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Urinary Tract Infections: A Single - Centre Experience from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kandur, Yasar; Ozden, Sevinc; Buyukkaragoz, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance of the causative microorganisms of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem. The aim of this study is to determine the changing pattern of antibiotic susceptibility in UTIs in an outpatient setting. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients with UTI who were followed-up in our center between January-2014 and May-2015. Results: One hundred and seventy-one patients (M...

  11. Ferroelectric domain pattern in barium titanate single crystals studied by means of digital holographic microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Psota, Pavel; Steiger, Kateřina; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vápenka, David; Lédl, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 25 (2016), č. článku 255307. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ferroelectric domain patterns * electro-optical materials * digital holographic microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/25/255307

  12. Altered movement patterns and muscular activity during single and double leg squats in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, Anna; Miller, Michael; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Gummesson, Christina; Garwicz, Martin

    2015-02-13

    Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury often show altered movement patterns, suggested to be partly due to impaired sensorimotor control. Here, we therefore aimed to assess muscular activity during movements often used in ACL-rehabilitation and to characterize associations between deviations in muscular activity and specific altered movement patterns, using and further exploring the previously developed Test for substitution Patterns (TSP). Sixteen participants (10 women) with unilateral ACL rupture performed Single and Double Leg Squats (SLS; DLS). Altered movement patterns were scored according to TSP, and Surface Electromyography (SEMG) was recorded bilaterally in six hip, thigh and shank muscles. To quantify deviations in muscular activity, SEMG ratios were calculated between homonymous muscles on injured and non-injured sides, and between antagonistic muscles on the same side. Correlations between deviations of injured/non-injured side SEMG ratios and specific altered movement patterns were calculated. Injured/non-injured ratios were low at transition from knee flexion to extension in quadriceps in SLS, and in quadriceps and hamstrings in DLS. On injured side, the quadriceps/hamstrings ratio prior to the beginning of DLS and end of DLS and SLS, and tibialis/gastrocnemius ratio at end of DLS were lower than on non-injured side. Correlations were found between specific altered movement patterns and deviating muscular activity at transition from knee flexion to extension in SLS, indicating that the more deviating the muscular activity on injured side, the more pronounced the altered movement pattern. "Knee medial to supporting foot" correlated to lower injured/non-injured ratios in gluteus medius (rs = -0.73, p = 0.001), "lateral displacement of hip-pelvis-region" to lower injured/non-injured ratios in quadriceps (rs = -0.54, p = 0.03) and "displacement of trunk" to higher injured/non-injured ratios in gluteus medius (rs = 0.62, p = 0

  13. Optimization of the temporal pattern of applied dose for a single fraction of radiation: Implications for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Michael B.

    The increasing prevalence of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as a treatment modality has led to a renewed interest in the potential for interaction between prolonged treatment time, as frequently associated with IMRT, and the underlying radiobiology of the irradiated tissue. A particularly relevant aspect of radiobiology is cell repair capacity, which influences cell survival, and thus directly relates to the ability to control tumors and spare normal tissues. For a single fraction of radiation, the linear quadratic (LQ) model is commonly used to relate the radiation dose to the fraction of cells surviving. The LQ model implies a dependence on two time-related factors which correlate to radiobiological effects: the duration of radiation application, and the functional form of how the dose is applied over that time (the "temporal pattern of applied dose"). Although the former has been well studied, the latter has not. Thus, the goal of this research is to investigate the impact of the temporal pattern of applied dose on the survival of human cells and to explore how the manipulation of this temporal dose pattern may be incorporated into an IMRT-based radiation therapy treatment planning scheme. The hypothesis is that the temporal pattern of applied dose in a single fraction of radiation can be optimized to maximize or minimize cell kill. Furthermore, techniques which utilize this effect could have clinical ramifications. In situations where increased cell kill is desirable, such as tumor control, or limiting the degree of cell kill is important, such as the sparing of normal tissue, temporal sequences of dose which maximize or minimize cell kill (temporally "optimized" sequences) may provide greater benefit than current clinically used radiation patterns. In the first part of this work, an LQ-based modeling analysis of effects of the temporal pattern of dose on cell kill is performed. Through this, patterns are identified for maximizing cell kill for a

  14. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right-left asymme......In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  15. The reproducibility of binocular pattern reversal visual evoked potentials: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the within-participant variability over time of both amplitude and peak latency measures of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). As a large number of factors are known to contribute to the variability of the pVEPs (such as fixation instability and drowsiness), testing was conducted in controlled conditions with two co-operative participants. PVEPs were recorded during 24 sessions, over an eight-week period using the same equipment and recording settings. The participants viewed a plasma monitor binocularly from a distance of 1 meter. High contrast (97%), black and white checks of side subtense 50', 25', and 12.5' pattern reversed 3/s in a 28 degree test field. The different sized checks were presented in a pseudo-random order. Three runs, each of 100 trials, were acquired to each stimulus from an active electrode placed at Oz referred to aFz. The amplitude of N80-P100 and the latency of P100 were measured. P100 amplitude and latency were stable across sessions and did not depend upon the order of check size presentation. As expected, variation in amplitude was greater than peak latency. The coefficients of variation for different check sizes and participants were 9-14% for pVEP amplitude, but only 1-2% for P100 latency.

  16. Single-trial effective brain connectivity patterns enhance discriminability of mental imagery tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Dheeraj; Cecotti, Hubert; Prasad, Girijesh

    2017-10-01

    Objective. The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI. Approach. We implemented time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) for the estimation of the connectivity features in a BCI setting. The proposed hypothesis has been verified with two publically available datasets involving MI and CI tasks. Main results. The results support the conclusion that connectivity based features can provide a better performance than a classical signal processing framework based on bandpass features coupled with spatial filtering for CI tasks, including word generation, subtraction, and spatial navigation. These results show for the first time that connectivity features can provide a reliable performance for imagery-based BCI system. Significance. We show that single-trial connectivity features for mixed imagery tasks (i.e. combination of CI and MI) can outperform the features obtained by current state-of-the-art method and hence can be successfully applied for BCI applications.

  17. Single-Cell Analysis of Human Pancreas Reveals Transcriptional Signatures of Aging and Somatic Mutation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Martin; Arda, H Efsun; Mignardi, Marco; Beausang, John; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-10-05

    As organisms age, cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic errors that eventually lead to impaired organ function or catastrophic transformation such as cancer. Because aging reflects a stochastic process of increasing disorder, cells in an organ will be individually affected in different ways, thus rendering bulk analyses of postmitotic adult cells difficult to interpret. Here, we directly measure the effects of aging in human tissue by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of 2,544 human pancreas cells from eight donors spanning six decades of life. We find that islet endocrine cells from older donors display increased levels of transcriptional noise and potential fate drift. By determining the mutational history of individual cells, we uncover a novel mutational signature in healthy aging endocrine cells. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from primary cells to derive insights into genetic and transcriptional processes that operate on aging human tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  19. Verbal fluency in male and female schizophrenia patients: Different patterns of association with processing speed, working memory span, and clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Nieto, Lourdes; Contel, Montserrat; Usall, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Decreased processing speed in schizophrenia patients has been identified as a major impairment factor in various neuropsychological domains. Working memory span has been found to be involved in several deep or effortful cognitive processes. We investigated the impact that these 2 cognitive functions may have on phonological and semantic fluency in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy participants were administered a neuropsychological battery including phonological and semantic fluency, working memory, and cognitive and motor speed. Regression analyses revealed that motor speed was related to phonological fluency in female patients, whereas cognitive speed was related to semantic fluency in male patients. In addition, working memory span was related to verbal fluency in women from both the patient and the healthy control groups. Decreased processing speed, but not decreased working memory span, accounted for the verbal fluency deficit in patients. Verbal fluency was inversely related to attention deficit in female patients and to negative symptoms in male patients. Decreased processing speed may be the main factor in verbal fluency impairment of patients. Further, the cognitive and clinical predictors of verbal fluency efficiency are different in men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Micro-patterned agarose gel devices for single-cell high-throughput microscopy of E. coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, David G; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yo; Taniguchi, Yuichi

    2017-12-21

    High-throughput microscopy of bacterial cells elucidated fundamental cellular processes including cellular heterogeneity and cell division homeostasis. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices provide advantages including precise positioning of cells and throughput, however device fabrication is time-consuming and requires specialised skills. Agarose pads are a popular alternative, however cells often clump together, which hinders single cell quantitation. Here, we imprint agarose pads with micro-patterned 'capsules', to trap individual cells and 'lines', to direct cellular growth outwards in a straight line. We implement this micro-patterning into multi-pad devices called CapsuleHotel and LineHotel for high-throughput imaging. CapsuleHotel provides ~65,000 capsule structures per mm 2 that isolate individual Escherichia coli cells. In contrast, LineHotel provides ~300 line structures per mm that direct growth of micro-colonies. With CapsuleHotel, a quantitative single cell dataset of ~10,000 cells across 24 samples can be acquired and analysed in under 1 hour. LineHotel allows tracking growth of > 10 micro-colonies across 24 samples simultaneously for up to 4 generations. These easy-to-use devices can be provided in kit format, and will accelerate discoveries in diverse fields ranging from microbiology to systems and synthetic biology.

  1. Assessing patterns of hybridization between North Atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, José Martin; Jacobsen, M.W.; Als, Thomas Damm

    2014-01-01

    The two North Atlantic eel species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. In this study, we used a RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approach to identify...... species-specific diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and design a low-density array that combined with screening of a diagnostic mitochondrial DNA marker. Eels from Iceland (N=159) and from the neighboring Faroe Islands (N=29) were genotyped, along with 94 larvae (49 European and 45 American...... eel male crosses, backcrosses were also detected, including a first-generation backcross (F1 hybrid × pure European eel) and three individuals identified as second-generation backcrosses originating from American eel × F1 hybrid backcrosses interbreeding with pure European eels. In comparison...

  2. Wind speed estimation using multilayer perceptron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, Ramón; López, Paz; Maseda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a method for determining the average wind speed using neural networks. • We use data from that site in the short term and data from other nearby stations. • The inputs used in the ANN were wind speed and direction data from a station. • The method allows knowing the wind speed without topographical data. - Abstract: Wind speed knowledge is prerequisite in the siting of wind turbines. In consequence the wind energy use requires meticulous and specified knowledge of the wind characteristics at a location. This paper presents a method for determining the annual average wind speed at a complex terrain site by using neural networks, when only short term data are available for that site. This information is useful for preliminary calculations of the wind resource at a remote area having only a short time period of wind measurements measurement in a site. Artificial neural networks are useful for implementing non-linear process variables over time, and therefore are a useful tool for estimating the wind speed. The neural network used is multilayer perceptron with three layers and the supervised learning algorithm used is backpropagation. The inputs used in the neural network were wind speed and direction data from a single station, and the training patterns used correspond to sixty days data. The results obtained by simulating the annual average wind speed at the selected site based on data from nearby stations with correlation coefficients above 0.5 were satisfactory, compared with actual values. Reliable estimations were obtained, with errors below 6%

  3. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  4. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis of bone marrow failure patients reveals characteristic patterns of genetic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, Daria V; Xie, Hongbo M; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Perdigones, Nieves; Olson, Timothy S; Cockroft, Joshua D; Gai, Xiaowu; Perin, Juan C; Li, Yimei; Paessler, Michele E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Mason, Philip J; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Bessler, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) are a heterogeneous group of rare blood disorders characterized by inadequate haematopoiesis, clonal evolution, and increased risk of leukaemia. Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) have been proposed as a tool for surveillance of clonal evolution in BMFS. To better understand the natural history of BMFS and to assess the clinical utility of SNP-A in these disorders, we analysed 124 SNP-A from a comprehensively characterized cohort of 91 patients at our BMFS centre. SNP-A were correlated with medical histories, haematopathology, cytogenetic and molecular data. To assess clonal evolution, longitudinal analysis of SNP-A was performed in 25 patients. We found that acquired copy number-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) was significantly more frequent in acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA) than in other BMFS (odds ratio 12·2, P < 0·01). Homozygosity by descent was most common in congenital BMFS, frequently unmasking autosomal recessive mutations. Copy number variants (CNVs) were frequently polymorphic, and we identified CNVs enriched in neutropenia and aAA. Our results suggest that acquired CN-LOH is a general phenomenon in aAA that is probably mechanistically and prognostically distinct from typical CN-LOH of myeloid malignancies. Our analysis of clinical utility of SNP-A shows the highest yield of detecting new clonal haematopoiesis at diagnosis and at relapse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. First-Case Operating Room Delays: Patterns Across Urban Hospitals of a Single Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie M. Cox Bauer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Operating room delays decrease health care system efficiency and increase costs. To improve operating room efficiency in our system, we retrospectively investigated delay frequencies, causes and costs. Methods: We studied all first-of-the-day nonemergent surgical cases performed at three high-volume urban hospitals of a large health system from July 2012 to November 2013. Times for patient flow from arrival to procedure start and documented reasons for delay were obtained from electronic medical records. Delay was defined as patient placement in the operating room later than scheduled surgery time. Effects of patient characteristics, late patient arrival to the hospital, number of planned procedures, years of surgeon experience, service department and hospital facility on odds of delay were examined using logistic regression. Results: Of 5,598 cases examined, 88% were delayed. Patients arrived late to the hospital (surgery in 65% of first cases. Mean time from arrival to scheduled surgery and in-room placement was 104.6 and 127.4 minutes, respectively. Mean delay time was 28.2 minutes. Nearly 60% of delayed cases had no documented reason for delay. For cases with documentation, causes included the physician (52%, anesthesia (15%, patient (13%, staff (9%, other sources (6% and facility (5%. Regression analysis revealed age, late arrival, department and facility as significant predictors of delay. Estimated delay costs, based on published figures and representing lost revenue, were $519,388. Conclusions: To improve operating room efficiency, multidisciplinary strategies are needed for increasing patient adherence to recommended arrival times, documentation of delay by medical staff and consistency in workflow patterns among facilities and departments.

  7. Single cell analysis of gene expression patterns of competence development and initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis grown on chemically defined media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J. -W.; Smits, W. K.; Hamoen, L. W.; Kuipers, O. P.

    Aim: Understanding the basis for the heterogeneous (or bistable) expression patterns of competence development and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Methods and Results: Using flow cytometric analyses of various promoter-GFP fusions, we have determined the single-cell gene expression patterns of

  8. Different thallium-201 single-photon emission tomographic patterns in benign and aggressive meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, E.; Soricelli, A.; Brunetti, A.; Romano, M.; Bucciero, A.; Iaconetta, G.; Alfieri, A.; Postiglione, A.; Salvatore, M.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of preoperatively obtaining an index of aggressiveness for intracranial meningiomas, we prospectively studied 22 patients with computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging evidence of meningeal tumour, using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) of the brain and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl). On a brain-dedicated SPET scanner, a rapid acquisition protocol with early, short scans was started simultaneously with the intravenous administration of 111 MBq 201 Tl, covering the initial intratumoral distribution of the tracer. Twenty minutes post injection, a delayed SPET scan was also obtained. On the reconstructed and attenuation-corrected images we calculated the 201 Tl concentration in tumour and normal contralateral brain tissue, and compared intratumoral tracer concentration in the initial and the final part of the rapid acquisition protocol. Benign and malignant meningiomas were classified as such based on histological examination. In malignant lesions, the ratio of the 201 Tl concentration at 2-4 min post injection to that at 14-16 min was found to be significantly higher than in non-aggressive neoplasms (mean±1 SD: 1.14±0.31 and 0.56±0.13, respectively, P 201 Tl concentration values at 2-4 and at 14-16 min. Our findings suggest that the comparative assessment of intratumoral 201 Tl concentration at 2-4 and at 14-16 min post injection could provide a fast, simple method to differentiate preoperatively intracranial meningiomas with different biological behaviour. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%, and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA was the commonest (36.5%, followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92% and 30 (36.6%, respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%. Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5% and in 5 (21.7% of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%, high ESR in 45 (54.8%, and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%. Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5% mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52% patients (out of 23 had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9% required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3% required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23% required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia

  10. Online hyphenation of extraction, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and high-speed countercurrent chromatography: A highly efficient strategy for the preparative separation of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Qi; Wang, Shan-Shan; Han, Chao; Xu, Jin-Fang; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2017-12-01

    A novel isolation strategy, online hyphenation of ultrasonic extraction, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography combined with high-speed countercurrent chromatography, was developed for pure compounds extraction and purification. Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was achieved only in a single step purification protocol via the present strategy. The crude powder was ultrasonic extracted and extraction was pumped into Sephadex LH-20 column directly to cut the nontarget fractions followed by the second-dimensional high-speed countercurrent chromatography, hyphenated by a six-port valve equipped at the post-end of Sephadex LH-20 column, for the final purification. The results yielded andrographolide with the amount of 1.02 mg and a purity of 98.5% in a single step, indicating that the present method is effective to harvest target compound from medicinal plant. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Using machine learning to speed up manual image annotation: application to a 3D imaging protocol for measuring single cell gene expression in the developing C. elegans embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterston Robert H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis is an essential component in many biological experiments that study gene expression, cell cycle progression, and protein localization. A protocol for tracking the expression of individual C. elegans genes was developed that collects image samples of a developing embryo by 3-D time lapse microscopy. In this protocol, a program called StarryNite performs the automatic recognition of fluorescently labeled cells and traces their lineage. However, due to the amount of noise present in the data and due to the challenges introduced by increasing number of cells in later stages of development, this program is not error free. In the current version, the error correction (i.e., editing is performed manually using a graphical interface tool named AceTree, which is specifically developed for this task. For a single experiment, this manual annotation task takes several hours. Results In this paper, we reduce the time required to correct errors made by StarryNite. We target one of the most frequent error types (movements annotated as divisions and train a support vector machine (SVM classifier to decide whether a division call made by StarryNite is correct or not. We show, via cross-validation experiments on several benchmark data sets, that the SVM successfully identifies this type of error significantly. A new version of StarryNite that includes the trained SVM classifier is available at http://starrynite.sourceforge.net. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of a machine learning approach to error annotation for StarryNite. In the process, we also provide some general methodologies for developing and validating a classifier with respect to a given pattern recognition task.

  12. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  13. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  14. Single-layer ionic conduction on carboxyl-terminated silane monolayers patterned by constructive lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Jonathan; Burshtain, Doron; Zeira, Assaf; Yoffe, Alexander; Maoz, Rivka; Sagiv, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Ionic transport plays a central role in key technologies relevant to energy, and information processing and storage, as well as in the implementation of biological functions in living organisms. Here, we introduce a supramolecular strategy based on the non-destructive chemical patterning of a highly ordered self-assembled monolayer that allows the reproducible fabrication of ion-conducting surface patterns (ion-conducting channels) with top -COOH functional groups precisely definable over the full range of length scales from nanometre to centimetre. The transport of a single layer of selected metal ions and the electrochemical processes related to their motion may thus be confined to predefined surface paths. As a generic solid ionic conductor that can accommodate different mobile ions in the absence of any added electrolyte, these ion-conducting channels exhibit bias-induced competitive transport of different ionic species. This approach offers unprecedented opportunities for the realization of designed ion-conducting systems with nanoscale control, beyond the inherent limitations posed by available ionic materials.

