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Sample records for single particle electron

  1. Automated data collection in single particle electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong Zi; Cheng, Anchi; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Automated data collection is an integral part of modern workflows in single particle electron microscopy (EM) research. This review surveys the software packages available for automated single particle EM data collection. The degree of automation at each stage of data collection is evaluated, and the capabilities of the software packages are described. Finally, future trends in automation are discussed. PMID:26671944

  2. Statistical Methods for Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a form of transmission electron microscopy, aimed at reconstructing the 3D structure of a macromolecular complex from a large set of 2D projection images, as they exhibit a very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the single-particle reconstruction (SPR) probl...

  3. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancev, Ivan; Milojevic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  4. Limiting factors in single particle cryo electron tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kudryashev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of cryo electron microscopy and tomography allow visualization of protein nanomachines in their native state at the nanometer scale. Image processing methods including sub-volume averaging applied to repeating macromolecular elements within tomograms allow exploring their structures within the native context of the cell, avoiding the need for protein isolation and purification. Today, many different data acquisition protocols and software solutions are available to researchers to determine average structures of macromolecular complexes and potentially to classify structural intermediates. Here, we list the density maps reported in the literature, and analyze each structure for the chosen instrumental settings, sample conditions, main processing steps, and obtained resolution. We present conclusions that identify factors currently limiting the resolution gained by this approach.

  5. A deep convolutional neural network approach to single-particle recognition in cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanan; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong

    2017-07-21

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a mainstream tool for the structural determination of biological macromolecular complexes. However, high-resolution cryo-EM reconstruction often requires hundreds of thousands of single-particle images. Particle extraction from experimental micrographs thus can be laborious and presents a major practical bottleneck in cryo-EM structural determination. Existing computational methods for particle picking often use low-resolution templates for particle matching, making them susceptible to reference-dependent bias. It is critical to develop a highly efficient template-free method for the automatic recognition of particle images from cryo-EM micrographs. We developed a deep learning-based algorithmic framework, DeepEM, for single-particle recognition from noisy cryo-EM micrographs, enabling automated particle picking, selection and verification in an integrated fashion. The kernel of DeepEM is built upon a convolutional neural network (CNN) composed of eight layers, which can be recursively trained to be highly "knowledgeable". Our approach exhibits an improved performance and accuracy when tested on the standard KLH dataset. Application of DeepEM to several challenging experimental cryo-EM datasets demonstrated its ability to avoid the selection of un-wanted particles and non-particles even when true particles contain fewer features. The DeepEM methodology, derived from a deep CNN, allows automated particle extraction from raw cryo-EM micrographs in the absence of a template. It demonstrates an improved performance, objectivity and accuracy. Application of this novel method is expected to free the labor involved in single-particle verification, significantly improving the efficiency of cryo-EM data processing.

  6. Single-particle electron microscopy in the study of membrane protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zorzi, Rita; Mi, Wei; Liao, Maofu; Walz, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) provides the great advantage that protein structure can be studied without the need to grow crystals. However, due to technical limitations, this approach played only a minor role in the study of membrane protein structure. This situation has recently changed dramatically with the introduction of direct electron detection device cameras, which allow images of unprecedented quality to be recorded, also making software algorithms, such as three-dimensional classification and structure refinement, much more powerful. The enhanced potential of single-particle EM was impressively demonstrated by delivering the first long-sought atomic model of a member of the biomedically important transient receptor potential channel family. Structures of several more membrane proteins followed in short order. This review recounts the history of single-particle EM in the study of membrane proteins, describes the technical advances that now allow this approach to generate atomic models of membrane proteins and provides a brief overview of some of the membrane protein structures that have been studied by single-particle EM to date. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The fabrication and single electron transport of Au nano-particles placed between Nb nanogap electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T; Negishi, R; Ishibashi, K; Kawao, M; Nagata, T; Ozawa, H

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated Nb nanogap electrodes using a combination of molecular lithography and electron beam lithography. Au nano-particles with anchor molecules were placed in the gap, the width of which could be controlled on a molecular scale (∼2 nm). Three different anchor molecules which connect the Au nano-particles and the electrodes were tested to investigate their contact resistance, and a local gate was fabricated underneath the Au nano-particles. The electrical transport measurements at liquid helium temperatures indicated single electron transistor (SET) characteristics with a charging energy of about ∼ 5 meV, and a clear indication of the effect of superconducting electrodes was not observed, possibly due to the large tunnel resistance.

  8. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to Single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction of RVFV MP-12 hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on...

  9. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  10. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G. [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Afonina, Zhanna A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-03-15

    Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) can provide cellular and molecular structural information on various biological samples. However, the detailed interpretation of tomograms reconstructed from single-tilt data tends to suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and artefacts caused by some systematically missing angular views. While these can be overcome by sub-tomogram averaging, they remain limiting for the analysis of unique structures. Double-tilt ET can improve the tomogram quality by acquiring a second tilt series after an in-plane rotation, but its usage is not widespread yet because it is considered technically demanding and it is rarely used under cryo conditions. Here we show that double-tilt cryo-ET improves the quality of 3D reconstructions so significantly that even single particle analysis can be envisaged despite of the intrinsically low image contrast obtained from frozen-hydrated specimens. This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries. The improved tomograms favour the faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging and allow a better 3D classification using multivariate statistical analysis. Our study of single particles and molecular assemblies within polysomes illustrates that the dual-axis approach is particularly useful for cryo applications of ET, both for unique objects and for structures that can be classified and averaged. - Highlights: ► Double-tilt cryo-ET improves 3D reconstructions thus making single particle analysis possible. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET data favour a faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging. ► Individual ribosomes were reconstructed from single-tilt, partial/ full double-tilt geometries. ► Double-tilt cryo-ET facilitates analysis of larger molecular assemblies such as in cell sections. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET is applicable to unique objects and to structures that can be

  11. Single-particle characterization of 'Asian Dust' certified reference materials using low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hee Jin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2006-01-01

    In order to clearly elucidate whether Asian Dust particles experience chemical modification during long-range transport, it is necessary to characterize soil particles where Asian Dust particles originate. If chemical compositions of source soil particles are well characterized, then chemical compositions of Asian Dust particles collected outside source regions can be compared with those of source soil particles in order to find out the occurrence of chemical modification. Asian Dust particles are chemically and morphologically heterogeneous, and thus the average composition and the average aerodynamic diameter (obtainable by bulk analysis) are not much relevant if the chemical modifications of the particles must be followed. The major elemental composition and abundance of the particle types that are potential subjects of chemical modification can only be obtained using single-particle analysis. A single particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), was applied to characterize two certified reference materials (CRMs) for Asian Dust particles, which were collected from a loess plateau area and a desert of China. The CRMs were defined by bulk analyses to provide certified concentrations for 13 chemical elements. Using the low-Z particle EPMA technique, the concentrations of major chemical species such as aluminosilicates, SiO 2 , CaCO 3 , and carbonaceous species were obtained. Elemental concentrations obtained by the low-Z particle EPMA are close to the certified values, with considering that the single particle and bulk analyses employ very different approaches. There are still some discrepancies between those concentration values, resulting from analyses of particles with different sizes, different sample amounts analyzed, and uncertainties involved in the single particle analysis

  12. Deblurring of class-averaged images in single-particle electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Wooram; Chirikjian, Gregory S; Madden, Dean R; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the deblurring of class-averaged images in single-particle electron microscopy (EM). Since EM images of biological samples are very noisy, the images which are nominally identical projection images are often grouped, aligned and averaged in order to cancel or reduce the background noise. However, the noise in the individual EM images generates errors in the alignment process, which creates an inherent limit on the accuracy of the resulting class averages. This inaccurate class average due to the alignment errors can be viewed as the result of a convolution of an underlying clear image with a blurring function. In this work, we develop a deconvolution method that gives an estimate for the underlying clear image from a blurred class-averaged image using precomputed statistics of misalignment. Since this convolution is over the group of rigid-body motions of the plane, SE(2), we use the Fourier transform for SE(2) in order to convert the convolution into a matrix multiplication in the corresponding Fourier space. For practical implementation we use a Hermite-function-based image modeling technique, because Hermite expansions enable lossless Cartesian-polar coordinate conversion using the Laguerre–Fourier expansions, and Hermite expansion and Laguerre–Fourier expansion retain their structures under the Fourier transform. Based on these mathematical properties, we can obtain the deconvolution of the blurred class average using simple matrix multiplication. Tests of the proposed deconvolution method using synthetic and experimental EM images confirm the performance of our method

  13. Single-particle characterization of urban aerosol particles collected in three Korean cites using low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Chul-Un; Kim, HyeKyeong; Oh, Keun-Young; Yea, Sun Kyung; Lee, Chong Bum; Jang, Meongdo; Van Grieken, René

    2002-11-15

    A recently developed single-particle analytical technique, called low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z EPMA), was applied to characterize urban aerosol particles collected in three cities of Korea (Seoul, CheongJu, and ChunCheon) on single days in the winter of 1999. In this study, it is clearly demonstrated that the low-Z EPMA technique can provide detailed and quantitative information on the chemical composition of particles in the urban atmosphere. The collected aerosol particles were analyzed and classified on the basis of their chemical species. Various types of particles were identified, such as soil-derived, carbonaceous, marine-originated, and anthropogenic particles. In the sample collected in Seoul, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate aerosol particles were abundantly encountered. In the CheongJu and ChunCheon samples, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, reacted sea salts, and ammonium sulfate aerosol particles were often seen. However, in the CheongJu sample, ammonium sulfate particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, calcium sulfate and nitrate particles were significantly observed. In the ChunCheon sample, organic particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, sodium nitrate particles were seen at high levels. The ChunCheon sample seemed to be strongly influenced by sea-salt aerosols originating from the Yellow Sea, which is located about 115 km away from the city.

  14. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  15. Single-particle coherent diffractive imaging with a soft x-ray free electron laser: towards soot aerosol morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Starodub, Dmitri; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.

    2010-10-01

    The first of its kind, the Free electron LASer facility in Hamburg, FLASH, produces soft x-ray pulses with unprecedented properties (10 fs, 6.8-47 nm, 1012 photons per pulse, 20 µm diameter). One of the seminal FLASH experiments is single-pulse coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI). CXDI utilizes the ultrafast and ultrabright pulses to overcome resolution limitations in x-ray microscopy imposed by x-ray-induced damage to the sample by 'diffracting before destroying' the sample on sub-picosecond timescales. For many lensless imaging algorithms used for CXDI it is convenient when the data satisfy an oversampling constraint that requires the sample to be an isolated object, i.e. an individual 'free-standing' portion of disordered matter delivered to the centre of the x-ray focus. By definition, this type of matter is an aerosol. This paper will describe the role of aerosol science methodologies used for the validation of the 'diffract before destroy' hypothesis and the execution of the first single-particle CXDI experiments being developed for biological imaging. FLASH CXDI now enables the highest resolution imaging of single micron-sized or smaller airborne particulate matter to date while preserving the native substrate-free state of the aerosol. Electron microscopy offers higher resolution for single-particle analysis but the aerosol must be captured on a substrate, potentially modifying the particle morphology. Thus, FLASH is poised to contribute significant advancements in our knowledge of aerosol morphology and dynamics. As an example, we simulate CXDI of combustion particle (soot) morphology and introduce the concept of extracting radius of gyration of fractal aggregates from single-pulse x-ray diffraction data. Future upgrades to FLASH will enable higher spatially and temporally resolved single-particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science and nanotechnology. Many of the methodologies described for FLASH will

  16. Integrated Transmission Electron and Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy Correlates Reactivity with Ultrastructure in a Single Catalyst Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Frank C.; Mohammadian, Sajjad; Ristanovic, Zoran; Kalirai, Samanbir; Meirer, Florian; Vogt, Eelco T. C.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Gerritsen, Hans; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing structure–activity relationships in complex, hierarchically structured nanomaterials, such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, requires characterization with complementary, correlated analysis techniques. An integrated setup has been developed to perform transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) microscopy on such nanostructured samples. Correlated structure–reactivity information was obtained for 100 nm thin, microtomed sections of a ...

  17. Single-particle coherent diffractive imaging with a soft x-ray free electron laser: towards soot aerosol morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogan, Michael J; Starodub, Dmitri; Hampton, Christina Y; Sierra, Raymond G

    2010-01-01

    The first of its kind, the Free electron LASer facility in Hamburg, FLASH, produces soft x-ray pulses with unprecedented properties (10 fs, 6.8-47 nm, 10 12 photons per pulse, 20 μm diameter). One of the seminal FLASH experiments is single-pulse coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI). CXDI utilizes the ultrafast and ultrabright pulses to overcome resolution limitations in x-ray microscopy imposed by x-ray-induced damage to the sample by 'diffracting before destroying' the sample on sub-picosecond timescales. For many lensless imaging algorithms used for CXDI it is convenient when the data satisfy an oversampling constraint that requires the sample to be an isolated object, i.e. an individual 'free-standing' portion of disordered matter delivered to the centre of the x-ray focus. By definition, this type of matter is an aerosol. This paper will describe the role of aerosol science methodologies used for the validation of the 'diffract before destroy' hypothesis and the execution of the first single-particle CXDI experiments being developed for biological imaging. FLASH CXDI now enables the highest resolution imaging of single micron-sized or smaller airborne particulate matter to date while preserving the native substrate-free state of the aerosol. Electron microscopy offers higher resolution for single-particle analysis but the aerosol must be captured on a substrate, potentially modifying the particle morphology. Thus, FLASH is poised to contribute significant advancements in our knowledge of aerosol morphology and dynamics. As an example, we simulate CXDI of combustion particle (soot) morphology and introduce the concept of extracting radius of gyration of fractal aggregates from single-pulse x-ray diffraction data. Future upgrades to FLASH will enable higher spatially and temporally resolved single-particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science and nanotechnology. Many of the methodologies described for FLASH will

  18. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  19. Self-Assembled Colloidal Particle Clusters from In Situ Pickering-Like Emulsion Polymerization via Single Electron Transfer Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Weiting; Pan, Mingwang; Zhu, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple route is reported to synthesize colloidal particle clusters (CPCs) from self-assembly of in situ poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(styrene-co-tert-butyl acrylate) [PVDF/P(St-co-tBA)] Janus particles through one-pot seeded emulsion single electron transfer radical polymerization. In the in situ Pickering-like emulsion polymerization, the tBA/St/PVDF feed ratio and polymerization temperature are important for the formation of well-defined CPCs. When the tBA/St/PVDF feed ratio is 0.75 g/2.5 g/0.5 g and the reaction temperature is 35 °C, relatively uniform raspberry-like CPCs are obtained. The hydrophobicity of the P(St-co-tBA) domains and the affinity of PVDF to the aqueous environment are considered to be the driving force for the self-assembly of the in situ formed PVDF/P(St-co-tBA) Janus particles. The resultant raspberry-like CPCs with PVDF particles protruding outward may be promising for superhydrophobic smart coatings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Integrated Transmission Electron and Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy Correlates Reactivity with Ultrastructure in a Single Catalyst Particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412642697; Mohammadian, Sajjad|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374721327; Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Kalirai, Samanbir; Meirer, Florian; Vogt, Eelco T. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073717398; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Gerritsen, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071548777; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2018-01-01

    Establishing structure–activity relationships in complex, hierarchically structured nanomaterials, such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, requires characterization with complementary, correlated analysis techniques. An integrated setup has been developed to perform transmission electron

  1. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  2. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal for this project has been the development of a scanning tunneling instrument for the purpose of imaging individual particles and tunneling into these particles at high magnetic fields. Further progress is discussed in this report

  3. Thon rings from amorphous ice and implications of beam-induced Brownian motion in single particle electron cryo-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, G., E-mail: gm2@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Vinothkumar, K.R.; Henderson, R.

    2015-11-15

    We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å{sup 2} for every incident 300 keV e{sup −}/Å{sup 2}. The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e{sup −}/Å{sup 2} per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. - Highlights: • Thon rings can be seen from amorphous ice. • Radiation damage to amorphous ice randomly displaces water molecules. • Each incident 300 keV e{sup −}/Å{sup 2} displaces water molecules on average by ∼1 Å. • Macromolecules embedded in amorphous ice undergo beam induced Brownian motion.

  4. Thon rings from amorphous ice and implications of beam-induced Brownian motion in single particle electron cryo-microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, G; Vinothkumar, K R; Henderson, R

    2015-11-01

    We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å(2) for every incident 300 keV e(-)/Å(2). The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e(-)/Å(2) per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael B; Freiberg, Alexander N; Holbrook, Michael R; Watowich, Stanley J

    2009-04-25

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human and veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on the virus surface are highly symmetric and arranged on a T=12 icosahedral lattice. Our RVFV MP-12 structure allowed clear identification of inter-capsomer contacts and definition of possible glycoprotein arrangements within capsomers. This structure provides a detailed model for phleboviruses, opens new avenues for high-resolution structural studies of the bunyavirus family, and aids the design of antiviral diagnostics and effective subunit vaccines.

  6. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human and veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on the virus surface are highly symmetric and arranged on a T = 12 icosahedral lattice. Our RVFV MP-12 structure allowed clear identification of inter-capsomer contacts and definition of possible glycoprotein arrangements within capsomers. This structure provides a detailed model for phleboviruses, opens new avenues for high-resolution structural studies of the bunyavirus family, and aids the design of antiviral diagnostics and effective subunit vaccines.

  7. Single-Particle Dynamics in Electron Storage Rings with Extremely Low Emittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2011-05-31

    Electron storage rings are widely used for high luminosity colliders, damping rings in high-energy linear colliders, and synchrotron light sources. They have become essential facilities to study high-energy physics and material and medical sciences. To further increase the luminosity of colliders or the brightness of synchrotron light sources, the beam emittance is being continually pushed downward, recently to the nanometer region. In the next decade, another order of reduction is expected. This requirement of ultra-low emittance presents many design challenges in beam dynamics, including better analysis of maps and improvement of dynamic apertures. To meet these challenges, we have refined transfer maps of common elements in storage rings and developed a new method to compute the resonance driving terms as they are built up along a beamline. The method is successfully applied to a design of PEP-X as a future light source with 100-pm emittance. As a result, we discovered many unexpected cancelations of the fourth-order resonance terms driven by sextupoles within an achromat.

  8. Electron microscopy of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Fu

    Electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EM/EDS) is a powerful tool for single particle analysis. However, the accuracy with which atmospheric particle compositions can be quantitatively determined by EDS is often hampered by substrate-particle interactions, volatilization losses in the low pressure microscope chamber, electron beam irradiation and use of inaccurate quantitation factors. A pseudo-analytical solution was derived to calculate the temperature rise due to the dissipation of the electron energy on a particle-substrate system. Evaporative mass loss for a spherical cap-shaped sulfuric acid particle resting on a thin film supported by a TEM grid during electron beam impingement has been studied. Measured volatilization rates were found to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. The method proposed can also be used to estimate the vapor pressure of a species by measuring the decay of X-ray intensities. Several types of substrates were studied. We found that silver-coated silicon monoxide substrates give carbon detection limits comparable to commercially available substrates. An advantage of these substrates is that the high thermal conductivity of the silver reduces heating due to electron beam impingement. In addition, exposure of sulfuric acid samples to ammonia overnight substantially reduces sulfur loss in the electron beam. Use of size-dependent k-factors determined from particles of known compositions shows promise for improving the accuracy of atmospheric particle compositions measured by EM/EDS. Knowledge accumulated during the course of this thesis has been used to analyze atmospheric particles (Minneapolis, MN) selected by the TDMA and collected by an aerodynamic focusing impactor. 'Less' hygroscopic particles, which do not grow to any measurable extent when humidified to ~90% relative humidity, included chain agglomerates, spheres, flakes, and irregular shapes. Carbon was the predominant element detected in

  9. X-ray analysis of a single aerosol particle with combination of scanning electron microscope and synchrotron radiation X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masatoshi; Kaibuchi, Kazuki; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Terada, Yasuko; Tanabe, Teruo; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kawai, Jun

    2004-01-01

    We developed a microscope by a combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). SR-XRF is appropriate to detect trace and micro amount of elements and sensitive to heavy elements in an analyte but it cannot observe the real time image. SEM-EDX can observe the secondary electron image of a single particle in real time and is appropriate to detect lighter elements. This combination microscope can ensure the identification of the XRF spectrum to the SEM image without transferring the sample. For aerosol analysis, it is important to analyze each particle. The present method makes feasible to analyze not only the average elemental composition as the total particles but also elemental composition of each particle, which is dependent on the particle shape and size. The microscope was applied to an individual aerosol particle study. The X-ray spectra were different among the particles, but also different between SR-XRF and SEM-EDX for the same particle, due to the difference in fluorescence yields between X-ray excitation and electron excitation

  10. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  11. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  12. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.

  13. Single particle distributions, ch.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokzijl, R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of inclusive single particle distributions is given for various particles. A comparison of particle cross-sections measured in K - p experiments at different center of mass energies shows that some of these cross-sections remain almost constant over a wide range of incoming K - momenta

  14. Electronic properties of single crystal CVD diamond and its suitability for particle detection in hadron physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, Michal

    2008-08-07

    This work presents the study on the suitability of single-crystal CVD diamond for particle-detection systems in present and future hadron physics experiments. Different characterization methods of the electrical and the structural properties were applied to gain a deeper understanding of the crystal quality and the charge transport properties of this novel semiconductor material. First measurements regarding the radiation tolerance of diamond were performed with sensors heavily irradiated with protons and neutrons. Finally, detector prototypes were fabricated and successfully tested in various experiments as time detectors for minimum ionizing particles as well as for spectroscopy of heavy ions at the energy ranges available at the SIS and the UNILAC facilities of GSI. (orig.)

  15. Electronic properties of single crystal CVD diamond and its suitability for particle detection in hadron physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomorski, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the study on the suitability of single-crystal CVD diamond for particle-detection systems in present and future hadron physics experiments. Different characterization methods of the electrical and the structural properties were applied to gain a deeper understanding of the crystal quality and the charge transport properties of this novel semiconductor material. First measurements regarding the radiation tolerance of diamond were performed with sensors heavily irradiated with protons and neutrons. Finally, detector prototypes were fabricated and successfully tested in various experiments as time detectors for minimum ionizing particles as well as for spectroscopy of heavy ions at the energy ranges available at the SIS and the UNILAC facilities of GSI. (orig.)

  16. Delivery of single accelerated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.; Schimmerling, W.; Vosburgh, K.G.; Crebbin, K.; Everette, W.; Howard, J.

    1978-01-01

    It is desirable for certain experiments involving accelerators to have the capability of delivering just a single beam particle to the target area. The essential features of such a one-at-a-time facility are discussed. Two such facilities are described which were implemented at high-energy heavy ion accelerators without having to make major structural changes in the existing beam lines or substantially interfering with other accelerator uses. Two accelerator facilities are described which had the capability of delivering a single beam particle to the target area. This feature is necessary in certain experiments investigating visual phenomena induced by charged particles, other single particle interactions in biology, and other experiments in which the low intensities of cosmic rays need to be simulated. Both facilities were implemented without having to make structural changes in the existing beam lines or substantially interfering with other accelerator uses. (Auth.)

  17. The Single Particle Theory of Backward-Wave Amplifications Based on Electron Cyclotron Maser with a Rectilinear Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lina; Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The theory of slow backward-wave amplifications is developed based on electron cyclotron maser (ECM) mechanism employing an initially rectilinear beam. A nonlinear evolution equation is derived to describe the electron energy. Numerical calculations show that the saturated interaction efficiency in this system may exceed 20%, and the saturated interaction length spans 3–6 centimeters. The distinctive interaction mechanism is promising for the design of compact backward microwave amplification devices. Numerical studies are also presented for the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam electron velocity spread. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. (basic plasma phenomena)

  18. Accelerated tests for the soft error rate determination of single radiation particles in components of terrestrial and avionic electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Baggio, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main features of the accelerated test procedures used to determine reliability data of microelectronics devices used in terrestrial environment.This paper focuses on the high energy particle test that could be performed through spallation neutron source or quasi-mono-energetic neutron or proton. Improvements of standards are illustrated with respect to the state of the art of knowledge in radiation effects and scaling down of microelectronics technologies. (authors)

  19. Integrated Transmission Electron and Single‐Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy Correlates Reactivity with Ultrastructure in a Single Catalyst Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Frank C.; Mohammadian, Sajjad; Ristanović, Zoran; Kalirai, Sam; Meirer, Florian; Vogt, Eelco T. C.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Establishing structure–activity relationships in complex, hierarchically structured nanomaterials, such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, requires characterization with complementary, correlated analysis techniques. An integrated setup has been developed to perform transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single‐molecule fluorescence (SMF) microscopy on such nanostructured samples. Correlated structure–reactivity information was obtained for 100 nm thin, microtomed secti...

  20. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  1. Sensing single electrons with single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, Taras

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for probing transport of just one electron, a process of great importance both in nature and in artificial devices. Our idea for locating a single electron is analogues to the conventional GPS where signals from several satellites are used to locate a macro object. Using fluorescent molecules as tiny sensors, it is possible to determine 3D displacement vector of an electron

  2. A new stage of nuclear electronics-particle electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of high energy physics experiments has pushed the nuclear electronics to a new stage, i.e. the particle electronics. In this paper the background, main features and recent trends of the particle electronics are expounded

  3. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  4. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R; Murshudov, Garib N; Short, Judith M; Scheres, Sjors H W; Henderson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  5. Saha equation, single and two particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeft, W.D.; Girardeau, M.D.; Strege, B.

    1990-01-01

    Single and two particle porperties in dense plasma are discussed in connection with their role in the mass action law for a partially ionized plasma. The two particle bound states are nearly density independent, while the continuum is essentially shifted. The single particle states are damped, and their energy has a negative shift and a parabolic behaviour for small momenta. (orig.)

  6. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  7. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard, E-mail: rh15@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  8. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Michael; Zang, Ling; Liu, Ruchuan; Adams, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  9. Assessment of homogeneity of candidate reference material at the nanogram level and investigation on representativeness of single particle analysis using electron probe X ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Chul-Un; Hoornaerta, S.; Griekena, R. van

    2002-01-01

    Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)

  10. Single-particle dispersion in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Zuoli

    2018-04-01

    Single-particle dispersion statistics in compressible box turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation. Focus is placed on the detailed discussion of effects of the particle Stokes number and turbulent Mach number, as well as the forcing type. When solenoidal forcing is adopted, it is found that the single-particle dispersion undergoes a transition from the ballistic regime at short times to the diffusive regime at long times, in agreement with Taylor's particle dispersion argument. The strongest dispersion of heavy particles is announced when the Stokes number is of order 1, which is similar to the scenario in incompressible turbulence. The dispersion tends to be suppressed as the Mach number increases. When hybrid solenoidal and compressive forcing at a ratio of 1/2 is employed, the flow field shows apparent anisotropic property, characterized by the appearance of large shock wave structures. Accordingly, the single-particle dispersion shows extremely different behavior from the solenoidal forcing case.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) single particle analysis of metallurgy plant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Deboudt, K.; Anderson, A.; Blondel, A.; Eliet, S.; Flament, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Healy, R.M.; Savary, V.; Setyan, A.; Wenger, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of single particles deposited on industrial filters located in three different chimneys of an iron-manganese (Fe–Mn) alloy manufacturing plant have been compared using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Very similar types of particles were observed using both analytical techniques. Calcium-containing particles dominated in the firing area of the sintering unit, Mn and/or Al-bearing particles were observed at the cooling area of the sintering unit, while Mn-containing particles were dominant at the smelting unit. SEM-EDX analysis of particles collected downstream of the industrial filters showed that the composition of the particles emitted from the chimneys is very similar to those collected on the filters. ATOFMS analysis of ore samples was also performed to identify particulate emissions that could be generated by wind erosion and manual activities. Specific particle types have been identified for each emission source (chimneys and ore piles) and can be used as tracers for source apportionment of ambient PM measured in the vicinity of the industrial site. - Highlights: • Similar composition for emitted particles as those collected on the chimney filters. • Emitted particles dominated by Ca-, Mn and/or Al-containing particles. • Identification of specific particle types emitted by the different process units. - The particles emitted by metallurgy activities are fully described by ATOFMS and SEM-EDX, enabling the identification of specific particle types from the different units of the process.

  12. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron system. As discussed in this paper such work has to data been carried out. Also as discussed in our previous progress report, the next step in the experimental evolution of the project will be to use lithographically-defined small dots as capacitors as outlined in our proposal. At this point we have made such microdotsdots as will be discussed. We have also continued our work with metal droplets to form single-electron tunnel systems

  13. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  14. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  15. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallavardin, S.; Froyd, K. D.; Johnston, M. V.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Reinard, M. S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Wexler, A. S.

    2007-06-01

    Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  16. Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H. Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Center for Photochemical Sciences

    2017-11-28

    This project is focused on the use of single-molecule high spatial and temporal resolved techniques to study molecular dynamics in condensed phase and at interfaces, especially, the complex reaction dynamics associated with electron and energy transfer rate processes. The complexity and inhomogeneity of the interfacial ET dynamics often present a major challenge for a molecular level comprehension of the intrinsically complex systems, which calls for both higher spatial and temporal resolutions at ultimate single-molecule and single-particle sensitivities. Combined single-molecule spectroscopy and electrochemical atomic force microscopy approaches are unique for heterogeneous and complex interfacial electron transfer systems because the static and dynamic inhomogeneities can be identified and characterized by studying one molecule at a specific nanoscale surface site at a time. The goal of our project is to integrate and apply these spectroscopic imaging and topographic scanning techniques to measure the energy flow and electron flow between molecules and substrate surfaces as a function of surface site geometry and molecular structure. We have been primarily focusing on studying interfacial electron transfer under ambient condition and electrolyte solution involving both single crystal and colloidal TiO2 and related substrates. The resulting molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial electron transfer processes will be important for developing efficient light harvesting systems and broadly applicable to problems in fundamental chemistry and physics. We have made significant advancement on deciphering the underlying mechanism of the complex and inhomogeneous interfacial electron transfer dynamics in dyesensitized TiO2 nanoparticle systems that strongly involves with and regulated by molecule-surface interactions. We have studied interfacial electron transfer on TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces by using ultrafast single

  17. Single particle dynamics in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the theory associated with the transverse dynamics of single particle, in circular accelerators. The discussion begins with a review of Hamiltonian dynamics and canonical transformations. The case of a single particle in a circular accelerator is considered with a discussion of non-linear terms and chromaticity. The canonical perturbation theory is presented and nonlinear resonances are considered. Finally, the concept of renormalization and residue criterion are examined. (FI)

  18. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) single particle analysis of metallurgy plant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J; Deboudt, K; Anderson, A; Blondel, A; Eliet, S; Flament, P; Fourmentin, M; Healy, R M; Savary, V; Setyan, A; Wenger, J C

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of single particles deposited on industrial filters located in three different chimneys of an iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) alloy manufacturing plant have been compared using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Very similar types of particles were observed using both analytical techniques. Calcium-containing particles dominated in the firing area of the sintering unit, Mn and/or Al-bearing particles were observed at the cooling area of the sintering unit, while Mn-containing particles were dominant at the smelting unit. SEM-EDX analysis of particles collected downstream of the industrial filters showed that the composition of the particles emitted from the chimneys is very similar to those collected on the filters. ATOFMS analysis of ore samples was also performed to identify particulate emissions that could be generated by wind erosion and manual activities. Specific particle types have been identified for each emission source (chimneys and ore piles) and can be used as tracers for source apportionment of ambient PM measured in the vicinity of the industrial site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  20. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  1. Electron beam driven disordering in small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanfleet, R.R.; Mochel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Small metal particles in the range of a few nanometers in diameter are seen to progressively disorder when the 100 keV electron beam of a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) is held stationary on the particle. The diffraction pattern of the individual particle is seen to progress from an initial array of indexable diffraction spots to a mixture of diffraction spots and amorphous-like rings and finally to rings with no persistent diffraction spots. After the electron beam is removed, the particles will recrystallize after minutes or hours. Only particles below a critical size are seen to fully disorder. The authors have observed this in platinum, palladium, rhodium, and iridium and based on the model of disordering process believe it is a universal effect. It has also been observed with a platinum ruthenium alloy. They discuss the mechanism of this disordering and the structure of the resulting disordering particle for the case of platinum clusters

  2. Two-particle approach to the electronic structure of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on an extension of Hubbard's treatment of the electronic structure of correlated electrons in matter we propose a methodology that incorporates the scattering off the Coulomb interaction through the determination of a two-particle propagator. The Green function equations of motion are then used to obtain single-particle Green functions and related properties such as densities of states. The solutions of the equations of motion in two- and single-particle spaces are accomplished through applications of the coherent potential approximation. The formalism is illustrated by means of calculations for a single-band model system representing a linear arrangement of sites with nearest neighbor hopping and an one-site repulsion when two electrons of opposite spin occupy the same site in the lattice in the manner described by the so-called Hubbard Hamiltonian

  3. Single-particle Schroedinger fluid. I. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of a single quantal particle moving in a time-dependent external potential well is formulated specifically to emphasize and develop the fluid dynamical aspects of the matter flow. This idealized problem, the single-particle Schroedinger fluid, is shown to exhibit already a remarkably rich variety of fluid dynamical features, including compressible flow and line vortices. It provides also a sufficient framework to encompass simultaneously various simplified fluidic models for nuclei which have earlier been postulated on an ad hoc basis, and to illuminate their underlying restrictions. Explicit solutions of the single-particle Schroedinger fluid problem are studied in the adiabatic limit for their mathematical and physical implications (especially regarding the collective kinetic energy). The basic generalizations for extension of the treatment to the many-body Schroedinger fluid are set forth

  4. Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles...... well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600°C...

  5. Dual color single particle tracking via nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, David; Winterflood, Christian M; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool to investigate the function of biological molecules by following their motion in space. However, the simultaneous tracking of two different species of molecules is still difficult to realize without compromising the length or density of trajectories, the localization accuracy or the simplicity of the assay. Here, we demonstrate a simple dual color single particle tracking assay using small, bright, high-affinity labeling via nanobodies of accessible targets with widely available instrumentation. We furthermore apply a ratiometric step-size analysis method to visualize differences in apparent membrane viscosity. (paper)

  6. Single-particle Glauber matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The single-particle matrix elements of the Glauber profile function are tabulated for harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions. The tables are presented in such a manner as to be applicable if the hadron--nucleon elementary scattering amplitude is specified by either a partial wave expansion or a Gaussian in momentum transfer squared. The table is complete through the 1 g/sub 9/2/ orbital and contains entries for the 3s/sub 1/2/ orbital for use if realistic wave functions are expanded in terms of harmonic oscillator functions

  7. Projection operator treatment of single particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, A.; Beres, W.P.

    1976-01-01

    A projection operator method is used to obtain the energy and width of a single particle resonance. The resonance energy is found without scanning. An example of the first g/sub 9/2/ neutron resonance in 40 Ca is given and compared with the traditional phase shift method. The results of both approaches are quite similar. 4 figures

  8. "Size-Independent" Single-Electron Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianli; Sun, Shasha; Swartz, Logan; Riechers, Shawn; Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Shaowei; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Gang-Yu

    2015-12-17

    Incorporating single-electron tunneling (SET) of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) into modern electronic devices offers great promise to enable new properties; however, it is technically very challenging due to the necessity to integrate ultrasmall (<10 nm) particles into the devices. The nanosize requirements are intrinsic for NPs to exhibit quantum or SET behaviors, for example, 10 nm or smaller, at room temperature. This work represents the first observation of SET that defies the well-known size restriction. Using polycrystalline Au NPs synthesized via our newly developed solid-state glycine matrices method, a Coulomb Blockade was observed for particles as large as tens of nanometers, and the blockade voltage exhibited little dependence on the size of the NPs. These observations are counterintuitive at first glance. Further investigations reveal that each observed SET arises from the ultrasmall single crystalline grain(s) within the polycrystal NP, which is (are) sufficiently isolated from the nearest neighbor grains. This work demonstrates the concept and feasibility to overcome orthodox spatial confinement requirements to achieve quantum effects.

  9. Single particle dynamics of many-body systems described by Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Langevin equations we describe the random walk of single particles that belong to particle systems satisfying Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations. In doing so, we show that Haissinski distributions of bunched particles in electron storage rings can be derived from a particle dynamics model

  10. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 deg were detected, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. (author)

  11. Electrons and kaons in charmed particle decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, J.M.

    1979-05-01

    Inclusive studies of the electron content, kaon content, and associated electron-kaon content of the decays of D mesons and other charmed particles produced in electron-positron annihilation are presented. At the psi(3772) resonance the following inclusive branching ratios for D meson decays to charged kaons were measured. Also at the psi(3772) resonance the average semileptonic branching ratio for D 0 and D + decays to electrons has been measured to be .076 +- .028. The average semileptonic branching ratio of charmed particles produced in e + e - annihilation at center-of-mass energies from 3.9 to 7.4 GeV is found to be equal within errors to that of the D's. At all energies the electron momentum spectra are consistent with a combination of the decays D → Ke nu and D → K*e nu. 84 references

  12. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  13. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, D. K.; Poon, H.-C.; Schwander, P.; Uddin, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-08-01

    The first experimental data from single-particle scattering experiments from free electron lasers (FELs) are now becoming available. The first such experiments are being performed on relatively large objects such as viruses, which produce relatively low-resolution, low-noise diffraction patterns in so-called ``diffract-and-destroy'' experiments. We describe a very simple test on the angular correlations of measured diffraction data to determine if the scattering is from an icosahedral particle. If this is confirmed, the efficient algorithm proposed can then combine diffraction data from multiple shots of particles in random unknown orientations to generate a full 3D image of the icosahedral particle. We demonstrate this with a simulation for the satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV), the atomic coordinates of whose asymmetric unit is given in Protein Data Bank entry 2BUK.

  14. An Electron is the God Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Milo

    2001-04-01

    Philosophers, Clifford, Mach, Einstein, Wyle, Dirac & Schroedinger, believed that only a wave structure of particles could satisfy experiment and fulfill reality. A quantum Wave Structure of Matter is described here. It predicts the natural laws more accurately and completely than classic laws. Einstein reasoned that the universe depends on particles which are "spherically, spatially extended in space." and "Hence a discrete material particle has no place as a fundamental concept in a field theory." Thus the discrete point particle was wrong. He deduced the true electron is primal because its force range is infinite. Now, it is found the electron's wave structure contains the laws of Nature that rule the universe. The electron plays the role of creator - the God particle. Electron structure is a pair of spherical outward/inward quantum waves, convergent to a center in 3D space. This wave pair creates a h/4pi quantum spin when the in-wave spherically rotates to become the out-wave. Both waves form a spinor satisfying the Dirac Equation. Thus, the universe is binary like a computer. Reference: http://members.tripod.com/mwolff

  15. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  16. Electron cooling and elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, G.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    This review is devoted to a new method in experimental physics - the electron cooling. This method opens possibilities in storing the intense and highly monochromatic beams of heavy particles and allows to carry out a wide series of experiments of a high luminocity and resolution. The method is based on the beam cooling by an accompanying flux of electrons. The cooling is due to Coulomb collisions of the beam particles with electrons. In the first part the theoretical aspects of the method are considered shortly. The layout of the NAP-M installation with electron cooling and results of successful experiments on cooling the proton beam are given. In the second part the new possibilities are discussed which appear due to application of electron cooling: storing the intense antiproton beams and realization of the proton - antiproton colliding beams, carrying out experiments with the super fine targets in storage rings, experiments with particles and antiparticles at ultimately low energies, storing the polarized antiprotons and other particles, production of antiatoms, antideuton storing, experiments with ion beams

  17. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1995-01-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr, and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 degree were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the (α, 3 He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical

  18. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  19. Single-Particle States in $^{133}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    Huck, A

    2002-01-01

    % IS338 \\\\ \\\\ It is suggested to investigate the $\\beta^- $-decay of $^{133}$In and $^{134}$In in order to determine the single-particle states in $^{133}$Sn, which are so far unknown and needed for the shell-model description of the region close to $^{132}$Sn. Large hyper-pure Ge-detectors will be used for the $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. In the experiments with $^{134}$In, delayed neutrons in coincidence with $\\gamma$-rays from excited states in $^{133}$Sn provide the opportunity for a very selective detection of the states in question.

  20. Electron, proton, neutron as spheroidical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to describe the electron and the proton at rest within the framework of Dirac's relativistic theory of particles as electro-magnetic stable, spheroidal particles like balloons with very thin envelopes. Their properties, especially their spins and their magnetic momenta, are exactly those, which have been measured at first and later on derived by Dirac. In this picture the neutron plays the role of a system of two concentric and synchronically rotating balloons with a small distance between them at a positive energetic minimum of balance at 1.26 MeV. The magnetic moment of this particle has a negative sign and is of the correct size. (orig.)

  1. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)]|[Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Nuclear Research Institute, Debrecen P.O. Box 51, H-4001 (Hungary)]|[NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)]|[Dep. Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, CC Nio 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]|[Institut de Sciences Exactes,Universite de Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1995-11-01

    The ({alpha},{sup 3}He-{ital n}) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 120}Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with {sup 3}He particles emitted at 0{degree} were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in {sup 91}Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical.

  2. Single-particle stochastic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed an extensive analysis of a single-particle stochastic heat engine constructed by manipulating a Brownian particle in a time-dependent harmonic potential. The cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps similar to that of a Carnot engine. The engine shows qualitative differences in inertial and overdamped regimes. All the thermodynamic quantities, including efficiency, exhibit strong fluctuations in a time periodic steady state. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency dominate over the mean values even in the quasistatic regime. Interestingly, our system acts as an engine provided the temperature difference between the two reservoirs is greater than a finite critical value which in turn depends on the cycle time and other system parameters. This is supported by our analytical results carried out in the quasistatic regime. Our system works more reliably as an engine for large cycle times. By studying various model systems, we observe that the operational characteristics are model dependent. Our results clearly rule out any universal relation between efficiency at maximum power and temperature of the baths. We have also verified fluctuation relations for heat engines in time periodic steady state.

  3. Single particle level scheme for alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The fine structure phenomenon in alpha decay was evidenced by Rosenblum. In this process the kinetic energy of the emitted particle has several determined values related to the structure of the parent and the daughter nucleus. The probability to find the daughter in a low lying state was considered strongly dependent on the spectroscopic factor defined as the square of overlap between the wave function of the parent in the ground state and the wave functions of the specific excited states of the daughter. This treatment provides a qualitative agreement with the experimental results if the variations of the penetrability between different excited states are neglected. Based on single particle structure during fission, a new formalism explained quantitatively the fine structure of the cluster decay. It was suggested that this formalism can be applied also to alpha decay. For this purpose, the first step is to construct the level scheme of this type of decay. Such a scheme, obtained with the super-asymmetric two-center potential, is plotted for the alpha decay of 223 Ra. It is interesting to note that, diabatically, the level with spin 3/2 emerging from 1i 11/2 (ground state of the parent) reaches an excited state of the daughter in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  4. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed

  6. Two-particle versus three-particle interactions in single ionization of helium by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Moshammer, R; Fischer, D; Ullrich, J

    2004-01-01

    We have performed kinematically complete experiments on single ionization of He by 100 MeV amu -1 C 6+ and 3.6 MeV amu -1 Au 24,53+ impact. By analysing doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) as a function of the momenta of all two-particle sub-systems we studied the importance of two-particle interactions. Furthermore, presenting the squared momenta of all three collision fragments simultaneously in a Dalitz plot, we evaluated the role of three-particle interactions. Finally, both for the DDCS and the Dalitz plots the corresponding correlation function was analysed. While the absolute cross sections confirm that ionization predominantly leads to a momentum exchange between the electron and the recoil-ion, the correlation function reveals strong correlations between the particles of any two-particle sub-system. Three-particle correlations, which are not accounted for by perturbative calculations, are quite significant as well, at least for certain kinematic conditions

  7. Microscopic calculations of λ single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Q. N.

    1998-01-01

    Λ binding energy data for total baryon number A ≤ 208 and for Λ angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 3 are analyzed in terms of phenomenological (but generally consistent with meson-exchange) ΛN and ΛNN potentials. The Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique is used to calculate the expectation values for the Λ binding to nuclear matter. Accurate effective ΛN and ΛNN potentials are obtained which are folded with the core nucleus nucleon densities to calculate the Λ single particle potential U Λ (r). We use a dispersive ΛNN potential but also include an explicit ρ dependence to allow for reduced repulsion in the surface, and the best fits have a large ρ dependence giving consistency with the variational Monte Carlo calculations for Λ 5 He. The exchange fraction of the ΛN space-exchange potential is found to be 0.2-0.3 corresponding to m Λ * ≅ (0.74-0.82)m Λ . Charge symmetry breaking is found to be significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess, with a strength consistent with that obtained from the A = 4 hypernuclei

  8. Electron gun simulation with CST PARTICLE STUDIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachmann, Holger; Becker, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces CST PARTICLE STUDIO TM , a specialist tool for the fast and accurate design and analysis of 3D electron guns. The new software is based on the multi-purpose electromagnetic solvers of the CST STUDIO family and incorporates their powerful modelling capabilities as well as successful algorithms of the MAFIA-TS simulators. The underlying theory of the PBA based field solvers and the used tracking technique is presented and some examples of application demonstrate the current status of the software

  9. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  10. Towards single particle imaging of human chromosomes at SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Ian; Schwenke, Joerg; Yusuf, Mohammed; Estandarte, Ana; Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Clark, Jesse; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ratnasari, Gina; Kaneyoshi, Kohei; Takata, Hideaki; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Single particle imaging (SPI) is one of the front-page opportunities which were used to motivate the construction of the first x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). SPI’s big advantage is that it avoids radiation damage to biological samples because the diffraction takes place in femtosecond single shots before any atomic motion can take place in the sample, hence before the onset of radiation damage. This is the ‘diffract before destruction’ theme, destruction being assured from the high x-ray doses used. This article reports our collaboration’s first attempt at SPI using the SACLA XFEL facility in June 2015. The report is limited to experience with the instrumentation and examples of data because we have not yet had time to invert them to images. (paper)

  11. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Rodriguez, Rene G [Pocatello, ID; Pak, Joshua [Pocatello, ID

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  12. Stochastic transport of particles across single barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuter, Christian; Siems, Ullrich; Henseler, Peter; Nielaba, Peter; Leiderer, Paul; Erbe, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Transport phenomena of interacting particles are of high interest for many applications in biology and mesoscopic systems. Here we present measurements on colloidal particles, which are confined in narrow channels on a substrate and interact with a barrier, which impedes the motion along the channel. The substrate of the particle is tilted in order for the particles to be driven towards the barrier and, if the energy gained by the tilt is large enough, surpass the barrier by thermal activation. We therefore study the influence of this barrier as well as the influence of particle interaction on the particle transport through such systems. All experiments are supported with Brownian dynamics simulations in order to complement the experiments with tests of a large range of parameter space which cannot be accessed in experiments.

  13. Direct imaging electron microscopy (EM) methods in modern structural biology: overview and comparison with X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction in the studies of large macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Determining the structure of macromolecules is important for understanding their function. The fine structure of large macromolecules is currently studied primarily by X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction. Before the development of these techniques, macromolecular structure was often examined by negative-staining, rotary-shadowing and freeze-etching EM, which are categorised here as 'direct imaging EM methods'. In this review, the results are summarised by each of the above techniques and compared with respect to four macromolecules: the ryanodine receptor, cadherin, rhodopsin and the ribosome-translocon complex (RTC). The results of structural analysis of the ryanodine receptor and cadherin are consistent between each technique. The results obtained for rhodopsin vary to some extent within each technique and between the different techniques. Finally, the results for RTC are inconsistent between direct imaging EM and other analytical techniques, especially with respect to the space within RTC, the reasons for which are discussed. Then, the role of direct imaging EM methods in modern structural biology is discussed. Direct imaging methods should support and verify the results obtained by other analytical methods capable of solving three-dimensional molecular architecture, and they should still be used as a primary tool for studying macromolecule structure in vivo. © 2014 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps

  15. Picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1979-01-01

    The picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators, are described, which were installed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Tokyo and in the Nuclear Radiation Laboratory of the Osaka University. The purpose of the picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators is to investigate the very short time reaction of the substances, into which gamma ray or electron beam enters. When the electrons in substances receive radiation energy, the electrons get high kinetic energy, and the energy and the electric charge shift, at last to the quasi-stable state. This transient state can be experimented with these special accelerators very accurately, during picoseconds, raising the accuracy of the time of incidence of radiation and also raising the accuracy of observation time. The outline of these picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators of the University of Tokyo and the Osaka University, including the history, the systems and components and the output beam characteristics, are explained. For example, the maximum energy 30 -- 35 MeV, the peak current 1 -- 8 n C, the pulse width 18 -- 40 ps, the pulse repetition rate 200 -- 720 pps, the energy spectrum 1 -- 1.8% and the output beam diameter 2 -- 5 mm are shown as the output beam characteristics of the accelerators in both universities. The investigations utilizing the picosecond single pulse electron linear accelerators, such as the investigation of short life excitation state by pulsed radiation, the dosimetry study of pulsed radiation, and the investigation of the transforming mechanism and the development of the transforming technology from picosecond, single pulse electron beam to X ray, vacuum ultraviolet ray and visual ray, are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Photon emission by electrons and positrons traversing thin single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'chak, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation emission by planar channeled particles (electrons, positrons) in a thin single crystal of thickness L is considered. It is shown that for L approximately πb/THETAsub(L) (b is the lattice constant, THETA sub(L) the Lindhard angle) besides the main spontaneous channeling maxima there exist auxiliary interference maxima, the positions of all the maxima depending on L. The dependence of the radiation spectral intensity on crystal thickness is discussed

  17. Single particle irradiation effect of digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Si'an; Chen Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The single particle irradiation effect of high energy neutron on digital signal processor TMS320P25 in dynamic working condition has been studied. The influence of the single particle on the device has been explored through the acquired waveform and working current of TMS320P25. Analysis results, test data and test methods have also been presented. (authors)

  18. Single-particle behaviour in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses essentially the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. Difficult methods of averaging are explained and applied to calculation of constants of motion. The breakdown of these constants and its consequences on fusion is analyzed

  19. Nanospintronics: when spintronics meets single electron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneor, Pierre; Bernand-Mantel, Anne; Petroff, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    As spintronics goes nano, new phenomena are predicted resulting from the interplay between spin dependent transport and single electron physics. The long term goal of manipulating spins one by one would open a promising path to quantum computing. Towards this end, there is an ever-growing effort to connect spin tanks (i.e. ferromagnetic leads) to smaller and smaller objects in order to study spintronics in reduced dimensions. As the dimensions are reduced, spin dependent transport is predicted to interplay with quantum and/or single electron charging effects. We review experiments and theories on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and spin properties (namely magneto-Coulomb effects) in structures where a single nano-object is connected to ferromagnetic leads. We then discuss briefly future directions in the emerging field of nanospintronics towards quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and single molecule magnets

  20. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y

    2004-06-25

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form.

  1. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y

    2004-01-01

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form

  2. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  3. Metal-nanoparticle single-electron transistors fabricated using electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, K I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Pasupathy, A N

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated single-electron transistors from individual metal nanoparticles using a geometry that provides improved coupling between the particle and the gate electrode. This is accomplished by incorporating a nanoparticle into a gap created between two electrodes using electromigration, all...... on top of an oxidized aluminum gate. We achieve sufficient gate coupling to access more than ten charge states of individual gold nanoparticles (5–15 nm in diameter). The devices are sufficiently stable to permit spectroscopic studies of the electron-in-a-box level spectra within the nanoparticle as its...

  4. Single-particle Analyses of Compositions, Morphology, and Viscosity of Aerosol Particles Collected During GoAmazon2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Gong, Z.; Bateman, A. P.; Martin, S. T.; Cirino, G. G.; Artaxo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles collected during the GoAmazon2014 campaign. These TEM results indicate aerosol types and mixing states, both of which are important for evaluating particle optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei activity. The samples were collected at the T3 site, which is located in the Amazon forest with influences from the urban pollution plume from Manaus. Samples were also collected from the T0 site, which is in the middle of the jungle with minimal to no influences of anthropogenic sources. The aerosol particles mainly originated from 1) anthropogenic pollution (e.g., nanosphere soot, sulfate), 2) biogenic emissions (e.g., primary biogenic particles, organic aerosols), and 3) long-range transport (e.g., sea salts). We found that the biogenic organic aerosol particles contain homogeneously distributed potassium. Particle viscosity is important for evaluating gas-particle interactions and atmospheric chemistry for the particles. Viscosity can be estimated from the rebounding behavior at controlled relative humidities, i.e., highly viscous particles display less rebound on a plate than low-viscosity particles. We collected 1) aerosol particles from a plate (non-rebounded), 2) those that had rebounded from the plate and were then captured onto an adjacent sampling plate, and 3) particles from ambient air using a separate impactor sampler. Preliminary results show that more than 90% of non-rebounded particles consisted of nanosphere soot with or without coatings. The coatings mostly consisted of organic matter. Although rebounded particles also contain nanosphere soot (number fraction 64-69%), they were mostly internally mixed with sulfate, organic matter, or their mixtures. TEM tilted images suggested that the rebounded particles were less deformed on the substrate, whereas the non-rebounded particles were more deformed, which could

  5. A search for single electron production in electron positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.R.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e + e - interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron (''selectron'', e) in combination with a supersymmetric photon (''photino'', γ) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e + e - collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson (''wino'', W) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino (''sneutrino'', ν). These processes make it possible to search for electrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. The data sample collected with the detector was thoroughly analyzed for evidence of single-electron events. The various possible background processes are considered and Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions from single selectron and single wino production are presented. Using this information an efficient off-line event selection process was developed, and it is described in detail. 82 refs., 41 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Single-particle energies and density of states in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, H.; Chan, G. K.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is commonly used as the foundation to obtain neutral excited states and transition weights in DFT, but does not allow direct access to density of states and single-particle energies, i.e. ionisation energies and electron affinities. Here we show that by extending TD-DFT to a superfluid formulation, which involves operators that break particle-number symmetry, we can obtain the density of states and single-particle energies from the poles of an appropriate superfluid response function. The standard Kohn- Sham eigenvalues emerge as the adiabatic limit of the superfluid response under the assumption that the exchange- correlation functional has no dependence on the superfluid density. The Kohn- Sham eigenvalues can thus be interpreted as approximations to the ionisation energies and electron affinities. Beyond this approximation, the formalism provides an incentive for creating a new class of density functionals specifically targeted at accurate single-particle eigenvalues and bandgaps.