  15. A 9-Week Jaques-Dalcroze Eurhythmics Intervention Improves Single and Dual-Task Gait Speed in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Vang, Mandy; Wolfe, Anthony S; Thomsen, Kathy M

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures. Nine participants (78.9 ± 12.3 y) completed the supervised JDE intervention (once/week for 60 min). Gait speed was determined by the 6-m timed walk test (6MTW); dual-task gait speed was determined by another 6MTW while counting backward from 50 aloud; and coordinated stability was assessed using a Swaymeter-like device. Gait speed (0.92 ± 0.11 vs 1.04 ± 0.12 m/sec, P = .04) and dual-task gait speed (0.77 ± 0.09 vs 0.92 ± 0.11 m/sec, P = .0005) significantly improved. This novel intervention is an effective short-term physical activity option for those that plan physical activity or fall-risk reduction programs for the older people.

  16. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  17. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  19. Single molecule fluorescence image patterns linked to dipole orientation and axial position: application to myosin cross-bridges in muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Burghardt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivatable fluorescent probes developed specifically for single molecule detection extend advantages of single molecule imaging to high probe density regions of cells and tissues. They perform in the native biomolecule environment and have been used to detect both probe position and orientation.Fluorescence emission from a single photoactivated probe captured in an oil immersion, high numerical aperture objective, produces a spatial pattern on the detector that is a linear combination of 6 independent and distinct spatial basis patterns with weighting coefficients specifying emission dipole orientation. Basis patterns are tabulated for single photoactivated probes labeling myosin cross-bridges in a permeabilized muscle fiber undergoing total internal reflection illumination. Emitter proximity to the glass/aqueous interface at the coverslip implies the dipole near-field and dipole power normalization are significant affecters of the basis patterns. Other characteristics of the basis patterns are contributed by field polarization rotation with transmission through the microscope optics and refraction by the filter set. Pattern recognition utilized the generalized linear model, maximum likelihood fitting, for Poisson distributed uncertainties. This fitting method is more appropriate for treating low signal level photon counting data than χ(2 minimization.Results indicate that emission dipole orientation is measurable from the intensity image except for the ambiguity under dipole inversion. The advantage over an alternative method comparing two measured polarized emission intensities using an analyzing polarizer is that information in the intensity spatial distribution provides more constraints on fitted parameters and a single image provides all the information needed. Axial distance dependence in the emission pattern is also exploited to measure relative probe position near focus. Single molecule images from axial scanning fitted

  20. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of single tracks of 17-4PH steel manufactured at different power densities and scanning speeds by selective laser melting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Selective Laser Melting, the initial units produced are single tracks that overlap to create a single layer; from the sequence of layers, a 3D object is manufactured. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend heavily on the properties...

  2. Transition of spiral calcium waves between multiple stable patterns can be triggered by a single calcium spark in a fire-diffuse-fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Spiral patterns have been found in various nonequilibrium systems. The Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release system in single cardiac cells is unique for highly discrete reaction elements, each giving rise to a Ca2+ spark upon excitation. We imaged the spiral Ca2+ waves in isolated cardiac cells and numerically studied the effect of system excitability on spiral patterns using a two-dimensional fire-diffuse-fire model. We found that under certain conditions, the system was able to display multiple stable patterns of spiral waves, each exhibiting different periods and distinct routines of spiral tips. Transition between these different patterns could be triggered by an internal fluctuation in the form of a single Ca2+ spark. PMID:19792039

  3. Observations and calculations of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns of a single levitated cluster of two and four microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, U.K.; Meier, P.

    2011-01-01

    We use single bi-sphere particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance to record two-dimensional angular scattering patterns at different angles of the coordinate system of the aggregate relative to the incident laser beam. Due to Brownian motion the particle covers the whole set of possible angles with time and allows to select patterns with high symmetry for analysis. These are qualitatively compared to numerical calculations. A small cluster of four spheres shows complex scattering patterns, comparison with computations suggest a low compactness for these clusters. An experimental procedure is proposed for studying restructuring effects occurring in mixed particles upon evaporation. - Research highlights: → Single levitated bi-sphere particle. → Two-dimensional angular scattering pattern. → Comparison experiment with computations.

  4. Transition of spiral calcium waves between multiple stable patterns can be triggered by a single calcium spark in a fire-diffuse-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2009-09-01

    Spiral patterns have been found in various nonequilibrium systems. The Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release system in single cardiac cells is unique for highly discrete reaction elements, each giving rise to a Ca(2+) spark upon excitation. We imaged the spiral Ca(2+) waves in isolated cardiac cells and numerically studied the effect of system excitability on spiral patterns using a two-dimensional fire-diffuse-fire model. We found that under certain conditions, the system was able to display multiple stable patterns of spiral waves, each exhibiting different periods and distinct routines of spiral tips. Transition between these different patterns could be triggered by an internal fluctuation in the form of a single Ca(2+) spark.

  5. Single cell analysis of innate cytokine responses to pattern recognition receptor stimulation in children across four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Cai, Bing; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Gelinas, Laura; Larsen, Martin; Speert, David P; Chamekh, Mustapha; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, and suppression of innate immunity is associated with increased risk for infection. We had previously shown that whole blood cellular components from a cohort of South African children secreted significantly lower levels of most cytokines following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) as compared to whole blood from cohorts of Ecuadorian, Belgian, or Canadian children. To begin dissecting the responsible molecular mechanisms, we now set out to identify the relevant cellular source of these differences. Across the four cohorts represented in our study, we identified significant variation in the cellular composition of whole blood; however, significant reduction of the intracellular cytokine production on the single cell level was only detected in South African childrens’ monocytes, cDC, and pDC. We also uncovered a marked reduction in polyfunctionality for each of these cellular compartments in South African children as compared to children from other continents. Together our data identify differences in cell composition as well as profoundly lower functional responses of innate cells in our cohort of South African children. A possible link between altered innate immunity and increased risk for infection or lower response to vaccines in South African infants needs to be explored. PMID:25135829

  6. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  7. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  8. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  9. Structural patterns of the Lake Erçek Basin, eastern Anatolia (Turkey): evidence from single-channel seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Mustafa; Tur, Hüseyin

    2017-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of the single-channel high-resolution shallow seismic reflection data from Lake Erçek, eastern Anatolia, to provide key information on the deformational elements, on the fault patterns and on the overall tectonic structure of the Lake Erçek Basin. High-resolution seismic data reveal major structural and deformational features, including N-S trending normal faults and W-E trending reverse faults bounding the Lake Erçek Basin, basement highs and folded structures along the marginal sections of the lake. The N-S trending normal faults asymmetrically control the steep western margin and the gentle eastern deltaic section, while the W-E trending reverse faults appear at the northern and southern margins. The N-S trending normal faults, half-graben structure, and the gradual thickening of sediments in the Erçek Basin toward the fault scarps strongly suggest an extensional tectonic regime resulting from an N-S compression. The Erçek Basin is an extension-controlled depocenter; it is a relatively undeformed and flat-lying deep Basin, forming a typical example of the half-graben structure. The N-S trending normal faults appear to be currently active and control the lake center and the E-delta section, resulting in subsidence in the lake floor. In the N- and S-margins of the lake, there is evidence of folding, faulting and accompanying block uplifting, suggesting a significant N-S compressional regime that results in the reverse faulting and basement highs along the marginal sections. The folding and faulting caused strong uplift of the basement blocks in the N- and S- margins, subsequently exposing the shelf and slope areas. The exposed areas are evident in the erosional unconformity of the surface of the basement highs and thinned sediments. The tilted basement strata and subsequent erosion over the basement block highs suggest prominent structural inversion, probably long before the formation of the lake. New high-resolution seismic

  10. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  11. Patterns of Failure Following Multimodal Treatment for Medulloblastoma: Long-Term Follow-up Results at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Jaeho; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu Won; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Han, Jung Woo; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the long-term results and appropriateness of radiation therapy (RT) for medulloblastoma (MB) at a single institution. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of 106 patients with MB who received RT between January 1992 and October 2009. The median age was 7 years (range, 0 to 50 years), and the proportion of M0, M1, M2, and M3 stages was 60.4%, 8.5%, 4.7%, and 22.6%, respectively. The median total craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and posterior fossa tumor bed dose in 102 patients (96.2%) treated with CSI was 36 Gy and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period in survivors was 132 months (range, 31 to 248 months). A gradual improvement in survival outcomes was observed, with 5-year overall survival rates of 61.5% in 1990s increasing to 73.6% in 2000s. A total of 29 recurrences (27.4%) developed at the following sites: five (17.2%) in the tumor bed; five (17.2%) in the posterior fossa other than the tumor bed; nine (31%) in the supratentorium; and six (20.7%) in the spinal subarachnoid space only. The four remaining patients showed multiple site recurrences. Among 12 supratentorial recurrences, five cases recurred in the subfrontal areas. Although the frequency of posterior fossa/tumor bed recurrences was significantly high among patients treated with subtotal resection, other site (other intracranial/spinal) recurrences were more common among patients treated with gross tumor removal (p=0.016). There was no case of spinal subarachnoid space relapse from desmoplastic/extensive nodular histological subtypes. Long-term follow-up results and patterns of failure confirmed the importance of optimal RT dose and field arrangement. More tailored multimodal strategies and proper CSI technique may be the cornerstones for improving treatment outcomes in MB patients.

  12. Extending the Linear Modulation Range to the Full Base Speed Using a Single DC-Link Multilevel Inverter With Capacitor-Fed H-Bridges for IM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahul, Arun; Pramanick, Sumit; Kaarthik, R. Sudharshan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage of the in......In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage...... of the inverter can be increased from 0.577 to 0.637Vdc without increasing the dc bus voltage and without exceeding the induction motor voltage rating. This new technique makes use of cascaded inverter pole voltage redundancy and property of the space vector structure for its operation. Using this, the induction...

  13. Indigenously developed large pumping speed cryoadsorption cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangradey, Ranjana; Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti; Agarwal, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous cryoadsorption cryopump with large pumping speeds for fusion reactor application has been developed at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). Towards its successful realization, technological bottlenecks were identified, studied and resolved. Hydroformed cryopanels were developed from concept leading to the design and product realization with successful technology transfer to the industry. This has led to the expertise for developing hydroformed panels for any desired shape, geometry and welding pattern. Activated sorbents were developed, characterized using an experimental set up which measures adsorption isotherms down to 4K for hydrogen and helium. Special techniques were evolved for coating sorbents on hydroformed cryopanels with suitable cryo-adhesives. Various arrangements of cryopanels at 4 K surrounded by 80 K shields and baffles (which are also hydroformed) were studied and optimized by transmission probability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques. CFD analysis was used to study the temperature distribution and flow analysis during the cryogen flow through the panels. Integration of the developed technologies to arrive at the final product was a challenging task and this was meticulously planned and executed. This resulted in a cryoadsorption cryopump offering pumping speeds as high as 50,000 to 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen with a 3.2 m 2 of sorbent panel area. The first laboratory scale pump integrating the developed technologies was a Small Scale CryoPump (SSCP-01) with a pumping speed of 2,000 1/s for helium. Subsequently, Single Panel CryoPump (SPCP-01) with pumping speed 10,000 1/s for helium and a Multiple Panel CryoPump (MPCP-08) with a pumping speed of 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen respectively were developed. This paper describes the efforts in realizing these products from laboratory to industrial scales. (author)

  14. Variation in transfusion rates within a single institution: exploring the effect of differing practice patterns on the likelihood of blood product transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Claudia; MacLeod, Jeffrey B; Yip, Alexandra M; Ouzounian, Maral; Brown, Craig D; Forgie, Rand; Pelletier, Marc P; Hassan, Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Rates of perioperative transfusion vary widely among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Few studies have examined factors beyond the clinical characteristics of the patients that may be responsible for such variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differing practice patterns had an impact on variation in perioperative transfusion at a single center. Patients who underwent cardiac surgery at a single center between 2004 and 2011 were considered. Comparisons were made between patients who had received a perioperative transfusion and those who had not from the clinical factors at baseline, intraoperative variables, and differing practice patterns, as defined by the surgeon, anesthesiologist, perfusionist, and the year in which the procedure was performed. The risk-adjusted effect of these factors on perioperative transfusion rates was determined using multivariable regression modeling techniques. The study population comprised 4823 patients, of whom 1929 (40.0%) received a perioperative transfusion. Significant variation in perioperative transfusion rates was noted between surgeons (from 32.4% to 51.5%, P patterns contribute to significant variation in rates of perioperative transfusion within a single center. Strategies aimed at reducing overall transfusion rates must take into account such variability in practice patterns and account for nonclinical factors as well as known clinical predictors of blood transfusions. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous 10 Gbps data and polarization-based pulse-per-second clock transmission using a single VCSEL for high-speed optical fibre access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    Access networks based on vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitters offer alternative solution in delivering different high bandwidth, cost effective services to the customer premises. Clock and reference frequency distribution is critical for applications such as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), GPS, banking and big data science projects. Simultaneous distribution of both data and timing signals over shared infrastructure is thus desirable. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel, cost-effective technique for multi-signal modulation on a single VCSEL transmitter. Two signal types, an intensity modulated 10 Gbps data signal and a polarization-based pulse per second (PPS) clock signal are directly modulated onto a single VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm. Spectral efficiency is maximized by exploiting inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL with changing bias in transmission of the PPS signal. A 10 Gbps VCSEL transmission with PPS over 11 km of G.652 fibre introduced a transmission penalty of 0.52 dB. The contribution of PPS to this penalty was found to be 0.08 dB.

  16. Unconscious Local Motion Alters Global Image Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K.; Chung, Charles Y. L.; Lord, Stephanie; Pearson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed. PMID:25503603

  17. Accounting for Laser Extinction, Signal Attenuation, and Secondary Emission While Performing Optical Patternation in a Single Plane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, C

    2002-01-01

    An optical patternation method is described where the effects of laser extinction and signal attenuation can be corrected for, and where secondary scattering effects are reduced by probing the spray...

  18. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of fast-dissolving paracetamol on postsurgical dental pain: two randomized, single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Brown, Jean; Buchanan, William L; Reed, Kenneth; Cooper, Stephen A; Otto, James

    2013-09-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the-counter analgesic for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. However, the speed of onset of pain relief is limited mainly to the standard, immediate-release formulation. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief are critical in acute pain situations such as postsurgical dental pain, because reducing pain can improve clinical outcome and reduce the risk of transition from acute pain to more chronic pain. Efficacy and rapid onset also reduce the risk of excessive dosing with the analgesic. We sought to investigate the dose-response efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of a fast-dissolving APAP formulation compared with lower doses of APAP and placebo in dental patients after impacted third molar extraction. Two single-center, single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group studies (Study I and Study II) were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of different doses of a fast-dissolving APAP tablet (FD-APAP), standard APAP, and placebo in patients with postsurgical dental pain following third molar extraction. In Study I, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, FD-APAP 500 mg, or placebo was given to 300 patients; in Study II, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, standard APAP 650 mg, or placebo was given to 401 patients. All 701 patients from both studies were included in the analysis and safety assessment. FD-APAP 1000 mg demonstrated significantly greater effect compared with FD-APAP 500 mg, APAP 650 mg, and placebo for all efficacy measurements, including sum of pain relief and pain intensity difference, total pain relief, sum of pain intensity difference, pain intensity difference, and pain relief score during 6 hours after the dose. Onset of confirmed first perceptible relief in subjects treated with FD-APAP 1000 mg was 15 minutes, which was 32% and 25% significantly shorter than onset of pain relief of FD

  20. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  1. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of rifampin resistance patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Iran by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nasr Isfahani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the rpoB locus confer conformational changes leading to defective binding of rifampin (RIF to rpoB and consequently resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP was established as a rapid screening test for the detection of mutations in the rpoB gene, and direct sequencing has been unambiguously applied to characterize mutations. A total of 37 of Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis, 16 sensitive and 21 resistant to RIF, were used in this study. A 193-bp region of the rpoB gene was amplified and PCR-SSCP patterns were determined by electrophoresis in 10% acrylamide gel and silver staining. Also, 21 samples of 193-bp rpoB amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns from RIFr and 10 from RIFs were sequenced. Seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns were recognized in the 21 Iranian RIFr strains, while 15 out of 16 RIFs isolates demonstrated PCR-SSCP banding patterns similar to that of sensitive standard strain H37Rv. However one of the sensitive isolates demonstrated a different pattern. There were seen six different mutations in the amplified region of rpoB gene: codon 516(GAC/GTC, 523(GGG/GGT, 526(CAC/TAC, 531(TCG/TTG, 511(CTG/TTG, and 512(AGC/TCG. This study demonstrated the high specificity (93.8% and sensitivity (95.2% of PCR-SSCP method for detection of mutation in rpoB gene; 85.7% of RIFr strains showed a single mutation and 14.3% had no mutations. Three strains showed mutations caused polymorphism. Our data support the common notion that rifampin resistance genotypes are generally present mutations in codons 531 and 526, most frequently found in M. tuberculosis populations regardless of geographic origin.

  3. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong; Kang, Jihoon; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  4. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon, E-mail: ray.jihoon.kang@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 50 Daehak-ro, Yeosu, Jeonnam 59626 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-21

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  5. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  6. Spinopelvic dissociation: multidetector computed tomographic evaluation of fracture patterns and associated injuries at a single level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Lenchik, Leon; Wuertzer, Scott D; Miller, Anna N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) fracture patterns and associated injuries in patients with spinopelvic dissociation (SPD). Our institutional trauma registry database was reviewed from Jan. 1, 2006, to Sept. 30, 2012, specifically evaluating patients with sacral fractures. MDCT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of SPD. SPD cases were characterized into the following fracture patterns: U-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, and burst. The following MDCT features were recorded: level of the horizontal fracture, location of vertical fracture, kyphosis between major fracture fragments, displacement of fracture fragment, narrowing of central spinal canal, narrowing of neural foramina, and extension into sacroiliac joints. Quantitative evaluation of the sacral fractures was performed in accordance with the consensus statement by the Spine Trauma Study Group. Medical records were reviewed to determine associated pelvic and non-pelvic fractures, bladder and bowel injuries, nerve injuries, and type of surgical intervention. Twenty-one patients had SPD, of whom 13 were men and eight were women. Mean age was 41.8 years (range 18.8 to 87.7). Five fractures (24 %) were U-shaped, six (29 %) H-shaped, four (19 %) Y-shaped, and six (29 %) burst. Nine patients (43 %) had central canal narrowing, and 19 (90 %) had neural foramina narrowing. Eleven patients (52 %) had kyphotic angulation between major fracture fragments, and seven patients (33 %) had either anterior (24 %) or posterior (10 %) displacement of the proximal fracture fragment. Fourteen patients (67 %) had associated pelvic fractures, and 20 (95 %) had associated non-pelvic fractures. Two patients (10 %) had associated urethral injuries, and one (5 %) had an associated colon injury. Seven patients (33 %) had associated nerve injuries. Six patients (29 %) had surgical fixation while 15 (71 %) were

  7. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles—improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  8. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles – Improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.

  9. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2014-04-07

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  11. TEM Nano-Moiré Pattern Analysis of a Copper/Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Synthesized by Laser Surface Implanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay F. Tu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous studies, we have developed a wet process to synthesize a copper-single walled carbon nanotube (Cu–SWCNT metal nanocomposite with excellent mechanical properties. The nanostructure of this Cu–SWCNT composite was confirmed independently by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping, spectroscopy measurements, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM images with discernable SWCNT clusters in nano sizes. However, TEM images with discernable nano-sized SWCNT clusters are rare. In this paper, we present analysis of indirect TEM image patterns, such as moiré fringes, to infer the existence of SWCNT clusters within the copper matrix. Moiré fringes or patterns in the TEM images of a Cu–SWCNT nanocomposite could be generated due to the overlapping of more than one thin crystals with similar periodic arrangements of atoms, promoted by SWCNT clusters. However, the presence of moiré patterns is not a sufficient or a necessary condition for the existence of SWCNT clusters. It was found that based on the overlapping angle of two periodic arrangements, it is feasible to distinguish the moiré fringes induced by SWCNT clusters from those by other factors, such as dislocations. The ability to identify SWCNTs within the copper matrix based on indirect TEM moiré patterns helps to widen the usability of TEM images.