  7. DAMPING OF UNBOUND SINGLE-PARTICLE MODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FORTIER, S; BEAUMEL, D; GALES, S; GUILLOT, J; LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; LAURENT, H; MAISON, JM; BORDEWIJK, J; BRANDENBURG, S; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; CRAWLEY, GM; MASSOLO, CP; RENTERIA, M; KHENDRICHE, A

    1995-01-01

    The (alpha, He-3-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on Ni-64, Zr-90, and Sn-120 target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with He-3 particles emitted at 0 degrees were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of the

  8. Single-particle density matrix of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The density single-particle matrix in the coordinate notation was calculated based on the expression for the interacting Bose-particle N system density matrix. Under the low temperatures the mentioned matrix in the first approximation enables to reproduce the Bogoliubov theory results. In the classical terms the mentioned theory enables to reproduce the results of the theory of the classical fluids in the approximation of the chaotic phases. On the basis of the density single-particle matrix one managed to obtain the function of the pulse distribution of the particles, the Bose-liquid average kinetic energy, and to study the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon [ru

  9. Experiments and modeling of single plastic particle conversion in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Wu, Hao; Grévain, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Conversion of single high density polyethylene (PE) particles has been studied by experiments and modeling. The experiments were carried out in a single particle combustor for five different shapes and masses of particles at temperature conditions of 900 and 1100°C. Each experiment was recorded...... against the experiments as well as literature data. Furthermore, a simplified isothermal model appropriate for CFD applications was developed, in order to model the combustion of plastic particles in cement calciners. By comparing predictions with the isothermal and the non–isothermal models under typical...

  10. Single-particle potential from resummed ladder diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.

    2013-01-01

    A recent work on the resummation of fermionic in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is extended by calculating the complex single-particle potential U(p, k f ) + i W(p, k f ) p > k f . The on-shell single-particle potential is constructed by means of a complex-valued in-medium loop that includes corrections from a test particle of momentum vector p added to the filled Fermi sea. The single-particle potential U(k f , k f ) at the Fermi surface as obtained from the resummation of the combined particle and hole ladder diagrams is shown to satisfy the Hugenholtz-Van-Hove theorem. The perturbative contributions at various orders a n in the scattering length are deduced and checked against the known analytical results at order a 1 and a 2 . The limit a → ∞ is studied as a special case and a strong momentum dependence of the real (and imaginary) single-particle potential is found. This feature indicates an instability against a phase transition to a state with an empty shell inside the Fermi sphere such that the density gets reduced by about 5%. The imaginary single-particle potential vanishes linearly at the Fermi surface. For comparison, the same analysis is performed for the resummed particle-particle ladder diagrams alone. In this truncation an instability for hole excitations near the Fermi surface is found at strong coupling. For the set of particle-hole ring diagrams the single-particle potential is calculated as well. Furthermore, the resummation of in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is studied for a two-dimensional Fermi gas with a short-range two-body contact interaction. (orig.)

  11. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry of coal combustion particles associated with high lung cancer rates in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Tan, Zhengying; Liu, Pinwei; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Dingyu; Yu, Shang; Cheng, Ping; Win, Myat Sandar; Hu, Jiwen; Tian, Linwei; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-11-01

    Coal combustion particles (CCPs) are linked to the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei and in Fuyuan, China, but studies on the chemical composition of the CCPs are still limited. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was recently developed to measure the chemical composition and size of single particles in real-time. In this study, SPAMS was used to measure individual combustion particles emitted from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal samples and the results were compared with those by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total of 38,372 particles mass-analyzed by SPAMS can be divided into 9 groups based on their chemical composition and their number percentages: carbonaceous, Na-rich, K-rich, Al-rich, Fe-rich, Si-rich, Ca-rich, heavy metal-bearing, and PAH-bearing particles. The carbonaceous and PAH-bearing particles are enriched in the size range below 0.56 μm, Fe-bearing particles range from 0.56 to 1.0 μm in size, and heavy metals such as Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb have diameters below 1 μm. The TEM results show that the particles from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal combustion can be classified into soot aggregates, Fe-rich particles, heavy metal containing particles, and mineral particles. Non-volatile particles detected by SPAMS could also be observed with TEM. The number percentages by SPAMS also correlate with the mass concentrations measured by ICP-MS. Our results could provide valuable insight for understanding high lung cancer incidence in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  13. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Singh

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  14. Hierarchical Ag mesostructures for single particle SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minwei, E-mail: xuminwei@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yin

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with the size of 250, 360 and 500 nm are synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. • The Ag mesostructures present the tailorable size and highly roughened surfaces. • The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures were estimated to be as high as 10{sup 6}. - Abstract: Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with highly rough surface morphology have been synthesized at room temperature through a simple seed-mediated approach. Electron microscopy characterizations indicate that the obtained Ag mesostructures exhibit a textured surface morphology with the flower-like architecture. Moreover, the particle size can be tailored easily in the range of 250–500 nm. For the growth process of the hierarchical Ag mesostructures, it is believed that the self-assembly mechanism is more reasonable rather than the epitaxial overgrowth of Ag seed. The oriented attachment of nanoparticles is revealed during the formation of Ag mesostructures. Single particle surface enhanced Raman spectra (sp-SERS) of crystal violet adsorbed on the hierarchical Ag mesostructures were measured. Results reveal that the hierarchical Ag mesostructures can be highly sensitive sp-SERS substrates with good reproducibility. The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures are estimated to be about 10{sup 6}.

  15. Single particle measurements and two particle interferometry results from CERN experiment NA44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Gillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CERN experiment NA44 is optimized for the study of identified single and multiple particle distributions to p T = 0 near mid-rapidity. We measure π +- , K +- , p, bar p, d and bar d, in p + A and A + A collisions at 450 and 20OGeV/u, respectively. Two-particle intensity interferometry results from π + π + , K + K + , and K - K - measurements and single particle distributions are presented

  16. Single-particle dynamics - RF acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the rf acceleration of both synchronous and non-synchronous particles is discussed and a simple linearized equation of small amplitude synchrotron oscillations is derived. Phase stability, the hamiltonian for synchrotron oscillations, oscillation amplitudes and adiabatic damping are then briefly discussed. The final sections of the paper contain a description of the basic principles of rf beam stacking in the longitudinal phase space of intersecting Storage Rings and a description of phase displacement acceleration which inspite of certain disadvantages, remains an attractive technique for proton storage rings. (B.D.)

  17. Efficient electronic entanglement concentration assisted by single mobile electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2013-01-01

    We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for mobile electrons with charge detection. This protocol is quite different from other ECPs for one can obtain a maximally entangled pair from a pair of less-entangled state and a single mobile electron with a certain probability. With the help of charge detection, it can be repeated to reach a higher success probability. It also does not need to know the coefficient of the original less-entangled states. All these advantages may make this protocol useful in current distributed quantum information processing

  18. Single-particle motion in rapidly rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, R.; Frisk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of particles belonging to a single-j shell is described in terms of classical orbitals. The effects of rapid rotation and pairing correlations are discussed and the results are compared with the quantum mechanical orbitals. (orig.)

  19. Electrostatic deposition of a micro solder particle using a single probe by applying a single rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Daizo; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques have been in high demand. A technique to deposit a metal microparticle onto a metal substrate by using a single metal probe has been proposed as one of the techniques. A solder particle with a diameter of 20–30 µm, initially adhering to the probe tip, is detached and deposited onto a substrate. The success rate of the particle deposition was 44% in the previous research, and is insufficient for industrial applications. In this paper, a technique of particle deposition by applying a single rectangular pulse is proposed, and the mechanism of the deposition is described. In the mechanism, an electric discharge between the probe and the particle when the particle reaches the substrate plays an important role in the particle deposition. Moreover, the mechanism of the proposed technique is verified by experiments of particle deposition, which are observed using a high-speed camera, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an oscilloscope. The success rate of the particle deposition has increased to 93% by the proposed technique. Furthermore, the damage to the particle by the electric discharge is evaluated using an RC circuit model, and the applicability of the proposed technique is discussed. (paper)

  20. Single-electron tunnel junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likharev, K.K.; Bakhvalov, N.S.; Kazacha, G.S.; Serdyukova, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have carried out an analysis of statics and dynamics of uniform one-dimensional arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. The correlated single-electron tunneling in the junctions of the array results in its behavior qualitatively similar to that of the Josephson transmission line. In particular, external electric fields applied to the array edges can inject single-electron-charged solitons into the array interior. Shape of such soliton and character of its interactions with other solitons and the array edges are very similar to those of the Josephson vortices (sine-Gordon solitons) in the Josephson transmission line. Under certain conditions, a coherent motion of the soliton train along the array is possible, resulting in generation of narrowband SET oscillations with frequency f/sub s/ = /e where is the dc current flowing along the array

  1. Influence of Torrefaction on Single Particle Combustion of Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Zhimin; Jian, Jie; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of torrefaction on the char reactivity, char yield, and combustion time of 3-5 mm spherical wood particles in a single particle combustion reactor (SPC) operating at a nominal temperature of 1231 °C. The devolatilization times were reduced and the char burnout...

  2. Modeling of calcination of single kaolinitic clay particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    The present work aims at modeling of the calcination (dehydroxylation) process of clay particles, specifically kaolinite, and its thermal transformation. For such purpose, 1D single particle calcination model was developed based on the concept of shrinking core model to assess the dehydroxylation...

  3. Single-Particle Tracking of Human Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Messieres, Michel; Ng, Abby; Duarte, Cornelio J; Remaley, Alan T; Lee, Jennifer C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), play a critical role in heart disease. Lipoproteins vary in size and shape as well as in their apolipoprotein content. Here, we developed a new experimental framework to study freely diffusing lipoproteins from human blood, allowing analysis of even the smallest HDL with a radius of 5 nm. In an easily constructed confinement chamber, individual HDL, LDL, and VLDL particles labeled with three distinct fluorophores were simultaneously tracked by wide-field fluorescence microscopy and their sizes were determined by their motion. This technique enables studies of individual lipoproteins in solution and allows characterization of the heterogeneous properties of lipoproteins which affect their biological function but are difficult to discern in bulk studies.

  4. Considerations of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion in single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Koon-Sing; Lui, Kwok-On; Lee, Kin-Ho; Chan, Wing-Tat

    2013-01-01

    The intensity of individual gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 80, 100, 150, and 200 nm was measured using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since the particles are not perfectly monodisperse, a distribution of ICP-MS intensity was obtained for each nominal diameter. The distribution of particle mass was determined from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the particles. The distribution of ICP-MS intensity and the distribution of particle mass for each nominal diameter were correlated to give a calibration curve. The calibration curves are linear, but the slope decreases as the nominal diameter increases. The reduced slope is probably due to a smaller degree of vaporization of the large particles. In addition to the degree of particle vaporization, the rate of analyte diffusion in the ICP is an important factor that determines the measured ICP-MS intensity. Simulated ICP-MS intensity versus particle size was calculated using a simple computer program that accounts for the vaporization rate of the gold nanoparticles and the diffusion rate and degree of ionization of the gold atoms. The curvature of the simulated calibration curves changes with sampling depth because the effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion on the ICP-MS intensity are dependent on the residence time of the particle in the ICP. Calibration curves of four hypothetical particles representing the four combinations of high and low boiling points (2000 and 4000 K) and high and low analyte diffusion rates (atomic masses of 10 and 200 Da) were calculated to further illustrate the relative effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion. The simulated calibration curves show that the sensitivity of single-particle ICP-MS is smaller than that of the ICP-MS measurement of continuous flow of standard solutions by a factor of 2 or more. Calibration using continuous flow of standard solution is semi-quantitative at best. An

  5. Plasmon excitation in single wall carbon nanotubes by penetrating charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L; Arista, Néstor R; Mowbray, Duncan J; Mišković, Zoran L

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the excitation of plasmons due to the incidence of a charged particle passing through a single wall carbon nanotube. We use a quantized hydrodynamic, in which the σ and π electrons characteristic of these carbonaceous structures are depicted as two interacting 2-dimensional fluids, to calculate the average number of plasmons excited. We analyze the contribution of the different plasmon modes in a variety of configurations, and study the energy lost by the incident particle.

  6. Tomograms and the quest for single particle nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, M A; Caponigro, M; Mancini, S; Man'ko, V I

    2007-01-01

    By using a tomographic approach to quantum states, we rise the problem of nonlocality within a single particle (single degree of freedom). We propose a possible way to look for such effects on a qubit. Although a conclusive answer is far from being reached, we provide some reflections on the foundational ground

  7. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  8. Application of CTOF method to detect secondly charged particle from 2 GeV electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Lee, Hee-Seok; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    To design a shield and evaluate leakage radiation at high energy electron accelerators, the energy and angular data of secondary particle from the reaction of electrons with structural materials are required. Secondly neutron spectrum from structural materials has been measured by using electron accelerator in PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory). In the neutron measurement, the electronics with Multi-hit TDC (MHTDC) was adopted to measure Time of Flight of every particles (TOFs) emitted from the reactions by each single electron bunch. The measurements are extended to secondly charged particles. For the charged particles measurement, the pulse height data for every particles are indispensable to distinguish charged particles by Δ E-E method. A new system which can measure pulse height for every particle is required instead of the MHTDC system. For this requirement, the method which can take output current from detectors was developed by using digital storage oscilloscope system is named ''Current Time of Flight method'' (CTOF). The CTOF method is able to measure pulse height and TOF for every particles produced by single electron bunch. Electrons are accelerated to 2.04 GeV and the repetition rate is 10 Hz. These electrons bombard thin disk samples of Cu 1mm, Al 4 mm and W 0.5 mm. Secondly charged particles, proton and deuteron, are produced in the samples by photonuclear reaction. Two dimensional of Δ E-E spectrum for each the samples measured by CTOF shows separation between proton and deuteron perfectly. Thus, proton and deuteron spectrum are obtained from this data. (M. Suetake)

  9. A different approach to obtain Mayer’s extension to stationary single particle Wigner distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Anirban; Janaki, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the stationary collisionless single-particle Wigner equation in one dimension containing quantum corrections at the lowest order is satisfied by a distribution function that is similar in form to the Maxwellian distribution with an effective mass and a generalized potential. The distribution is used to study quantum corrections to electron hole solutions.

  10. Inequivalence of single-particle and population lifetimes in a cuprate superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuolong [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sobota, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leuenberger, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); He, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hashimoto, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, D. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Eisaki, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan); Kirchmann, P. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We study optimally doped Bi-2212 (Tc=96 K) using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Energy-resolved population lifetimes are extracted and compared with single-particle lifetimes measured by equilibrium photoemission. The population lifetimes deviate from the single-particle lifetimes in the low excitation limit by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Fundamental considerations of electron scattering unveil that these two lifetimes are in general distinct, yet for systems with only electron-phonon scattering they should converge in the low-temperature, low-fluence limit. As a result, the qualitative disparity in our data, even in this limit, suggests that scattering channels beyond electron-phonon interactions play a significant role in the electron dynamics of cuprate superconductors.

  11. Particles and waves in electron optics and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter* Informs and updates all the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics* Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electron, and ion emission with a valuable resource* Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image pro...

  12. Modelling transport in single electron transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh Sy Hien; Huynh Lam Thu Thao; Le Hoang Minh

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of single electron transistor (SET). Simulation programme of SET is used as the exploratory tool in order to gain better understanding of process and device physics. This simulator includes a graphic user interface (GUI) in Matlab. The SET was simulated using GUI in Matlab to get current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. In addition, effects of device capacitance, bias, temperature on the I-V characteristics were obtained. In this work, we review the capabilities of the simulator of the SET. Typical simulations of the obtained I-V characteristics of the SET are presented.

  13. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  14. Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300 Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Joint Institute, University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murdoch, David M. [Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, CheolGi [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-28

    The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.

  15. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, O. V.; Fedorov, N. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Markova, M. L.; Spasskaya, T. I.; Tretyakova, T. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E_{nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N_{nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes 28, 30Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes.

  16. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Klimochkina, A.A.; Spasskaya, T.I.; Tretyakova, T.Yu. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fedorov, N.A.; Markova, M.L. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E{sub nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N{sub nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes {sup 28,30}Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes. (orig.)

  17. Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Wilson [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2018-02-03

    Interfacial electron transfer (ET) plays an important role in many chemical and biological processes. Specifically, interfacial ET in TiO2-based systems is important to solar energy technology, catalysis, and environmental remediation technology. However, the microscopic mechanism of interfacial ET is not well understood with regard to atomic surface structure, molecular structure, bonding, orientation, and motion. In this project, we used two complementary methodologies; single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning-tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) to address this scientific need. The goal of this project was to integrate these techniques and measure the molecular dependence of ET between adsorbed molecules and TiO2 semiconductor surfaces and the ET induced reactions such as the splitting of water. The scanning probe techniques, STM and STS, are capable of providing the highest spatial resolution but not easily time-resolved data. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is capable of good time resolution but requires further development to match the spatial resolution of the STM. The integrated approach involving Peter Lu at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) and Wilson Ho at the University of California, Irvine (UC Irvine) produced methods for time and spatially resolved chemical imaging of interfacial electron transfer dynamics and photocatalytic reactions. An integral aspect of the joint research was a significant exchange of graduate students to work at the two institutions. This project bridged complementary approaches to investigate a set of common problems by working with the same molecules on a variety of solid surfaces, but using appropriate techniques to probe under ambient (BGSU) and ultrahigh vacuum (UCI) conditions. The molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial electron transfer processes obtained in this joint project will be important for developing efficient light harvesting

  18. Irradiation of single cells with individual high-LET particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.M.; Braby, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-limiting normal tissue of concern when irradiating head and neck lesions is often the vascular endothelium within the treatment field. Consequently, the response of capillary endothelial cells exposed to moderate doses of high LET particles is essential for establishing exposure limits for neutron-capture therapy. In an effort to characterize the high-LET radiation biology of cultured endothelial cells, the authors are attempting to measure cellular response to single particles. The single-particle irradiation apparatus, described below, allows them to expose individual cells to known numbers of high-LET particles and follow these cells for extended periods, in order to assess the impact of individual particles on cell growth kinetics. Preliminary cell irradiation experiments have revealed complications related to the smooth and efficient operation of the equipment; these are being resolved. Therefore, the following paragraphs deal primarily with the manner by which high LET particles deposit energy, the requirements for single-cell irradiation, construction and assembly of such apparatus, and testing of experimental procedures, rather than with the radiation biology of endothelial cells

  19. Single-particle states vs. collective modes: friends or enemies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The collective mode arises as the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger spacings between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are "enemies" against each other. However, the nuclear forces are rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing single-particle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, the quantum self-organization occurs: single-particle energies can be self-organized by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger.

  20. Single-electron quantum tomography in quantum Hall edge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Ch; Degiovanni, P; Herve, R; Bocquillon, E; Parmentier, F D; Placais, B; Berroir, J M; Feve, G

    2011-01-01

    We propose a quantum tomography protocol to measure single-electron coherence in quantum Hall edge channels, and therefore access for the first time the wavefunction of single-electron excitations propagating in ballistic quantum conductors. Its implementation would open the way to quantitative studies of single-electron decoherence and would provide a quantitative tool for analyzing single- to few-electron sources. We show how this protocol could be implemented using ultrahigh-sensitivity noise measurement schemes.

  1. A high efficiency superconducting nanowire single electron detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosticher, M.; Ladan, F.R.; Maneval, J.P.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zwiller, V.; Lupa?cu, A.; Nogues, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of single electrons using a Nb0.7Ti0.3N superconducting wire deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. While it is known that this device is sensitive to single photons, we show that it also detects single electrons with kilo-electron-volt energy emitted from the cathode of

  2. Giant current fluctuations in an overheated single-electron transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laakso, M.A.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2010-01-01

    Interplay of cotunneling and single-electron tunneling in a thermally isolated single-electron transistor leads to peculiar overheating effects. In particular, there is an interesting crossover interval where the competition between cotunneling and single-electron tunneling changes to the dominance

  3. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinali, M., E-mail: cardinal@kph.uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzyhgadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent particle identification detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected hit rates. A Barrel DIRC will be used in the central region of the Target Spectrometer of the planned PANDA experiment at FAIR. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is required by the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created on the image plane. R and D studies have been performed to provide a design based on the TRB3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom frontend electronics with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. The discriminators also provide time-over-threshold information thus enabling walk corrections to improve the timing resolution. Two types of frontend electronics cards optimised for reading out 64-channel PHOTONIS Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC and the other, called PADIWA, on FPGA discriminators. Promising results were obtained in a full characterisation using a fast laser setup and in a test experiment at MAMI, Mainz, with a small scale DIRC prototype. - Highlights: • Frontend electronics for Cherenkov detectors have been developed. • FPGA-TDCs have been used for high precision timing. • Time over threshold has been utilised for walk correction. • Single photo-electron timing resolution less than 100 ps has been achieved.

  4. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  5. Emissions from Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: A Single Particle Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. McMurry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the addition of ethanol to a fuel reduces the particulate mass concentration in the exhaust, little attention has been paid to changes in the physicochemical properties of the emitted particles. In this work, a dynamometer-mounted GM Quad-4 spark ignition engine run without aftertreatment at 1,500 RPM and 100% load was used with four different fuel blends, containing 0, 20, 40 and 85 percent ethanol in gasoline. This allowed the effects of the fuel composition to be isolated from other effects. Instrumentation employed included two Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers covering different size ranges for analysis of single particle composition, an Aethalometer for black carbon, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for particle size distributions, a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH species and gravimetric filter measurements for particulate mass concentrations. It was found that, under the conditions investigated here, additional ethanol content in the fuel changes the particle size distribution, especially in the accumulation mode, and decreases the black carbon and total particulate mass concentrations. The molecular weight distribution of the PAHs was found to decrease with added ethanol. However, PAHs produced from higher ethanol-content fuels are associated with NO2− (m/z—46 in the single-particle mass spectra, indicating the presence of nitro-PAHs. Compounds associated with the gasoline (e.g., sulfur-containing species are diminished due to dilution as ethanol is added to the fuel relative to those associated with the lubricating oil (e.g., calcium, zinc, phosphate in the single particle spectra. These changes have potential

  6. Single-particle characterization of the High Arctic summertime aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, B.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Leck, C.; Paatero, J.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometric measurements were carried out in the High Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS). The instrument deployed was an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real-time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 nm to 3000 nm in diameter showed mass spectrometric patterns indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the High Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol-cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a~minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest a presence of a particle type of unknown composition

  7. Electronic structure of single crystal C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.; Shen, Z.X.; Dessau, D.S.; Cao, R.; Marshall, D.S.; Pianetta, P.; Lindau, I.; Yang, X.; Terry, J.; King, D.M.; Wells, B.O.; Elloway, D.; Wendt, H.R.; Brown, C.A.; Hunziker, H.; Vries, M.S. de

    1992-01-01

    We report angle-resolved photoemission data from single crystals of C 60 cleaved in UHV. Unlike the other forms of pure carbon, the valence band spectrum of C 60 consists of many sharp features that can be essentially accounted for by the quantum chemical calculations describing individual molecules. This suggests that the electronic structure of solid C 60 is mainly determined by the bonding interactions within the individual molecules. We also observe remarkable intensity modulations of the photoemission features as a function of photon energy, suggesting strong final state effects. Finally, we address the issue of the band width of the HOMO state of C 60 . We assert that the width of the photoemission peak of C 60 does not reflect the intrinsic band width because it is broadened by the non 0-0 transitions via the Franck-Condon principle. Our view point provides a possible reconciliation between these photoemission data and those measured by other techniques. (orig.)

  8. New particles produced in electron--positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The main properties of the new particles produced in e + e - annihilation are reviewed. Included are properties of the continuum region, the 4.1-GeV enhancement, the psi and psi', radiative decays of the psi and psi', singly charmed particle searches in e + - e - annihilation, and the e/sub μ/ events

  9. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  10. Electron heat conduction and suprathermal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunin, O.G.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    As recognized at present, the applicability of Spitzer-Harm's theory on electron heat conduction along the magnetic field is limited by comparatively small values of the thermal electron mean free path ratio, λ to the characteristic length of changes in plasma parameters, L: γ=λ/L≤10 -2 . The stationary kinetic equation for the electron distribution function inhomogeneous along the x-axis f e (v,x) allows one to have solutions in the self-similar variables. The objective of a given study is to generalize the solutions for the case of arbitrary Z eff , that will allow one to compare approximate solutions to the kinetic equation with the precise ones in a wide range of parameters. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs

  11. Single-particle spectral density of the Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlig, B.; Eskes, H.; Hayn, R.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  12. SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL DENSITY OF THE HUBBARD-MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEHLIG, B; ESKES, H; HAYN, R; MEINDERS, MBJ

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  13. Single-particle behaviour in circulating fluidized beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of single-particle behaviour in a cold pilot-scale model of a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). In the system, sand is recirculated by means of air. Pressure measurements along the riser are used to determine the suspension density...

  14. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumel, D; Fortier, S; Gales, S; Guillot, J; LangevinJoliot, H; Laurent, H; Maison, JM; Vernotte, J; Bordewijck, J; Brandenburg, S; Krasznahorkay, A; Crawley, GM; Massolo, CP; Renteria, M; Khendriche, A

    1996-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Ni-64, Zr-90, Sn-120 and (208)pb excited by means of the (alpha,He-3) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular

  15. Single particle behaviour in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of single particle behaviour in a circulating fluidized bed combustor is described, relating to sulphur capture reactions by limestone under alternate oxidizing and reducing conditions present in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, and to the devolatilization and burn out...

  16. Ergodicity of a single particle confined in a nanopore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, S.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Frascolli, F.

    2012-01-01

    -ergodic component of the phase space for energy levels typical of experiments, is surprisingly small, i.e. we conclude that the ergodic hypothesis is a reasonable approximation even for a single particle trapped in a nanopore. Due to the numerical scope of this work, our focus will be the onset of ergodic behavior...

  17. Single-particle properties from Kohn-Sham Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Furnstahl, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    An effective action approach to Kohn-Sham density functional theory is used to illustrate how the exact Green's function can be calculated in terms of the Kohn-Sham Green's function. An example based on Skyrme energy functionals shows that single-particle Kohn-Sham spectra can be improved by adding sources used to construct the energy functional

  18. A multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking in single and multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Thole, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Multiphase flows (MPFs) offer a rich area of fundamental study with many practical applications. Examples of such flows range from the ingestion of foreign particulates in gas turbines to transport of particles within the human body. Experimental investigation of MPFs, however, is challenging, and requires techniques that simultaneously resolve both the carrier and discrete phases present in the flowfield. This paper presents a new multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking velocimetry (MP3-PTV) in MPFs. MP3-PTV improves upon previous particle tracking algorithms by employing a novel variable pair-matching algorithm which utilizes displacement preconditioning in combination with estimated particle size and intensity to more effectively and accurately match particle pairs between successive images. To improve the method's efficiency, a new particle identification and segmentation routine was also developed. Validation of the new method was initially performed on two artificial data sets: a traditional single-phase flow published by the Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) and an in-house generated MPF data set having a bi-modal distribution of particles diameters. Metrics of the measurement yield, reliability and overall tracking efficiency were used for method comparison. On the VSJ data set, the newly presented segmentation routine delivered a twofold improvement in identifying particles when compared to other published methods. For the simulated MPF data set, measurement efficiency of the carrier phases improved from 9% to 41% for MP3-PTV as compared to a traditional hybrid PTV. When employed on experimental data of a gas–solid flow, the MP3-PTV effectively identified the two particle populations and reported a vector efficiency and velocity measurement error comparable to measurements for the single-phase flow images. Simultaneous measurement of the dispersed particle and the carrier flowfield velocities allowed for the calculation of

  19. Optimal noise reduction in 3D reconstructions of single particles using a volume-normalized filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Charles V.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The high noise level found in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) image data presents a special challenge for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the imaged molecules. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) and related Fourier shell correlation (FSC) functions are commonly used to assess and mitigate the noise-generated error in the reconstruction. Calculation of the SSNR and FSC usually includes the noise in the solvent region surrounding the particle and therefore does not accurately reflect the signal in the particle density itself. Here we show that the SSNR in a reconstructed 3D particle map is linearly proportional to the fractional volume occupied by the particle. Using this relationship, we devise a novel filter (the “single-particle Wiener filter”) to minimize the error in a reconstructed particle map, if the particle volume is known. Moreover, we show how to approximate this filter even when the volume of the particle is not known, by optimizing the signal within a representative interior region of the particle. We show that the new filter improves on previously proposed error-reduction schemes, including the conventional Wiener filter as well as figure-of-merit weighting, and quantify the relationship between all of these methods by theoretical analysis as well as numeric evaluation of both simulated and experimentally collected data. The single-particle Wiener filter is applicable across a broad range of existing 3D reconstruction techniques, but is particularly well suited to the Fourier inversion method, leading to an efficient and accurate implementation. PMID:22613568

  20. Study on the fragmentation of granite due to the impact of single particle and double particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Impact Drilling (PID is a novel method to improve the rate of penetration (ROP. In order to further improve the performance of PID, an investigation into the effect of single and double particles: (1 diameter; (2 initial velocity; (3 distance; and (4 angle of incidence was undertaken to investigate their effects on broken volume and penetration depth into hard brittle rock. For this purpose, the laboratory experiment of single particle impact rock was employed. Meanwhile, based on the LS-DYNA, a new finite element (FE simulation of the PID, including single and double particles impact rock, has been presented. The 3-dimensional (3D, aix-symmetric, dynamic-explicit, Lagrangian model has been considered in this simulation. And the Elastic and Holmquist Johnson Cook (HJC material behaviors have been used for particles and rocks, respectively. The FE simulation results of single particle impacting rock are good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, in this article the optimal impact parameters, including diameter, initial velocity, distance and the angle of incidence, are obtained in PID.

  1. A transient single particle model under FCI conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yan; SHANG Zhi; XU Ji-Jun

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focused on the coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid. Based on the continuity, momentum and energy equations of the vapor film, a transient two-dimensional single particle model has been established. This paper contains a detailed description of HPMC (High-temperature Particle Moving in Coolant) model for studying some aspects of the premixing stage of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs). The transient process of high-temperature particles moving in coolant can be simulated. Comparisons between the experiment results and the calculations using HPMC model demonstrate that HPMC model achieves a good agreement in predicting the time-varying characteristic of high-temperature spheres moving in coolant.

  2. Test particle modeling of wave-induced energetic electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.C.; Inan, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    A test particle computer model of the precipitation of radiation belt electrons is extended to compute the dynamic energy spectrum of transient electron fluxes induced by short-duration VLF wave packets traveling along the geomagnetic field lines. The model is adapted to estimate the count rate and associated spectrum of precipitated electrons that would be observed by satellite-based particle detectors with given geometric factor and orientation with respect to the magnetic field. A constant-frequency wave pulse and a lightning-induced whistler wave packet are used as examples of the stimulating wave signals. The effects of asymmetry of particle mirror heights in the two hemispheres and the atmospheric backscatter of loss cone particles on the computed precipitated fluxes are discussed

  3. Morphology of single inhalable particle inside public transit biodiesel fueled bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Kaushik K; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    In an urban-transit bus, fueled by biodiesel in Toledo, Ohio, single inhalable particle samples in October 2008 were collected and detected by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Particle size analysis found bimodal distribution at 0.2 and 0.5 microm. The particle morphology was characterized by 14 different shape clusters: square, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, agglomerate, sphere, triangle, oblong, strip, line or stick, and unknown, by quantitative order. The square particles were common in the samples. Round and triangle particles are more, and pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, strip, line or sticks are less. Agglomerate particles were found in abundance. The surface of most particles was coarse with a fractal edge that can provide a suitable chemical reaction bed in the polluted atmospheric environment. The three sorts of surface patterns of squares were smooth, semi-smooth, and coarse. The three sorts of square surface patterns represented the morphological characteristics of single inhalable particles in the air inside the bus in Toledo. The size and shape distribution results were compared to those obtained for a bus using ultra low sulfur diesel.

  4. Two-Way Communication with a Single Quantum Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Flavio; Dakić, Borivoje

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter we show that communication when restricted to a single information carrier (i.e., single particle) and finite speed of propagation is fundamentally limited for classical systems. On the other hand, quantum systems can surpass this limitation. We show that communication bounded to the exchange of a single quantum particle (in superposition of different spatial locations) can result in "two-way signaling," which is impossible in classical physics. We quantify the discrepancy between classical and quantum scenarios by the probability of winning a game played by distant players. We generalize our result to an arbitrary number of parties and we show that the probability of success is asymptotically decreasing to zero as the number of parties grows, for all classical strategies. In contrast, quantum strategy allows players to win the game with certainty.

  5. Single-Electron and Single-Photon Sensitivity with a Silicon Skipper CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffenberg, Javier; Sofo-Haro, Miguel; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Essig, Rouven; Guardincerri, Yann; Holland, Steve; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-09-01

    We have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068 e- rms /pixel . This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while future astronomical applications may include direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets.

  6. A Mathematical Model of the Single Aluminium Diboride Particle Ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yagodnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a developed mathematical model of ignition of the single aluminum diboride particle as an aluminum-boron alloy in the oxidizing environment of a complicated chemical composition containing oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The mathematical model is based on the theory of parallel chemical reactions proceeding on the appropriate parts of the particle surface occupied by each element in proportion to their molar share in the alloy. The paper considers a possibility to establish a thermodynamic balance between components over a particle surface in the gas phase. The composition of components is chosen as a result of thermodynamic calculation, namely В g , B2O3 g , BO, B2O2, BO2, Alg , AlO, Al2O, N2. The mathematical model is formed by a system of the differential equations of enthalpy balance, mass of aluminum diboride particle, and of formed oxides, which become isolated by initial and boundary conditions for temperature and size of particles, concentration of an oxidizer, and temperature of gas. The software package “AlB2“ is developed. It is a complete independent module written in Fortran algorithmic language, which together with a package of the subroutines “SPARKS” is used to calculate parameters of burning aluminum diboride particle by the Runge-Kutt method.For stoichiometry of chemical reactions of interaction between aluminum diboride and oxygen, a dynamics of changing temperature of a particle and thickness of an oxide film on its surface is calculated. It was admitted as initial conditions that the aluminum diboride particle radius was 100μ and the reference temperature of environment was 500 K, 1000 K, 2300 K, and 3000 K. Depending on this temperature the aluminum diboride particle temperature was calculated. Changing thickness of the oxide film on the particle surface at various initial gas temperatures characterizes its increase at the initial heating period of ~ 0,01 s and a gradual slowdown of the

  7. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  8. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  9. Multi-Color Single Particle Tracking with Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Brewer, J. R.; Lagerholm, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    . multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT). In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations......Quantum dots (QDs) have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g...... further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC)-SPT with QDs is possible at an image...

  10. Single-particle properties of the Hubbard model in a novel three-pole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciolo, Andrea; Avella, Adolfo

    2018-05-01

    We study the 2D Hubbard model using the Composite Operator Method within a novel three-pole approximation. Motivated by the long-standing experimental puzzle of the single-particle properties of the underdoped cuprates, we include in the operatorial basis, together with the usual Hubbard operators, a field describing the electronic transitions dressed by the nearest-neighbor spin fluctuations, which play a crucial role in the unconventional behavior of the Fermi surface and of the electronic dispersion. Then, we adopt this approximation to study the single-particle properties in the strong coupling regime and find an unexpected behavior of the van Hove singularity that can be seen as a precursor of a pseudogap regime.

  11. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  12. Laboratory Measurements of Single-Particle Polarimetric Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttila, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring scattering properties of different targets is important for material characterization, remote sensing applications, and for verifying theoretical results. Furthermore, there are usually simplifications made when we model targets and compute the scattering properties, e.g., ideal shape or constant optical parameters throughout the target material. Experimental studies help in understanding the link between the observed properties and computed results. Experimentally derived Mueller matrices of studied particles can be used as input for larger-scale scattering simulations, e.g., radiative transfer computations. This method allows to bypass the problem of using an idealized model for single-particle optical properties. While existing approaches offer ensemble- and orientation-averaged particle properties, our aim is to measure individual particles with controlled or known orientation. With the newly developed scatterometer, we aim to offer novel possibility to measure single, small (down to μm-scale) targets and their polarimetric spectra. This work presents an experimental setup that measures light scattered by a fixed small particle with dimensions ranging between micrometer and millimeter sizes. The goal of our setup is nondestructive characterization of such particles by measuring light of multiple wavelengths scattered in 360° in a horizontal plane by an ultrasonically levitating sample, whilst simultaneously controlling its 3D position and orientation. We describe the principles and design of our instrument and its calibration. We also present example measurements of real samples. This study was conducted under the support from the European Research Council, in the frame of the Advanced Grant project No. 320773 `Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media' (SAEMPL).

  13. Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.

  14. Analytical electron microscopy of combustion particles: a comparison of vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, A.; Johansen, B.V.; Schwarze, P.E.; Namork, E.

    2005-01-01

    Particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Since combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke are common constituents of ambient air, the morphology and elemental composition of particles from these two sources were analysed and compared using single particle analysis. Ambient air particles were collected in locations dominated by vehicle exhaust or residential wood smoke. To verify the source contributions to the ambient air samples, particles were collected directly from the combustion sources. All particulate samples were analysed on carbon extraction replica by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Carbon aggregates were the only particles identified to originate from combustion sources and accounted for more than 88% of the particle numbers in the ambient air samples from both sources. The carbon aggregates were therefore further analysed with respect to morphology and elemental composition on germanium extraction replica. Carbon aggregates from vehicle exhaust were characterised by higher levels of Si and Ca compared to wood smoke aggregates that contained higher levels of K. The S content in aggregates from both sources was probably caused by interaction with gases in the air. Furthermore, the diameters of primary particles from vehicle exhaust were significantly smaller (27±7 nm) than the diameters for wood smoke (38±11 nm). The observed differences in elemental profiles and primary particle diameters for vehicle exhaust and wood smoke may influence the health effects caused by these particles

  15. Dragonfly : an implementation of the expand–maximize–compress algorithm for single-particle imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N. Duane

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map...

  16. Fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, L.A.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of single-particle states on levels of deformed nuclei is studied on the example of 239 U and 169 Er nuclei in the framework of the model taking into consideration the interaction of quasiparticles with phonons. The dependence of fragmentation on the Fermi surface is considered from the viewpoint of single-particle levels. It is shown that in the distribution of single-particle strength functions a second maximum appears together with the large asymmetry maximum at high-energy excitation, and the distribution has a long ''tail''. A semimicroscopic approach is proposed for calculating the neutron strength functions. The following values of the strength functions are obtained: for sub(239)U-Ssub(0)sup(cal)=1.2x10sup(-4), Ssub(1)sup(cal)=2.7x10sub(-4) and for sub(169)Er-Ssub(0)sup(cal)=1.10sup(-4), Ssub(1)sup(cal)=1.2x10sup(-4)

  17. Charging of Single Micron Sized Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emission: A Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the details of a new laboratory study whose objective is to experimentally study the interaction of micron sized particles with plasmas and electromagnetic radiation. Specifically, to investigate under what conditions and to what extent do particles of various compositions and sizes become charged, or discharged, while exposed to an electron beam and ultraviolet radiation environment The emphasis is the study of the two charging mechanisms, secondary emission of electrons and photoelectric effect. The experiment uses a technique known as electrodynamic suspension of particles. With this technique, a single charged particle is electrodynamically levitated and then exposed to a controlled environment. Its charge to mass ratio is directly measured. Viscous drag measurements and the light scattering measurements characterize its size and optical characteristics. The environment to which the particle is expose may consist of room temperature and pressure or a rarefied atmosphere where only one major gaseous constituent is present, or, as in this case, a vacuum environment under electron bombardment or UV radiation . In addition, the environment can be cycled as part of the experiment. Therefore, using this technique, a single particle can be repeatedly exposed to a controlled environment and its response measured, or a single particle can be exposed to similar environments with minor differences and its response measured as a function of only the changed environmental conditions.

  18. Understanding particle size and distance driven competition of interparticle interactions and effective single-particle anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacáková, Barbara; Mantlíková, Alice; Nižňanský, D.; Kubíčková, Simona; Vejpravová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 20 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 206004. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * single-particle anisotropy * dipolar energy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  19. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    2017-07-01

    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  20. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron impact single and double ionization cross sections of gallium have been calcu- ... The experimental data on single ionization have been compared with the empirical and ..... and multiplication sign curve (¢¢¢) represent present.

  1. Impact of electron irradiation on particle track etching response in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, attempts have been made to investigate the modification in particle track etching response of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) due to impact of 2 MeV electrons. PADC samples pre-irradiated to 1, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Mrad doses of 2 MeV electrons were further exposed to 140 MeV 28Si beam ...

  2. Building the Nanoplasmonics Toolbox Through Shape Modeling and Single Particle Optical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie

    Interest in nanotechnology is driven by unprecedented properties tailorability, achievable by controlling particle structure and composition. Unlike bulk components, minute changes in size and shape affect the optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Characterization of such structure-function relationships and better understanding of structure control mechanisms is crucial to the development of applications such as plasmonic sensors and devices. The objective of the current research is thus twofold: to theoretically predict and understand how shape is controlled by synthesis conditions, and to experimentally unravel, through single particle studies, how shape, composition, size, and surrounding environment affect plasmonic properties in noble metal particles. Quantitative, predictive rules and fundamental knowledge obtained from this research contributes to the "nanoplasmonics toolbox", a library designed to provide scientists and engineers the tools to create and optimize novel nanotechnology applications. In this dissertation, single particle approaches are developed and used to unravel the effects of size, shape, substrate, aggregation state and surrounding environment on the optical response of metallic nanoparticles. Ag and Au nanocubes on different substrates are first presented, followed by the discussion of the concept of plasmon length, a universal parameter to describe plasmon energy for a variety of particle shapes and plasmon modes. Plasmonic sensing (both refractive index sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) and polarization effects are then studied at the single particle level. In the last two Chapters, analytical shape models based on the Wulff construction provide unique modeling tools for alloy and kinetically grown nanoparticles. The former reveals a size-dependence of the shape of small alloy particles (such as those used in catalysis) because of surface segregation, while the latter uniquely models the shape of many

  3. Structural characterization and gas reactions of small metal particles by high resolution in-situ TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and TED (Transmission Electron Diffraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.

    1987-01-01

    The detection and size analysis of small metal particles supported on amorphous substrates becomes increasingly difficult when the particle size approaches that of the phase contrast background structures of the support. An approach of digital image analysis, involving Fourier transformation of the original image, filtering, and image reconstruction was studied with respect to the likelihood of unambiguously detecting particles of less than 1 nm diameter on amorphous substrates from a single electron micrograph.

  4. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [ELETTRA-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Nano S3 Institute, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  5. Production of new particles in electron-positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1977-02-01

    A number of areas are reviewed where there is important progress in the production of new particles in electron--positron annihilation, but of a more detailed quantitative nature. Charmonium states, charmed mesons, and evidence for a charged heavy lepton are covered. 50 references

  6. Analysis of individual environmental particles using modern methods of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, A.; Cowin, J.P.; Iedema, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors' laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution

  7. Study of single-electron excitations by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, A.J.; Gibson, J.M.; Howie, A.; Spalding, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of fast electrons by the excitation of L-shell electrons at a stacking fault in silicon has been studied with a scanning transmission electron microscope. It was found that the bright-field stacking fault contrast is preserved in the filtered L-shell-loss signal at 100 eV. This result is discussed in terms of the delocalization of the excitation mechanism. It is concluded that localization effects will typically become significant only for energy transfers greater than 1 keV from a fast electron of energy 80 keV. (author)

  8. Particle-in-cell Simulations with Kinetic Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, J.L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme, based on an exact separation between adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of drift-type modes is presented. The (linear and nonlinear) elliptic equations for the scalar fields are solved using a multi-grid solver. The new scheme yields linear growth rates in excellent agreement with theory and it is shown to conserve energy well into the nonlinear regime. It is also demonstrated that simulations with few electrons are reliable and accurate, suggesting that large-scale, PIC simulations with electron dynamics in toroidal geometry (e.g., tokamaks and stellarators plasmas) are within reach of present-day massively parallel supercomputers

  9. Improved identification of primary biological aerosol particles using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zawadowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP, especially at altitudes relevant to cloud formation, are scarce. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS has been used to probe aerosol chemical composition from ground and aircraft for over 20 years. Here we develop a method for identifying bioaerosols (PBAP and particles containing fragments of PBAP as part of an internal mixture using SPMS. We show that identification of bioaerosol using SPMS is complicated because phosphorus-bearing mineral dust and phosphorus-rich combustion by-products such as fly ash produce mass spectra with peaks similar to those typically used as markers for bioaerosol. We have developed a methodology to differentiate and identify bioaerosol using machine learning statistical techniques applied to mass spectra of known particle types. This improved method provides far fewer false positives compared to approaches reported in the literature. The new method was then applied to two sets of ambient data collected at Storm Peak Laboratory and a forested site in Central Valley, California to show that 0.04–2 % of particles in the 200–3000 nm aerodynamic diameter range were identified as bioaerosol. In addition, 36–56 % of particles identified as biological also contained spectral features consistent with mineral dust, suggesting internal dust–biological mixtures.

  10. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  11. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  12. Automated rapid particle investigation using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jerod Laurence

    The chemical composition of fly ash particles has been known to vary significantly depending on a number of factors. Current bulk methods of investigation including X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction are thought to be inadequate in determining the performance of fly ash in concrete. It is the goal of this research to develop a method of Automated Rapid Particle Investigation that will not look at fly ash as a bulk material but as individual particles. By examining each particle individually scientists and engineers will have the ability to study the variation in chemical composition by comparing the chemistry present in each particle. The method of investigation developed by this research provides a practical technique that will allow the automated chemical analysis of hundreds, or even thousands, of fly ash particles in a matter of minutes upon completion of sample preparation and automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) scanning. This research does not examine the significance of the chemical compounds discovered; rather, only the investigation methodology is discussed. Further research will be done to examine the importance of the chemistry discovered with this automated rapid particle investigation technique.

  13. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  14. Single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschi, De S.; Dam, Van J.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Feiner, L.F.; Gurevich, L.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed on single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires. The contact resistances as low as ~10 k¿, with minor temperature dependence were obtained. The Coulomb-blockade behavior was shown with single-electron charging energies of ~1 meV.

  15. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  16. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  17. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particles residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Konrad; Worringen, Annette; Benker, Nathalie; Dirsch, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Kästner, Udo; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Bundke, Ulrich; Rose, Diana; Curtius, Joachim; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Weingartner, Ernest; Vochezer, Paul; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ebert, Martin

    2015-04-01

    During January/February 2013, at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch a measurement campaign was carried out, which was centered on atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) and ice particle residuals (IPR). Three different techniques for separation of INP and IPR from the non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed phase clouds and allow for the analysis of the residuals. The combination of the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) and the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated INP for analysis. Collected particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine size, chemical composition and mixing state. All INP/IPR-separating techniques had considerable abundances (median 20 - 70 %) of instrumental contamination artifacts (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH+IN-PCVI: steel particles). Also, potential sampling artifacts (e.g., pure soluble material) occurred with a median abundance of separated by all three techniques. Soot was a minor contributor. Lead was detected in less than 10 % of the particles, of which the majority were internal mixtures with other particle types. Sea-salt and sulfates were identified by all three methods as INP/IPR. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 400 nm geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second super-micron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the submicron range. ISI and FINCH yielded silicates and Ca-rich particles mainly with diameters above 1 µm, while the Ice-CVI also separated many submicron IPR. As strictly parallel sampling could not be performed, a part of the discrepancies between the different techniques may result from

  18. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, M.; Dzyhgadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Ferretti Bondy, M. I.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Rosner, C.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent particle identification detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected hit rates. A Barrel DIRC will be used in the central region of the Target Spectrometer of the planned PANDA experiment at FAIR. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is required by the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created on the image plane. R&D studies have been performed to provide a design based on the TRB3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom frontend electronics with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. The discriminators also provide time-over-threshold information thus enabling walk corrections to improve the timing resolution. Two types of frontend electronics cards optimised for reading out 64-channel PHOTONIS Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC and the other, called PADIWA, on FPGA discriminators. Promising results were obtained in a full characterisation using a fast laser setup and in a test experiment at MAMI, Mainz, with a small scale DIRC prototype.

  19. To the evaluation of single-particle strengths of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, G.

    1976-01-01

    Method of Green's function has been applied to calculating the distribution of single-particle states over actual nuclear levels. Chain of equations for these functions has been obtained in a model of interacting phonons and quasiparticles. It has been noticed that cutting the chain of equations by means of neglecting the higher order Green function corresponds to neglecting the higher order components of the wave function in variational methods. The one- and two-phonon approximations are discussed and the convenience of the Green function method for this case is demonstrated

  20. Single-particle and collective excitations in Ni-63

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, M.; Zhu, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Gellanki, Jnaneswari; Ragnarsson, Ingemar; Alcorta, M.; Baugher, T.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Deacon, A. N.; Gade, A.; DiGiovine, B.; Hoffman, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A study of excited states in Ni-63 up to an excitation energy of 28 MeV and a probable spin of 57/2 was carried out with the Mg-26(Ca-48,2 alpha 3n gamma)Ni-63 reaction at beam energies between 275 and 320 MeV. Three collective bands, built upon states of single-particle character, were identified. For two of the three bands, the transition quadrupole moments were extracted, herewith quantifying the deformation at high spin. The results have been compared with shell-model and cranked Nilsson-...

  1. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Galès, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J. M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijck, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G. M.; Massolo, C. P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1996-02-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 64Ni, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb excited by means of the (α, 3He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in 91Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations.

  2. Real stabilization method for nuclear single-particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Zhao Enguang

    2008-01-01

    We develop the real stabilization method within the framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. With the self-consistent nuclear potentials from the RMF model, the real stabilization method is used to study single-particle resonant states in spherical nuclei. As examples, the energies, widths, and wave functions of low-lying neutron resonant states in 120 Sn are obtained. These results are compared with those from the scattering phase-shift method and the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach and satisfactory agreements are found

  3. Single-Particle Spin-Orbit Splittings in Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiko, ANDO; Hiroharu, BANDO; Department of Physics, Kyoto University; Division of Mathematical Physics, Fukui University

    1981-01-01

    Single-particle spin-orbit splittings (Δ^) in ^O and ^Ca nuclei are evaluated within the framework of the effective interaction theory by employing the Reid soft-core potential and meson-exchange three-body forces (TBF). Among the two-body force contributions, the Pauli-rearrangement effect on Δ^ is studied with special care. The TBF contribution to Δ^ is found to be significant. The G-matrix, the second-order pauli-rearrangement and the TBF contribute to Δ^ by the amount of ~1/2, ~1/5 and ~1...

  4. Probing Single Nanometer-scale Particles with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, G.S.; Love, J.C.; Kushmerick, J.G.; Charles, L.F.; Keating, C.D.; Toleno, B.J.; Lyn, M.E.; Castleman, A.W.; Natan, M.J.; Weiss, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy can be used to isolate single particles on surfaces for further study. Local optical and electronic properties coupled with topographic information collected by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) give insight into the intrinsic properties of the species under study. Since each spectroscopic measurement is done on a single particle, each sample is 'monodisperse', regardless of the degree of heterogeneity of the original preparation. We illustrate this with three example systems - a metal cluster of known atomic structure, metal nanoparticles dispersed from colloid suspensions, and metallocarbohedrenes (Met-Cars) deposited with other reaction products. Au and Ag nanoparticles were imaged using a photon emission STM. The threshold voltage, the lowest bias voltage at which photons are produced, was determined for Au nanoparticles. Electronic spectra of small clusters of Ni atoms on MoS 2 were recorded. Preliminary images of Zr-based Met-Car-containing soot were obtained on Au and MoS 2 substrates and partial electronic spectra were recorded of these possible Met-Car particles

  5. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Benker, N.; Dirsch, T.; Mertes, S.; Schenk, L.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Curtius, J.; Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Weinbruch, S.; Ebert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, three different techniques to separate ice-nucleating particles (INPs) as well as ice particle residuals (IPRs) from non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed-phase clouds and allow after evaporation in the instrument for the analysis of the residuals. The Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) coupled with the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated particles for analysis. The instruments were run during a joint field campaign which took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland). INPs and IPRs were analyzed offline by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine their size, chemical composition and mixing state. Online analysis of the size and chemical composition of INP activated in FINCH was performed by laser ablation mass spectrometry. With all three INP/IPR separation techniques high abundances (median 20-70%) of instrumental contamination artifacts were observed (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH + IN-PCVI: steel particles). After removal of the instrumental contamination particles, silicates, Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types obtained by all three techniques. In addition, considerable amounts (median abundance mostly a few percent) of soluble material (e.g., sea salt, sulfates) were observed. As these soluble particles are often not expected to act as INP/IPR, we consider them as potential measurement artifacts. Minor types of INP/IPR include soot and Pb-bearing particles. The Pb-bearing particles are mainly present as an internal mixture with other particle types. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 200

  6. Short-duration Electron Precipitation Studied by Test Particle Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy spectra of electron microbursts from 170 keV to 340 keV have been measured by the solid-state detectors aboard the low-altitude (680 km polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite. These measurements have revealed two important characteristics unique to the microbursts: (1 They are produced by a fast-loss cone-filling process in which the interaction time for pitch-angle scattering is less than 50 ms and (2 The e-folding energy of the perpendicular component is larger than that of the parallel component, and the loss cone is not completely filled by electrons. To understand how wave-particle interactions could generate microbursts, we performed a test particle simulation and investigated how the waves scattered electron pitch angles within the timescale required for microburst precipitation. The application of rising-frequency whistler-mode waves to electrons of different energies moving in a dipole magnetic field showed that chorus magnetic wave fields, rather than electric fields, were the main cause of microburst events, which implied that microbursts could be produced by a quasi-adiabatic process. In addition, the simulation results showed that high-energy electrons could resonate with chorus waves at high magnetic latitudes where the loss cone was larger, which might explain the decreased e-folding energy of precipitated microbursts compared to that of trapped electrons.