  12. Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza, S; Wong, W S; Fröjdh, E; Norlin, B; Fröjdh, C; Thungström, G; Thim, J

    2012-01-01

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device.

  13. Patterns of Care in Elderly Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiation Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaohui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Lockwood, Gina; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Dawson, Laura A.; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Witterick, Ian; Chen, Eric X.; Ringash, Jolie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of care for elderly head-and-neck cancer patients with those of younger patients. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of all new mucosal head-and-neck cancer referrals to radiation oncology between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, treatment pattern, tolerance, and outcomes were compared between the elderly (aged ≥75 years) and younger (aged <75 years) cohorts. Results: A total of 2,312 patients, including 452 (20%) elderly and 1,860 (80%) younger patients, were studied. The elderly patients were more likely to be women (36% vs. 27%, p <.01) and to have other malignancies (23% vs. 13%, p <.01), Stage I or II disease (38% vs. 32%, p <.01), and N0 status (56% vs. 42%, p <.01). Treatment was less often curative in intent (79% vs. 93%, p <.01). For the 1,487 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT), no differences were found between the elderly (n = 238) and younger (n = 1,249) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. Within the subset of 760 patients who received intensified treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy or hyperfractionated accelerated RT), no difference was seen between the elderly (n = 46) and younger (n = 714) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year cause-specific survival rate after definitive RT was 72% (range, 65-78%) for the elderly vs. 86% (range, 84-88%) for the younger patients (p <.01). Conclusion: Elderly head-and-neck cancer patients exhibited different clinical characteristics and experienced different patterns of care from younger patients. Although age itself was an adverse predictor of cause-specific survival, its effect was modest. Elderly patients selected for definitive RT or intensified RT showed no evidence of impaired treatment tolerance.

  14. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, M V; Spengler, N; Mager, D; Wang, N; Kiss, S Z; Höfflin, J; While, P T; Korvink, J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner. (paper)

  15. Myxoid Liposarcoma: Prognostic Factors and Metastatic Pattern in a Series of 148 Patients Treated at a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Muratori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The authors reported a retrospective study on myxoid liposarcomas (MLs, evaluating factors that may influence overall survival (OS, local recurrence-free survival (LRFS, metastasis-free survival (MFS, and analyzing the metastatic pattern. Methods. 148 MLs were analyzed. The sites of metastases were investigated. Results. Margins (p = 0.002, grading (p = 0,0479, and metastasis (p < 0,0001 were significant risk factors affecting overall survival (OS. Type of presentation (p = 0.0243, grading (p = 0,0055, margin (p = 0.0001, and local recurrence (0.0437 were risk factors on metastasis-free survival (MFS. Authors did not observe statistically significant risk factors for local recurrence-free survival (LRFS and reported 55% extrapulmonary metastases and 45% pulmonary metastases. Conclusion. Margins, grading, presentation, local recurrence, and metastasis were prognostic factors. Extrapulmonary metastases were more frequent in myxoid liposarcoma.

  16. Towards defect free EUVL reticles: carbon and particle removal by single dry cleaning process and pattern repair by HIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, N. B.; Molkenboer, F. T.; van Veldhoven, E.; Oostrom, S.

    2011-04-01

    We report on our findings on EUVL reticle contamination removal, inspection and repair. We show that carbon contamination can be removed without damage to the reticle by our plasma process. Also organic particles, simulated by PSL spheres, can be removed from both the surface of the absorber as well as from the bottom of the trenches. The particles shrink in size during the plasma treatment until they are vanished. The determination of the necessary cleaning time for PSL spheres was conducted on Ru coated samples and the final experiment was performed on our dummy reticle. Finally we show that the Helium Ion Microscope in combination with a Gas Injection System is capable of depositing additional lines and squares on the reticle with sufficient resolution for pattern repair.

  17. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  18. Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009 were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (27.6%, followed by minimal change disease (MCD (17.7% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (13.0%. Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN being the most common lesion (54.5%, followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%, post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%, diabetic nephropathy (DN (6.8% and vasculitides (4.5%. Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow

  19. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  20. Laws of evolution of slip trace pattern and its parameters with deformation in [1.8.12] – single crystals of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplyakova, Ludmila, E-mail: lat168@mail.ru; Koneva, Nina, E-mail: koneva@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kunitsyna, Tatyana, E-mail: kma11061990@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The slip trace pattern of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy single crystals with the short range order oriented for a single slip were investigated on replica at different stages of deformation using the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. The connection of staging with the formation of slip trace pattern and the change of its parameters were established. The number of local areas where two or more slip systems work is increased with the change of stages. In these conditions the character of slip localization in the primary slip system is changed from the packets to the homogeneous distribution. The distributions of the distances between slip traces and the shear power in slip traces were plotted. The correlation between the average value of the shear power in the primary slip traces and the average distance between them was revealed in this work. It was established that the rates of the average value growth of the relative local shear and the shear power in the slip traces reach the largest values at the transition stage.

  1. Single-cell and coupled GRN models of cell patterning in the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Buylla Elena R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental work has uncovered some of the genetic components required to maintain the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche (SCN and its structure. Two main pathways are involved. One pathway depends on the genes SHORTROOT and SCARECROW and the other depends on the PLETHORA genes, which have been proposed to constitute the auxin readouts. Recent evidence suggests that a regulatory circuit, composed of WOX5 and CLE40, also contributes to the SCN maintenance. Yet, we still do not understand how the niche is dynamically maintained and patterned or if the uncovered molecular components are sufficient to recover the observed gene expression configurations that characterize the cell types within the root SCN. Mathematical and computational tools have proven useful in understanding the dynamics of cell differentiation. Hence, to further explore root SCN patterning, we integrated available experimental data into dynamic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN models and addressed if these are sufficient to attain observed gene expression configurations in the root SCN in a robust and autonomous manner. Results We found that an SCN GRN model based only on experimental data did not reproduce the configurations observed within the root SCN. We developed several alternative GRN models that recover these expected stable gene configurations. Such models incorporate a few additional components and interactions in addition to those that have been uncovered. The recovered configurations are stable to perturbations, and the models are able to recover the observed gene expression profiles of almost all the mutants described so far. However, the robustness of the postulated GRNs is not as high as that of other previously studied networks. Conclusions These models are the first published approximations for a dynamic mechanism of the A. thaliana root SCN cellular pattering. Our model is useful to formally show that the data now available are not

  2. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y, 147Pm and 204TI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern s four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); 147 Pm, (518 MBq) and 204 TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of 147 Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, (α 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s -1 and 0.027 mGy s -1 , respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; 90 Sr / 90 Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s -1 and 0.002 mGy s -1 , with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the 147 Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 μGy s -1 and 0.43 μGy s -1 , with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the 204 TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 μGy s -1 with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with separations different from zero, models of simple lineal regression were used. However for the case of the

  3. Distinct spatio temporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campalans, Anna; Kortulewski, Thierry; Amouroux, Rachel; Radicella, J. Pablo; Menoni, Herve; Vermeulen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected. (authors)

  4. Incidence and patterns of valvular heart disease in a tertiary care high-volume cardiac center: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, C N; Srinivas, P; Ravindranath, K S; Dhanalakshmi, C

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of the heart valves constitute a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) being the dominant form of valvular heart disease (VHD) in developing nations. The current study was undertaken at a tertiary care cardiac center with the objective of establishing the incidence and patterns of VHD by Echocardiography (Echo). Among the 136,098 first-time Echocardiograms performed between January 2010 and December 2012, an exclusion criterion of trivial and functional regurgitant lesions yielded a total of 13,289 cases of organic valvular heart disease as the study cohort. In RHD, the order of involvement of valves was mitral (60.2%), followed by aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Mitral stenosis, predominantly seen in females, was almost exclusively of rheumatic etiology (97.4%). The predominant form of isolated MR was rheumatic (41.1%) followed closely by myxomatous or mitral valve prolapse (40.8%). Isolated AS, more common in males, was the third most common valve lesion seen in 7.3% of cases. Degenerative calcification was the commonest cause of isolated AS (65.0%) followed by bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (33.9%) and RHD (1.1%). Multiple valves were involved in more than a third of all cases (36.8%). The order of involvement was MS + MR > MS + AR > MR + AR > AS + AR > MR + AS > MS + AS. Overall, 9.7% of cases had organic tricuspid valve disease. RHD contributed most to the burden of VHD in the present study with calcific degeneration, myxomatous disease and BAV being the other major forms of VHD. Multiple valves were affected in more than a third of all cases. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pattern of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children living in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jameela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS remains a challenge facing pediatric nephrologists. The underlying histopathology usually affects the course of the disease and the response to treatment. We studied the pattern of histopathology in children with SRNS who presented to the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The records of all children with primary SRNS, who were seen between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Only patients who had undergone a renal biopsy were included in the study. The histopathology slides were reviewed by two renal pathologists independently. Patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome, lupus or sickle cell disease, were excluded from the study. Thirty-six children fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and included 25 girls and 11 boys with female to male ratio of 2.3:1. Fifty percent of the children (n=18 were Saudi and the remaining 50% were from various other racial backgrounds (9 Asians, 4 Arabs, 2 Africans and 3 from the Far East. Their mean age at presentation was 4.3 ± 3.0 years (range 1-12 years. The mean serum albumin at presentation was 15.6 ± 7.1 g/L and all of them had 4+ proteinuria on urinalysis. Five children had elevated serum creatinine at presentation while the mean serum creatinine was 50.4 ± 45.6 µmol/L. Three children had low serum complement levels at presentation and none were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or antinuclear antibody (ANA. The renal histopathology was compatible with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in 39% (n=14, IgM nephro-pathy in 28% (n=10, mesengioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN in 17% (n=6, mini-mal change disease (MCD and C1q nephropathy (C1qNP in 8% each (n=3 + 3 and IgA nephro-pathy in 3% (n=1. Our retrospective review shows that FSGS was the commonest underlying histopathology in children who presented with SRNS followed by IgM nephropathy and other variants of MCD such as MesPGN. C1qNP was the underlying cause in some

  6. Bayesian Predictive Models for Rayleigh Wind Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahirinia, Amir; Hajizadeh, Amin; Yu, David C

    2017-01-01

    predictive model of the wind speed aggregates the non-homogeneous distributions into a single continuous distribution. Therefore, the result is able to capture the variation among the probability distributions of the wind speeds at the turbines’ locations in a wind farm. More specifically, instead of using...... a wind speed distribution whose parameters are known or estimated, the parameters are considered as random whose variations are according to probability distributions. The Bayesian predictive model for a Rayleigh which only has a single model scale parameter has been proposed. Also closed-form posterior...... and predictive inferences under different reasonable choices of prior distribution in sensitivity analysis have been presented....

  7. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after single-lung transplantation: impact of time to onset on functional pattern and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugière, Olivier; Pessione, Fabienne; Thabut, Gabriel; Mal, Hervé; Jebrak, Gilles; Lesèche, Guy; Fournier, Michel

    2002-06-01

    Among risk factors for the progression of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LT), the influence of time to BOS onset is not known. The aim of the study was to assess if BOS occurring earlier after LT is associated with worse functional prognosis and worse graft survival. We retrospectively compared functional outcome and survival of all single-LT (SLT) recipients who had BOS develop during follow-up in our center according to time to onset of BOS ( or = 3 years after transplantation). Among the 29 SLT recipients with BOS identified during the study period, 20 patients had early-onset BOS and 9 patients had late-onset BOS. The mean decline of FEV(1) over time during the first 9 months in patients with early-onset BOS was significantly greater than in patients with of late-onset BOS (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, patients with early-onset BOS had a lower mean FEV(1) value (25% vs 39% of predicted, p = 0.004), a lower mean PaO(2) value (54 mm Hg vs 73 mm Hg, p = 0.0005), a lower 6-min walk test distance (241 m vs 414 m, p = 0.001), a higher Medical Research Council index value (3.6 vs 1.6, p = 0.0001), and a higher percentage of oxygen dependency (90% vs 11%, p = 0.001) compared with patients with late-onset BOS. In addition, graft survival of patients with early-onset BOS was significantly lower than that of patients with late-onset BOS (log-rank test, p = 0.04). There were 18 of 20 graft failures (90%) in the early-onset BOS group, directly attributable to BOS in all cases (deaths [n = 10] or retransplantation [n = 8]). In the late-onset BOS group, graft failure occurred in four of nine patients due to death from extrapulmonary causes in three of four cases. The median duration of follow-up after occurrence of BOS was not statistically different between patients with early-onset BOS and patients with late-onset BOS (31 +/- 28 months and 37 +/- 26 months, respectively; p = not significant). The subgroup of patients who had BOS develop

  8. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  9. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  10. Growth of a single-wall carbon nanotube film and its patterning as an n-type field effect transistor device using an integrated circuit compatible process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiau, S H; Gau, C [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C W; Dai, B T [National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 27, Nanke 3rd Road, Science-based Industrial Park, Hsin-shi, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gauc@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-03-12

    This study presents the synthesis of a dense single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) network on a silicon substrate using alcohol as the source gas. The nanosize catalysts required are made by the reduction of metal compounds in ethanol. The key point in spreading the nanoparticles on the substrate, so that the SWNT network can be grown over the entire wafer, is making the substrate surface hydrophilic. This SWNT network is so dense that it can be treated like a thin film. Methods of patterning this SWNT film with integrated circuit compatible processes are presented and discussed for the first time in the literature. Finally, fabrication and characteristic measurements of a field effect transistor (FET) using this SWNT film are also demonstrated. This FET is shown to have better electronic properties than any other kind of thin film transistor. This thin film with good electronic properties can be readily applied in the processing of many other SWNT electronic devices.

  11. Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Simon

    Full Text Available The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva, was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential.

  12. Utilisation patterns and cost of hospital care for people living with HIV in Ireland in 2012: a single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Aline; Horgan, Mary; Jackson, Arthur; Browne, John P; Bergin, Colm J

    2017-03-01

    Data on the pattern and cost of health service use by HIV patients are required for evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of new drugs and technologies as well as being essential for service planning. The aim of this study was to identify the utilisation patterns and cost of hospital care for HIV patients in a single centre in Ireland in 2012. Data on the frequency and non-drug costs of all hospital resources used by HIV patients were extracted from a hospital activity-based costing system. Cost data were analysed using a generalised linear model. A total of 328 patients, 3672 patient months, were included in this study. Patients had a mean of 4.4 scheduled infectious disease outpatient appointments per patient year; 37% of patients also used another outpatient service, 15% in-patient services, 4% day-case service and 18% emergency department services in 2012. Patients with very advanced HIV disease continue to incur a disproportionate amount of the total cost of providing care. This study provides baseline utilisation and cost data for use of both infectious-disease and non-infectious disease hospital services and will be useful for service planning in light of the likely increases in resource demands.

  13. Emotion Recognition from Single-Trial EEG Based on Kernel Fisher’s Emotion Pattern and Imbalanced Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram-based emotion recognition (EEG-ER has received increasing attention in the fields of health care, affective computing, and brain-computer interface (BCI. However, satisfactory ER performance within a bi-dimensional and non-discrete emotional space using single-trial EEG data remains a challenging task. To address this issue, we propose a three-layer scheme for single-trial EEG-ER. In the first layer, a set of spectral powers of different EEG frequency bands are extracted from multi-channel single-trial EEG signals. In the second layer, the kernel Fisher’s discriminant analysis method is applied to further extract features with better discrimination ability from the EEG spectral powers. The feature vector produced by layer 2 is called a kernel Fisher’s emotion pattern (KFEP, and is sent into layer 3 for further classification where the proposed imbalanced quasiconformal kernel support vector machine (IQK-SVM serves as the emotion classifier. The outputs of the three layer EEG-ER system include labels of emotional valence and arousal. Furthermore, to collect effective training and testing datasets for the current EEG-ER system, we also use an emotion-induction paradigm in which a set of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS are employed as emotion induction stimuli. The performance of the proposed three-layer solution is compared with that of other EEG spectral power-based features and emotion classifiers. Results on 10 healthy participants indicate that the proposed KFEP feature performs better than other spectral power features, and IQK-SVM outperforms traditional SVM in terms of the EEG-ER accuracy. Our findings also show that the proposed EEG-ER scheme achieves the highest classification accuracies of valence (82.68% and arousal (84.79% among all testing methods.

  14. Non-vacuum, single-step conductive transparent ZnO patterning by ultra-short pulsed laser annealing of solution-deposited nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daeho; Pan, Heng; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P. [University of California, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ko, Seung Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee K. [AppliFlex LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    A solution-processable, high-concentration transparent ZnO nanoparticle (NP) solution was successfully synthesized in a new process. A highly transparent ZnO thin film was fabricated by spin coating without vacuum deposition. Subsequent ultra-short-pulsed laser annealing at room temperature was performed to change the film properties without using a blanket high temperature heating process. Although the as-deposited NP thin film was not electrically conductive, laser annealing imparted a large conductivity increase and furthermore enabled selective annealing to write conductive patterns directly on the NP thin film without a photolithographic process. Conductivity enhancement could be obtained by altering the laser annealing parameters. Parametric studies including the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the annealed ZnO NP thin film were conducted for various laser powers, scanning speeds and background gas conditions. The lowest resistivity from laser-annealed ZnO thin film was about 4.75 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm, exhibiting a factor of 10{sup 5} higher conductivity than the previously reported furnace-annealed ZnO NP film and is even comparable to that of vacuum-deposited, impurity-doped ZnO films within a factor of 10. The process developed in this work was applied to the fabrication of a thin film transistor (TFT) device that showed enhanced performance compared with furnace-annealed devices. A ZnO TFT performance test revealed that by just changing the laser parameters, the solution-deposited ZnO thin film can also perform as a semiconductor, demonstrating that laser annealing offers tunability of ZnO thin film properties for both transparent conductors and semiconductors. (orig.)

  15. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  16. From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An…

  17. Improved road traffic emission inventories by adding mean speed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Poelman, M.; Schrijver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Does consideration of average speed distributions on roads-as compared to single mean speed-lead to different results in emission modelling of large road networks? To address this question, a post-processing method is developed to predict mean speed distributions using available traffic data from a

  18. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent

  19. Lower extremity biomechanical relationships with different speeds in traditional, minimalist, and barefoot footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William; Swank, Seth; Teisberg, Madeline; Hampton, Bethany; Ridpath, Lance; Hanna, Jandy B

    2015-06-01

    Minimalist running footwear has grown increasingly popular. Prior studies that have compared lower extremity biomechanics in minimalist running to traditional running conditions are largely limited to a single running velocity. This study compares the effects of running at various speeds on foot strike pattern, stride length, knee angles and ankle angles in traditional, barefoot, and minimalist running conditions. Twenty-six recreational runners (19-46 years of age) ran on a treadmill at a range of speeds (2.5-4.0 m·sec(-1)). Subjects ran with four different footwear conditions: personal, standard, and minimalist shoes and barefoot. 3D coordinates from video data were collected. The relationships between speed, knee and ankle angles at foot strike and toe-off, relative step length, and footwear conditions were evaluated by ANCOVA, with speed as the co-variate. Distribution of non-rearfoot strike was compared across shod conditions with paired t-tests. Non-rearfoot strike distribution was not significantly affected by speed, but was different between shod conditions (p strike. When controlling for foot strike style, barefoot and minimalist runners exhibited greater plantarflexion than other conditions (p strike pattern. Additionally, speed and footwear predict ankle angles (greater plantarflexion at foot strike) and may have implications for minimalist runners and their risk of injury. Long-term studies utilizing various speeds and habituation times are needed. Key pointsFoot strike style does not change with speed, but does change with shod condition, with minimalist shoes exhibiting an intermediate distribution of forefoot strikes between barefoot and traditional shoes.Plantarflexion at touchdown does change with speed and with shoe type, with barefoot and minimalist shoes exhibiting a greater plantarflexion angle than traditional running shoes.Knee angles change with speed in all shod conditions, but knee flexion at touchdown is not different between shod

  20. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Sëma

    2015-05-14

    Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly

  1. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment

  2. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment.