  7. Light-induced electronic non-equilibrium in plasmonic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Mordechai; Nitzan, Abraham; Seideman, Tamar

    2013-05-07

    We consider the transient non-equilibrium electronic distribution that is created in a metal nanoparticle upon plasmon excitation. Following light absorption, the created plasmons decohere within a few femtoseconds, producing uncorrelated electron-hole pairs. The corresponding non-thermal electronic distribution evolves in response to the photo-exciting pulse and to subsequent relaxation processes. First, on the femtosecond timescale, the electronic subsystem relaxes to a Fermi-Dirac distribution characterized by an electronic temperature. Next, within picoseconds, thermalization with the underlying lattice phonons leads to a hot particle in internal equilibrium that subsequently equilibrates with the environment. Here we focus on the early stage of this multistep relaxation process, and on the properties of the ensuing non-equilibrium electronic distribution. We consider the form of this distribution as derived from the balance between the optical absorption and the subsequent relaxation processes, and discuss its implication for (a) heating of illuminated plasmonic particles, (b) the possibility to optically induce current in junctions, and (c) the prospect for experimental observation of such light-driven transport phenomena.

  8. Physical and chemical study of single aerosol particles using optical trapping cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    scope that views the trapped particle walking through the ringdown beam step by step. (b) An image that shows the traces of the particle (MWCNT... walking through the RD beam . 5 a b c Fig.3 The OT-CRDS single particle scope views oscillations of a trapped particle. (a) Image of a trapped...and walking single carbon- nanotube particles of ?50 µm in size and viewing those properties via changes of ringdown time. This single- aerosol

  9. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples 〈 χ 〉 with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility 〈 χ 〉 of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = 〈 χ 〉 /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  10. Multi-color single particle tracking with quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Arnspang

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g. multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT. In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations, and hydrodynamic radii of eight types of commercially available water soluble QDs. In this study, we show that the fluorescence intensity of CdSe core QDs increases as the emission of the QDs shifts towards the red but that hybrid CdSe/CdTe core QDs are less bright than the furthest red-shifted CdSe QDs. We further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC-SPT with QDs is possible at an image acquisition rate of at least 25 Hz. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the lateral dynamics of a lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, in the cellular plasma membrane of live cells using four different colors of QDs; QD565, QD605, QD655, and QD705 as labels.

  11. Preliminary Understanding of Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy by Single Particle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kangshu

    Monitoring chiral optical signals of biomolecules as their conformation changes is an important means to study their structures, properties, and functions. Most measurements, however, are ensemble measurements because chiral optical signals from a single biomolecule is often too weak to be detected. In this dissertation, I present my early attempts to study conformational changes of adsorbed proteins by taking advantage of the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field around a well-designed plasmonic nanofeature. In particular, I discuss the detection of protein adsorption and denaturation on metallic nanoparticles using single particle scattering and CD spectroscopic imaging. Particles of two distinctively different sizes were compared and two different sample protein molecules were studied. A combination of experimental and computational tools was used to simulate and interpret the collected scattering and CD results. The first chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-art research in CD spectroscopic studies at the single particle level. Three different means to make particles capable of chiral detection are discussed. Various applications beyond single particle imaging are presented to showcase the potential of the described research project, beyond our immediate goals. The second chapter describes my initial characterization of large, metallic, anisotropic nanorods and the establishment of experimental procedures used later for spectrum reconstruction, data visualization and analysis. The physical shape and structure of the particles were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and the optical properties by darkfield microscopy. An experimental protocol was developed to connect information collected from separate techniques for the same particle, with the aims of discovering any possible structural-property correlation. The reproducibility of the single particle imaging method was

  12. Single particle level density in a finite depth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Kolomietz, V.M.; Dejbakhsh, H.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the single particle level density g(ε) of a realistic finite depth potential well, concentrating on the continuum (ε>0) region. We carry out quantum-mechanical calculations of the partial level density g l (ε), associated with a well-defined orbital angular momentum l≤40, using the phase-shift derivative method and the Greens-function method and compare the results with those obtained using the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We also numerically calculate g(ε) as a l sum of g l (ε) up to a certain value of scr(l) max ≤40 and determine the corresponding smooth level densities using the Strutinsky smoothing procedure. We demonstrate, in accordance with Levinson close-quote s theorem, that the partial contribution g l (ε) to the single particle level density from continuum states has positive and negative values. However, g(ε) is nonnegative. We also point out that this is not the case for an energy-dependent potential well. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles, consisting of black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, inorganic salts, and trace elements, are emitted into the atmosphere during incomplete combustion. Accurate measurements of atmospheric BC are important as BC particles cause adverse health effects and impact the climate.

    Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the properties and mass concentrations of BC particles remains difficult. The Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 can contribute to improving this situation by measuring the mass of refractory BC in individual particles as well as its mixing state.

    Here, the results of the first detailed SP2 intercomparison, involving 6 SP2s from 6 different research groups, are presented, including the most evolved data products that can presently be calculated from SP2 measurements.

    It was shown that a detection efficiency of almost 100% down to 1 fg BC per particle can readily be achieved, and that this limit can be pushed down to ∼0.2 fg BC with optimal SP2 setup. Number and mass size distributions of BC cores agreed within ±5% and ±10%, respectively, in between the SP2s, with larger deviations in the range below 1 fg BC.

    The accuracy of the SP2's mass concentration measurement depends on the calibration material chosen. The SP2 has previously been shown to be equally sensitive to fullerene soot and ambient BC from sources where fossil fuel was dominant and less sensitive to fullerene soot than to Aquadag. Fullerene soot was therefore chosen as the standard calibration material by the SP2 user community; however, many data sets rely solely on Aquadag calibration measurements. The difference in SP2 sensitivity was found to be almost equal (fullerene soot to Aquadag response ratio of ∼0.75 at 8.9 fg BC for all SP2s. This allows the calculation of a fullerene soot equivalent calibration curve from a measured Aquadag calibration, when no fullerene soot calibration is available. It could be

  14. Synthesis of Monodispersed Spherical Single Crystalline Silver Particles by Wet Chemical Process; Shisshiki kagakuho ni yoru tanbunsankyujo tankesshoginryushi no gose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Ryousuke.; Harada, Masahiro.; Ueyama, Tamotsu.; Harada, Akio. [Daiken Chemistry Industry Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi. [National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Shiosaki, Tadashi. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan). Graduate School of Materials Science; Kuribayashi, Kiyoshi. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Materials

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine silver monodispersed particle were prepared by wet chemical process. To decrease the reduction speed, an important factor in generating monodispersed particles is to control the following three factors: synthesis temperature, concentration of aggregation-relaxing agent added, and concentration of silver nitrate solution. Synthesis of monodispersed spherical Ag particles, used as metal powders for electrode, became possible using the nucleus grouwth reaction method. This process also allowed the control of the diameter of the powder particles. The silver particles were distributed in ta narrow particle diameter range with on average of 0.5 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that single-crystalline silver particles were prepared by the present method. (author)

  15. Transition and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons and particle discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, B.; Repellin, J.-P.; Sauvage, G.; Chollet, J.C.; Dialinas, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.

    1976-01-01

    Transition radiation from a radiator of 650 lithium foils has been studied in a multiwire proportional chamber filled with a Xenon-CO 2 mixture for two experimental configurations. With the chamber immediately after the radiator, particle discrimination comparable to those reported in the litterature (90% efficiency for electrons, 10% for hadrons) have been observed. With magnetic bending between the radiator and the xenon chamber typical efficiencies of 87% for electrons and less than 0.4% for hadrons have been measured. The discrimination obtained is at least a factor 20 better than for the more conventional configuration. In the latter case, synchrotron radiation has also been observed

  16. Coherent control of single electrons: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Christopher; Glattli, D. Christian; Meunier, Tristan; Portier, Fabien; Roche, Patrice; Roulleau, Preden; Takada, Shintaro; Waintal, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    In this report we review the present state of the art of the control of propagating quantum states at the single-electron level and its potential application to quantum information processing. We give an overview of the different approaches that have been developed over the last few years in order to gain full control over a propagating single-electron in a solid-state system. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts, we present experiments on flying qubit circuits for ensemble of electrons measured in the low frequency (DC) limit. We then present the basic ingredients necessary to realise such experiments at the single-electron level. This includes a review of the various single-electron sources that have been developed over the last years and which are compatible with integrated single-electron circuits. This is followed by a review of recent key experiments on electron quantum optics with single electrons. Finally we will present recent developments in the new physics that has emerged using ultrashort voltage pulses. We conclude our review with an outlook and future challenges in the field.

  17. Particle Beam Tests of the Calorimetric Electron Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Tadahisa

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a new mission addressing outstanding astrophysics questions including the nature of dark matter, the sources of high-energy particles and photons, and the details of particle acceleration and transport in the galaxy by measuring the high-energy spectra of electrons, nuclei, and gamma-rays. It will launch on HTV-5 (H-II Transfer Vehicle 5) in 2014 for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module–Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station. The CALET collaboration is led by JAXA and includes researchers from Japan, the U.S. and Italy. The CALET Main Telescope uses a plastic scintillator charge detector followed by a 30 radiation-length (X0) deep particle calorimeter divided into a 3 X0 imaging calorimeter, with scintillating optical fibers interleaved with thin tungsten sheets, and a 27 X0 fully-active total-absorption calorimeter made of lead tungstate scintillators. CALET prototypes were tested at the CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Ph...

  18. Visualizing Ebolavirus Particles Using Single-Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik P; Seymour, Elif Ç; Scherr, Steven M; Daaboul, George G; Freedman, David S; Selim Ünlü, M; Connor, John H

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes an approach for the label-free imaging and quantification of intact Ebola virus (EBOV) and EBOV viruslike particles (VLPs) using a light microscopy technique. In this technique, individual virus particles are captured onto a silicon chip that has been printed with spots of virus-specific capture antibodies. These captured virions are then detected using an optical approach called interference reflectance imaging. This approach allows for the detection of each virus particle that is captured on an antibody spot and can resolve the filamentous structure of EBOV VLPs without the need for electron microscopy. Capture of VLPs and virions can be done from a variety of sample types ranging from tissue culture medium to blood. The technique also allows automated quantitative analysis of the number of virions captured. This can be used to identify the virus concentration in an unknown sample. In addition, this technique offers the opportunity to easily image virions captured from native solutions without the need for additional labeling approaches while offering a means of assessing the range of particle sizes and morphologies in a quantitative manner.

  19. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinali, Matteo [Helmholtz Institut Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA Cherenkov-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent Particle Identification (PID) detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected data rates. The planned PANDA experiment at FAIR expects average interaction rates of 20 MHz. A Barrel DIRC will provide PID in the central region of the Target Spectrometer. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is projected for the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created by the focusing optics on the image plane. The typically large amount of readout channels (approx 15,000 in case of the PANDA Barrel DIRC) places non-negligible limits on size and power consumption of the Front-End Electronics (FEE). The proposed design is based on the TRBv3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom FEE with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. Two types of FEE cards optimised for reading out 64-channel Photonis Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC developed for the ALICE RPC readout and the other, called PaDiWa, using FPGA-based discriminators. Both types of FEE cards were tested with a small DIRC prototype comprising a radiator bar with focusing lens and an oil-filled expansion volume instrumented with 6 Planacon 64-channel MCP-PMTs. In the presentation the result of a test experiment performed at MAMI B, Mainz, are addressed.

  20. Neuronal synchrony detection on single-electron neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Takahide; Asai, Tetsuya; Kagaya, Ryo; Hirose, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2006-01-01

    Synchrony detection between burst and non-burst spikes is known to be one functional example of depressing synapses. Kanazawa et al. demonstrated synchrony detection with MOS depressing synapse circuits. They found that the performance of a network with depressing synapses that discriminates between burst and random input spikes increases non-monotonically as the static device mismatch is increased. We designed a single-electron depressing synapse and constructed the same network as in Kanazawa's study to develop noise-tolerant single-electron circuits. We examined the temperature characteristics and explored possible architecture that enables single-electron circuits to operate at T > 0 K

  1. Thermal behavior of aerosol particles from biomass burning during the BBOP campaign using transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Chand, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; Buseck, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). We show in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within TEM. The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remained in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Our results also suggest that because of their thermal stability, some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have a greater influence than is currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  2. Volume changes upon heating of aerosol particles from biomass burning using transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Kouji [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan). Atmospheric Environment and Applied Meteorology Research Dept.; Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Kleinman, Lawrence [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Chand, Duli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Hubbe, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Buseck, Peter R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration and School of Molecular Sciences

    2017-09-26

    The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here we describe in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating. We use ambient samples from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America collected during the 2013 Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP). The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remain in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Beyond TBs, our results suggest that because of their thermal stability some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have more influence than currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  3. Detecting single-electron events in TEM using low-cost electronics and a silicon strip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Moldovan, Grigore; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; Lin, Chao; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-04-01

    There is great interest in developing novel position-sensitive direct detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. Direct imaging improves contrast and efficiency and allows the operation of the microscope at lower energies and at lower doses without loss in resolution, which is especially important for studying soft materials and biological samples. We investigate the feasibility of employing a silicon strip detector as an imaging detector for TEM. This device, routinely used in high-energy particle physics, can detect small variations in electric current associated with the impact of a single charged particle. The main advantages of using this type of sensor for direct imaging in TEM are its intrinsic radiation hardness and large detection area. Here, we detail design, simulation, fabrication and tests in a TEM of the front-end electronics developed using low-cost discrete components and discuss the limitations and applications of this technology for TEM.

  4. Sub-electron transport in single-electron-tunneling arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel; Sverdlov, Viktor; Korotkov, Alexander; Likharev, Konstantin

    2002-03-01

    We have analyzed quasi-continuous charge transport in two-dimensional tunnel junction arrays with a special distribution of background charges, providing a complete suppression of Coulomb blockade thresholds of tunneling between any pair of islands. Numerical simulations show that at low currents the dc I-V curve is indeed linear, while the shot noise is strongly suppressed and approaches 1/N of the Schottky value (where N is the array length). Thus both conditions of quasi-continuous transport, formulated earlier by Matsuoka and Likharev (Phys. Rev. B, v57, 15613, 1998), are satisfied. At higher fields the electron-hole pair production begins, and shot noise grows sharply. At higher voltages still, the array enters the "plasma" regime (with nearly balanced number of electrons and holes) and the Fano factor drops to 1/N once again. We have studied the resulting shot noise peak in detail, and concluded that its physics is close to that of critical opalescence.

  5. Safety of information in electronic equipment influenced by the charged space particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Gennad’evna Sizova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A version of the existing evaluation method of electronic equipment to the influence of charged space particles causing single event effects for the purpose of improving the accuracy of calculation in the field of information safety is suggested. On the basis of the existing and modified methods radiation tolerance of real payload spacecraft responsible for the security of transmitted information are defined. The results of comparison are introduced. Significant differences not only in quantitative but also in qualitative character of tolerance indicators are revealed. It is demonstrated that the modified method allows to take into account the functional complexity of the hardware and the application efficiency of the sophisticated single event effects protection tools. To confirm the applicability of the modified method of equipment tolerance evaluation method to the influence of charged space particles causing single event effects proposals to the procedure of ground tests of the payload and the space experiment are developed.

  6. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  7. The single scattering properties of the aerosol particles as aggregated spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Gu, X.; Cheng, T.; Xie, D.; Yu, T.; Chen, H.; Guo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The light scattering and absorption properties of anthropogenic aerosol particles such as soot aggregates are complicated in the temporal and spatial distribution, which introduce uncertainty of radiative forcing on global climate change. In order to study the single scattering properties of anthorpogenic aerosol particles, the structures of these aerosols such as soot paticles and soot-containing mixtures with the sulfate or organic matter, are simulated using the parallel diffusion limited aggregation algorithm (DLA) based on the transmission electron microscope images (TEM). Then, the single scattering properties of randomly oriented aerosols, such as scattering matrix, single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP), are computed using the superposition T-matrix method. The comparisons of the single scattering properties of these specific types of clusters with different morphological and chemical factors such as fractal parameters, aspect ratio, monomer radius, mixture mode and refractive index, indicate that these different impact factors can respectively generate the significant influences on the single scattering properties of these aerosols. The results show that aspect ratio of circumscribed shape has relatively small effect on single scattering properties, for both differences of SSA and AP are less than 0.1. However, mixture modes of soot clusters with larger sulfate particles have remarkably important effects on the scattering and absorption properties of aggregated spheres, and SSA of those soot-containing mixtures are increased in proportion to the ratio of larger weakly absorbing attachments. Therefore, these complex aerosols come from man made pollution cannot be neglected in the aerosol retrievals. The study of the single scattering properties on these kinds of aggregated spheres is important and helpful in remote sensing observations and atmospheric radiation balance computations.

  8. Alpha-particle and electron capture decay of 209Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schima, F.J.; Colle, R.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray and Kα X-ray emissions have been measured from a very pure 209 Po source containing less than 0.13% 208 Po activity and no detectable 210 Po (≤2 x 10 -4 %). The alpha-particle emission rate for this source has previously been determined. Data are presented that confirm alpha decay to the 205 Pb excited level at 262.8 keV, with an alpha-particle emission probability (±standard uncertainty) of 0.00559±0.00008. The ratio of K-shell electron capture to total electron capture for the second forbidden unique electron capture decay to the 896.6 keV level in 209 Bi was determined to be 0.594±0.018. The electron capture decay fraction was found to be 0.00454±0.00007, while the probabilities per decay for the 896.6, 262.8, and 260.5 keV gamma rays and the Bi Kα and Pb Kα X-rays were measured as 0.00445±0.00007, 0.00085±0.00002, 0.00254±0.00003, 0.00202±0.00005, and 0.00136±0.00005, respectively. (orig.)

  9. EMHP: an accurate automated hole masking algorithm for single-particle cryo-EM image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndsen, Zachary; Bowman, Charles; Jang, Haerin; Ward, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    The Electron Microscopy Hole Punch (EMHP) is a streamlined suite of tools for quick assessment, sorting and hole masking of electron micrographs. With recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) data processing allowing for the rapid determination of protein structures using a smaller computational footprint, we saw the need for a fast and simple tool for data pre-processing that could run independent of existing high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructures. EMHP provides a data preprocessing platform in a small package that requires minimal python dependencies to function. https://www.bitbucket.org/chazbot/emhp Apache 2.0 License. bowman@scripps.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Fortier, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Gales, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Guillot, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Langevin-Joliot, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Laurent, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 -Orsay (France); Maison, J.M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vernotte, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bordewijck, J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Krasznahorkay, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Crawley, G.M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Massolo, C.P. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, M. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Khendriche, A. [University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1996-03-18

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, {sup 120}Sn and {sup 208}Pb excited by means of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in {sup 91}Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in {sup 209}Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations. (orig.).

  11. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  12. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  13. Single electron probes of fractional quantum hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Vivek

    When electrons are confined to a two dimensional layer with a perpendicular applied magnetic field, such that the ratio of electrons to flux quanta (nu) is a small integer or simple rational value, these electrons condense into remarkable new phases of matter that are strikingly different from the metallic electron gas that exists in the absence of a magnetic field. These phases, called integer or fractional quantum Hall (IQH or FQH) states, appear to be conventional insulators in their bulk, but behave as a dissipationless metal along their edge. Furthermore, electrical measurements of such a system are largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of how the system is contacted or even how large the system is... only the order in which contacts are made appears to matter. This insensitivity to local geometry has since appeared in a number of other two and three dimensional systems, earning them the classification of "topological insulators" and prompting an enormous experimental and theoretical effort to understand their properties and perhaps manipulate these properties to create robust quantum information processors. The focus of this thesis will be two experiments designed to elucidate remarkable properties of the metallic edge and insulating bulk of certain FQH systems. To study such systems, we can use mesoscopic devices known as single electron transistors (SETs). These devices operate by watching single electrons hop into and out of a confining box and into a nearby wire (for measurement). If it is initially unfavorable for an electron to leave the box, it can be made favorable by bringing another charge nearby, modifying the energy of the confined electron and pushing it out of the box and into the nearby wire. In this way, the SET can measure nearby charges. Alternatively, we can heat up the nearby wire to make it easier for electrons to enter and leave the box. In this way, the SET is a sensitive thermometer. First, by operating the SET as an

  14. A ballistic transport model for electronic excitation following particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, S.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a ballistic model for the transport of electronic excitation energy induced by keV particle bombardment onto a solid surface. Starting from a free electron gas model, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is employed to follow the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution function f (r → , k → , t) describing the occupation probability of an electronic state k → at position r → and time t. Three different initializations of the distribution function are considered: i) a thermal distribution function with a locally and temporally elevated electron temperature, ii) a peak excitation at a specific energy above the Fermi level with a quasi-isotropic distribution in k-space and iii) an anisotropic peak excitation with k-vectors oriented in a specific transport direction. While the first initialization resembles a distribution function which may, for instance, result from electronic friction of moving atoms within an ion induced collision cascade, the peak excitation can in principle result from an autoionization process after excitation in close binary collisions. By numerically solving the BTE, we study the electronic energy exchange along a one dimensional transport direction to obtain a time and space resolved excitation energy distribution function, which is then analyzed in view of general transport characteristics of the chosen model system.

  15. In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Nagy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM to digital processing (dTEM, and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM. Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200–350 nm than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei, which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85–200 nm and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60–280 nm in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100–500 nm, but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50–100 nm. These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics.

  16. Determining Complex Structures using Docking Method with Single Particle Scattering Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiguang Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes are critical for many molecular functions. Due to intrinsic flexibility and dynamics of complexes, their structures are more difficult to determine using conventional experimental methods, in contrast to individual subunits. One of the major challenges is the crystallization of protein complexes. Using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, it is possible to collect scattering signals from non-crystalline protein complexes, but data interpretation is more difficult because of unknown orientations. Here, we propose a hybrid approach to determine protein complex structures by combining XFEL single particle scattering data with computational docking methods. Using simulations data, we demonstrate that a small set of single particle scattering data collected at random orientations can be used to distinguish the native complex structure from the decoys generated using docking algorithms. The results also indicate that a small set of single particle scattering data is superior to spherically averaged intensity profile in distinguishing complex structures. Given the fact that XFEL experimental data are difficult to acquire and at low abundance, this hybrid approach should find wide applications in data interpretations.

  17. Microphysical Properties of Single Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Song, Young-Chul; Pereira, Kelly; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Topping, David; Reid, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) deriving from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can account for a substantial fraction of the overall atmospheric aerosol mass.[1] Therefore, the investigation of SOA microphysical properties is crucial to better comprehend their role in the atmospheric processes they are involved in. This works describes a single particle approach to accurately characterise the hygroscopic response, the optical properties and the gas-particle partitioning kinetics of water and semivolatile components for laboratory generated SOA. SOA was generated from the oxidation of different VOCs precursors (e.g. α-pinene, toluene) in a photo-chemical flow reactor, which consists of a temperature and relative humidity controlled 300 L polyvinyl fluoride bag. Known VOC, NOx and ozone concentrations are introduced in the chamber and UV irradiation is performed by means of a Hg pen-ray. SOA samples were collected with an electrical low pressure impactor, wrapped in aluminium foil and kept refrigerated at -20°C. SOA samples were extracted in a 1:1 water/methanol mixture. Single charged SOA particles were generated from the obtained solution using a microdispenser and confined within an electrodynamic balance (EDB), where they sit in a T (250-320 K) and RH (0-95%) controlled nitrogen flow. Suspended droplets are irradiated with a 532 nm laser and the evolving angularly resolved scattered light is used to keep track of changes in droplet size. One of the key features of this experimental approach is that very little SOA solution is required because of the small volumes needed to load the dispensers (evaporation kinetics experiments (CK-EDB) of suspended probe and sample droplets.[2] The variation of the refractive index of SOA droplets following to water or SVOCs evaporative loss was measured as a function of water activity by fitting the collected light scattering patterns with a generated Mie-Theory library of phase functions.[3] Long trapping

  18. State selective single-electron capture in O6++Nacollisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Keim, M; Ludde, HJ; Kirchner, T; Morgenstern, [No Value; Hoekstra, R

    2005-01-01

    Single-electron capture in O6+ + Na collisions at 1-9 keV/amu collision energy has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Partial cross sections for electron capture into n = 5, 6, 7, 8 and n >= 9 have been obtained from target recoil momenta measured by the technique of MOTRIMS and are

  19. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular electronics: the single molecule switch and transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Geskin, Victor; Heimbuch, Rene; Kumar, Avijit; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected

  1. Electronic Instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452332

    The present dissertation describes design, qualification and operation of several electronic instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics experiments (LHCb) and Neutrino Physics experiments (CUORE and CUPID). Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and several of its detectors will be redesigned. The RICH detector will require a completely new optoelectronic readout system. The development of such system has already reached an advanced phase, and several tests at particle beam facilities allowed to qualify the performance of the entire system. In order to achieve a higher stability and a better power supply regulation for the front-end chip, a rad-hard low dropout linear regulator, named ALDO, has been developed. Design strategies, performance tests and results from the irradiation campaign are presented. In the Neutrino Physics field, large-scale bolometric detectors, like those adopted by CUORE and its future upgrade CUPID, offer u...

  2. Single-particle motion in large-amplitude quadrupole shape transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuya

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic structure of the single-particle motion for the spherical-deformed transitional nuclei is analysed by using the self-consistent collective-coordinate method (SCC method). The single-particle motion in the moving-frame of reference called the collective vibrating coordinate frame is introduced by the generalized Bogoliubov transformation depending on the collective coordinate. The numerical calculations of the single-particle (quasi-particle) energy level diagrams and their occupation probabilities for the static deformation are carried out for the Sm isotopes. A clear change of the single-particle distribution structure appears in the course of deformation. (author)

  3. Experimental realization of a Szilard engine with a single electron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jonne V; Maisi, Ville F; Pekola, Jukka P; Averin, Dmitri V

    2014-09-23

    The most succinct manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics is the limitation imposed by the Landauer principle on the amount of heat a Maxwell demon (MD) can convert into free energy per single bit of information obtained in a measurement. We propose and realize an electronic MD based on a single-electron box operated as a Szilard engine, where kBT ln 2 of heat is extracted from the reservoir at temperature T per one bit of created information. The information is encoded in the position of an extra electron in the box.

  4. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, A.; Bongini, L.; Corbett, J.; Dome, G.; Fedorova, A.; Freguglia, P.; Ng, K.; Ohmi, K.; Owen, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Scandale, W.; Terebilo, A.; Turchetti, G.; Todesco, E.; Warnock, R.; Zeitlin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics has developed a set of tools to study nonlinear dynamics in a particle accelerator. The design of rings with large dynamic apertures is still far from automatic. The Working Group has concluded that nonlinear single-particle dynamics limits the performance of accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Svenda, Martin; Andreasson, Jakob; Jönsson, Olof; Odić, Duško; Iwan, Bianca; Rocker, Andrea; Westphal, Daniel; Hantke, Max; DePonte, Daniel P.; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Coppola, Nicola; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Martin, Andrew; Caleman, Carl; Stern, Stephan; Abergel, Chantal; Seltzer, Virginie; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Boutet, Sébastien; Miahnahri, A. Alan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Krzywinski, Jacek; Williams, Garth; Hodgson, Keith O.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Starodub, Dmitri; Andersson, Inger; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Kirian, Richard; Hunter, Mark; Doak, R. Bruce; Marchesini, Stefano; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Frank, Matthias; Shoeman, Robert L.; Lomb, Lukas; Epp, Sascha W.; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Schmidt, Carlo; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Holl, Peter; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Hömke, André; Reich, Christian; Pietschner, Daniel; Weidenspointner, Georg; Strüder, Lothar; Hauser, Günter; Gorke, Hubert; Ullrich, Joachim; Schlichting, Ilme; Herrmann, Sven; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Andritschke, Robert; Schröter, Claus-Dieter; Krasniqi, Faton; Bott, Mario; Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Hirsemann, Helmut; Potdevin, Guillaume; Graafsma, Heinz; Nilsson, Björn; Chapman, Henry N.; Hajdu, Janos

    2014-01-01

    X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions1–4. Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into plasma1. The continuous diffraction pattern of non-crystalline objects permits oversampling and direct phase retrieval2. Here we show that high-quality diffraction data can be obtained with a single X-ray pulse from a non-crystalline biological sample, a single mimivirus particle, which was injected into the pulsed beam of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source5. Calculations indicate that the energy deposited into the virus by the pulse heated the particle to over 100,000 K after the pulse had left the sample. The reconstructed exit wavefront (image) yielded 32-nm full-period resolution in a single exposure and showed no measurable damage. The reconstruction indicates inhomogeneous arrangement of dense material inside the virion. We expect that significantly higher resolutions will be achieved in such experiments with shorter and brighter photon pulses focused to a smaller area. The resolution in such experiments can be further extended for samples available in multiple identical copies. PMID:21293374

  6. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  7. Momentum spectra for single and double electron ionization of He in relativistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The complete momentum spectra for single and double ionization of He by 1-GeV/u (β=0.88) U 92+ have been investigated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method corrected for the relativistic projectile. The 1/r 12 electron-electron interaction has been included in the post-collision region for double ionization to incorporate the effects of both the nuclear-electron and electron-electron ionizing interactions, and to access the effects of electron correlation in the electron spectra. Experimental measurements were able to determine the longitudinal momentum spectra for single ionization; these observations are in accordance with the theoretical predictions for the three-body momentum balance between projectile, recoil ion, and ionized electron. In particular, the Lorentz contraction of the Coulomb interaction of the projectile manifests itself in the decrease of the post-collision interaction of the projectile with the electron and recoil ion, causing them to recoil back-to-back as in the case for a short electromagnetic pulse. This feature is clearly displayed in both the theoretical and experimental longitudinal momentum spectra, and by comparing to calculations that are performed at the same collision speed but do not include the relativistic potentials. Moreover, collision plane spectra of the three particles demonstrate that the momenta of the recoil ion and ionized electron are preferentially equal, and opposite, to each other. The electron spectra for double ionization show that the inclusion of the electron-electron interaction in the post-collision regime partitions the combined ionization momentum of the electrons so that the electrons are preferentially emitted in opposite azimuthal angles to one another. This is in contrast to calculations made assuming independent electrons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Momentum spectra for single and double electron ionization of He in relativistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.; Olson, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    The complete momentum spectra for single and double ionization of He by 1GeV/u (β=0.88) U 92+ have been investigated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method corrected for the relativistic projectile. The 1/r 12 electron-electron interaction has been included in the post-collision region for double ionization to incorporate the effects of both the nuclear-electron and electron-electron ionizing interactions, and to access the effects of electron correlation in the electron spectra. Experimental measurements were able to determine the longitudinal momentum spectra for single ionization; these observations are in accordance with the theoretical predictions for the three-body momentum balance between projectile, recoil ion, and ionized electron. In particular, the Lorentz contraction of the Coulomb interaction of the projectile manifests itself in the decrease of the post-collision interaction of the projectile with the electron and recoil ion, causing them to recoil back-to-back as in the case for a short electromagnetic pulse. This feature is clearly displayed in both the theoretical and experimental longitudinal momentum spectra, and by comparing to calculations that are performed at the same collision speed but do not include the relativistic potentials. Moreover, collision plane spectra of the three particles demonstrate that the momenta of the recoil ion and ionized electron are preferentially equal, and opposite, to each other. The electron spectra for double ionization show that the inclusion of the electron-electron interaction in the post-collision regime partitions the combined ionization momentum of the electrons so that the electrons are preferentially emitted in opposite azimuthal angles to one another. This is in contrast to calculations made assuming independent electrons. (orig.)

  9. Charged beam dynamics, particle accelerators and free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Sabia, Elio; Artioli, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Charged Beam Dynamics, Particle Accelerators and Free Electron Lasers summarises different topics in the field of accelerators and of Free Electron Laser (FEL) devices. It is intended as a reference manual for the different aspects of FEL devices, explaining how to design both a FEL device and the accelerator providing the driving beam. It covers both theoretical and experimental aspects, allowing researchers to attempt a first design of a FEL device in different operating conditions. It provides an analysis of what is already available, what is needed, and what the challenges are to determine new progress in this field. All chapters contain complements and exercises that are designed in such a way that the reader will gradually acquire self-confidence with the matter treated in the book.

  10. A reflexing electron microwave amplifier for rf particle accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rf-accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave power sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing-electron class of sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and has demonstrated operation from 800-MHz to 40-GHz. The pulse length appears to be limited by diode closure, and reflexing-electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. A design is presented for a reflexing electron microwave amplifier that is frequency and phase locked. In this design, the generated microwave power can be efficiently coupled to one or several accelerator loads. Frequency and phase-locking capability may permit parallel-source operation for higher power. The low-frequency (500-MHz to 10-GHz) operation at very high power required by present and proposed microwave particle accelerators makes an amplifier, based on reflexing electron phenomena, a candidate for the development of new accelerator power sources. (author)

  11. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. cisTEM, user-friendly software for single-particle image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new open-source software called cisTEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cisTEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction. Some of these steps implement newly-developed algorithms; others were adapted from previously published algorithms. The software is optimized to enable processing of typical datasets (2000 micrographs, 200 k – 300 k particles) on a high-end, CPU-based workstation in half a day or less, comparable to GPU-accelerated processing. Jobs can also be scheduled on large computer clusters using flexible run profiles that can be adapted for most computing environments. cisTEM is available for download from cistem.org. PMID:29513216

  13. cisTEM, user-friendly software for single-particle image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Timothy; Rohou, Alexis; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2018-03-07

    We have developed new open-source software called cis TEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cis TEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction. Some of these steps implement newly-developed algorithms; others were adapted from previously published algorithms. The software is optimized to enable processing of typical datasets (2000 micrographs, 200 k - 300 k particles) on a high-end, CPU-based workstation in half a day or less, comparable to GPU-accelerated processing. Jobs can also be scheduled on large computer clusters using flexible run profiles that can be adapted for most computing environments. cis TEM is available for download from cistem.org. © 2018, Grant et al.

  14. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang; Yu, Yang; Lei, Xiangcui; Yang, Luping; Wen, Kaile; Qi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  15. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Fernández-Rossier, J

    2011-08-12

    Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance.

  16. Single and multiple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact are presented for collision energies from threshold to 500 eV. The cross sections for single ionization of sulfur are measured relative to those of several elements whose absolute cross sections for single ionization are known. Cross sections for each multiple ionization process are then measured relative to those for single ionization. The configuration and operation of the apparatus for these measurements are described. The possible effects of excited sulfur reactants are examined, and the reported cross sections are felt to be characteristic of ground state sulfur atoms

  17. Mathematical modelling of the combustion of a single wood particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteiro, J.; Miguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Moran, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Maquinas y Motores Termicos y Fluidos. Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende 9 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    A mathematical model describing the thermal degradation of densified biomass particles is presented here. The model uses a novel discretisation scheme and combines intra-particle combustion processes with extra-particle transport processes, thereby including thermal and diffusional control mechanisms. The influence of structural changes on the physical-thermal properties of wood in its different stages is studied together with shrinkage of the particle during its degradation. The model is used to compare the predicted data with data on the mass loss dynamics and internal temperature of several particles from previous works and relevant literature, with good agreement. (author)

  18. Quantum-Sequencing: Fast electronic single DNA molecule sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free, high-throughput and cost-effective, single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the first demonstration of unique ``electronic fingerprint'' of all nucleotides (A, G, T, C), with single-molecule DNA sequencing, using Quantum-tunneling Sequencing (Q-Seq) at room temperature. We show that the electronic state of the nucleobases shift depending on the pH, with most distinct states identified at acidic pH. We also demonstrate identification of single nucleotide modifications (methylation here). Using these unique electronic fingerprints (or tunneling data), we report a partial sequence of beta lactamase (bla) gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, with over 95% success rate. These results highlight the potential of Q-Seq as a robust technique for next-generation sequencing.

  19. Highly efficient electron gun with a single-atom electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Urata, Tomohiro; Cho, Boklae; Rokuta, Eiji; Oshima, Chuhei; Terui, Yoshinori; Saito, Hidekazu; Yonezawa, Akira; Tsong, Tien T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission from a practical electron gun with a single-atom electron source; ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources such as a cold field emission gun and a Zr/O/W Schottky gun. At the pressure of less than 1x10 -9 Pa, the authors observed stable emission of 20 nA, which generates the specimen current of 5 pA required for scanning electron microscopes

  20. Role of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahniman Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene is studied using semi-classical Monte Carlo simulation. The D’yakonov-P’erel mechanism is considered for spin relaxation. It is found that electron-electron scattering causes spin relaxation length to decrease by 35% at 300 K. The reason for this decrease in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate at room temperature, which causes change in spin relaxation profile due to electron-electron scattering.

  1. Determination of particle-release conditions in microfiltration: A simple single-particle model tested on a model membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    A simple single-particle model was developed for cross-flow microfiltration with microsieves. The model describes the cross-flow conditions required to release a trapped spherical particle from a circular pore. All equations are derived in a fully analytical way without any fitting parameters. For

  2. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Single-Particle Subcellular Irradiations at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube

  3. First-order reversal curves of single domain particles: diluted random assemblages and chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exact magnetic models can be used to calculate first-order reversal curves (FORC) of single domain (SD) particle assemblages, as shown by Newell [2005] for the case of isolated Stoner-Wohlfarth particles. After overcoming experimental difficulties, a FORC diagram sharing many similarities to Newell's model has been measured on a lake sediment sample (see A.P. Chen et al., "Quantification of magnetofossils using first-order reversal curves", EGU General Assembly 2009, Abstracts Vol. 11, EGU2009-10719). This sample contains abundant magnetofossils, as shown by coercivity analysis and electron microscopy, therefore suggesting that well dispersed, intact magnetosome chains are the main SD carriers. Subtle differences between the reversible and the irreversible contributions of the measured FORC distribution suggest that magnetosome chains might not be correctly described by the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. To better understand the hysteresis properties of such chains, a simple magnetic model has been implemented, taking dipole-dipole interactions between particles within the same chain into account. The model results depend on the magnetosome elongation, the number of magnetosomes in a chain, and the gap between them. If the chain axis is subparallel to the applied field, the magnetic moment reverses by a pseudo-fanning mode, which is replaced by a pseudo-coherent rotation mode at greater angles. These reversal modes are intrinsically different from coherent rotation assumed Stoner-Wohlfarth model, resulting in FORC diagrams with a smaller reversible component. On the other hand, isolated authigenic SD particles can precipitate in the sediment matrix, as it might occur for pedogenic magnetite. In this case, an assembly of randomly located particles provides a possible model for the resulting FORC diagram. If the concentration of the particles is small, each particle is affected by a random interaction field whose statistical distribution can be calculated from first

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  5. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  6. On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivaz, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos

  7. Single electron-spin memory with a semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert J; Dewhurst, Samuel J; Stevenson, R Mark; Atkinson, Paola; Bennett, Anthony J; Ward, Martin B; Cooper, Ken; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    We show storage of the circular polarization of an optical field, transferring it to the spin-state of an individual electron confined in a single semiconductor quantum dot. The state is subsequently read out through the electronically-triggered emission of a single photon. The emitted photon shares the same polarization as the initial pulse but has a different energy, making the transfer of quantum information between different physical systems possible. With an applied magnetic field of 2 T, spin memory is preserved for at least 1000 times more than the exciton's radiative lifetime

  8. Thin Film Coatings for Suppressing Electron Multipacting in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Chiggiato, P; Neupert, H; Shaposhnikova, E N; Taborelli, M; Vollenberg, W; Yin Vallgren, C

    2011-01-01

    Thin film coatings are an effective way for suppressing electron multipacting in particle accelerators. For bakeable beam pipes, the TiZrV Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) developed at CERN can provide a Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of 1.1 after activation at 180oC (24h). The coating process was implemented in large scale to coat the long straight sections and the experimental beam pipes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For non bakeable beam pipes, as those of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN started a campaign to develop a coating having a low SEY without need of in situ heating. Magnetron sputtered carbon thin films have shown SEY of 1 with marginal deterioration when exposed in air for months. This material is now being tested in both laboratory and accelerator environment. At CERN’s SPS, tests with electron cloud monitors attached to carbon coated chambers show no degradation of the coating after two years of operation interleaved with a total of 3 months of air exposure during shutdown periods...

  9. Experimental Study on Effects of Particle Shape and Operating Conditions on Combustion Characteristics of Single Biomass Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A chargecoupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...... combustion process. For the particles with similar volume (mass), cylindrical particles are found to lose mass faster than spherical particles and the burnout time is shortened by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area). The conversion times of cylindrical particles with almost the same surface...... area/volume ratio are very close to each other. The ignition, devolatilization, and burnout times of cylindrical particles are also affected by the oxidizer temperature and oxygen concentration, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced effect on the conversion times at lower...

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Schwab, Mark J.; Pan, Yong-le

    2015-01-01

    The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field. PMID:26247952

  11. Dynamics of a single particle in a horizontally shaken box

    OpenAIRE

    Drossel, Barbara; Prellberg, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a particle in a horizontally and periodically shaken box as a function of the box parameters and the coefficient of restitution. For certain parameter values, the particle becomes regularly chattered at one of the walls, thereby loosing all its kinetic energy relative to that wall. The number of container oscillations between two chattering events depends in a fractal manner on the parameters of the system. In contrast to a vertically vibrated particle, for which chat...

  12. Measuring Density Profiles of Electrons and Heavy Particles in a Stable Axially Blown Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, J.; Stoller, P.; Galletti, B.; Doiron, C. B.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Two-color spatial carrier wave interferometry employing pulsed 532- and 671-nm lasers is used to measure the electron-density and heavy-particle-density profiles in the stagnation point of a stable, axially blown arc in argon for currents of 50 to 200 A and stagnation point pressures of 0.2 to 16 bar. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the free-electron contribution to the refractive index depends strongly on the wavelength, while that of the heavy particles does not. The high spatial resolution achieved allows the hot core of the arc to be readily distinguished from the surrounding boundary layer. A custom-built test device is used to ensure flow conditions that lead to a stable, axisymmetric arc; this permits the reconstruction of the density and temperature profiles using a single projection (interferometric image) of the refractive-index distribution through the arc (at two wavelengths). The arc radius determined from the heavy-particle density decreases with increasing stagnation pressure and increases with the current. These measurements are in good agreement with a simple axially blown arc model taking into account Ohmic heating, radiation losses, and enthalpy flow for core temperatures of approximately 16 500 K. The measured electron density at the center of the arc agrees well with a prediction based on local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  13. An experimental study of electron transfer and emission during particle-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, C.T.

    2000-09-01

    A new coincidence technique has been developed and used to study the secondary electron emission that arises during the interaction of ions with surfaces. This coincidence technique allows the secondary electron emission statistics due to the impact of singly, doubly and multiply charged ions on surfaces to be measured in coincidence with reflected particles, in specific charge states and with specific post-collision trajectories. This system has been used to study the impact of 8 keV H + ions on polycrystalline copper and aluminium targets. Under these conditions the potential emission contribution is negligible and the electron emission is almost entirely due to kinetic emission processes. The sub-surface contribution to the observed electron emission has been isolated using two newly developed models. These models provide valuable information about the depth and amount of surface penetration and on the probability for subsequent electron transport to the surface. The impact of 2 - 100 keV Xe q+ (q = 1 - 10) ions on polycrystalline copper has also been studied using this system. From the subsequent data the potential and kinetic contributions to secondary electron emission have been separated using a previously established model for potential emission. The resulting kinetic emission yield increases with increasing ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on quasimolecular ionisation. For ions impacting at large incident angles evidence for sub-surface emission has also been observed. The degree of penetration increases with ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on this effect. The formation of H - ions from incident H + ions has also been studied by measuring the secondary electron emission statistics in coincidence with reflected particles in specific final charge states. This preliminary data is consistent with a two-step process of Auger neutralisation followed by resonant electron capture to the affinity level. However this mechanism

  14. Snow particles extracted from X-ray computed microtomography imagery and their single-scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Masuda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Sizes and shapes of snow particles were determined from X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) images, and their single-scattering properties were calculated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths using a Geometrical Optics Method (GOM). We analyzed seven snow samples including fresh and aged artificial snow and natural snow obtained from field samples. Individual snow particles were numerically extracted, and the shape of each snow particle was defined by applying a rendering method. The size distribution and specific surface area distribution were estimated from the geometrical properties of the snow particles, and an effective particle radius was derived for each snow sample. The GOM calculations at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.242 μm revealed that the realistic snow particles had similar scattering phase functions as those of previously modeled irregular shaped particles. Furthermore, distinct dendritic particles had a characteristic scattering phase function and asymmetry factor. The single-scattering properties of particles of effective radius reff were compared with the size-averaged single-scattering properties. We found that the particles of reff could be used as representative particles for calculating the average single-scattering properties of the snow. Furthermore, the single-scattering properties of the micro-CT particles were compared to those of particle shape models using our current snow retrieval algorithm. For the single-scattering phase function, the results of the micro-CT particles were consistent with those of a conceptual two-shape model. However, the particle size dependence differed for the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor.

  15. Electron-beam-induced fracture of Kevlar single fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J.T.; Jensen, L.C.; Klakken, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    We examine the unique situation involving the exposure of polymers to both electron bombardment and mechanical stress. Under certain conditions, crack formation, crack growth, and fracture can occur due to this combination of stimuli. These studies relate to the performance of a number of materials under hostile environments such as space, plasma, and propulsion systems. In this paper we present our initial measurements on the response of single Kevlar fibers loaded in tension to bombardment by 3-keV electrons. We present evidence that the resulting electron-beam-induced fracture is due to bond breaking

  16. Electron irradiation effect on single crystal of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of electron irradiation (900 KeV) on gliding dislocations of single crystal Nb with its tensile axe in the [941] orientation was observed for the in-situ deformation in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. The experimental was carried out by the 1 hour-electron irradiation with no stress applied. Straight dislocations actuating as sinks for the electron produced defects became helicoidal as the irradiation proceeded. Frenkel pairs were created in Nb for electron energies > = 650 KeV and, as the single vacancies do not undergo long-range migration in Nb at temperatures much below 620 K, the defects that are entrapped by the dislocations are self-interstitials produced by electron displacement. Applying the stress it was possible to observe that modified dislocations did not glide while the dislocations not affected by the irradiation are visibly in movement. This important result explains the neutron and electron-irradiation induced work-hardening effect for Nb that was previously observed. (Author) [pt

  17. Non-linear phenomena in electronic systems consisting of coupled single-electron oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes non-linear dynamics of electronic systems consisting of single-electron oscillators. A single-electron oscillator is a circuit made up of a tunneling junction and a resistor, and produces simple relaxation oscillation. Coupled with another, single electron oscillators exhibit complex behavior described by a combination of continuous differential equations and discrete difference equations. Computer simulation shows that a double-oscillator system consisting of two coupled oscillators produces multi-periodic oscillation with a single attractor, and that a quadruple-oscillator system consisting of four oscillators also produces multi-periodic oscillation but has a number of possible attractors and takes one of them determined by initial conditions

  18. Electron sub-cycling in particle simulation of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.C.; Serveniere, A.G.; Langdon, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A straightforward modification which reduces by half the computational cost of standard particle-in-cell algorithms for simulation of plasmas is described. The saving is obtained by integrating only the electrons through a number of time steps (sub-cycle) in order to resolve their evolution, while integrating the much slower ions only once per cycle, i.e., to match the time step of each species to their characteristic frequencies. A dispersion relation is derived which describes the numerical instabilities expected by sampling frequency arguments. Simulations support the broad features of the analytical results, viz., the maximum growth rate and domain of the instability, and its stabilization by the addition of weak damping. An implicit sub-cycling algorithm is suggested which may provide further saving while avoiding a limitation of implicit algorithms described elsewhere

  19. Single particle inclusive spectra resulting from the collision of relativistic protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and carbon ions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, J.

    1975-05-01

    The yields of positive and negative particles resulting from the collision of 1.05 GeV/nucleon and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon carbon nuclei with various targets have been measured. Single particle inclusive cross sections for production of π + , π - , p, d, 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He at 2.5 0 (lab) were obtained. How the results bear on the concepts of limiting fragmentation and scaling, the structure of the alpha particle and deuteron, and the possibility of ''coherent'' production of pions by heavy ions are discussed. (U.S.)

  20. A surface-gated InSb quantum well single electron transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, J M S; Buckle, P D; Fearn, M; Storey, C J; Buckle, L; Ashley, T

    2007-01-01

    Single electron charging effects in a surface-gated InSb/AlInSb QW structure are reported. This material, due to its large g-factor and light effective mass, offers considerable advantages over more commonly used materials, such as GaAs, for quantum information processing devices. However, differences in material and device technology result in significant processing challenges. Simple Coulomb blockade and quantized confinement models are considered to explain the observation of conductance oscillations in these structures. The charging energy (e 2 /C) is found to be comparable with the energy spectrum for single particle states (ΔE)

  1. Ionization of xenon by electrons: Partial cross sections for single, double, and triple ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, D.; Badrinathan, C.

    1987-01-01

    High-sensitivity measurements of relative partial cross sections for single, double, and triple ionization of Xe by electron impact have been carried out in the energy region from threshold to 100 eV using a crossed-beam apparatus incorporating a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The weighted sum of the relative partial cross sections at 50 eV are normalized to the total ionization cross section of Rapp and Englander-Golden to yield absolute cross-section functions. Shapes of the partial cross sections for single and double ionization are difficult to account for within a single-particle picture. Comparison of the Xe + data with 4d partial photoionization cross-section measurements indicates the important role played by many-body effects in describing electron-impact ionization of high-Z atoms

  2. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  3. A single electron in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balewski, Jonathan Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the production and study of Rydberg atoms in ultracold quantum gases. Especially a single electron in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be realized. This new idea, its experimental realization and theoretical description, as well as the development of application probabilities in a manifold of fields form the main topic of this thesis.

  4. Simulation of single-electron tunnelling circuits using SPICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Haar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Single-electron tunnelling (SET) devices have very promising properties, like their extremely low power consumption, their extremely high switching speeds and their extremely small physical dimensions. Since the field of SET devices is far from being fully exploited, and their device properties seem

  5. Effects of overheating in a single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korotkov, A. N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Vasenko, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Heating of a single-electron transistor (SET) caused by the current flowing through it is considered. The current and the temperature increase should be calculated self-consistently taking into account various paths of the heat drain. Even if there is no heat drain from the central electrode...

  6. Subelectron transport in single-electron-tunneling arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel M.; Sverdlov, Victor A.; Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2002-05-01

    We have shown that a special distribution of background charges in islands of single-electron-tunneling arrays can completely suppress its Coulomb blockade and at the same time reduce substantially its shot noise at low applied voltages. In particular the Fano factor F can approach the minimum value Fmin=1/Nopalescence.

  7. Giant current fluctuations in an overheated single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M. A.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2010-11-01

    Interplay of cotunneling and single-electron tunneling in a thermally isolated single-electron transistor leads to peculiar overheating effects. In particular, there is an interesting crossover interval where the competition between cotunneling and single-electron tunneling changes to the dominance of the latter. In this interval, the current exhibits anomalous sensitivity to the effective electron temperature of the transistor island and its fluctuations. We present a detailed study of the current and temperature fluctuations at this interesting point. The methods implemented allow for a complete characterization of the distribution of the fluctuating quantities, well beyond the Gaussian approximation. We reveal and explore the parameter range where, for sufficiently small transistor islands, the current fluctuations become gigantic. In this regime, the optimal value of the current, its expectation value, and its standard deviation differ from each other by parametrically large factors. This situation is unique for transport in nanostructures and for electron transport in general. The origin of this spectacular effect is the exponential sensitivity of the current to the fluctuating effective temperature.

  8. Direct single electron detection with a CMOS detector for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqi, A.R.; Henderson, R.; Pryddetch, M.; Allport, P.; Evans, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation into the use of a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) for electron microscopy. MAPS, designed originally for astronomers at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, was installed in a 120 kV electron microscope (Philips CM12) at the MRC Laboratory in Cambridge for tests which included recording single electrons at 40 and 120 keV, and measuring signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution and radiation sensitivity. Our results show that, due to the excellent SNR and resolution, it is possible to register single electrons. The radiation damage to the detector is apparent with low doses and gets progressively greater so that its lifetime is limited to 600,000-900,000 electrons/pixel (very approximately 10-15 krad). Provided this detector can be radiation hardened to reduce its radiation sensitivity several hundred fold and increased in size, it will provide excellent performance for all types of electron microscopy

  9. Single electron capture in N^+ -(Ne, Kr, Xe) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pedro G.; Castillo, Fermin; Martinez, Horacio

    2001-05-01

    Total cross sections for single electron capture of N^+ ions impinging on Ne, Kr and Xe were measured in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron capture cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in excellent agreement with previous data in the low-energy range. The present data together with previous measurements give a general shape of the whole curve of single electron capture cross sections for the N^+ - Ne system. For the cases of N^+ - (Kr, Xe) systems, semiempirical calculation using the two-state approximation are in very good agreement with present cross sections data. Research supported by DGAPA IN-100392 and CONACyT 32175-E

  10. Electron-vibron coupling effects on electron transport via a single-molecule magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCaskey, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Warnock, M.; Burzuri, E.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Park, K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the electron-vibron coupling influences electron transport via an anisotropic magnetic molecule, such as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The magnetic anisotropy parameters,

  11. Particle imaging velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations on a single sphere settling under gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Cate, A.; Nieuwstad, C.H.; Derksen, J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between experiments and simulations on a single sphere settling in silicon oil in a box. Cross-correlation particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out at particle Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.5 to 31.9. The particle Stokes number varied from 0.2 to 4 and at

  12. Modifications of poly (vinilydene fluoride) under electronic excitations produced by charged particles (heavy ions and electrons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fina, A.