  3. Using c-Jun to identify fear extinction learning-specific patterns of neural activity that are affected by single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R; Staib, Jennifer M; David, Nina P; DePietro, Thomas; Chamness, Marisa; Schneider, Elizabeth K; Keller, Samantha M; Lawless, Caroline

    2018-04-02

    Neural circuits via which stress leads to disruptions in fear extinction is often explored in animal stress models. Using the single prolonged stress (SPS) model of post traumatic stress disorder and the immediate early gene (IEG) c-Fos as a measure of neural activity, we previously identified patterns of neural activity through which SPS disrupts extinction retention. However, none of these stress effects were specific to fear or extinction learning and memory. C-Jun is another IEG that is sometimes regulated in a different manner to c-Fos and could be used to identify emotional learning/memory specific patterns of neural activity that are sensitive to SPS. Animals were either fear conditioned (CS-fear) or presented with CSs only (CS-only) then subjected to extinction training and testing. C-Jun was then assayed within neural substrates critical for extinction memory. Inhibited c-Jun levels in the hippocampus (Hipp) and enhanced functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during extinction training was disrupted by SPS in the CS-fear group only. As a result, these effects were specific to emotional learning/memory. SPS also disrupted inhibited Hipp c-Jun levels, enhanced BLA c-Jun levels, and altered functional connectivity among the vmPFC, BLA, and Hipp during extinction testing in SPS rats in the CS-fear and CS-only groups. As a result, these effects were not specific to emotional learning/memory. Our findings suggest that SPS disrupts neural activity specific to extinction memory, but may also disrupt the retention of fear extinction by mechanisms that do not involve emotional learning/memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  5. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  6. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  7. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  8. Site-specific forest-assembly of single-wall carbon nanotubes on electron-beam patterned SiOx/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Haoyan; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kim, Sejong; Huey, Bryan D.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Marcus, Harris L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on electron-beam direct writing on the SiO x /Si substrates, favorable absorption sites for ferric cations (Fe 3+ ions) were created on the surface oxide layer. This allowed Fe 3+ -assisted self-assembled arrays of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) probes to be produced. Auger investigation indicated that the incident energetic electrons depleted oxygen, creating more dangling bonds around Si atoms at the surface of the SiO x layer. This resulted in a distinct difference in the friction forces from unexposed regions as measured by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) affirmed that the irradiated domains absorbed considerably more Fe 3+ ions upon immersion into pH 2.2 aqueous FeCl 3 solution. This rendered a greater yield of FeO(OH)/FeOCl precipitates, primarily FeO(OH), upon subsequent washing with lightly basic dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Such selective metal-functionalization established the basis for the subsequent patterned forest-assembly of SWNTs as demonstrated by resonance Raman spectroscopy

  9. Characterization of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase and Histidine-Rich Protein 2 Clearance Patterns via Rapid On-Bead Detection from a Single Dried Blood Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwalter, Christine F.; Gibson, Lauren E.; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Kimmel, Danielle W.; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E.; Wright, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. A rapid, on-bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) was adapted for use with dried blood spot (DBS) samples. This assay detected both biomarkers from a single DBS sample with only 45 minutes of total incubation time and detection limits of 600 ± 500 pM (pLDH) and 69 ± 30 pM (HRP2), corresponding to 150 and 24 parasites/μL, respectively. This sensitive and reproducible on-bead detection method was used to quantify pLDH and HRP2 in patient DBS samples from rural Zambia collected at multiple time points after treatment. Biomarker clearance patterns relative to parasite clearance were determined; pLDH clearance followed closely with parasite clearance, whereas most patients maintained detectable levels of HRP2 for 35–52 days after treatment. Furthermore, weak-to-moderate correlations between biomarker concentration and parasite densities were found for both biomarkers. This work demonstrates the utility of the developed assay for epidemiological study and surveillance of malaria. PMID:29557342

  10. Effects of flight speed upon muscle activity in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Biewener, Andrew A; Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Powers, Donald R

    2010-07-15

    Hummingbirds have the smallest body size and highest wingbeat frequencies of all flying vertebrates, so they represent one endpoint for evaluating the effects of body size on sustained muscle function and flight performance. Other bird species vary neuromuscular recruitment and contractile behavior to accomplish flight over a wide range of speeds, typically exhibiting a U-shaped curve with maxima at the slowest and fastest flight speeds. To test whether the high wingbeat frequencies and aerodynamically active upstroke of hummingbirds lead to different patterns, we flew rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g body mass, 42 Hz wingbeat frequency) in a variable-speed wind tunnel (0-10 m s(-1)). We measured neuromuscular activity in the pectoralis (PECT) and supracoracoideus (SUPRA) muscles using electromyography (EMG, N=4 birds), and we measured changes in PECT length using sonomicrometry (N=1). Differing markedly from the pattern in other birds, PECT deactivation occurred before the start of downstroke and the SUPRA was deactivated before the start of upstroke. The relative amplitude of EMG signal in the PECT and SUPRA varied according to a U-shaped curve with flight speed; additionally, the onset of SUPRA activity became relatively later in the wingbeat at intermediate flight speeds (4 and 6 m s(-1)). Variation in the relative amplitude of EMG was comparable with that observed in other birds but the timing of muscle activity was different. These data indicate the high wingbeat frequency of hummingbirds limits the time available for flight muscle relaxation before the next half stroke of a wingbeat. Unlike in a previous study that reported single-twitch EMG signals in the PECT of hovering hummingbirds, across all flight speeds we observed 2.9+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the PECT and 3.8+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the SUPRA. Muscle strain in the PECT was 10.8+/-0.5%, the lowest reported for a flying bird, and average strain rate was 7.4+/-0.2 muscle

  11. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for bothmen and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation betweenskating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limitvalue. We pay special attention to technical

  12. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  13. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  14. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  15. Urinary excretion and patterns of protein binding of iodipamide (Biligrafin forte). A comparison of the infusion technique with the single bolus injection in intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husband, J; Saxton, H M [Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)

    1978-01-01

    It has been suggested that the bile ducts are seen better during intravenous cholangiography when the contrast medium is given by infusion rather than by injection in a single bolus. As an explanation, it has been proposed that a greater amount of contrast medium is bound to plasma proteins after infusion, resulting in a smaller quantity of contrast medium being excreted in the urine, so leaving a larger total for excretion by the liver. In this study, the urinary excretion of /sup 125/I labelled iodipamide methylglucamine (50% w/v Biligrafin forte) has been measured in 42 patients. The patients were divided into two groups. One group received a slow infusion of radioactive iodipamide over 45 minutes and the other an intravenous injection over five minutes. When a relatively high dose (0.6 mg/kg body weight) was used, no difference in urinary excretion was noted between these two groups; but with a lower dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight), slow infusion resulted in a reduced urinary excretion; however the total difference in contrast lost in the urine was too small to affect biliary concentration. The patterns of protein binding of iodipamide have been examined in 12 of these patients. The results showed that at the low dose a higher percentage of radioactive iodipamide was bound to protein in patients given contrast by infusion. There was clear evidence that the contrast binding capacity of plasma was limited so that with higher doses, much contrast remained unbound. At any given dose level, there was inverse correlation between the proportion of contrast bound to protein and the urinary excretion. The factors affecting contrast binding in individual subjects were not clear.

  16. Prescribing patterns of hydrocortisone in septic shock: a single-center experience of how surviving sepsis guidelines are interpreted and translated into bedside practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrael, Katlynd M; Killian, Alley J; Gregg, Sara R; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-10-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign suggests giving hydrocortisone to septic patients only if their "blood pressure is poorly responsive to fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy." Because the definition of "poorly responsive" is not provided, the purpose of this study was to identify prescribing triggers for hydrocortisone in septic shock. Retrospective chart review of patients with septic shock over 17 months, who received hydrocortisone, followed by a survey of all intensivists who attended in the study ICUs to determine whether provider attitudes matched clinical practice. Eight ICUs in an academic hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. A total of 155 patients with septic shock in whom vasopressors were initiated and hydrocortisone was prescribed. Ninety-nine patients (64%) were already receiving two vasopressors before hydrocortisone was prescribed. An additional 22 patients were on a single high-dose vasopressor prior to corticosteroid initiation. Of patients who survived to have their hydrocortisone dose changed, 57% had their corticosteroids tapered, whereas 43% were abruptly discontinued. Seventy-six percent of patients were no longer on vasopressors when the first dosing change was made. Twenty-seven out of 36 intensivists (75%) completed the survey. The majority (72%) defined "poorly responsive to vasopressors" as the presence of two vasopressors, and 70% stated that they required patients to be off vasopressors prior to altering the corticosteroid dose. Significant variability exists when corticosteroids are prescribed for septic shock, with the most common interpretation in our institution of "poorly responsive to fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy" being the presence of two vasopressors. The method and timing of corticosteroid discontinuation also differed among providers. Self-described prescribing patterns from intensivists closely matched their actual behavior, suggesting variability is due to differing interpretations of the

  17. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  18. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  19. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  20. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  1. A high frequency test bench for rapid single-flux-quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engseth, H; Intiso, S; Rafique, M R; Tolkacheva, E; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, A

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and experimentally verified a test bench for high frequency testing of rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuits. This test bench uses an external tunable clock signal that is stable in amplitude, phase and frequency. The high frequency external clock reads out the clock pattern stored in a long shift register. The clock pattern is consequently shifted out at high speed and split to feed both the circuit under test and an additional shift register in the test bench for later verification at low speed. This method can be employed for reliable high speed verification of RSFQ circuit operation, with use of only low speed read-out electronics. The test bench consists of 158 Josephson junctions and the occupied area is 3300 x 660 μm 2 . It was experimentally verified up to 33 GHz with ± 21.7% margins on the global bias supply current

  2. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  3. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  4. Speed Choice and Curve Radius on Rural Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimme, Nicolai; Nielsen, Lea; Kjems, Erik

    2016-01-01

    with informative speed-calming measures as traffic signs, reflectors or surface painting. However, it has been the hypothesis that people are reducing their speed insufficiently and are driving too fast in most curved alignments – especially when they are driving there frequently. By knowing the speed near...... and in the curved alignments compared to the geometry of the curved alignments, it can be clarified, if and which speed-calming measures that are required. Using GNSS-based floating car data (FCD) from driving cars the speed near and in curved alignments is found. Single observation of FCD are connected to trips...

  5. Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zibang; Wang, Xueying; Zheng, Guoan; Zhong, Jingang

    2017-09-20

    Fourier single-pixel imaging (FSI) employs Fourier basis patterns for encoding spatial information and is capable of reconstructing high-quality two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Fourier-domain sparsity in natural scenes allows FSI to recover sharp images from undersampled data. The original FSI demonstration, however, requires grayscale Fourier basis patterns for illumination. This requirement imposes a limitation on the imaging speed as digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) generate grayscale patterns at a low refreshing rate. In this paper, we report a new strategy to increase the speed of FSI by two orders of magnitude. In this strategy, we binarize the Fourier basis patterns based on upsampling and error diffusion dithering. We demonstrate a 20,000 Hz projection rate using a DMD and capture 256-by-256-pixel dynamic scenes at a speed of 10 frames per second. The reported technique substantially accelerates image acquisition speed of FSI. It may find broad imaging applications at wavebands that are not accessible using conventional two-dimensional image sensors.

  6. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  7. Speeded Recognition of Ungrammaticality: Double Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy E.; Biederman, Irving

    1979-01-01

    The speed at which sentences with various kinds of violations could be rejected was studied. Compatible with the sequential model was the finding that noun-verb and adjective-noun double violations did not result in shorter reaction times than noun-verb single violations, although double violations were judged less acceptable. (Author/RD)

  8. High Speed Wireless Signal Generation and Demodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko

    We present the experimental demonstration of high speed wireless generation, up to 40 Gb/s, in the 75-110 GHz wireless band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and single side-band modulation with digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  9. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  10. Ship speed optimization: Concepts, models and combined speed-routing scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues as regards ship speed optimization at the operational level and develop models that optimize ship speed for a spectrum of routing scenarios in a single ship setting. The paper's main contribution is the incorporation of those fundament...... parameters and other considerations that weigh heavily in a ship owner's or charterer's speed decision and in his routing decision, wherever relevant. Various examples are given so as to illustrate the properties of the optimal solution and the various trade-offs that are involved....

  11. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    characteristics and variable features where the wind circulation pattern is ..... is extended to understand the quality of AMSR-2 wind speed in a constructive ...... New Disclosures (potential conflicts of interest, funding, acknowledgements):.

  12. Speed of vision depends on temporal expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    (1.33 s-1) or low (0.22 s-1) corresponding to mean waiting times of 750 ms and 4,500 ms, respectively. The probability (p) of correct report was approximately an exponential function of the stimulus duration (t): p = 1 - exp[-v (t - t0)], where t0 measured the threshold of conscious perception, and v...... even though no general decrease in processing speed over time occurred; thus, the observed pattern was independent of the actual duration of the waiting time, but depended entirely on expectation. This seems to be the first time speed of vision - unconfounded by motor components - has been shown...

  13. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  14. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Speed humps and chicanes are widespread speed-calming measures. •Humps and chicanes have virtually the same reducing effect on mean speed. •Chicanes reduce speed variation less than humps and might therefore be a less safe measure....

  15. Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has been a promising type of advanced driver support system for some decades. From a technical point of view, large scale ISA implementation is possible in the short term. The different types of ISA are expected to have different effects on behaviour and traffic

  16. Speed mathematics simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  17. High speed metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  18. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  19. Laser-induced superhydrophobic grid patterns on PDMS for droplet arrays formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshchian, Bahador [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Gatabi, Javad R. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Bernick, Steven M.; Park, Sooyeon [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Lee, Gwan-Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Droopad, Ravindranath [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Kim, Namwon, E-mail: n_k43@txstate.edu [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic grid patterns were processed on the surface of PDMS using a pulsed nanosecond laser. • Droplet arrays form instantly on the laser-patterned PDMS with the superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water. • Droplet size can be controlled by controlling the pitch size of superhydrophobic grid and the withdrawal speed. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile single step laser treatment process to render a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface superhydrophobic. By synchronizing a pulsed nanosecond laser source with a motorized stage, superhydrophobic grid patterns were written on the surface of PDMS. Hierarchical micro and nanostructures were formed in the irradiated areas while non-irradiated areas were covered by nanostructures due to deposition of ablated particles. Arrays of droplets form spontaneously on the laser-patterned PDMS with superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water due to different wetting properties of the irradiated and non-irradiated areas. The effects of withdrawal speed and pitch size of superhydrophobic grid on the size of formed droplets were investigated experimentally. The droplet size increases initially with increasing the withdrawal speed and then does not change significantly beyond certain points. Moreover, larger droplets are formed by increasing the pitch size of the superhydrophobic grid. The droplet arrays formed on the laser-patterned PDMS with wettability contrast can be used potentially for patterning of particles, chemicals, and bio-molecules and also for cell screening applications.

  20. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant

  1. The Young-Feynman two-slits experiment with single electrons: Build-up of the interference pattern and arrival-time distribution using a fast-readout pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabboni, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gabrielli, Alessandro [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Giorgi, Filippo [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Matteucci, Giorgio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Pozzi, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.pozzi@unibo.it [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cesari, Nicola Semprini; Villa, Mauro; Zoccoli, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    The two-slits experiment for single electrons has been carried out by inserting in a conventional transmission electron microscope a thick sample with two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique and a fast recording system able to measure the electron arrival-time. The detector, designed for experiments in future colliders, is based on a custom CMOS chip equipped with a fast readout chain able to manage up to 10{sup 6} frames per second. In this way, high statistic samples of single electron events can be collected within a time interval short enough to measure the distribution of the electron arrival-times and to observe the build-up of the interference pattern. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the first results obtained regarding the two-slits Young-Feynman experiment with single electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We insert in the transmission electron microscope a detector, designed for experiments in future colliders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We record the build-up of high statistic single electron interference patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure the time distribution of electron arrivals.

  2. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to

  3. High speed network sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  4. Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.

  5. Measuring In-Home Walking Speed using Wall-Mounted RF Transceiver Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Peter G.; Wan, Eric A.; Schafermeer, Erich; Adenwala, Fatema; Paul, Anindya S.; Preiser, Nick; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for passively measuring walking speed using a small array of radio transceivers positioned on the walls of a hallway within a home. As a person walks between a radio transmitter and a receiver, the received signal strength (RSS) detected by the receiver changes in a repeatable pattern that may be used to estimate walking speed without the need for the person to wear any monitoring device. The transceivers are arranged as an array of 4 with a known distance between the array elements. Walking past the first pair of transceivers will cause a peak followed by a second peak when the person passes the second pair of transceivers. The time difference between these peaks is used to estimate walking speed directly. We further show that it is possible to estimate the walking speed by correlating the shape of the signal using a single pair of transceivers positioned across from each other in a hallway or doorframe. RMSE performance was less than 15 cm/s using a 2-element array, and less than 8 cm/s using a 4-element array relative to a gait mat used for ground truth. PMID:25570108

  6. Neural control and modulation of swimming speed in the larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Kristen E; Portugues, Ruben; Marques, João C; O'Malley, Donald M; Orger, Michael B; Engert, Florian

    2014-08-06

    Vertebrate locomotion at different speeds is driven by descending excitatory connections to central pattern generators in the spinal cord. To investigate how these inputs determine locomotor kinematics, we used whole-field visual motion to drive zebrafish to swim at different speeds. Larvae match the stimulus speed by utilizing more locomotor events, or modifying kinematic parameters such as the duration and speed of swimming bouts, the tail-beat frequency, and the choice of gait. We used laser ablations, electrical stimulation, and activity recordings in descending neurons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) to dissect their contribution to controlling forward movement. We found that the activity of single identified neurons within the nMLF is correlated with locomotor kinematics, and modulates both the duration and oscillation frequency of tail movements. By identifying the contribution of individual supraspinal circuit elements to locomotion kinematics, we build a better understanding of how the brain controls movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction pattern in chloroplasts upon repetitive single turnover excitations: Accumulation and function of QB-nonreducing centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Kasalicky, V.; Durchan, M.; Prasil, O.

    2006-01-01

    The increase of chlorophyll fluorescence yield in chloroplasts in a 12.5 Hz train of saturating single turnover flashes and the kinetics of fluorescence yield decay after the last flash have been analyzed. The approximate twofold increase in Fm relative to Fo, reached after 30-40 flashes, is

  8. Near field intensity pattern at the output of silica-based graded-index multimode fibers under selective excitation with a single-mode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsekrekos, C.P.; Smink, R.W.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Selective excitation of graded-index multimode fibers (GIMMFs) with a single-mode fiber (SMF) has gained increased interest for telecommunication applications. It has been proposed as a way to enhance the transmission bandwidth of GI-MMF links and/or create parallel communication channels

  9. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Commandeur, J.J.F. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.

    2016-01-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small

  10. DNA methylation patterns of imprinting centers for H19, SNRPN, and KCNQ1OT1 in single-cell clones of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells contain a unique epigenetic signature during in vitro cell culture. H19 and KCNQ1OT1 possessed a substantial degree of hypermethylation status, and variable DNA methylation patterns of SNRPN was observed during in vitro cell culture of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Our results urge further understanding of epigenetic status of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells before it is applied in cell replacement therapy.

  11. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  12. High Speed Photomicrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1983-03-01

    One of the most challenging areas in applying high-speed photography and videography in the plant and laboratory is in the recording of rapid events at macro and microscopic scales. Depth of field, exposure efficiency, working distance, and required exposure time are all reduced as optical magnification is increased, which severely taxes the skill and ingenuity of workers interested in recording any fast moving phenomena through the microscope or with magnifying lenses. This paper defines the problems inherent in photographing within macro and microscopic ranges and offers a systematic approach to optimizing the selection of equipment and choice of applicable techniques.

  13. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations....... Much innovation today takes place in open structures in which networks play an important role. However, little is known about how innovation networks can facilitate parallel innovation processes. This paper discusses how innovation network structures develop and support exploration and exploitation...... of the network facilitate the parallel innovation process but also how such processes place new requirements on such networks and their management....

  14. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  15. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  16. Safe Speeds and Credible Speed Limits (SaCredSpeed): New Vision for Decision Making on Speed Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L. Nes, N. van Wegman, F.C.M. Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Louwerse, R.

    2009-01-01

    Speed is an inherent characteristic of mobility and a hazard to safety. Several approaches exist of how to manage speed. In the Netherlands, the emphasis has mainly been on harm minimisation during the last decades, due to the implementation of the Sustainable Safety vision. Speed management remains

  17. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...... the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers...

  18. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  19. Study on application of single-crystal ice `Kurobe ice column` to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena `M wave` in Nagano city; Tankesshohyo `Kurobe no hyojun` no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina `Emu Wave` deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  20. Treatment of an adult with a normodivergent, mild skeletal Class III pattern, and a Bolton′s discrepancy using a single mandibular incisor extraction plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjay Suri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34½-year-old pathologist with active social and professional interaction sought orthodontic solutions for severe esthetic and functional impairment. She felt due to spaced and protruding maxillary incisors, but had not got treatment previously as she did not want to wear metallic appliances. The diagnosis revealed a skeletal Class III normodivergent pattern with relative mandibular excess tooth material. Treatment with multibracket fixed appliances using ceramic brackets, extraction of a mandibular central incisor, maxillary incisor crown recontouring with interproximal reduction, and using gentle space closure mechanics ameliorated the problems and provided an esthetically pleasing, functionally adequate occlusion with good intercuspation.

  1. High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.

  2. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  3. Single track and single layer formation in selective laser melting of niobium solid solution alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling GUO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM was employed to fabricate Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si (at% alloy, using pre-alloyed powders prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP. A series of single tracks and single layers under different processing parameters was manufactured to evaluate the processing feasibility by SLM, including laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. Results showed that continuous single tracks could be fabricated using proper laser powers and scanning velocities. Both the width of a single track and its penetration depth into a substrate increased with an increase of the linear laser beam energy density (LED, i.e., an increase of the laser power and a decrease of the scanning speed. Nb, Ti, Si, Cr, and Al elements distributed heterogeneously over the melt pool in the form of swirl-like patterns. An excess of the hatch distance was not able to interconnect neighboring tracks. Under improper processing parameters, a balling phenomenon occurred, but could be eliminated with an increased LED. This work testified the SLM-processing feasibility of Nb-based alloy and promoted the application of SLM to the manufacture of niobium-based alloys. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Melt pool, Niobium alloy, Powder metallurgy, Selective laser melting

  4. Changes in Breast Density Reporting Patterns of Radiologists After Publication of the 5th Edition BI-RADS Guidelines: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Abid; Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Cluver, Abbie; Ackerman, Susan; Pavic, Dag; Collins, Heather

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of 5th edition BI-RADS breast density assessment guidelines on density reporting patterns in our clinical practice. PenRad reporting system was used to collect mammographic breast density data reported by five radiologists: 16,907 density assignments using 5th edition BI-RADS guidelines were compared with 19,066 density assessments using 4th edition guidelines. Changes in the density assessment pattern were noted between the 4th and 5th edition guidelines, and agreement in density distribution was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient. A chi-square analysis was conducted for each reader to examine the change in the proportion of dense versus nondense assignments and on each category type to examine specific changes in proportion of density assignments from the 4th to the 5th edition. All reported p values are two-sided, and statistical significance was considered at the p densities (p < 0.001), 2.6% increase in heterogeneously dense (p < 0.001), and 0.4% decrease in extremely dense assessments (p = 0.15). Comparing the dense with nondense categories, there was a 2.3% overall increase in the dense assessments (p < 0.001) using 5th edition guidelines, mainly in the heterogeneously dense category. Two radiologists showed increased dense assessments (p < 0.001) using the 5th edition, and three radiologists showed no change (p = 0.39, 0.67, and 0.76). There was an overall increase in the dense assessments using the 5th edition, but individual radiologists in our clinical practice showed a variable adaptation to new guidelines.

  5. Short-Term Wind Speed Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Bias Correcting Study and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mingfei Niu; Shaolong Sun; Jie Wu; Yuanlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. In particular, reliable short-term wind speed forecasting can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed, the forecasting of wind speed data using different patterns is difficult. This paper proposes a novel combination bias c...

  6. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  7. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    -term implications of modifying the movement pattern and whether the decrease in pain attained was clinically significant are unknown. People with LBP were able to modify their lumbar movement pattern and decrease their pain with the movement pattern within a single session of motor skill training.

  9. Changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging patterns for preterm infants after introduction of a magnetic resonance-compatible incubator coil system: 5-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Hae; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Young Hun; Lee, So Mi; Kim, Woo Sun

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the changes in using patterns of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preterm infants after introduction of a MR-compatible incubator coil system. Brain MRIs for preterm infants with the MR-compatible incubator coil from March 2010 to July 2014 (n=154, group A) were compared with MRIs prior to the introduction of the incubator coil, from March 2005 to February 2010 (n=65, group B). Clinical data, MRI findings, acquisition time, and incidence of adverse events during the study were retrospectively reviewed. For the qualitative analysis of the examinations, the presence of motion artefact, spatial resolution, and overall image quality were assessed. Signal uniformity of each sequence was evaluated for a quantitative comparison. Comparing with group B, Group A was significantly younger (36+3 vs. 38+3 weeks, pimage acquisition time was significantly shorter in group A (21.4±4.5 vs. 25.4±5.5min, pimage quality with decreased signal variation than group B (all pimage quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sarawak lupus cohort: clinical features and disease patterns of 633 SLE patients in a single tertiary centre from East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, C L; Ling, G R; Aishah, Wan Sharifah

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been well studied in West Malaysian populations but lacking in East Malaysian populations. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and disease patterns of patients with SLE in a multiethnic East Malaysian population in Sarawak. All SLE patients who were treated in Sarawak General Hospital were reviewed in a retrospective longitudinal study using a standard protocol from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013. There were a total of 633 patients in our study with the female to male ratio of 12:1. Our study patients were of multiethnic origins with predominant Chinese ethnic group. They had a mean age of 36.9 ± 13.2 years and a mean duration of illness of 7.2 ± 6.0 years. The main involvements were haematological (74.2 %), malar rash (64.0 %) and renal (58.6 %). Chinese patients were less likely to have discoid lupus, pleuritis and pericarditis, while Malay patients were more likely to have arthritis. Bidayuh patients were more likely to have oral ulcer. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome was more common in Chinese. The majority of patients were in clinical remission with low SDI. There were 58 deaths (9.2 %) during 2006-2013 with the main causes of death being flare of disease and infection.

  11. Correlation of MFOLD-predicted DNA secondary structures with separation patterns obtained by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavac, Damjan; Potocnik, Uros; Podpecnik, Darja; Zizek, Teofil; Smerkolj, Sava; Ravnik-Glavac, Metka

    2002-04-01

    We have studied 57 different mutations within three beta-globin gene promoter fragments with sizes 52 bp, 77 bp, and 193 bp by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis CE-SSCP analysis. For each mutation and wild type, energetically most-favorable predicted secondary structures were calculated for sense and antisense strands using the MFOLD DNA-folding algorithm in order to investigate if any correlation exists between predicted DNA structures and actual CE migration time shifts. The overall CE-SSCP detection rate was 100% for all mutations in three studied DNA fragments. For shorter 52 bp and 77 bp DNA fragments we obtained a positive correlation between the migration time shifts and difference in free energy values of predicted secondary structures at all temperatures. For longer 193 bp beta-globin gene fragments with 46 mutations MFOLD predicted different secondary structures for 89% of mutated strands at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. However, the magnitude of the mobility shifts did not necessarily correlate with their secondary structures and free energy values except for the sense strand at 40 degrees C where this correlation was statistically significant (r = 0.312, p = 0.033). Results of this study provided more direct insight into the mechanism of CE-SSCP and showed that MFOLD prediction could be helpful in making decisions about the running temperatures and in prediction of CE-SSCP data patterns, especially for shorter (50-100 bp) DNA fragments. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Estimation of effective wind speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, K. Z.; Brath, P.; Stoustrup, J.

    2007-07-01

    The wind speed has a huge impact on the dynamic response of wind turbine. Because of this, many control algorithms use a measure of the wind speed to increase performance, e.g. by gain scheduling and feed forward. Unfortunately, no accurate measurement of the effective wind speed is online available from direct measurements, which means that it must be estimated in order to make such control methods applicable in practice. In this paper a new method is presented for the estimation of the effective wind speed. First, the rotor speed and aerodynamic torque are estimated by a combined state and input observer. These two variables combined with the measured pitch angle is then used to calculate the effective wind speed by an inversion of a static aerodynamic model.

  13. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  14. Incidence and patterns of valvular heart disease in a tertiary care high-volume cardiac center: A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, C.N.; Srinivas, P.; Ravindranath, K.S.; Dhanalakshmi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases of the heart valves constitute a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) being the dominant form of valvular heart disease (VHD) in developing nations. The current study was undertaken at a tertiary care cardiac center with the objective of establishing the incidence and patterns of VHD by Echocardiography (Echo). Methods Among the 136,098 first-time Echocardiograms performed between January 2010 and December 2012, an exclusion criterion of trivial and functional regurgitant lesions yielded a total of 13,289 cases of organic valvular heart disease as the study cohort. Results In RHD, the order of involvement of valves was mitral (60.2%), followed by aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Mitral stenosis, predominantly seen in females, was almost exclusively of rheumatic etiology (97.4%). The predominant form of isolated MR was rheumatic (41.1%) followed closely by myxomatous or mitral valve prolapse (40.8%). Isolated AS, more common in males, was the third most common valve lesion seen in 7.3% of cases. Degenerative calcification was the commonest cause of isolated AS (65.0%) followed by bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (33.9%) and RHD (1.1%). Multiple valves were involved in more than a third of all cases (36.8%). The order of involvement was MS + MR > MS + AR > MR + AR > AS + AR > MR + AS > MS + AS. Overall, 9.7% of cases had organic tricuspid valve disease. Conclusion RHD contributed most to the burden of VHD in the present study with calcific degeneration, myxomatous disease and BAV being the other major forms of VHD. Multiple valves were affected in more than a third of all cases. PMID:24973838

  15. An audit of clinical practice, referral patterns, and appropriateness of clinical indications for brain MRI examinations: A single-centre study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersson, A D; Nunoo, G; Gorleku, P N

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate current brain MRI practice, pattern of brain MRI requests, and their appropriateness using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. We used direct observation and questionnaires to obtain data concerning routine brain MRI practice. We then retrospectively analyzed (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) clinical history, and (iii) appropriateness of brain MRI requests against published criteria. All patients were administered the screening questionnaire; however, no reviews were undertaken directly with patients, and no signature of the radiographer was recorded. Apart from routine brain protocol, there were dedicated protocols for epilepsy and stroke. Brain MRI images from 161 patients (85 Males; 76 Females) were analyzed. The age group with most brain MRI requests were from 26 to 45 year olds. The commonest four clinical indications for imaging were brain tumour, headache, seizure, and stroke. Using the ACR Appropriateness Criteria, almost 43% of the brain MRI scans analyzed were found to be "usually appropriate", 38% were "maybe appropriate" and 19% were categorized as "usually not appropriate". There was knowledge gap with regards to MRI safety in local practice, thus there is the utmost need for MRI safety training. Data on the commonest indications for performing brain MRI in this study should be used to inform local neuroradiological practice. Dedicated stroke and epilepsy MRI protocols require additional sequences i.e. MRA and 3D T1 volume acquisition, respectively. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria is recommended for use by the referring practitioners to improve appropriateness of brain MRI requests. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  17. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D; Masters, Forrest J

    2012-01-01

    How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  18. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  19. Moving characteristics of single file passengers considering the effect of ship trim and heeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Ma, Jian; Xie, Qimiao

    2018-01-01

    Ship listing and motion affects the movement pattern of passengers on board, thus pedestrian traffic and evacuation dynamics would be significantly different from those on level ground. To quantify the influence of ship listing and motion on passenger evacuation, we designed a ship corridor simulator, with which we performed single-file pedestrian movement experiments considering the effect of trim and heeling. Results indicated that density is not the only factor that affects pedestrian speed under ship trim or heeling conditions, for that both individual walking speed and group walking speed would be greatly attenuated due to the influence of the trim angles. However, heeling angles show less impact on speed when compared with trim angles. In addition, the speed correlation coefficient between the adjacent experimental subjects would be higher with larger angles and lower speed. Moreover, both female and male experimental subjects need similar distance headway for walking in different trim or heeling conditions. Furthermore, experimental subjects with lower individual walking speed need longer time headway to keep enough distance headway. This work will provide fundamental guidance to the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

  20. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....

  1. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance

  2. Introducing a system of wind speed distributions for modeling properties of wind speed regimes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Christopher; Schindler, Dirk; Laible, Jessica; Buchholz, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of statistical properties of 10,016 empirical wind speed distributions. • Analysis of the shape of empirical wind speed distributions by L-moment ratios. • Introduction of a new system of wind speed distributions (Swd). • Random forests classification of the most appropriate distribution. • Comprehensive goodness of Swd fit evaluation on a global scale. - Abstract: Accurate modeling of empirical wind speed distributions is a crucial step in the estimation of average wind turbine power output. For this purpose, the Weibull distribution has often been fitted to empirical wind speed distributions. However, the Weibull distribution has been found to be insufficient to reproduce many wind speed regimes existing around the world. Results from previous studies demonstrate that numerous one-component distributions as well as mixture distributions provide a better goodness-of-fit to empirical wind speed distributions than the Weibull distribution. Moreover, there is considerable interest to apply a single system of distributions that can be utilized to reproduce the large majority of near-surface wind speed regimes existing around the world. Therefore, a system of wind speed distributions was developed that is capable of reproducing the main characteristics of existing wind speed regimes. The proposed system consists of two one-component distributions (Kappa and Wakeby) and one mixture distribution (Burr-Generalized Extreme Value). A random forests classifier was trained in order to select the most appropriate of these three distributions for each of 10,016 globally distributed empirical wind speed distributions. The shape of the empirical wind speed distributions was described by L-moment ratios. The L-moment ratios were used as predictor variables for the random forests classifier. The goodness-of-fit of the system of wind speed distributions was evaluated according to eleven goodness-of-fit metrics, which were merged into one

  3. Effects of Different Cutting Patterns and Experimental Conditions on the Performance of a Conical Drag Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre

    2017-06-01

    This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.

  4. Optimal Speed Control for Cruising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1994-01-01

    With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability......With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability...

  5. NTF – wind speed comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  6. Single Grain TFTs for High Speed Flexible Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baiano, A.

    2009-01-01

    SG-TFTs fabricated by the ?-Czochralski process have already reached a performance as high as that of SOI MOSFET devices. However, one of the most important and challenging goals is extending SG-TFT technology to reach a higher level of performance than that achieved with SOI technology. This thesis

  7. High-speed single-crystal television diffractometer (software)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Area-detector diffractometers make possible almost ideal diffraction experiments. Until recently the performance of such instruments has been limited in practice by the available software. This general account discusses an unconventional way of indexing a lattice which is more appropriate for the calculations needed with normal-beam rotation geometry, and asserts the need to perform a continuous 'real-time' adaptive refinement to monitor the condition of the crystal and the detector. (orig.)

  8. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  9. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  10. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...... frontend rectifiers even at partial loading conditions. Moreover, the effectiveness of the EI technique along with a phase-shifted current control in terms of improved grid current quality in multi-drive configurations is addressed. Furthermore, a novel DC-link current modulation scheme for multi...

  11. 重复雷击和操作冲击时单相GIB的金属微粒运动形态%Movement Patterns of Metallic Particles in a Single Phase Gas Insulated Busduct with Superimposed Lightning and Switching Impulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Transient over voltages due to lightning and switching surges cause steep build-up of voltage on transmission lines and other electrical apparatus, like circuit breakers, transformers, insulators etc. Therefore it is necessary for the GIS also to withstand such voltages without breakdown of Insulation . The system has to be tested under these conditions. Usually the GIS system operates on power frequency. Lightning Impulse Voltage of 1050 kV and Switching Impulse Voltage of 750 kV superimposed on Power frequency voltages of 75 kV, 100 kV and 132 kV are applied to Single Phase Gas Insulated Busduct and the maximum movement of Aluminum, Copper and Silver particles is determined. The movement patterns are also determined with and without Monte Carlo Simulation for movement of particle in axial and radial directions. The results show that there is a sudden jump in the movement at the application of impulse on sine wave. This is because of high magnitude voltage of 1050 kV during 1.2/50 μs. Similar movement patterns of reduced maximum movement is observed for Switching Impulse superimposed on sine wave. The results are presented and analyzed.