    1990-04-01

    Some of the physico-chemical properties of organic solids like conductivity or permeation can be improved by irradiation. The aim of this work is to characterize modifications induced in poly (vinylidene fluoride) films (PVDF) by charged particles (ions and electrons), with electronic stopping power, for doses ranging from zero to twenty G-Grays. Influence of dose, density of electronic excitations, and flux (in particles per square centimeter), and the nature of defects induced by the beam, were studied with two methods: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (or XPS) for surface analysis, and electron Spin Resonance (or ESR) to probe the bulk of the film. Three ranges of doses are revealed in view of experimental results. At lower doses, PVDF undergoes deshydrofluorination induced by desorption; it is a low modifications regime. For intermediate range doses, conjugated carbon backbones of polyene compounds are produced. At higher doses, intermolecular interactions between the resulting fragments give a crosslinked network. For the upper limit of doses used, bond breaking results in a non reversible degradation of PVDF. In this last situation, direct atomic displacement of target atoms, is not negligible [fr

  13. Factors Influencing the Ignition and Burnout of a Single Biomass Particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Yin, Chungen

    2011-01-01

    Ignition and burnout of a single biomass particle were studied numerically. A one-dimensional particle combustion model was developed which is capable to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilization, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/moment......Ignition and burnout of a single biomass particle were studied numerically. A one-dimensional particle combustion model was developed which is capable to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilization, char gasification/oxidation and heat...... concentration were not very significant. The influences of these factors on particle burnout were much more remarkable than ignition behaviour....

  14. Single-particle basis and translational invariance in microscopic nuclear calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfros, V.D.

    1977-01-01

    The approach to the few-body problem is considered which allows to use the simple single-particle basis without violation of the translation invariance. A method is proposed to solve the nuclear reaction problems in the single-particle basis. The method satisfies the Pauli principle and the translation invariance. Calculation of the matrix elements of operators is treated

  15. Effect of two-step aging on spatial distribution of γ-phase particles and mechanical properties of Ni-14at.% Al single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, Yu.D.; Travina, N.T.; Ugarova, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscope images were processed by statistical methods to investigate the space distribution of particles of the γ'-phase (formation of ''quasiperiodic micro-lattices'') after various conditions of single- and double-stage aging of the Ni-14 at.% Al alloy. Mechanical properties in uniaxial tension of single crystals were studied. Parameters of the space distribution of particles have been correlated with the mechanical properties

  16. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-01-01

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R and D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have

  17. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler – Single particle model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero

    2010-01-01

    the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner...... location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout....

  18. Noise bias in the refinement of structures derived from single particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Alex; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2004-01-01

    One of the main goals in the determination of three-dimensional macromolecular structures from electron microscope images of individual molecules and complexes (single particles) is a sufficiently high spatial resolution, about 4 A, at which the interpretation with an atomic model becomes possible. To reach high resolution, an iterative refinement procedure using an expectation maximization algorithm is often used that leads to a more accurate alignment of the positional and orientational parameters for each particle. We show here the results of refinement algorithms that use a phase residual, a linear correlation coefficient, or a weighted correlation coefficient to align individual particles. The algorithms were applied to computer-generated data sets that contained projections from model structures, as well as noise. The algorithms show different degrees of over-fitting, especially at high resolution where the signal is weak. We demonstrate that the degree of over-fitting is reduced with a weighting scheme that depends on the signal-to-noise ratio in the data. The weighting also improves the accuracy of resolution measurement by the commonly used Fourier shell correlation. The performance of the refinement algorithms is compared to that using a maximum likelihood approach. The weighted correlation coefficient was implemented in the computer program FREALIGN

  19. Retrocausation acting in the single-electron double-slit interference experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkyo, Noboru

    The single electron double-slit interference experiment is given a time-symmetric interpretation and visualization in terms of the intermediate amplitude of transition between the particle source and the detection point. It is seen that the retarded (causal) amplitude of the electron wave expanding from the source shows an advanced (retrocausal) bifurcation and merging in passing through the double-slit and converges towards the detection point as if guided by the advanced (retrocausal) wave from the detected electron. An experiment is proposed to confirm the causation-retrocausation symmetry of the electron behavior by observing the insensitivity of the interference pattern to non-magnetic obstacles placed in the shadows of the retarded and advanced waves appearing on the rear and front sides of the double-slit.

  20. Massively parallel unsupervised single-particle cryo-EM data clustering via statistical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayi; Ma, Yong-Bei; Congdon, Charles; Brett, Bevin; Chen, Shuobing; Xu, Yaofang; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong

    2017-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM). We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC) environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.

  1. Massively parallel unsupervised single-particle cryo-EM data clustering via statistical manifold learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Wu

    Full Text Available Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM. We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.

  2. Aperture and counting rate of rectangular telescopes for single and multiple parallel particles. [Spark chamber telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Melone, S [Istituto di Fisica dell' Universita, Ancona, Italy; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    1976-06-01

    Expressions for the counting rate of rectangular telescopes in the case of single as well as multiple particles are given. The aperture for single particles is obtained in the form of a double integral and analytical solutions are given for some cases. The intensity for different multiplicities of parallel particles is related to the geometry of the detectors and to the features of the radiation. This allows an absolute comparison between the data recorded by different devices.

  3. Single-Particle Quantum Dynamics in a Magnetic Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Marco

    2001-02-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a spinless charged-particle propagating through a magnetic lattice in a transport line or storage ring. Starting from the Klein-Gordon equation and by applying the paraxial approximation, we derive a Schroedinger-like equation for the betatron motion. A suitable unitary transformation reduces the problem to that of a simple harmonic oscillator. As a result we are able to find an explicit expression for the particle wavefunction.

  4. Failure of single electron descriptions of molecular orbital collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Inner-shell excitation occurring in low and moderate (keV range) energy collisions between light atomic and ionic systems is frequently describable in terms of molecular promotion mechanisms, which were extensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. The bulk of such studies have concentrated on processes understandable through the use of single- and independent-electron models. Nonetheless, it is possible to find cases of inner-shell excitation in relatively simple collision systems which involve nearly simultaneous multiple-electron transitions and transitions induced by inherently two-electron interactions. Evidence for these many- and nonindependent-electron phenomena in inner-shell excitation processes and the importance of considering such effects in the interpretation of collisionally induced excitation spectra is discussed. 13 references

  5. Trapped electrons in irradiated single crystals of polyhydroxy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G.; Potter, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The intermolecular trapping of electrons has been observed in single crystals of dulcitol and L(+) arabinose x-irradiated at 4.2 0 K. Attribution of a major component of the ESR absorption to trapped electrons is based upon the character of the hyperfine pattern, which arises from multiple anisotropic hyperfine interactions with exchangeable protons, and on the g value of the absorption, which is always less than the free spin value. The removal of the trapped electron absorption upon irradiation with visible light has also been demonstrated. In these experiments all of the electrons are trapped in identical sites. This circumstance provides some important advantages in the study of the factors affecting the stabilization of charge in an environment of polarizable molecules

  6. Single-electron tunneling in double-barrier nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, V.J.; Su, B.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review experimental study of charge transport in nanometer double-barrier resonant tunneling devices. Heterostructure material is asymmetric: one barrier is substantially less transparent than the other. Resonant tunneling through size-quantized well states and single-electron charging of the well are thus largely separated in the two bias polarities. When the emitter barrier is more transparent than the collector barrier, electrons accumulate in the well; incremental electron occupation of the well is accompanied by Coulomb blockade leading to sharp steps of the tunneling current. When the emitter barrier is less transparent, the current reflects resonant tunneling of just one electron at a time through size-quantized well states; the current peaks and/or steps (depending on experimental parameters) appear in current-voltage characteristics. Magnetic field and temperature effects are also reviewed. Good agreement is achieved in comparison of many features of experimental data with simple theoretical models

  7. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  8. Online single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Klimach, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig Paul; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In situ single particle analysis of ice particle residuals (IPRs) and out-of-cloud aerosol particles was conducted by means of laser ablation mass spectrometry during the intensive INUIT-JFJ/CLACE campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) in January-February 2013. During the 4-week campaign more than 70 000 out-of-cloud aerosol particles and 595 IPRs were analyzed covering a particle size diameter range from 100 nm to 3 µm. The IPRs were sampled during 273 h while the station was covered by mixed-phase clouds at ambient temperatures between -27 and -6 °C. The identification of particle types is based on laboratory studies of different types of biological, mineral and anthropogenic aerosol particles. The outcome of these laboratory studies was characteristic marker peaks for each investigated particle type. These marker peaks were applied to the field data. In the sampled IPRs we identified a larger number fraction of primary aerosol particles, like soil dust (13 ± 5 %) and minerals (11 ± 5 %), in comparison to out-of-cloud aerosol particles (2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.1 %, respectively). Additionally, anthropogenic aerosol particles, such as particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, were found to be more abundant in the IPRs than in the out-of-cloud aerosol. In the out-of-cloud aerosol we identified a large fraction of aged particles (31 ± 5 %), including organic material and secondary inorganics, whereas this particle type was much less abundant (2.7 ± 1.3 %) in the IPRs. In a selected subset of the data where a direct comparison between out-of-cloud aerosol particles and IPRs in air masses with similar origin was possible, a pronounced enhancement of biological particles was found in the IPRs.

  9. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  10. Vibrationally coupled electron transport through single-molecule junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertle, Rainer

    2012-04-26

    Single-molecule junctions are among the smallest electric circuits. They consist of a molecule that is bound to a left and a right electrode. With such a molecular nanocontact, the flow of electrical currents through a single molecule can be studied and controlled. Experiments on single-molecule junctions show that a single molecule carries electrical currents that can even be in the microampere regime. Thereby, a number of transport phenomena have been observed, such as, for example, diode- or transistor-like behavior, negative differential resistance and conductance switching. An objective of this field, which is commonly referred to as molecular electronics, is to relate these transport phenomena to the properties of the molecule in the contact. To this end, theoretical model calculations are employed, which facilitate an understanding of the underlying transport processes and mechanisms. Thereby, one has to take into account that molecules are flexible structures, which respond to a change of their charge state by a profound reorganization of their geometrical structure or may even dissociate. It is thus important to understand the interrelation between the vibrational degrees of freedom of a singlemolecule junction and the electrical current flowing through the contact. In this thesis, we investigate vibrational effects in electron transport through singlemolecule junctions. For these studies, we calculate and analyze transport characteristics of both generic and first-principles based model systems of a molecular contact. To this end, we employ a master equation and a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Both methods are suitable to describe this nonequilibrium transport problem and treat the interactions of the tunneling electrons on the molecular bridge non-perturbatively. This is particularly important with respect to the vibrational degrees of freedom, which may strongly interact with the tunneling electrons. We show in detail that the resulting

  11. Energy and temperature fluctuations in the single electron box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Tineke L van den; Brange, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In mesoscopic and nanoscale systems at low temperatures, charge carriers are typically not in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding lattice. The resulting, non-equilibrium dynamics of electrons has only begun to be explored. Experimentally the time-dependence of the electron temperature (deviating from the lattice temperature) has been investigated in small metallic islands. Motivated by these experiments, we investigate theoretically the electronic energy and temperature fluctuations in a metallic island in the Coulomb blockade regime, tunnel coupled to an electronic reservoir, i.e. a single electron box. We show that electronic quantum tunnelling between the island and the reservoir, in the absence of any net charge or energy transport, induces fluctuations of the island electron temperature. The full distribution of the energy transfer as well as the island temperature is derived within the framework of full counting statistics. In particular, the low-frequency temperature fluctuations are analysed, fully accounting for charging effects and non-zero reservoir temperature. The experimental requirements for measuring the predicted temperature fluctuations are discussed. (paper)

  12. MRPC prototypes for NeuLAND tested using the single electron mode of ELBE/Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Kempe, Mathias; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Ciobanu, Mircea; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Nusair, Omar; Reifarth, Rene; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Maroussov, Vassili; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). Prototypes for the NeuLAND detector have been built at FZD and GSI and then studied using the 32 MeV pulsed electron beam at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE in Dresden, Germany. Owing to the new, single-electron per bunch mode of operation, a rapid validation of the design criteria ({>=}90% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles, {sigma} {<=} 100 ps time resolution) was possible. Tested properties of the prototypes include glass thickness, spacing of the central anode, and a comparison of single-ended and differential readout. Tested frontend electronics schemes include FOPI (single-ended), PADI-based (both single-ended and differential mode tested), and ALICE (differential).

  13. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (EC deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol.We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC.Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers. Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease.The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.

  14. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers). Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm) of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease. The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.

  15. Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The SP2 is an instrument that measures, in situ, the time-dependent scattering and incandescence signals produced by individual BC-containing particles as they travel through a continuous-wave laser beam. Any particle traversing the laser beam will scatter light, and the BC component of a BC-containing particle will absorb some of the laser energy until its temperature is raised to the point at which it incandesces (hereafter we adopt the standard terminology of the SP2 community and denote any substance determined by the SP2 to be BC as refractory black carbon (rBC)). The amplitude of the rBC incandescence signal is related to the amount of refractory material contained in the illuminated particle. By binning the individual incandescence signals per unit sample volume, the mass concentration [ng/m3] of rBC can be derived. By binning the individual signals by volume equivalent diameter the size distribution (dN/dlogDVED) per unit time can be derived. The rBC mass loading per unit time and the rBC size distribution unit time are the core data products produced by the SP2. Additionally, the scattering channel can be used to provide information on the rBC particle population-based mixing states within ambient aerosols. However, this data product is produced on a requested-basis since additional detailed analysis and QC/QA must be conducted.

  16. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane

    2016-08-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  17. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  18. Electron-assisted magnetization tunneling in single spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Timofey; Karlewski, Christian; Märkl, Tobias; Schön, Gerd; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic excitations of single atoms on surfaces have been widely studied experimentally in the past decade. Lately, systems with unprecedented magnetic stability started to emerge. Here, we present a general theoretical investigation of the stability of rare-earth magnetic atoms exposed to crystal or ligand fields of various symmetry and to exchange scattering with an electron bath. By analyzing the properties of the atomic wave function, we show that certain combinations of symmetry and total angular momentum are inherently stable against first or even higher-order interactions with electrons. Further, we investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the magnetic stability.

  19. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  20. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  1. Electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-09-01

    The electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube has been studied using the model based on infinitely long carbon atoms wrapped along a base helix of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs). The problem is solved semiclassically, and current density J, resistivity ρ, thermopower α z , and electrical power factor P calculated. It is noted that the current density j displays negative differential conductivity, whiles the resistivity ρ increases with increasing electrical field. ρ also slowly increases at low temperatures and then gradually increases with increasing temperature. The thermopower α z shows interesting behaviour. Very intriguing is the electrical power factor which shows relatively large values. (author)

  2. Nanoscale and single-molecule interfacial electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    for comprehensive later theoretical work and data interpretation in many areas of chemistry, electrochemistry, and biology. We discuss here some new areas of theoretical electrochemical ET science, with focus on nanoscale electrochemical and bioelectrochemical sciences. Particular attention is given to in situ...... scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and single-electron tunneling (SET, or Coulomb blockade) in electrochemical. systems directly in aqueous electrolyte solution and at room temperature. We illustrate the new theoretical formalism and its perspectives by recent cases of electrochemical SET, negative...... differential resistance patterns, and by ET dynamics of organized assemblies of biological macromolecules, such as redox metalloproteins and oligonucleotides on single-crystal Au(III)-electrode surfaces....

  3. Fragmentation of single-particle states and neutron strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of one-particle states in odd deformed nuclei is studied in the framework of a model based on the interaction between quasiparticles and phonons. A principally new semi-microscopic method for calculation of force functions using the data on fragmentation of one-particle states is suggested. Calculated s- and p-wave neutron force functions in 239 U and 169 Er are in good agreement with experiment. The correct description of the s-wave neutron force function in the vicinity of is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes/ of its minimum is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes

  4. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  5. Photoinduced electron transfer in singly labeled thiouredopyrenetrisulfonate azurin derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borovok, N; Kotlyar, A B; Pecht, I

    1999-01-01

    efficiency. TUPS derivatives of azurin, singly labeled at specific lysine residues, were prepared and purified to homogeneity by ion exchange HPLC. Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to directly monitor the rates of the electron transfer reaction from the photoexcited triplet state of TUPS to Cu......A novel method for the initiation of intramolecular electron transfer reactions in azurin is reported. The method is based on laser photoexcitation of covalently attached thiouredopyrenetrisulfonate (TUPS), the reaction that generates the low potential triplet state of the dye with high quantum......(II) and the back reaction from Cu(I) to the oxidized dye. For all singly labeled derivatives, the rate constants of copper ion reduction were one or two orders of magnitude larger than for its reoxidation, consistent with the larger thermodynamic driving force for the former process. Using 3-D coordinates...

  6. Electronic Structure of Single- and Multiple-shell Carbon Fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yeong-Lieh; Nori, Franco

    1993-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multi-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the $\\pi$-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: $C_{240}$, $C_{540}$, $C_{960}$, $C_{1500}$, $C_{2160}$ and $C_{2940}$. Our iteration technique reduces the dimensionality of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of $\\...

  7. Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M.F.; Ciccarelli, C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Irvine, A.C.; Campion, R.C.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), e0125142 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single-electron transitor * reconfigurable logic * ferromagnetic semiconductor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  8. Electron-vibron coupling effects on electron transport via a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Alexander; Yamamoto, Yoh; Warnock, Michael; Burzurí, Enrique; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Park, Kyungwha

    2015-03-01

    We investigate how the electron-vibron coupling influences electron transport via an anisotropic magnetic molecule, such as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The magnetic anisotropy parameters, vibrational energies, and electron-vibron coupling strengths of the Fe4 are computed using DFT. A giant spin model is applied to the Fe4 with only two charge states, specifically a neutral state with a total spin S =5 and a singly charged state with S =9 /2 , which is consistent with our DFT result and experiments on Fe4 single-molecule transistors. In sequential electron tunneling, we find that the magnetic anisotropy gives rise to new features in the conductance peaks arising from vibrational excitations. In particular, the peak height shows a strong, unusual dependence on the direction as well as magnitude of applied B field. The magnetic anisotropy also introduces vibrational satellite peaks whose position and height are modified with the direction and magnitude of applied B field. Furthermore, when multiple vibrational modes with considerable electron-vibron coupling have energies close to one another, a low-bias current is suppressed, independently of gate voltage and applied B field, although that is not the case for a single mode with a similar electron-vibron coupling. In the former case, the conductance peaks reveal a stronger B -field dependence than in the latter case. The new features appear because the magnetic anisotropy barrier is of the same order of magnitude as the energies of vibrational modes with significant electron-vibron coupling. Our findings clearly show the interesting interplay between magnetic anisotropy and electron-vibron coupling in electron transport via the Fe4. Similar behavior can be observed in transport via other anisotropic magnetic molecules.

  9. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  10. Development of CRID [Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector] single electron wire detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Bean, A.; Bienz, T.

    1989-02-01

    We describe the R and D effort to define the design parameters, method of construction and experimental results from the single electron wire detectors. These detectors will be used for particle identification using the Cerenkov Ring Imaging techniques in the SLD experiment at SLAC. We present measurements of pulse heights for several gases as a function of gas gain, charge division performance on a single electron signal using both 7 μm and 33 μm diameter carbon wires, photon feedback in TMAE laden gas, average pulse shape, and its comparison with the predicted shape and cross-talk. In addition, we present results of wire aging tests, and other tests associated with construction of this unusual type of wire chamber. 12 refs., 9 figs

  11. Thermodynamics of phase-separating nanoalloys: Single particles and particle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fèvre, Mathieu; Le Bouar, Yann; Finel, Alphonse

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the consequences of finite-size effects on the thermodynamics of nanoparticle assemblies and isolated particles. We consider a binary phase-separating alloy with a negligible atomic size mismatch, and equilibrium states are computed using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations in several thermodynamic ensembles. First, a semi-grand-canonical ensemble is used to describe infinite assemblies of particles with the same size. When decreasing the particle size, we obtain a significant decrease of the solid/liquid transition temperatures as well as a growing asymmetry of the solid-state miscibility gap related to surface segregation effects. Second, a canonical ensemble is used to analyze the thermodynamic equilibrium of finite monodisperse particle assemblies. Using a general thermodynamic formulation, we show that a particle assembly may split into two subassemblies of identical particles. Moreover, if the overall average canonical concentration belongs to a discrete spectrum, the subassembly concentrations are equal to the semi-grand-canonical equilibrium ones. We also show that the equilibrium of a particle assembly with a prescribed size distribution combines a size effect and the fact that a given particle size assembly can adopt two configurations. Finally, we have considered the thermodynamics of an isolated particle to analyze whether a phase separation can be defined within a particle. When studying rather large nanoparticles, we found that the region in which a two-phase domain can be identified inside a particle is well below the bulk phase diagram, but the concentration of the homogeneous core remains very close to the bulk solubility limit.

  12. Synchronizing a single-electron shuttle to an external drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Michael J.; Southworth, Darren R.; Weig, Eva M.; Marquardt, Florian

    2014-04-01

    The nanomechanical single-electron shuttle is a resonant system in which a suspended metallic island oscillates between and impacts at two electrodes. This setup holds promise for one-by-one electron transport and the establishment of an absolute current standard. While the charge transported per oscillation by the nanoscale island will be quantized in the Coulomb blockade regime, the frequency of such a shuttle depends sensitively on many parameters, leading to drift and noise. Instead of considering the nonlinearities introduced by the impact events as a nuisance, here we propose to exploit the resulting nonlinear dynamics to realize a highly precise oscillation frequency via synchronization of the shuttle self-oscillations to an external signal. We link the established phenomenological description of synchronization based on the Adler equation to the microscopic nonlinear dynamics of the electron shuttle by calculating the effective Adler constant analytically in terms of the microscopic parameters.

  13. Synchronizing a single-electron shuttle to an external drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckel, Michael J; Southworth, Darren R; Weig, Eva M; Marquardt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The nanomechanical single-electron shuttle is a resonant system in which a suspended metallic island oscillates between and impacts at two electrodes. This setup holds promise for one-by-one electron transport and the establishment of an absolute current standard. While the charge transported per oscillation by the nanoscale island will be quantized in the Coulomb blockade regime, the frequency of such a shuttle depends sensitively on many parameters, leading to drift and noise. Instead of considering the nonlinearities introduced by the impact events as a nuisance, here we propose to exploit the resulting nonlinear dynamics to realize a highly precise oscillation frequency via synchronization of the shuttle self-oscillations to an external signal. We link the established phenomenological description of synchronization based on the Adler equation to the microscopic nonlinear dynamics of the electron shuttle by calculating the effective Adler constant analytically in terms of the microscopic parameters

  14. Single-Molecule Electronics: Chemical and Analytical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    It is now possible to measure the electrical properties of single molecules using a variety of techniques including scanning probe microcopies and mechanically controlled break junctions. Such measurements can be made across a wide range of environments including ambient conditions, organic liquids, ionic liquids, aqueous solutions, electrolytes, and ultra high vacuum. This has given new insights into charge transport across molecule electrical junctions, and these experimental methods have been complemented with increasingly sophisticated theory. This article reviews progress in single-molecule electronics from a chemical perspective and discusses topics such as the molecule-surface coupling in electrical junctions, chemical control, and supramolecular interactions in junctions and gating charge transport. The article concludes with an outlook regarding chemical analysis based on single-molecule conductance.

  15. Electron-impact single and double ionization of W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M S; Loch, S D; Foster, A R

    2017-01-01

    Electron-impact single and double ionization cross sections for the W atom are calculated using a semi-relativistic distorted-wave method. The cross sections include contributions from single direct ionization, double direct ionization and excitation-autoionization. Branching ratio calculations are made to determine whether an excitation may contribute to single or double ionization. We check the accuracy of the semi-relativistic distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of various subshells by comparison with fully-relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also check the accuracy of the perturbative distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of the outer most subshells by comparison with non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations. (paper)

  16. Characterizing uranium oxide reference particles for isotopic abundances and uranium mass by single particle isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraiem, M.; Richter, S.; Erdmann, N.; Kühn, H.; Hedberg, M.; Aregbe, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method to quantify the U mass in single micron particles by ID-TIMS was developed. ► Well-characterized monodisperse U-oxide particles produced by an aerosol generator were used. ► A linear correlation between the mass of U and the volume of particle(s) was found. ► The method developed is suitable for determining the amount of U in a particulate reference material. - Abstract: Uranium and plutonium particulate test materials are becoming increasingly important as the reliability of measurement results has to be demonstrated to regulatory bodies responsible for maintaining effective nuclear safeguards. In order to address this issue, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of preparing and characterizing a uranium particle reference material for nuclear safeguards, which is finally certified for isotopic abundances and for the uranium mass per particle. Such control particles are specifically required to evaluate responses of instruments based on mass spectrometric detection (e.g. SIMS, TIMS, LA-ICPMS) and to help ensuring the reliability and comparability of measurement results worldwide. In this paper, a methodology is described which allows quantifying the uranium mass in single micron particles by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). This methodology is characterized by substantial improvements recently achieved at IRMM in terms of sensitivity and measurement accuracy in the field of uranium particle analysis by TIMS. The use of monodisperse uranium oxide particles prepared using an aerosol generation technique developed at ITU, which is capable of producing particles of well-characterized size and isotopic composition was exploited. The evidence of a straightforward correlation between the particle volume and the mass of uranium was demonstrated in this study

  17. Pairing fluctuation effects on the single-particle spectra for the superconducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Single-particle spectra are calculated in the superconducting state for a fermionic system with an attractive interaction, as functions of temperature and coupling strength from weak to strong. The fermionic system is described by a single-particle self-energy that includes pairing-fluctuation effects in the superconducting state. The theory reduces to the ordinary BCS approximation in weak coupling and to the Bogoliubov approximation for the composite bosons in strong coupling. Several features of the single-particle spectral function are shown to compare favorably with experimental data for cuprate superconductors

  18. Semiempirical formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.; Waak, B.T.

    1978-01-01

    The stepwise multiple linear regression technique has been used to analyze the single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in nuclei along the line of beta stability. Their regular and systematic trends lead to semiempirical model-independent formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in the bound nuclei as functions of nuclear parameters A and Z for given states specified by nl/sub j/. These formulas are almost as convenient as the harmonic oscillator energy formulas to use. The single-particle energies computed from these formulas have been compared with the experimental data and are found in reasonable agreement

  19. Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. P.; Guasco, T.; Ryder, O. S.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Collins, D. B.; Ruppel, M. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles were generated under real-world conditions using natural seawater and a unique ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with actual breaking waves or a marine aerosol reference tank (MART) that replicates those conditions. The SSA particles were exposed to nitric acid in situ in a flow tube and the well-known chloride displacement and nitrate formation reaction was observed. However, as discussed here, little is known about how this anion displacement reaction affects the distribution of cations and other chemical constituents within and phase state of individual SSA particles. Single particle analysis of individual SSA particles shows that cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) within individual particles undergo a spatial redistribution after heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, along with a more concentrated layer of organic matter at the surface of the particle. These data suggest that specific ion and aerosol pH effects play an important role in aerosol particle structure in ways that have not been previously recognized. The ordering of organic coatings can impact trace gas uptake, and subsequently impact trace gas budgets of O3 and NOx.