  12. A two-step patterning process increases the robustness of periodic patterning in the fly eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Avishai; Barkai, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Complex periodic patterns can self-organize through dynamic interactions between diffusible activators and inhibitors. In the biological context, self-organized patterning is challenged by spatial heterogeneities ('noise') inherent to biological systems. How spatial variability impacts the periodic patterning mechanism and how it can be buffered to ensure precise patterning is not well understood. We examine the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the periodic patterning of the fruit fly eye, an organ composed of ∼800 miniature eye units (ommatidia) whose periodic arrangement along a hexagonal lattice self-organizes during early stages of fly development. The patterning follows a two-step process, with an initial formation of evenly spaced clusters of ∼10 cells followed by a subsequent refinement of each cluster into a single selected cell. Using a probabilistic approach, we calculate the rate of patterning errors resulting from spatial heterogeneities in cell size, position and biosynthetic capacity. Notably, error rates were largely independent of the desired cluster size but followed the distributions of signaling speeds. Pre-formation of large clusters therefore greatly increases the reproducibility of the overall periodic arrangement, suggesting that the two-stage patterning process functions to guard the pattern against errors caused by spatial heterogeneities. Our results emphasize the constraints imposed on self-organized patterning mechanisms by the need to buffer stochastic effects. Author summary Complex periodic patterns are common in nature and are observed in physical, chemical and biological systems. Understanding how these patterns are generated in a precise manner is a key challenge. Biological patterns are especially intriguing, as they are generated in a noisy environment; cell position and cell size, for example, are subject to stochastic variations, as are the strengths of the chemical signals mediating cell-to-cell communication. The need

  13. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

  14. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  15. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  16. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  17. Traffic speed data imputation method based on tensor completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Tan, Huachun; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  18. Relative association of processing speed, short-term memory and sustained attention with task on gait speed: a study of community-dwelling people 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killane, Isabelle; Donoghue, Orna A; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne; Reilly, Richard B

    2014-11-01

    For single gait tasks, associations have been reported between gait speed and cognitive domains. However, few studies have evaluated if this association is altered in dual gait tasks given gait speed changes with complexity and nature of task. We evaluated relative contributions of specific elements of cognitive function (including sustained attention and processing speed) to dual task gait speed in a nationally representative population of community-dwelling adults over 50 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GaitRite walkway during three gait tasks: single, cognitive (alternate letters), and motor (carrying a filled glass). Linear regression models, adjusted for covariates, were constructed to predict the relative contributions of seven neuropsychological tests to gait speed differences and to investigate gait task effects. The mean age and gait speed of the population (n = 4,431, 55% women) was 62.4 years (SD = 8.2) and 135.85 cm/s (SD = 20.20, single task), respectively. Poorer processing speed, short-term memory, and sustained attention were major cognitive contributors to slower gait speed for all gait tasks. Both dual gait tasks were robust to covariate adjustment and had a significant additional executive function element not found for the single gait task. For community-dwelling older adults processing speed, short-term memory and sustained attention were independently associated with gait speed for all gait tasks. Dual gait tasks were found to highlight specific executive function elements. This result forms a baseline value for dual task gait speed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Guidelines for setting speed limits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wium, DJW

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available , parking and loading manoeuvres, access to bounding properties, intersections, width of road without central median and clear roadside area. The method should result in greater uniformity in speed limits for similar circumstances as set by different...

  20. Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.

    1982-01-01

    Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Speed management : enforcement and new technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Goldenbeld, C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the massive character of speeding and inappropriate travel speeds, speed management continues to be an important and challenging policy area. Estimates are that in about a quarter to one third of fatal crashes excessive speeds are involved, making speed one of the crucial factors in road

  2. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  3. Diverse phosphorylation patterns of B cell receptor-associated signaling in naïve and memory human B cells revealed by phosphoflow, a powerful technique to study signaling at the single cell level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R Toapanta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Following interaction with cognate antigens, B cells undergo cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. Ligation of the B cell receptor (BCR leads to the phosphorylation of BCR-associated signaling proteins within minutes of antigen binding, a process with profound consequences for the fate of the cells and development of effector immunity. Phosphoflow allows a rapid evaluation of various signaling pathways in complex heterogenous cell subsets. This novel technique was used in combination with multi-chromatic flow cytometry and fluorescent-cell barcoding to study phosphorylation of BCR-associated signaling pathways in naïve and memory human B cell subsets. Proteins of the initiation (Syk, propagation (Btk, Akt and integration (p38MAPK and Erk1/2 signaling units were studied. Switched memory (Sm CD27+ and Sm CD27- phosphorylation patterns were similar when stimulated with anti-IgA or -IgG. In contrast, naïve and unswitched memory (Um cells showed significant differences following IgM stimulation. Enhanced phosphorylation of Syk was observed in Um cells, suggesting a lower activation threshold. This is likely the result of higher amounts of IgM on the cell surface, higher pan-Syk levels and enhanced susceptibility to phosphatase inhibition. All other signaling proteins evaluated also showed some degree of enhanced phosphorylation in Um cells. Furthermore, both the PLC-γ2 and PI3K pathways were activated in Um cells, while only the PI3K pathway was activated on naïve cells. Um cells were the only ones that activated signaling pathways when stimulated with fluorescently-labeled S. Typhi and S. pneumoniae. Finally, simultaneous evaluation of signaling proteins at the single cell level (multi-phosphorylated cells revealed that interaction with gram positive and negative bacteria resulted in complex and diverse signaling patterns. Phosphoflow holds great potential to accelerate vaccine development by identifying signaling profiles in good

  4. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economy, Kathleen M.; Helton, Jon Craig; Vaughn, Palmer

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  5. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  6. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  7. Speed limits for quantum gates in multiqubit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashhab, S.; De Groot, P.C.; Nori, F.

    2012-01-01

    We use analytical and numerical calculations to obtain speed limits for various unitary quantum operations in multiqubit systems under typical experimental conditions. The operations that we consider include single-, two-, and three-qubit gates, as well as quantum-state transfer in a chain of

  8. System analysis of automated speed enforcement implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Speeding is a major factor in a large proportion of traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities in the United States. Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) is one of many approaches shown to be effective in reducing speeding violations and crashes. However...

  9. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  10. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  11. Variable Speed Rotor System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  12. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  13. Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Heidi; Carnahan, Heather; Kushki, Azadeh; Polatajko, Helene; Missiuna, Cheryl; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Pencil grasps other than the dynamic tripod may be functional for handwriting. This study examined the impact of grasp on handwriting speed and legibility. We videotaped 120 typically developing fourth-grade students while they performed a writing task. We categorized the grasps they used and evaluated their writing for speed and legibility using a handwriting assessment. Using linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between grasp and handwriting. We documented six categories of pencil grasp: four mature grasp patterns, one immature grasp pattern, and one alternating grasp pattern. Multiple linear regression results revealed no significant effect for mature grasp on either legibility or speed. Pencil grasp patterns did not influence handwriting speed or legibility in this sample of typically developing children. This finding adds to the mounting body of evidence that alternative grasps may be acceptable for fast and legible handwriting. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  16. High speed laser tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, D.; Elsaesser, A.; Edwards, A.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120000slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  17. Scaling model for a speed-dependent vehicle noise spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the well-known features of the noise emitted by moving sources, a number of vehicle characteristics such as speed, unladen mass, engine size, year of registration, power and fuel were recorded in a dedicated monitoring campaign performed in three different places, each characterized by different number of lanes and the presence of nearby reflective surfaces. A full database of 144 vehicles (cars was used to identify statistically relevant features. In order to compare the vehicle transit noise in different environmental condition, all 1/3-octave band spectra were normalized and analysed. Unsupervised clustering algorithms were employed to group together spectrum levels with similar profiles. Our results corroborate the well-known fact that speed is the most relevant characteristic to discriminate between different vehicle noise spectrum. In keeping with this fact, we present a new approach to predict analytically noise spectra for a given vehicle speed. A set of speed-dependent analytical functions are suggested in order to fit the normalized average spectrum profile at different speeds. This approach can be useful for predicting vehicle speed based purely on its noise spectrum pattern. The present work is complementary to the accurate analysis of noise sources based on the beamforming technique.

  18. Instant PageSpeed optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant PageSpeed Optimization is a hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for optimizing your websites for better performance and improving their efficiency.Instant PageSpeed Optimization is aimed at website developers and administrators who wish to make their websites load faster without any errors and consume less bandwidth. It's assumed that you will have some experience in basic web technologies like HTML, CSS3, JavaScript, and the basics of netw

  19. The Combined Effects of Body Weight Support and Gait Speed on Gait Related Muscle Activity: A Comparison between Walking in the Lokomat Exoskeleton and Regular Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Annemarijke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; den Otter, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background For the development of specialized training protocols for robot assisted gait training, it is important to understand how the use of exoskeletons alters locomotor task demands, and how the nature and magnitude of these changes depend on training parameters. Therefore, the present study assessed the combined effects of gait speed and body weight support (BWS) on muscle activity, and compared these between treadmill walking and walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton. Methods Ten healthy participants walked on a treadmill and in the Lokomat, with varying levels of BWS (0% and 50% of the participants’ body weight) and gait speed (0.8, 1.8, and 2.8 km/h), while temporal step characteristics and muscle activity from Erector Spinae, Gluteus Medius, Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis, and Tibialis Anterior muscles were recorded. Results The temporal structure of the stepping pattern was altered when participants walked in the Lokomat or when BWS was provided (i.e. the relative duration of the double support phase was reduced, and the single support phase prolonged), but these differences normalized as gait speed increased. Alternations in muscle activity were characterized by complex interactions between walking conditions and training parameters: Differences between treadmill walking and walking in the exoskeleton were most prominent at low gait speeds, and speed effects were attenuated when BWS was provided. Conclusion Walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton without movement guidance alters the temporal step regulation and the neuromuscular control of walking, although the nature and magnitude of these effects depend on complex interactions with gait speed and BWS. If normative neuromuscular control of gait is targeted during training, it is recommended that very low speeds and high levels of BWS should be avoided when possible. PMID:25226302

  20. Raising the speed limit from 75 to 80mph on Utah rural interstates: Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen

    2017-06-01

    In November 2010 and October 2013, Utah increased speed limits on sections of rural interstates from 75 to 80mph. Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance were examined. Speeds were measured in May 2010 and May 2014 within the new 80mph zones, and at a nearby spillover site and at more distant control sites where speed limits remained 75mph. Log-linear regression models estimated percentage changes in speed variance and mean speeds for passenger vehicles and large trucks associated with the speed limit increase. Logistic regression models estimated effects on the probability of passenger vehicles exceeding 80, 85, or 90mph and large trucks exceeding 80mph. Within the 80mph zones and at the spillover location in 2014, mean passenger vehicle speeds were significantly higher (4.1% and 3.5%, respectively), as were the probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 80mph (122.3% and 88.5%, respectively), than would have been expected without the speed limit increase. Probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 85 and 90mph were non-significantly higher than expected within the 80mph zones. For large trucks, the mean speed and probability of exceeding 80mph were higher than expected within the 80mph zones. Only the increase in mean speed was significant. Raising the speed limit was associated with non-significant increases in speed variance. The study adds to the wealth of evidence that increasing speed limits leads to higher travel speeds and an increased probability of exceeding the new speed limit. Results moreover contradict the claim that increasing speed limits reduces speed variance. Although the estimated increases in mean vehicle speeds may appear modest, prior research suggests such increases would be associated with substantial increases in fatal or injury crashes. This should be considered by lawmakers considering increasing speed limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  2. Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.

  3. Simulations of High Speed Fragment Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Attaway, Stephen; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Fisher, Travis

    2017-11-01

    Flying shrapnel from an explosion are capable of traveling at supersonic speeds and distances much farther than expected due to aerodynamic interactions. Predicting the trajectories and stable tumbling modes of arbitrary shaped fragments is a fundamental problem applicable to range safety calculations, damage assessment, and military technology. Traditional approaches rely on characterizing fragment flight using a single drag coefficient, which may be inaccurate for fragments with large aspect ratios. In our work we develop a procedure to simulate trajectories of arbitrary shaped fragments with higher fidelity using high performance computing. We employ a two-step approach in which the force and moment coefficients are first computed as a function of orientation using compressible computational fluid dynamics. The force and moment data are then input into a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body dynamics solver to integrate trajectories in time. Results of these high fidelity simulations allow us to further understand the flight dynamics and tumbling modes of a single fragment. Furthermore, we use these results to determine the validity and uncertainty of inexpensive methods such as the single drag coefficient model.

  4. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  5. Processing Determinants of Reading Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark D.; McClelland, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of undergraduates differing in reading ability were tested on a number of reaction-time tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several different levels, tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text.…

  6. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  7. Visual Processing Speeds in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Croker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate visual processing speeds in children. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task with schematic faces as stimuli was given to ninety-nine 6–10-year-old children as well as a short form of the WISC-III. Participants were asked to determine whether a happy face stimulus was embedded in a stream of distracter stimuli. Presentation time was gradually reduced from 500 ms per stimulus to 100 ms per stimulus, in 50 ms steps. The data revealed that (i RSVP speed increases with age, (ii children aged 8 years and over can discriminate stimuli presented every 100 ms—the speed typically used with RSVP procedures in adult and adolescent populations, and (iii RSVP speed is significantly correlated with digit span and object assembly. In consequence, the RSVP paradigm presented here is appropriate for use in further investigations of processes of temporal attention within this cohort.

  8. NASA low speed centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    The flow characteristics of a low speed centrifugal compressor were examined at NASA Lewis Research Center to improve understanding of the flow in centrifugal compressors, to provide models of various flow phenomena, and to acquire benchmark data for three dimensional viscous flow code validation. The paper describes the objectives, test facilities' instrumentation, and experiment preliminary comparisons.

  9. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  10. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  11. Effective speed management through automatic enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses several aspects of the Dutch experience of speed enforcement, and presents the results of some speed management experiments in The Netherlands, using automatic warning of speeders and enforcement of speeding. Traditional approaches to manage speed there have not resulted in

  12. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  13. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  14. Design of a high speed rotating mechanical shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Merritt, B.T.; McFann, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A high-speed rotating shutter was designed to operate in a 10 -6 Torr vacuum at the optical focus of a laser spatial filter. The shutter is basically a wheel, with a single 3 x 10-mm slot at the perimeter, which rotates with a peripheral speed of 1 km/s. The motor to drive the rotating wheel is magnetically suspended and synchronously wound. The wheel achieves a 4 μs opening time and a timing accuracy of better than 0.2 μs

  15. Miniature high speed compressor having embedded permanent magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei (Inventor); Zheng, Liping (Inventor); Chow, Louis (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta S. (Inventor); Wu, Thomas X. (Inventor); Kota, Krishna M. (Inventor); Li, Xiaoyi (Inventor); Acharya, Dipjyoti (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high speed centrifugal compressor for compressing fluids includes a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) having a hollow shaft, the being supported on its ends by ball bearing supports. A permanent magnet core is embedded inside the shaft. A stator with a winding is located radially outward of the shaft. The PMSM includes a rotor including at least one impeller secured to the shaft or integrated with the shaft as a single piece. The rotor is a high rigidity rotor providing a bending mode speed of at least 100,000 RPM which advantageously permits implementation of relatively low-cost ball bearing supports.

  16. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, pmobile app charts (0.17±0.20 logMAR; 0.18±0.17 logMAR) compared with the paper chart (0.25±0.17 logMAR; F=5.406, p=0.009). The mobile app test had a mean difference repeatability of 0.30±22.5 wpm, r=0.917 for ORS, and a CPS of 0.0±0.2 logMAR, r=0.769. Repeatability of the app reading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Global Processing Speed as a Mediator of Developmental Changes in Children's Auditory Memory Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, A.N.; Bowey, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of global processing speed in mediating age increases in auditory memory span in 5- to 13-year-olds. Children were tested on measures of memory span, processing speed, single-word speech rate, phonological sensitivity, and vocabulary. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which age-associated increases in…

  18. A high speed electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing method for line printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thanh Huy; Kim, Seora; Kwon, Kye-Si

    2017-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing has drawn attention due to its capability to produce smaller dots and patterns with finer lines when compared to those obtained from using conventional inkjet printing. Previous studies have suggested that drop-on-demand EHD-patterning applications should be limited to very slow printing cases with speeds far less than 10 mm s −1 due to the small dot size and limited jetting frequency. In this study, a new EHD printing method is proposed to significantly increase the line-patterning printing speed by modifying the ink and thereby changing the relic shape. The proposed method has the additional advantage of reducing the line-pattern width. The results of the experiment show that the pattern width could be reduced from 20 µ m to 4 µ m by increasing the printing speed from 10 mm s −1 to 50 mm s −1 , respectively. (paper)

  19. A 10-bit column-parallel cyclic ADC for high-speed CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ye; Li Quanliang; Shi Cong; Wu Nanjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high-speed column-parallel cyclic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for a CMOS image sensor. A correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit is integrated in the ADC, which avoids a stand-alone CDS circuit block. An offset cancellation technique is also introduced, which reduces the column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) effectively. One single channel ADC with an area less than 0.02 mm 2 was implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS image sensor process. The resolution of the proposed ADC is 10-bit, and the conversion rate is 1.6 MS/s. The measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are 0.89 LSB and 6.2 LSB together with CDS, respectively. The power consumption from 3.3 V supply is only 0.66 mW. An array of 48 10-bit column-parallel cyclic ADCs was integrated into an array of CMOS image sensor pixels. The measured results indicated that the ADC circuit is suitable for high-speed CMOS image sensors. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Sensitive Ceramics_Pattern #1-#5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    pattern of which are reflecting the position and speed of the hands. In that way the user is able to interact and model a responding pattern. The second level has to do with realizing the modules in ceramics by 3d printing directly in porcelain with a RapMan printer that coils up the 3d shape in layers...

  1. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  2. Overt vs. covert speed cameras in combination with delayed vs. immediate feedback to the offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Hadas; Setter, Pe'erly; Norman, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Speeding is a major problem in road safety because it increases both the probability of accidents and the severity of injuries if an accident occurs. Speed cameras are one of the most common speed enforcement tools. Most of the speed cameras around the world are overt, but there is evidence that this can cause a "kangaroo effect" in driving patterns. One suggested alternative to prevent this kangaroo effect is the use of covert cameras. Another issue relevant to the effect of enforcement countermeasures on speeding is the timing of the fine. There is general agreement on the importance of the immediacy of the punishment, however, in the context of speed limit enforcement, implementing such immediate punishment is difficult. An immediate feedback that mediates the delay between the speed violation and getting a ticket is one possible solution. This study examines combinations of concealment and the timing of the fine in operating speed cameras in order to evaluate the most effective one in terms of enforcing speed limits. Using a driving simulator, the driving performance of the following four experimental groups was tested: (1) overt cameras with delayed feedback, (2) overt cameras with immediate feedback, (3) covert cameras with delayed feedback, and (4) covert cameras with immediate feedback. Each of the 58 participants drove in the same scenario on three different days. The results showed that both median speed and speed variance were higher with overt than with covert cameras. Moreover, implementing a covert camera system along with immediate feedback was more conducive to drivers maintaining steady speeds at the permitted levels from the very beginning. Finally, both 'overt cameras' groups exhibit a kangaroo effect throughout the entire experiment. It can be concluded that an implementation strategy consisting of covert speed cameras combined with immediate feedback to the offender is potentially an optimal way to motivate drivers to maintain speeds at the

  3. A High Speed CMOS Image Sensor with a Novel Digital Correlated Double Sampling and a Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeok Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the operating speed of a CMOS image sensor (CIS, a new technique of digital correlated double sampling (CDS is described. In general, the fixed pattern noise (FPN of a CIS has been reduced with the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal. This is because a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC has been normally adopted in the conventional digital CDS with the reset ramp and signal ramp. Thus, the operating speed of a digital CDS is much slower than that of an analog CDS. In order to improve the operating speed, we propose a novel digital CDS based on a differential difference amplifier (DDA that compares the reset signal and the pixel signal using only one ramp. The prototype CIS has been fabricated with 0.13 µm CIS technology and it has the VGA resolution of 640 × 480. The measured conversion time is 16 µs, and a high frame rate of 131 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution.

  4. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  5. Transition of torque pattern in undulatory locomotion due to wave number variation in resistive force dominated media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Ming, Tingyu

    2016-11-01

    In undulatory locomotion, torque (bending moment) is required along the body to overcome the external forces from environments and bend the body. Previous observations on animals using less than two wavelengths on the body showed such torque has a single traveling wave pattern. Using resistive force theory model and considering the torque generated by external force in a resistive force dominated media, we found that as the wave number (number of wavelengths on the locomotor's body) increases from 0.5 to 1.8, the speed of the traveling wave of torque decreases. When the wave number increases to 2 and greater, the torque pattern transits from a single traveling wave to a two traveling waves and then a complex pattern that consists two wave-like patterns. By analyzing the force distribution and its contribution to the torque, we explain the speed decrease of the torque wave and the pattern transition. This research is partially supported by the Recruitment Program of Global Young Experts (China).

  6. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  7. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  8. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Hatala

    Full Text Available Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  9. Chaotic Patterns in Aeroelastic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Marques

    2009-01-01

    patterns. With the reconstructed state spaces, qualitative analyses may be done, and the attractors evolutions with parametric variation are presented. Overall results reveal complex system dynamics associated with highly separated flow effects together with nonlinear coupling between aeroelastic modes. Bifurcations to the nonlinear aeroelastic system are observed for two investigations, that is, considering oscillations-induced aeroelastic evolutions with varying freestream speed, and aeroelastic evolutions at constant freestream speed and varying oscillations. Finally, Lyapunov exponent calculation is proceeded in order to infer on chaotic behavior. Poincaré mappings also suggest bifurcations and chaos, reinforced by the attainment of maximum positive Lyapunov exponents.

  10. Probing the limits of Si:P δ-doped devices patterned by a scanning tunneling microscope in a field-emission mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, M.; Carr, S. M.; Ten Eyck, G.; Dominguez, J.; Carroll, M. S.; Bussmann, E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Subramania, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Pluym, T.

    2014-10-20

    Recently, a single atom transistor was deterministically fabricated using phosphorus in Si by H-desorption lithography with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This milestone in precision, achieved by operating the STM in the conventional tunneling mode, typically utilizes slow (∼10{sup 2} nm{sup 2}/s) patterning speeds. By contrast, using the STM in a high-voltage (>10 V) field-emission mode, patterning speeds can be increased by orders of magnitude to ≳10{sup 4} nm{sup 2}/s. We show that the rapid patterning negligibly affects the functionality of relatively large micron-sized features, which act as contacting pads for these devices. For nanoscale structures, we show that the resulting electrical transport is consistent with the donor incorporation chemistry constraining the electrical dimensions to a scale of 10 nm even though the pattering spot size is 40 nm.

  11. HIPPI-6400 -- Designing for speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    The emerging High Performance Parallel Interface 6400 Mbit/s interface (HIPPI-6400), is targeted as a local area network (LAN), or system area network (SAN), supporting data rates of 6400 Mbit/s (800 Mbyte/s). This is eight times the speed of Gigabit Ethernet. The features used, and the design choices made, for the data link and physical layers of HIPPI-6400, to achieve this unprecedented speed are the subject of this paper. HIPPI-6400 borrowed freely from other successful technologies such as ATM, Ethernet and the original HIPPI -- taking the best features of each and melding them with some new features. HIPPI-6400 is a cost effective reliable interconnect for distances up to 1 km; it intermixes large and small messages efficiently.

  12. Asynchronous machine rotor speed estimation using a tabulated numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Phuc; De Miras, Jérôme; Charara, Ali; Eltabach, Mario; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method to estimate the rotor speed of the asynchronous machine by looking at the estimation problem as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The behavior of the nonlinear plant model is approximated off-line as a prediction map using a numerical one-step time discretization obtained from simulations. At each time-step, the speed of the induction machine is selected satisfying the dynamic fitting problem between the plant output and the predicted output, leading the system to adopt its dynamical behavior. Thanks to the limitation of the prediction horizon to a single time-step, the execution time of the algorithm can be completely bounded. It can thus easily be implemented and embedded into a real-time system to observe the speed of the real induction motor. Simulation results show the performance and robustness of the proposed estimator.

  13. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  14. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  15. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  16. Study on application of single-crystal ice 'Kurobe ice column' to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena 'M wave' in Nagano city. Tankesshohyo 'Kurobe no hyojun' no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina 'Emu Wave' deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  17. Utilization technique on variable speed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This reports of workshop on power technology describes using technique on variable speed device, which deals with alternating current situation and prospect of current variable speed device, technical trend and prospect of electronics, reduce expenses by variable speed device, control technique, measurement technology, high voltage variable speed device, recent trend of inverter technology, low voltage and high voltage variable speed device control device, operating variable speed device in cooling fan, FDF application and defect case of variable speed device, cooling pump application of water variable transformer, inverter application and energy effect of ventilation equipment, application of variable speed device and analysis of the result of operation and study for application of variable speed technology.

  18. Distinct sets of locomotor modules control the speed and modes of human locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Noritaka; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    Although recent vertebrate studies have revealed that different spinal networks are recruited in locomotor mode- and speed-dependent manners, it is unknown whether humans share similar neural mechanisms. Here, we tested whether speed- and mode-dependence in the recruitment of human locomotor networks exists or not by statistically extracting locomotor networks. From electromyographic activity during walking and running over a wide speed range, locomotor modules generating basic patterns of muscle activities were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization. The results showed that the number of modules changed depending on the modes and speeds. Different combinations of modules were extracted during walking and running, and at different speeds even during the same locomotor mode. These results strongly suggest that, in humans, different spinal locomotor networks are recruited while walking and running, and even in the same locomotor mode different networks are probably recruited at different speeds. PMID:27805015

  19. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  20. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...... is speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding...

  1. Integration of motion energy from overlapping random background noise increases perceived speed of coherently moving stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jason; Ausloos, Emily C; Schwebach, Courtney A; Huang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    The perception of visual motion can be profoundly influenced by visual context. To gain insight into how the visual system represents motion speed, we investigated how a background stimulus that did not move in a net direction influenced the perceived speed of a center stimulus. Visual stimuli were two overlapping random-dot patterns. The center stimulus moved coherently in a fixed direction, whereas the background stimulus moved randomly. We found that human subjects perceived the speed of the center stimulus to be significantly faster than its veridical speed when the background contained motion noise. Interestingly, the perceived speed was tuned to the noise level of the background. When the speed of the center stimulus was low, the highest perceived speed was reached when the background had a low level of motion noise. As the center speed increased, the peak perceived speed was reached at a progressively higher background noise level. The effect of speed overestimation required the center stimulus to overlap with the background. Increasing the background size within a certain range enhanced the effect, suggesting spatial integration. The speed overestimation was significantly reduced or abolished when the center stimulus and the background stimulus had different colors, or when they were placed at different depths. When the center- and background-stimuli were perceptually separable, speed overestimation was correlated with perceptual similarity between the center- and background-stimuli. These results suggest that integration of motion energy from random motion noise has a significant impact on speed perception. Our findings put new constraints on models regarding the neural basis of speed perception. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina von Helversen

    Full Text Available In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup.

  3. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  4. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  5. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  6. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  7. Features of single tracks in coaxial laser cladding of a NIbased self-fluxing alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldshtein Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the influence of coaxial laser cladding conditions on the dimensions, microstructure, phases and microhardness of Ni-based self-fluxing alloy single tracks is studied. The height and width of single tracks depend on the speed and distance of the laser cladding: increasing the nozzle distance from the deposited surface 1.4 times reduces the width of the track 1.2 - 1.3 times and increases its height 1.2 times. The increase of the laser spot speed 3 times reduces the track width 1.2 - 1.4 times and the height in 1.5 - 1.6 times. At the same time, the increase of the laser spot speed 3 times reduces the track width 1.2 - 1.4 times and the height 1.5 - 1.6 times. Regularities in the formation of single tracks microstructure with different cladding conditions are defined, as well as regularity of distribution of elements over the track depth and in the transient zone. The patterns of microhardness distribution over the track depth for different cladding conditions are found.

  8. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  9. Research on monitoring technology of axial gap change about high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochan; Liu Fanglei; Hu Shihua; Xie Qing; Li Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that the only measuring point of high-speed rotating machinery (speed monitoring transducer) measuring the operation of the axial gap change and application. According to mechanism analysis the speed monitoring transducer's signal, prove its amplitude changes including the axial gap change information. To carry out the speed monitoring transducer qualitative and quantitative axial gap change research, Find the output signal amplitude and clearance change corresponding relationship formula of speed monitoring transducer, define the measurement method. Based on the above analsis, manufacture the single channel measurement devices and multiple unit measurement system, provide an important fault decision of high-speed rotating machinery, it can be applied to new equipment development and production. (authors)

  10. Genome-wide association study for milking speed in French Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marete, Andrew Gitahi; Sahana, Goutam; Fritz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Using a combination of data from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip SNP array (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and a EuroGenomics (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip with SNP pre-selected from whole genome sequence data, we carried out an association study of milking speed...... associated with milking speed. As clinical mastitis and somatic cell score have an unfavorable genetic correlation with milking speed, we tested whether the most significant SNP on these 22 chromosomes associated with milking speed were also associated with clinical mastitis or somatic cell score. Nine...... hundred seventy-one genome-wide significant SNP were associated with milking speed. Of these, 86 were associated with clinical mastitis and 198 with somatic cell score. The most significant association signals for milking speed were observed on chromosomes 7, 8, 10, 14, and 18. The most significant signal...

  11. High Speed White Dwarf Asteroseismology with the Herty Hall Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Aaron; Kim, A.

    2012-01-01

    Asteroseismology is the process of using observed oscillations of stars to infer their interior structure. In high speed asteroseismology, we complete that by quickly computing hundreds of thousands of models to match the observed period spectra. Each model on a single processor takes five to ten seconds to run. Therefore, we use a cluster of sixteen Dell Workstations with dual-core processors. The computers use the Ubuntu operating system and Apache Hadoop software to manage workloads.

  12. High speed trains Velaro for Russia; Hochgeschwindigkeitszuege Velaro fuer Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Andreas; John, David [Siemens AG, I MO TR HI RUS, Erlangen (Germany); Mangler, Ruediger [Siemens AG, I MO TR DH, Krefeld (Germany); Nazarov, Aleksander S. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Technical Policy; Nazarov, Oleg N. [VNIIZhT Moscow (Russian Federation); Shilkin, Vitali P. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    From December 2008 on, eight ten-piece high-speed trains from the Velaro family from Siemens will be delivered to Russia. The two electrical multiple unit versions - single and double system trains equipped with distributed traction - will be put into service on the existing Moscow - St. Petersburg and Moscow - Nizhni Novgorod lines. The technical design and the special features for deployment in Russia are described. (orig.)

  13. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  14. Thermoelasticity with Finite Wave Speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Ignaczak, Józef

    2009-01-01

    Generalized dynamic thermoelasticity is a vital area of research in continuum mechanics, free of the classical paradox of infinite propagation speeds of thermal signals in Fourier-type heat conduction. Besides that paradox, the classical dynamic thermoelasticity theory offers either unsatisfactory or poor descriptions of a solid's response at low temperatures or to a fast transient loading (say, due to short laser pulses). Several models have been developed and intensively studiedover the past four decades, yet this book, which aims to provide a point of reference in the field, is the first mo

  15. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam

  16. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  18. Visual processing speed in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; vogel, asmus; Rostrup, Egill

    2013-01-01

    of the speed of a particular psychological process that are not confounded by the speed of other processes. We used Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to obtain specific estimates of processing speed in the visual system controlled for the influence of response latency and individual variations...... dramatic aging effects were found for the perception threshold and the visual apprehension span. In the visual domain, cognitive aging seems to be most clearly related to reductions in processing speed....

  19. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  20. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  1. Intraindividual variability in executive functions but not speed of processing or conflict resolution predicts performance differences in gait speed in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzer, Roee; Mahoney, Jeannette; Verghese, Joe

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between executive functions (EF) and gait speed is well established. However, with the exception of dual tasking, the key components of EF that predict differences in gait performance have not been determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine whether processing speed, conflict resolution, and intraindividual variability in EF predicted variance in gait performance in single- and dual-task conditions. Participants were 234 nondemented older adults (mean age 76.48 years; 55% women) enrolled in a community-based cohort study. Gait speed was assessed using an instrumented walkway during single- and dual-task conditions. The flanker task was used to assess EF. Results from the linear mixed effects model showed that (a) dual-task interference caused a significant dual-task cost in gait speed (estimate = 35.99; 95% CI = 33.19-38.80) and (b) of the cognitive predictors, only intraindividual variability was associated with gait speed (estimate = -.606; 95% CI = -1.11 to -.10). In unadjusted analyses, the three EF measures were related to gait speed in single- and dual-task conditions. However, in fully adjusted linear regression analysis, only intraindividual variability predicted performance differences in gait speed during dual tasking (B = -.901; 95% CI = -1.557 to -.245). Among the three EF measures assessed, intraindividual variability but not speed of processing or conflict resolution predicted performance differences in gait speed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  3. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  4. Green maritime transportation: Speed and route optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2015-01-01

    Among the spectrum of logistics-based measures for green maritime transportation, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high...

  5. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  6. Dazzle camouflage and the confusion effect: the influence of varying speed on target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Cuthill, Innes C; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    The formation of groups is a common strategy to avoid predation in animals, and recent research has indicated that there may be interactions between some forms of defensive coloration, notably high-contrast 'dazzle camouflage', and one of the proposed benefits of grouping: the confusion effect. However, research into the benefits of dazzle camouflage has largely used targets moving with constant speed. This simplification may not generalize well to real animal systems, where a number of factors influence both within- and between-individual variation in speed. Departure from the speed of your neighbours in a group may be predicted to undermine the confusion effect. This is because individual speed may become a parameter through which the observer can individuate otherwise similar targets: an 'oddity effect'. However, dazzle camouflage patterns are thought to interfere with predator perception of speed and trajectory. The current experiment investigated the possibility that such patterns could ameliorate the oddity effect caused by within-group differences in prey speed. We found that variation in speed increased the ease with which participants could track targets in all conditions. However, we found no evidence that motion dazzle camouflage patterns reduced oddity effects based on this variation in speed, a result that may be informative about the mechanisms behind this form of defensive coloration. In addition, results from those conditions most similar to those of published studies replicated previous results, indicating that targets with stripes parallel to the direction of motion are harder to track, and that this pattern interacts with the confusion effect to a greater degree than background matching or orthogonal-to-motion striped patterns.

  7. Dynamic balancing of super-critical rotating structures using slow-speed data via parametric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresser, Shachar; Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    High-speed machinery is often designed to pass several "critical speeds", where vibration levels can be very high. To reduce vibrations, rotors usually undergo a mass balancing process, where the machine is rotated at its full speed range, during which the dynamic response near critical speeds can be measured. High sensitivity, which is required for a successful balancing process, is achieved near the critical speeds, where a single deflection mode shape becomes dominant, and is excited by the projection of the imbalance on it. The requirement to rotate the machine at high speeds is an obstacle in many cases, where it is impossible to perform measurements at high speeds, due to harsh conditions such as high temperatures and inaccessibility (e.g., jet engines). This paper proposes a novel balancing method of flexible rotors, which does not require the machine to be rotated at high speeds. With this method, the rotor is spun at low speeds, while subjecting it to a set of externally controlled forces. The external forces comprise a set of tuned, response dependent, parametric excitations, and nonlinear stiffness terms. The parametric excitation can isolate any desired mode, while keeping the response directly linked to the imbalance. A software controlled nonlinear stiffness term limits the response, hence preventing the rotor to become unstable. These forces warrant sufficient sensitivity required to detect the projection of the imbalance on any desired mode without rotating the machine at high speeds. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are shown to validate and demonstrate the method.

  8. The Influence of Load and Speed on Individuals' Movement Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Because individuals' movement patterns have been linked to their risk of future injury, movement evaluations have become a topic of interest. However, if individuals adapt their movement behavior in response to the demands of a task, the utility of evaluations comprising only low-demand activities could have limited application with regard to the prediction of future injury. This investigation examined the impact of load and speed on individuals' movement behavior. Fifty-two firefighters performed 5 low-demand (i.e., light load, low movement speed) whole-body tasks (i.e., lift, squat, lunge, push, and pull). Each task was then modified by increasing the speed, external load, or speed and load. Select measures of motion were used to characterize the performance of each task, and comparisons were made between conditions. The participants adapted their movement behavior in response to the external demands of a task (64 and 70% of all the variables were influenced [p ≤ 0.05] by changing the load and speed, respectively), but in a manner unique to the task and type of demand. The participants exhibited greater spine and frontal plane knee motion in response to an increase in speed when compared with increasing loads. However, there were a large number of movement strategies exhibited by individual firefighters that differed from the group's response. The data obtained here imply that individuals may not be physically prepared to perform safely or effectively when a task's demands are elevated simply because they exhibit the ability to perform a low-demand activity with competence. Therefore, movement screens comprising only low-demand activities may not adequately reflect an individual's capacity, or their risk of injury, and could adversely affect any recommendations that are made for training or job performance.

  9. Comparative analysis of serial and parallel laser patterning of Ag nanowire thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Harim; Lee, Myeongkyu, E-mail: myeong@yonsei.ac.kr

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Serial and parallel laser patterning of Ag nanowire thin films is comparatively analyzed. • AgNW film can be directly patterned by a spatially-modulated pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam. • An area of 2.24 cm{sup 2} can be simultaneously patterned by a single pulse with energy of 350 mJ. - Abstract: Ag nanowire (AgNW) films solution-coated on a glass substrate were laser-patterned in two different ways. For the conventional serial process, a pulsed ultraviolet laser of 30 kHz repetition rate and ∼20 ns pulse width was employed as the laser source. For parallel patterning, the film was directly irradiated by a spatially-modulated Nd:YAG laser beam that has a low repetition rate of 10 kHz and a shorter pulse width of 5 ns. While multiple pulses with energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2} were required to pattern the film in the serial process, a single pulse with energy density of 0.16 J/cm{sup 2} completely removed AgNWs in the parallel patterning. This may be explained by the difference in patterning mechanism. In the parallel process using short pulses of 5 ns width, AgNWs can be removed in their solid state by the laser-induced thermo-elastic force, while they should be evaporated in the serial process utilizing a high-repetition rate laser. Important process parameters such as threshold energy density, speed, and available feature sizes are comparatively discussed for the two patterning.

  10. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  12. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  13. The Effect of Concurrent Visual Feedback on Controlling Swimming Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20. Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback, the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback, the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002. Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.

  14. Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorah, David; Choppin, Simon; James, David

    2015-06-01

    In many sports, the maximum swing speed of a racket, club, or bat is a key performance parameter. Previous research in multiple sports supports the hypothesis of an inverse association between the swing speed and moment of inertia of an implement. The aim of this study was to rigorously test and quantify this relationship using a restricted swinging motion. Eight visually identical rods with a common mass but variable moment of inertia were manufactured. Motion capture technology was used to record eight participants' maximal effort swings with the rods. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to data that did not adhere to the prescribed movement pattern. The study found that for all participants, swing speed decreased with respect to moment of inertia according to a power relationship. However, in contrast to previous studies, the rate of decrease varied from participant to participant. With further analysis it was found that participants performed more consistently at the higher end of the moment of inertia range tested. The results support the inverse association between swing speed and moment of inertia but only for higher moment of inertia implements.

  15. Movement patterns for a critically endangered species, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea, linked to foraging success and population status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bailey

    Full Text Available Foraging success for pelagic vertebrates may be revealed by horizontal and vertical movement patterns. We show markedly different patterns for leatherback turtles in the North Atlantic versus Eastern Pacific, which feed on gelatinous zooplankton that are only occasionally found in high densities. In the Atlantic, travel speed was characterized by two modes, indicative of high foraging success at low speeds (<15 km d(-1 and transit at high speeds (20-45 km d(-1. Only a single mode was evident in the Pacific, which occurred at speeds of 21 km d(-1 indicative of transit. The mean dive depth was more variable in relation to latitude but closer to the mean annual depth of the thermocline and nutricline for North Atlantic than Eastern Pacific turtles. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that Eastern Pacific turtles rarely achieve high foraging success. This is the first support for foraging behaviour differences between populations of this critically endangered species and suggests that longer periods searching for prey may be hindering population recovery in the Pacific while aiding population maintenance in the Atlantic.

  16. High-speed data search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James N.

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed data search system developed for KSC incorporates existing and emerging information retrieval technology to help a user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual databases. This technology includes: natural language input; statistical ranking of retrieved information; an artificial intelligence concept called semantics, where 'surface level' knowledge found in text is used to improve the ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, where user judgements about viewed information are used to automatically modify the search for further information. Semantics and relevance feedback are features of the system which are not available commercially. The system further demonstrates focus on paragraphs of information to decide relevance; and it can be used (without modification) to intelligently search all kinds of document collections, such as collections of legal documents medical documents, news stories, patents, and so forth. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of statistical ranking, our semantic improvement, and relevance feedback.

  17. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  18. Mixed convection heat transfer simulation in a rectangular channel with a variable speed rotational cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Imran; Billah, Md. Mamun; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steady two-dimensional heat transfer in a rectangular channel with a centered variable speed cylinder has been performed in this paper. In this setup, an isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the channel while the upper wall is kept isothermal with a low temperature. The cylinder's peripheral speed to maximum inlet fluid velocity ratio (ξ) is varied from 0.5 to 1.5 for both clockwise and anticlockwise rotational cases. Air has been considered as working fluid while other system parameters such as Grashof and Reynolds numbers are varied. The effects of rotational speed, Grashof and Reynolds numbers on the streamline pattern, isothermal lines, local and average Nusselt number are analyzed and presented. It is observed the cylinder's rotational direction and speed has a significant effect on the flow pattern, temperature distribution as well as heat transfer characteristics.

  19. Effects of changing speed on knee and ankle joint load during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de David, Ana Cristina; Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Joint moments can be used as an indicator of joint loading and have potential application for sports performance and injury prevention. The effects of changing walking and running speeds on joint moments for the different planes of motion still are debatable. Here, we compared knee and ankle moments during walking and running at different speeds. Data were collected from 11 recreational male runners to determine knee and ankle joint moments during different conditions. Conditions include walking at a comfortable speed (self-selected pacing), fast walking (fastest speed possible), slow running (speed corresponding to 30% slower than running) and running (at 4 m · s(-1) ± 10%). A different joint moment pattern was observed between walking and running. We observed a general increase in joint load for sagittal and frontal planes as speed increased, while the effects of speed were not clear in the transverse plane moments. Although differences tend to be more pronounced when gait changed from walking to running, the peak moments, in general, increased when speed increased from comfortable walking to fast walking and from slow running to running mainly in the sagittal and frontal planes. Knee flexion moment was higher in walking than in running due to larger knee extension. Results suggest caution when recommending walking over running in an attempt to reduce knee joint loading. The different effects of speed increments during walking and running should be considered with regard to the prevention of injuries and for rehabilitation purposes.

  20. The effect of the air blast sprayer speed on the chemical distribution in vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celen, I H; Arin, S; Durgut, M R

    2008-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the spray deposition patterns for air blast sprayers used to apply chemicals to the canopy of Semillon grapevine in vineyard. The application carried out in 12 bars and three sprayer speed (2.1-4.9-7.7 km h(-1)). The spray deposition was measured on the point in the different distances (1.5-3-6-9 m). Tartrazine were applied as tracer material. Maximum spray deposit was obtained 66.1 mg cm(-2) at sprayer speed of 2.1 km h(-1) and minimum deposit was obtained 37.1 mg cm(-2) at sprayer speed of 7.7 km h(-1). The results showed that the sprayer speeds had significant effect on spray deposit distribution and increasing of the sprayer speed increased drift.

  1. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-05-01

    A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ~0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  2. Comprehensive surface treatment of high-speed steel tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey V.; Aleshin, Sergey V.; Swe, Min Htet; Abdirova, Raushan D.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Sergey B.

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising directions of hardening of high-speed steel tool is the creation on their surface of the layered structures with the gradient of physic-chemical properties between the wear-resistant coatings to the base material. Among the methods of such surface modification, a special process takes place based on the use of pulsed high-intensity charged particle beams. The high speed of heating and cooling allows structural-phase transformations in the surface layer, which cannot be realized in a stationary mode. The treatment was conducted in a RITM-SP unit, which constitutes a combination of a source of low-energy high-current electron beams "RITM" and two magnetron spraying systems on a single vacuum chamber. The unit enables deposition of films on the surface of the desired product and subsequent liquid-phase mixing of materials of the film and the substrate by an intense pulse electron beam. The article discusses features of the structure of the subsurface layer of high-speed steel M2, modified by surface alloying of a low-energy high-current electron beam, and its effect on the wear resistance of the tool when dry cutting hard to machine Nickel alloy. A significant decrease of intensity of wear of high-speed steel with combined treatment happens due to the displacement of the zone of wear and decrease the radius of rounding of the cutting edge because of changes in conditions of interaction with the material being treated.

  3. Universal formula for the holographic speed of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Andrade, Tomás; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert

    2018-06-01

    We consider planar hairy black holes in five dimensions with a real scalar field in the Breitenlohner-Freedman window and derive a universal formula for the holographic speed of sound for any mixed boundary conditions of the scalar field. As an example, we numerically construct the most general class of planar black holes coupled to a single scalar field in the consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity that preserves the SO (3) × SO (3) R-symmetry group of the gauge theory. For this particular family of solutions, we find that the speed of sound exceeds the conformal value. From a phenomenological point of view, the fact that the conformal bound can be violated by choosing the right mixed boundary conditions is relevant for the existence of neutron stars with a certain mass-size relationship for which a large value of the speed of sound codifies a stiff equation of state. In the way, we also shed light on a puzzle regarding the appearance of the scalar charges in the first law. Finally, we generalize the formula of the speed of sound to arbitrary dimensional scalar-metric theories whose parameters lie within the Breitenlohner-Freedman window.

  4. Unsteady flow simulations of Pelton turbine at different rotational speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents numerical simulations of a small Pelton turbine suitable for desalination system. A commercial flow solver was adopted to resolve difficulties in the numerical simulation for Pelton turbine such as the relative motion of the turbine runner to the injector and two-phase flow of water and air. To decrease the numerical diffusion of the water jet, a new topology with only hexagonal mesh was suggested for the computational mesh around the complex geometry of a bucket. The predicted flow coefficient, net head coefficient, and overall efficiency showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validation of the numerical results, the pattern of wet area on the bucket inner surface has been analyzed at different rotational speeds, and an attempt to find the connection between rotational speeds, torque, and efficiency has been made.

  5. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used. The models are optimized to fit the individual...... noise and that practically all correlation to the climate variables are removed. Furthermore, the results show that the forecasting errors mainly are related to: unpredictable high frequency variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), shifts in resident behavior patterns...

  6. Do running speed and shoe cushioning influence impact loading and tibial shock in basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.

  7. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  8. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  9. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  10. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reconstructing the high-resolution three-dimensional diffraction intensity function of a globular biological macromolecule from many quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The structural resolution is expressed as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ∼0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule

  11. Maskless patterning by pulsed-power plasma printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Brok, W.J.M.; Stevens, A.A.E.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, pulsed-power technology was applied to plasma printing, which is a maskless plasma patterning solution that is being developed for the fabrication process of printed electronics. A high-voltage pulse source was developed and applied to a high-speed plasma printer to improve the speed

  12. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  13. Dynamic Speed Adaptation for Path Tracking Based on Curvature Information and Speed Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Serna, Citlalli; Ruichek, Yassine

    2017-06-14

    A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method. Furthermore, 'curve analysis extraction' and 'speed limits database creation' are also part of our contribution. An algorithm that analyzes GPS information off-line identifies high curvature segments and estimates the speed for each curve. The speed limit database contains information about the different speed limit zones for each traveled path. Our DSA senses speed limits and curves of the road using GPS information and ensures smooth speed transitions between current and ideal speeds. Through experimental simulations with different control algorithms on real and simulated datasets, we prove that our method is able to significantly reduce lateral errors on sharp curves, to respect speed limits and consequently increase safety and comfort for the passenger.

  14. A joint routing and speed optimization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Ricardo; He, Qie; Santos, Fernando; Song, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost contributes to a significant portion of operating cost in cargo transportation. Though classic routing models usually treat fuel cost as input data, fuel consumption heavily depends on the travel speed, which has led to the study of optimizing speeds over a given fixed route. In this paper, we propose a joint routing and speed optimization problem to minimize the total cost, which includes the fuel consumption cost. The only assumption made on the dependence between the fuel cost an...

  15. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  16. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  17. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S f =353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S f =225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S f =210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  18. Experimental high-speed network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Klein, William P.; Vercillo, Richard; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Parra, Miguel V.; Dallas, William J.

    1993-09-01

    Many existing local area networking protocols currently applied in medical imaging were originally designed for relatively low-speed, low-volume networking. These protocols utilize small packet sizes appropriate for text based communication. Local area networks of this type typically provide raw bandwidth under 125 MHz. These older network technologies are not optimized for the low delay, high data traffic environment of a totally digital radiology department. Some current implementations use point-to-point links when greater bandwidth is required. However, the use of point-to-point communications for a total digital radiology department network presents many disadvantages. This paper describes work on an experimental multi-access local area network called XFT. The work includes the protocol specification, and the design and implementation of network interface hardware and software. The protocol specifies the Physical and Data Link layers (OSI layers 1 & 2) for a fiber-optic based token ring providing a raw bandwidth of 500 MHz. The protocol design and implementation of the XFT interface hardware includes many features to optimize image transfer and provide flexibility for additional future enhancements which include: a modular hardware design supporting easy portability to a variety of host system buses, a versatile message buffer design providing 16 MB of memory, and the capability to extend the raw bandwidth of the network to 3.0 GHz.

  19. High speed all optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ganz, Aura

    1990-01-01

    An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point wide area network (WAN) architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. The first solution to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation is presented. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs. The principle of the Lightnet architecture is the construction and use of virtual topology networks, embedded in the original network in the wavelength domain. For this construction Lightnets utilize the new concept of lightpaths which constitute the links of the virtual topology. Lightpaths are all-optical, multihop, paths in the network that allow data to be switched through intermediate nodes using high throughput passive optical switches. The use of the virtual topologies and the associated switching design introduce a number of new ideas, which are discussed in detail.

  20. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  1. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  2. High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory, researchers characterize and model devices operating at terahertz (THz) and millimeter-wave frequencies. The...

  3. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  4. High speed cutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using LBR-370 numerical control lathe, high speed cutting was applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy. The influence of cutting parameters on microstructure, surface roughness and machining hardening were investigated by using the methods of single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the cutting parameters have an important effect on microstructure, surface roughness and machine hardening. The depth of stress layer, roughness and hardening present a declining tendency with the increase of the cutting speed and also increase with the augment of the cutting depth and feed rate. Moreover, we established a prediction model of the roughness, which has an important guidance on actual machining process of magnesium alloy.

  5. Traveling waves and spreading speed on a lattice model with age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyi Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a lattice differential model for a single species with distributed age-structure in an infinite patchy environment. Using method of approaches by Diekmann and Thieme, we develop a comparison principle and construct a suitable sub-solution to the given model, and show that there exists a spreading speed of the system which in fact coincides with the minimal wave speed.

  6. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  7. Cognitive Retardation in a Patient with Preservation of Psychomotor Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Willison

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient (R.S. who after a bout of probable TB exhibited an unusual pattern of response retardation, although given time he was able to score at a satisfactory level. He was strikingly slow to initiate speaking and to carry out higher level cognitive tasks, at a time when he could complete a variety of psychomotor activities at normal speed. He showed many similarities with patients previously described as having subcortical dementia. The selective preservation of psychomotor responding in the context of his gross bradyphrenia, however, was unexpected.

  8. Tactile shoe inlays for high speed pressure monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of flexible tactile sensor shoe inlays for humanoid robots. Their design is based on a sandwich structure of flexible layers with a thin sheet of piezoresistive rubber as main transducer element. The layout and patterning of top and bottom electrodes give 1024...... pressure sensitive cells and the use of high speed electronics and multiplexing algorithms provides frame rates of 100 Hz. The sensors tolerate overloads while showing a consistent output. The developed prototypes show a high potential not only for robotics, but also for use in sensorised human prosthetics....

  9. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  10. Evaluating anemometer drift: A statistical approach to correct biases in wind speed measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Asin, Jesus; McVicar, Tim R.; Minola, Lorenzo; Lopez-Moreno, Juan I.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Chen, Deliang

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies on observed wind variability have revealed a decline (termed "stilling") of near-surface wind speed during the last 30-50 years over many mid-latitude terrestrial regions, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The well-known impact of cup anemometer drift (i.e., wear on the bearings) on the observed weakening of wind speed has been mentioned as a potential contributor to the declining trend. However, to date, no research has quantified its contribution to stilling based on measurements, which is most likely due to lack of quantification of the ageing effect. In this study, a 3-year field experiment (2014-2016) with 10-minute paired wind speed measurements from one new and one malfunctioned (i.e., old bearings) SEAC SV5 cup anemometer which has been used by the Spanish Meteorological Agency in automatic weather stations since mid-1980s, was developed for assessing for the first time the role of anemometer drift on wind speed measurement. The results showed a statistical significant impact of anemometer drift on wind speed measurements, with the old anemometer measuring lower wind speeds than the new one. Biases show a marked temporal pattern and clear dependency on wind speed, with both weak and strong winds causing significant biases. This pioneering quantification of biases has allowed us to define two regression models that correct up to 37% of the artificial bias in wind speed due to measurement with an old anemometer.

  11. Speed of quantum evolution of entangled two qubits states: Local vs. global evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curilef, S; Zander, C; Plastino, A R

    2008-01-01

    There is a lower bound for the 'speed' of quantum evolution as measured by the time needed to reach an orthogonal state. We show that, for two-qubits systems, states saturating the quantum speed limit tend to exhibit a small amount of local evolution, as measured by the fidelity between the initial and final single qubit states after the time τ required by the composite system to reach an orthogonal state. Consequently, a trade-off between the speed of global evolution and the amount of local evolution seems to be at work.

  12. A Fully Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Speed Scaling with Sleep State

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, Antonios; Huang, Chien-Chung; Ott, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We study classical deadline-based preemptive scheduling of tasks in a computing environment equipped with both dynamic speed scaling and sleep state capabilities: Each task is specified by a release time, a deadline and a processing volume, and has to be scheduled on a single, speed-scalable processor that is supplied with a sleep state. In the sleep state, the processor consumes no energy, but a constant wake-up cost is required to transition back to the active state. In contrast to speed sc...

  13. A Vector Printing Method for High-Speed Electrohydrodynamic (EHD Jet Printing Based on Encoder Position Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Huy Phung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrohyrodynamic (EHD jet printing has been widely used in the field of direct micro-nano patterning applications, due to its high resolution printing capability. So far, vector line printing using a single nozzle has been widely used for most EHD printing applications. However, the application has been limited to low-speed printing, to avoid non-uniform line width near the end points where line printing starts and ends. At end points of line vector printing, the deposited drop amount is likely to be significantly large compared to the rest of the printed lines, due to unavoidable acceleration and deceleration. In this study, we proposed a method to solve the printing quality problems by producing droplets at an equally spaced distance, irrespective of the printing speed. For this purpose, an encoder processing unit (EPU was developed, so that the jetting trigger could be generated according to user-defined spacing by using encoder position signals, which are used for the positioning control of the two linear stages.

  14. High-speed autoverifying technology for printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Moritoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Okada, Hideo; Sakashita, Yorihiro; Shibutani, Nobumi

    1996-10-01

    We have developed an automated pattern verification technique. The output of an automated optical inspection system contains many false alarms. Verification is needed to distinguish between minor irregularities and serious defects. In the past, this verification was usually done manually, which led to unsatisfactory product quality. The goal of our new automated verification system is to detect pattern features on surface mount technology boards. In our system, we employ a new illumination method, which uses multiple colors and multiple direction illumination. Images are captured with a CCD camera. We have developed a new algorithm that uses CAD data for both pattern matching and pattern structure determination. This helps to search for patterns around a defect and to examine defect definition rules. These are processed with a high speed workstation and a hard-wired circuits. The system can verify a defect within 1.5 seconds. The verification system was tested in a factory. It verified 1,500 defective samples and detected all significant defects with only a 0.1 percent of error rate (false alarm).

  15. The effects of anti-speeding advertisements on the simulated driving behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Bernice R C; Irwin, Julia D; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Recent examinations of road safety communications, including anti-speeding advertisements, have considered the differential effects of positive and negative emotional appeals on driver behaviour. However, empirical evaluations of anti-speeding messages have largely relied on measures of viewers' reported intentions to comply with speed limits and the self-reported driving behaviour of viewers post-exposure, which might not be indicative of the direct effects that these messages have on real-world driving behaviour. The current research constitutes a first empirical evaluation of different real-world anti-speeding advertisements, as measured by their effects on young drivers' speeding behaviour, using a driving simulator. Licensed drivers (N=116) aged 17-25 years completed driving measures prior to, immediately following, and 7-10days after viewing one of four social marketing advertisements. Results indicated that young drivers' average driving speeds were modestly reduced immediately after they viewed an anti-speeding advertisement that depicted social consequences for speeding and employed a positive emotional appeal when compared to an emotion-matched control advertisement; however, this effect was not found for the anti-speeding advertisement depicting a crash. Interestingly, the results based on reported intentions to reduce speeding predicted the opposite pattern of results. However, there was no evidence that the immediate changes to speeding were maintained 7-10days later, and prompts during Phase 2 did not appear to have an effect. The implications of these findings for road safety advertisements targeting young drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different propagation speeds of recalled sequences in plastic spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuhui; Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Gang; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-03-01

    Neural networks can generate spatiotemporal patterns of spike activity. Sequential activity learning and retrieval have been observed in many brain areas, and e.g. is crucial for coding of episodic memory in the hippocampus or generating temporal patterns during song production in birds. In a recent study, a sequential activity pattern was directly entrained onto the neural activity of the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats and subsequently successfully recalled by a local and transient trigger. It was observed that the speed of activity propagation in coordinates of the retinotopically organized neural tissue was constant during retrieval regardless how the speed of light stimulation sweeping across the visual field during training was varied. It is well known that spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a potential mechanism for embedding temporal sequences into neural network activity. How training and retrieval speeds relate to each other and how network and learning parameters influence retrieval speeds, however, is not well described. We here theoretically analyze sequential activity learning and retrieval in a recurrent neural network with realistic synaptic short-term dynamics and STDP. Testing multiple STDP rules, we confirm that sequence learning can be achieved by STDP. However, we found that a multiplicative nearest-neighbor (NN) weight update rule generated weight distributions and recall activities that best matched the experiments in V1. Using network simulations and mean-field analysis, we further investigated the learning mechanisms and the influence of network parameters on recall speeds. Our analysis suggests that a multiplicative STDP rule with dominant NN spike interaction might be implemented in V1 since recall speed was almost constant in an NMDA-dominant regime. Interestingly, in an AMPA-dominant regime, neural circuits might exhibit recall speeds that instead follow the change in stimulus speeds. This prediction could be tested in

  17. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  18. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

  19. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  20. Kummer strikes back : new DH speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chuengsatiansup, C.; Lange, T.; Schwabe, P.; Sarkar, P.; Iwata, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets new speed records for high-security constant-time variable-base-point Diffie-Hellman software: 305395 Cortex-A8-slow cycles; 273349 Cortex-A8-fast cycles; 88916 Sandy Bridge cycles; 88448 Ivy Bridge cycles; 54389 Haswell cycles. There are no higher speeds in the literature for any of