  20. Electronic properties of excited states in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, Till

    2009-01-01

    The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (μPLE). One of the main difficulties using μPLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence (μPL) and μPLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton binding

  1. Comprehensive study of ignition and combustion of single wooden particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    How quickly large biomass particles can ignite and burn out when transported into a pulverized-fuel (pf) furnace and suddenly exposed to a hot gas flow containing oxygen is very important in biomass co-firing design and optimization. In this paper, the ignition and burnout of the largest possible...... for all the test conditions. As the particle is further heated up and the volume-weighted average temperature reaches the onset of rapid decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose, a secondary homogeneous ignition occurs. The model-predicted ignition delays and burnout times show a good agreement...... with the experimental results. Homogeneous ignition delays are found to scale with specific surface areas while heterogeneous ignition delays show less dependency on the areas. The ignition and burnout are also affected by the process conditions, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced...

  2. Single-particle tracking: applications to membrane dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M J; Jacobson, K

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of trajectories of individual proteins or lipids in the plasma membrane of cells show a variety of types of motion. Brownian motion is observed, but many of the particles undergo non-Brownian motion, including directed motion, confined motion, and anomalous diffusion. The variety of motion leads to significant effects on the kinetics of reactions among membrane-bound species and requires a revision of existing views of membrane structure and dynamics.

  3. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  4. A study on the particle penetration in RMS Right Single Quotation Marks particle transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. M.; Oh, S. H.; Choi, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, a radiation monitoring system (RMS) monitors the exhaust gas containing the radioactive material. Samples of exhaust gas are collected in the downstream region of air cleaning units (ACUs) in order to examine radioactive materials. It is possible to predict an amount of radioactive material by analyzing the corrected samples. Representation of the collected samples should be assured in order to accurately sense and measure of radioactive materials. The radius of curvature is mainly 5 times of tube diameter. Sometimes, a booster fan is additionally added to enhance particle penetration rate... In this study, particle penetrations are calculated to evaluate particle penetration rate with various design parameters (tube lengths, tube declined angles, radius of curvatures, etc). The particle penetration rates have been calculated for several elements in the particle transport system. In general, the horizontal length of tube and the number of bending tube have a big impact on the penetration rate in the particle transport system. If the sampling location is far from the radiation monitoring system, additional installation of booster fans could be considered in case of large diameter tubes, but is not recommended in case of small diameter tube. In order to enhance particle penetration rate, the following works are recommended by priority. 1) to reduce the interval between sampling location and radiation monitoring system 2) to reduce the number of the bending tube

  5. Strong reduction of spectral heterogeneity in gold bipyramids for single-particle and single-molecule plasmon sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S M E; Verheijen, M A; Prins, M W J; Zijlstra, P

    2016-01-15

    Single metal nanoparticles are attractive biomolecular sensors. Binding of analyte to a functional particle results in a plasmon shift that can be conveniently monitored in a far-field optical microscope. Heterogeneities in spectral properties of individual particles in an ensemble affect the reliability of a single-particle plasmon sensor, especially when plasmon shifts are monitored in real-time using a fixed irradiation wavelength. We compare the spectral heterogeneity of different plasmon sensor geometries (gold nanospheres, nanorods, and bipyramids) and correlate this to their size and aspect-ratio dispersion. We show that gold bipyramids exhibit a strongly reduced heterogeneity in aspect ratio and plasmon wavelength compared to commonly used gold nanorods. We show that this translates into a significantly improved homogeneity of the response to molecular binding without compromising single-molecule sensitivity.

  6. Single particle train ordering in microchannel based on inertial and vortex effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang-Liang; Yan, Qing; Zhe, Jiang; Zhao, Liang

    2018-06-01

    A new microfluidic device for microparticle focusing and ordering in a single particle train is reported. The particle focusing and ordering are based on inertial and vortex effects in a microchannel with a series of suddenly contracted and widely expanded structures on one side. In the suddenly contracted regions, particles located near the contracted structures are subjected to a strong wall-effect lift force and momentum-change-induced inertial force due to the highly curved trajectory, migrating to the straight wall. A horizontal vortex is generated downstream of the contracted structure, which prevents the particle from getting close to the wall. In the widely expanded regions, the streamline is curved and no vortex is generated. The shear-gradient lift force and the momentum-change-induced inertial force are dominant for particle lateral migration, driving particles towards the wall of the expanded structures. Eventually, particles are focused and ordered in a single particle train by the combination effects of the inertial forces and the vortex. In comparison with other single-stream particle focusing methods, this device requires no sheath flow, is easy for fabrication and operation, and can work over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from 19.1–142.9. The highly ordered particle chain could be potentially utilized in a variety of lab-chip applications, including micro-flow cytometer, imaging and droplet-based cell entrapment.

  7. Interplay of single particle and collective response in molecular dynamics simulation of dusty plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Srimanta; Das, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The collective response of the plasma medium is well known and has been explored extensively in the context of dusty plasma medium. On the other hand, the individual particle response associated with the collisional character giving rise to the dissipative phenomena has not been explored adequately. In this paper, two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of dust particles interacting via Yukawa potential has been considered. It has been shown that disturbances induced in a dust crystal elicit both collective and single particle responses. Generation of a few particles moving at speeds considerably higher than acoustic and/or shock speed (excited by the external disturbance) is observed. This is an indication of a single particle response. Furthermore, as these individual energetic particles propagate, the dust crystal is observed to crack along their path. Initially when the energy is high, these particles generate secondary energetic particles by the collisional scattering process. However, ultimately as these particles slow down they excite a collective response in the dust medium at secondary locations in a region which is undisturbed by the primary external disturbance. The condition when the cracking of the crystal stops and collective excitations get initiated has been identified quantitatively. The trailing collective primary disturbances would thus often encounter a disturbed medium with secondary and tertiary collective perturbations, thereby suffering significant modification in its propagation. It is thus clear that there is an interesting interplay (other than mere dissipation) between the single particle and collective response which governs the dynamics of any disturbance introduced in the medium.

  8. Source characterization of urban particles from meat smoking activities in Chongqing, China using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wenger, John C; Yang, Fumo; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Shumin; Tian, Mi; Wang, Huanbo

    2017-09-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed in the urban area of Chongqing to characterize the particles present during a severe particulate pollution event that occurred in winter 2014-2015. The measurements were made at a time when residents engaged in traditional outdoor meat smoking activities to preserve meat before the Chinese Spring Festival. The measurement period was predominantly characterized by stagnant weather conditions, highly elevated levels of PM 2.5 , and low visibility. Eleven major single particle types were identified, with over 92.5% of the particles attributed to biomass burning emissions. Most of the particle types showed appreciable signs of aging in the stagnant air conditions. To simulate the meat smoking activities, a series of controlled smoldering experiments was conducted using freshly cut pine and cypress branches, both with and without wood logs. SPAMS data obtained from these experiments revealed a number of biomass burning particle types, including an elemental and organic carbon (ECOC) type that proved to be the most suitable marker for meat smoking activities. The traditional activity of making preserved meat in southwestern China is shown here to be a major source of particulate pollution. Improved measures to reduce emissions from the smoking of meat should be introduced to improve air quality in regions where smoking meat activity prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics.

  10. Ultrafast electron microscopy: Instrument response from the single-electron to high bunch-charge regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Dayne A.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-09-01

    We determine the instrument response of an ultrafast electron microscope equipped with a conventional thermionic electron gun and absent modifications beyond the optical ports. Using flat, graphite-encircled LaB6 cathodes, we image space-charge effects as a function of photoelectron-packet population and find that an applied Wehnelt bias has a negligible effect on the threshold levels (>103 electrons per pulse) but does appear to suppress blurring at the upper limits (∼105 electrons). Using plasma lensing, we determine the instrument-response time for 700-fs laser pulses and find that single-electron packets are laser limited (1 ps), while broadening occurs well below the space-charge limit.

  11. Hard photon emission from high energy electrons and positrons in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    A radiation of electrons and positrons in single crystals in coherent bremsstrahlung (CBS) region has been considered for the case when CBS has the most hard spectrum. Under this condition a particle moves near a crystalline plane (in fcc(d) crystal for axis (001) this is the plane (110)) and influence of the continuous plane potential should be taken into account. This potential gives additional contribution in soft part of the spectrum and affects on hard photon emission. Observation of this phenomena at high energy is discussed. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Single-particle colloid tracking in four dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M; Hong, Liang; Kim, Minsu; Granick, Steve

    2006-11-21

    Coating a close-packed fluorescent colloid monolayer with a nanometer-thick metal film followed by sonication in liquid produces modulated optical nanoprobes. The metal coating modulates the fluorescence as these structures rotate in suspension, enabling the use of these particles as probes to monitor both rotational and center-of-mass (translational) dynamics in complex environments. Here, we demonstrate methods to simultaneously measure two translational and two rotational degrees of freedom, with excellent agreement to theory. The capability to determine two angles of rotation opens several new avenues of future research.

  13. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  14. Studies of the neutron single-particle structure of exotic nuclei at the HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.S.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Cizewski, J.A.; Greife, U.; Gross, C.J.; Johnson, M.S.; Jones, K.L.; Kozub, R.L.; Liang, J.F.; Livesay, R.J.; Ma, Z.; Moazen, B.H.; Nesaraja, C.D.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The study of neutron single-particle strengths in neutron-rich nuclei is of interest for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The distribution of single-particle strengths constrains the effective Hamiltonian and pairing interactions and determines neutron interaction rates that are crucial for understanding the synthesis of heavy nuclei in supernovae via the rapid neutron capture process. Particularly important are the neutron single-particle levels in nuclei near closed neutron shells. Radioactive ion beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility have been used to study (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics in order to probe neutron single-particle states in exotic nuclei. The results of a measurement with a 82 Ge beam will be presented

  15. Generating high-quality single droplets for optical particle characterization with an easy setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Ge, Baozhen; Meng, Rui

    2018-06-01

    The high-performance and micro-sized single droplet is significant for optical particle characterization. We develop a single-droplet generator (SDG) based on a piezoelectric inkjet technique with advantages of low cost and easy setup. By optimizing the pulse parameters, we achieve various size single droplets. Further investigations reveal that SDG generates single droplets of high quality, demonstrating good sphericity, monodispersity and a stable length of several millimeters.

  16. Electron ECHO 6: a study by particle detectors of electrons artificially injected into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    The ECHO-6 sounding rocket was launched from the Poke Flat Research Range, Alaska on 30 March 1983. A Terrier-Black Brant launch vehicle carried the payload on a northward trajectory over an auroral arc and to an apogee of 216 kilometers. The primary objective of the ECHO-6 experiment was to evaluate electric fields, magnetic fields, and plasma processes in the distant magnetosphere by injecting electron beams in the ionosphere and observing conjugate echoes. The experiment succeeded in injection 10-36 keV beams during the existence of a moderate growth-phase aurora, an easterly electrojet system, and a pre-midnight inflation condition of the magnetosphere. The ECHO-6 payload system consisted of an accelerator MAIN payload, a free-flying Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP), and four rocket-propelled Throw Away Detectors (TADs). The PDP was ejected from the MAIN payload to analyze electric fields, plasma particles, energetic electrons, and photometric effects produced by beam injections. The TADs were ejected from the MAIN payload in a pattern to detect echoes in the conjugate echo region south of the beam-emitting MAIN payload. The TADs reached distances exceeding 3 kilometers from the MAIN payload and made measurements of the ambient electrons by means of solid-state detectors and electrostatic analyzers

  17. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to reliably detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gysel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The single particle soot photometer (SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence (LII for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit. It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of a femtogram BC in order to be detected by the SP2.

    Here we show the result that most BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM, is clearly above the typical lower detection limit of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST, fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's lower detection limit. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, most PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to their vaporisation temperature because of their small size (Dpp ≈ 5–10 nm. Previous knowledge from pulsed laser-induced incandescence indicated that particle morphology might have an effect on the SP2's lower detection limit, however, an increase of the lower detection limit by a factor of ∼5–10, as reported here for PALAS soot, was not expected.

    In conclusion, the SP2's lower detection limit at a certain laser power depends primarily on the total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective

  18. Efficiencies of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice particle systems with a single impurity

    KAUST Repository

    Novotny, M.A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice systems composed of particles is studied for the case of a single impurity particle. The theoretical efficiencies of the rejection-free method and of the Monte Carlo with Absorbing

  19. Efficiencies of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice particle systems with a single impurity

    KAUST Repository

    Novotny, M.A.

    2010-02-01

    The efficiency of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice systems composed of particles is studied for the case of a single impurity particle. The theoretical efficiencies of the rejection-free method and of the Monte Carlo with Absorbing Markov Chains method are given. Simulation results are presented to confirm the theoretical efficiencies. © 2010.

  20. The influence of transport phenomena on the fluidized bed combustion of a single carbon particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The burning rate and temperature of the carbon particles are known to affect the efficiency of a fluidized bed combustor, and also the emission levels of undesired noxious components. The main results of an extensive study on the fluidized bed combustion behaviour of a single carbon particle [1] are

  1. Vacuum Potentials for the Two Only Permanent Free Particles, Proton and Electron. Pair Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J X

    2012-01-01

    The two only species of isolatable, smallest, or unit charges +e and −e present in nature interact with the universal vacuum in a polarisable dielectric representation through two uniquely defined vacuum potential functions. All of the non-composite subatomic particles containing one-unit charges, +e or −e, are therefore formed in terms of the IED model of the respective charges, of zero rest masses, oscillating in either of the two unique vacuum potential fields, together with the radiation waves of their own charges. In this paper we give a first principles treatment of the dynamics of charge in a dielectric vacuum, based on which, combined with solutions for the radiation waves obtained previously, we subsequently derive the vacuum potential function for a given charge q, which we show to be quadratic and consist each of quantised potential levels, giving therefore rise to quantised characteristic oscillation frequencies of the charge and accordingly quantised, sharply-defined masses of the IED particles. By further combining with relevant experimental properties as input information, we determine the IED particles built from the charges +e, −e at their first excited states in the respective vacuum potential wells to be the proton and the electron, the observationally two only stable (permanently lived) and 'free' particles containing one-unit charges. Their antiparticles as produced in pair productions can be accordingly determined. The characteristics of all of the other more energetic single-charged non-composite subatomic particles can also be recognised. We finally discuss the energy condition for pair production, which requires two successive energy supplies to (1) first disintegrate the bound pair of vaculeon charges +e, −e composing a vacuuon of the vacuum and (2) impart masses to the disintegrated charges.

  2. Electron correlation in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    The differential and total cross sections for single charge exchange in p-He collisions have been calculated within the framework of four-body boundary corrected continuum intermediate state (BCCIS-4B) approximation. The effect of dynamic electron correlations is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potentials.

  3. Monte Carlo calculation of secondary electron emission from carbon-surface by obliquely incident particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Kawata, Jun; Mori, Ichiro

    1990-01-01

    Incidence angle dependences of secondary electron emission from a carbon surface by low energy electron and hydrogen atom are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations on the kinetic emission model. The calculation shows very small increase or rather decrease of the secondary electron yield with oblique incidence. It is explained in terms of not only multiple elastic collisions of incident particles with the carbon atoms but also small penetration depth of the particles comparable with the escape depth of secondary electrons. In addition, the two types of secondary electron emission are distinguished by using the secondary electron yield statistics; one is the emission due to trapped particles in the carbon, and the other is that due to backscattered particles. The high-yield component of the statistics on oblique incidence is more suppressed than those on normal incidence. (author)

  4. A photon position sensor consisting of single-electron circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Amemiya, Yoshihito; Tabe, Michiharu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a solid-state sensor that can detect the position of incident photons with a high spatial resolution. The sensor consists of a two-dimensional array of single-electron oscillators, each coupled to its neighbors through coupling capacitors. An incident photon triggers an excitatory circular wave of electron tunneling in the oscillator array. The wave propagates in all directions to reach the periphery of the array. By measuring the arrival time of the wave at the periphery, we can know the position of the incident photon. The tunneling wave's generation, propagation, arrival at the array periphery, and the determination of incident photon positions are demonstrated with the results of Monte Carlo based computer simulations.

  5. Transport Characteristics of Mesoscopic Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A. H.; Kirah, K.; Aly, N. A. I.; El-Sayes, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    The transport property of a quantum dot under the influence of external time-dependent field is investigated. The mesoscopic device is modelled as semiconductor quantum dot coupled weakly to superconducting leads via asymmetric double tunnel barriers of different heights. An expression for the current is deduced by using the Landauer–Buttiker formula, taking into consideration of both the Coulomb blockade effect and the magnetic field. It is found that the periodic oscillation of the current with the magnetic field is controlled by the ratio of the frequency of the applied ac-field to the electron cyclotron frequency. Our results show that the present device operates as a radio-frequency single electron transistor

  6. Tunable coupled nanomechanical resonators for single-electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, Dominik V; Erbe, Artur; Blick, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) are ideal for sensor applications and ultra-sensitive force detection, since their mechanical degree of freedom at the nanometre scale can be combined with semiconductor nano-electronics. We present a system of coupled nanomechanical beam resonators in silicon which is mechanically fully Q-tunable ∼700-6000. This kind of resonator can also be employed as a mechanical charge shuttle via an insulated metallic island at the tip of an oscillating cantilever. Application of our NEMS as an electromechanical single-electron transistor (emSET) is introduced and experimental results are discussed. Three animation clips demonstrate the manufacturing process of the NEMS, the Q-tuning experiment and the concept of the emSET

  7. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  8. Single Molecule Raman Detection of Enkephalin on Silver Colloidal Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Holger; Abdali, Salim

    2004-01-01

    the Raman signal the enkephalin molecules have been attached to silver colloidal cluster structures. The experiments demonstrate that the SERS signal of the strongly enhanced ring breathing vibration of phenylalanine at 1000 cm-1 can be used as “intrinsic marker” for detecting a single enkephalin molecule...... and for monitoring its diffusion on the surface of the silver colloidal cluster without using a specific label molecule....

  9. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  10. Improving Single-Carbon-Nanotube-Electrode Contacts Using Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Ngamchuea, Kamonwad; Li, Xiuting; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Chaisiwamongkhol, Korbua; Sawangphruk, Montree; Compton, Richard G

    2017-08-17

    We report the use of an electroactive species, acetaminophen, to modify the electrical connection between a carbon nanotube (CNT) and an electrode. By applying a potential across two electrodes, some of the CNTs in solution occasionally contact the electrified interface and bridge between two electrodes. By observing a single CNT contact between two microbands of an interdigitated Au electrode in the presence and absence of acetaminophen, the role of the molecular species at the electronic junction is revealed. As compared with the pure CNT, the current magnitude of the acetaminophen-modified CNTs significantly increases with the applied potentials, indicating that the molecule species improves the junction properties probably via redox shuttling.

  11. Single-electron capture in He2+-D2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Dagnac, R.

    1994-01-01

    Doubly differential cross sections of single-electron capture were measured for He 2+ impinging on a molecular deuterium target. The investigated collision energies are 4, 6 and 8 keV and the scattering angles range from 10' to 2 o 30' (laboratory frame). The exothermic capture leading to He + (1s) + D 2 +* was found to be the most important process at low energies and angles, whereas the endothermic channels leading to dissociative capture become the main processes at high scattering angles, i.e. at small impact parameters. (author)

  12. K-band single-chip electron spin resonance detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Jens; Angerhofer, Alexander; Boero, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy operating at 27 GHz. The microsystem, consisting of an LC-oscillator and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(8)spins/G Hz(1/2), with a sensitive volume of about (100 μm)(3). Operation at 77K is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  14. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P.

    2013-01-01

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  15. Single-particle and collective states in transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhenry, I.; Suomijaervi, T.; Giai, N. van

    1993-01-01

    The possibility to excite collective states in transfer reactions induced by heavy ions is studied. Collective states are described within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the collectivity is defined according to the number of configurations contributing to a given state. The particle transfer is described within the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Calculations are performed for two different stripping reactions: 207 Pb( 20 Ne, 19 Ne) 208 Pb and 59 Co( 20 Ne, 19 F) 60 Ni at 48 MeV/nucleon for which experimental data are available. The calculation shows that a sizeable fraction of collective strength can be excited in these reactions. The comparison with experiment shows that this parameter-free calculation qualitatively explains the data. (author) 19 refs.; 10 figs

  16. Aspects of a collective single-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, U.

    1985-01-01

    The successful application of time-reversal breaking wave functions in the framework of collective models based on a mean-field approach is for fermionic accesses known for a long while. In this thesis this concept is confirmed also for bosons. Especially in the study of some simple models the physical content of which is determined by the IBA model analytical model-solutions are found which are in a surprisingly well agreement with the exact IBA solutions and the experimental spectra. These solutions which describe the ground-state band are thereby dependent on geometrical shape parameters and of a simpler structure than those of the IBA model. Thereby the cranking model serves as an essential support. In order to obtain a better understanding of the cranking model it is tried to go beyond the mean-field approach. Thereby also the neighbourhood of the stationary point is studied. The approach consecuted here is based on the necessity of a variation after the projection. This is forced by the application of as simple wave functions as possible in the solution of the nuclear many-body problem by means of a symmetry breaking mean-field. Exactly performable is the projection however only in the case of the particle-number symmetry. The particle-number projection was applied to the study of the high spin excitations of 168 Hf. The two-quasiparticle band of this nucleus exhibits a rotational band with the moment of inertia of a rigid body. The speculation of a phase transition of the nuclear system from superfluid to normally fluid resulting from this is not confirmed in the theoretical study. The energy gap remains also in the two-quasiparticle band up to high angular momenta nearly undiminishedly. Especially it is shown that the energy-level scheme of a nucleus contains no information about phase transitions. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. On the acceleration of charged particles by strong longitudinal plasma wake fields excited by electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of the use of longitudinal field excited in a plasma by electron bunches to accelerate charged particles is investigated. It is shown that the highets value of accelerating fields proportional to the square root of factor of electrons in the bunch is achieved in the case when bunch particle density approaches a limit equal to the half of the the plasma electron equilibrium density

  18. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin - poor tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Christian P; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Athale, Chaitanya; Herrmann, Harald; Eils, Roland

    2004-11-23

    The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL) for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 mum - wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M sorbitol. This effect correlated with the compaction of chromatin

  19. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  20. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  1. Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM for organic aerosol studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaie-Levrel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM, samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL, sodium chloride (NaCl and dioctylphtalate (DOP particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL and detection efficiency (DE were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110–120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (λ = 248 nm used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10−15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules. DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles

  2. Cantilever-based micro-particle filter with simultaneous single particle detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Currently, separation of whole blood samples on lab-on-a-chip systems is achieved via filters followed by analysis of the filtered matter such as counting of blood cells. Here, a micro-chip based on cantilever technology is developed, which enables simultaneous filtration and counting of micro-particles...... from a liquid. A hole-array is integrated into a micro-cantilever, which is inserted into a microfluidic channel perpendicular to the flow. A metal pad at the apex of the cantilever enables an optical read-out of the deflection of the cantilever. When a micro-particle is too large to pass a hole...

  3. Electron-helium S-wave model benchmark calculations. I. Single ionization and single excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2010-02-01

    A full four-body implementation of the propagating exterior complex scaling (PECS) method [J. Phys. B 37, L69 (2004)] is developed and applied to the electron-impact of helium in an S-wave model. Time-independent solutions to the Schrödinger equation are found numerically in coordinate space over a wide range of energies and used to evaluate total and differential cross sections for a complete set of three- and four-body processes with benchmark precision. With this model we demonstrate the suitability of the PECS method for the complete solution of the full electron-helium system. Here we detail the theoretical and computational development of the four-body PECS method and present results for three-body channels: single excitation and single ionization. Four-body cross sections are presented in the sequel to this article [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022716 (2010)]. The calculations reveal structure in the total and energy-differential single-ionization cross sections for excited-state targets that is due to interference from autoionization channels and is evident over a wide range of incident electron energies.

  4. Measuring the complex field scattered by single submicron particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marco A. C., E-mail: marco.potenza@unimi.it; Sanvito, Tiziano [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy); CIMAINA, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy); EOS s.r.l., viale Ortles 22/4, I-20139 Milan (Italy); Pullia, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    We describe a method for simultaneous measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the field scattered by single nanoparticles illuminated by a laser beam, exploiting a self-reference interferometric scheme relying on the fundamentals of the Optical Theorem. Results obtained with calibrated spheres of different materials are compared to the expected values obtained through a simplified analytical model without any free parameters, and the method is applied to a highly polydisperse water suspension of Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. Advantages with respect to existing methods and possible applications are discussed.

  5. The effect of transitional particles driven by single wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yunqing; Xia Mengfen

    1987-05-01

    The unperturbed separatrix crossing driven by a single wave in a tokamak plasma is discussed. The separatrix crossing is followed by a mixing process, and a small-scale structure occurs in the distribution function in h-ψ plane. The separatrix crossing is a convective process in h-ψ plane, and there is a definite crossing channel. The convective flux and the net flux in h-direction are calculated. The separatrix crossing is accompanied by a radial flux, which is composed of a directional flux and a diffusion flux. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  6. The 'single-particle' spectrum of states: correlated or uncorrelated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Even though static neutron pair correlations appear to be quenched for stably-deformed rare earth nuclei at .4 MeV, correlations remain for the lowest (π,α)=(+,0), and to a lesser extent for the lowest (+,1/2), configuration. Neutron pair fluctuations (pair vibrations) probably are a significant portion of these correlations. Since correlations are configuration dependent, but are relatively independent of isotope, an empirical spectrum of single-neutron states can be constructed from values of the neutron Fermi level, extracted from experiment. (orig.)

  7. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.

    2016-06-01

    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  8. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  9. Failure of single electron descriptions of molecular orbital collision processes. [Electron promotion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Inner-shell excitation occurring in low and moderate (keV range) energy collisions between light atomic and ionic systems is frequently describable in terms of molecular promotion mechanisms, which were extensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. The bulk of such studies have concentrated on processes understandable through the use of single- and independent-electron models. Nonetheless, it is possible to find cases of inner-shell excitation in relatively simple collision systems which involve nearly simultaneous multiple-electron transitions and transitions induced by inherently two-electron interactions. Evidence for these many- and nonindependent-electron phenomena in inner-shell excitation processes and the importance of considering such effects in the interpretation of collisionally induced excitation spectra is discussed. 13 references.

  10. Reversible electron heating vs. wave-particle interactions in quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Mangeney, A.; Scudder, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The energy necessary to explain the electron heating in quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks can be derived either from the electron acceleration in the d.c. cross shock electric potential, or by the interactions between the electrons and the waves existing in the shock. A Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to study the electron distribution function evolution through the shock structure, with and without particle diffusion on waves. This simulation has allowed us to clarify the relative importance of the two possible energy sources; in particular it has been shown that the electron parallel temperature is determined by the d.c. electromagnetic field and not by any wave-particle-induced heating. Wave particle interactions are effective in smoothing out the large gradients in phase space produced by the 'reversible' motion of the electrons, thus producing a 'cooling' of the electrons.

  11. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  12. Magnetization Reversal Process of Single Crystal α-Fe Containing a Nonmagnetic Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi; Xu Ben; Li Qiu-Lin; Liu Wei; Hu Shen-Yang; Li Yu-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization reversal process and hysteresis loops in a single crystal α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated in this work based on the Landau—Lifshitz—Gilbert equation. The evolutions of the magnetic domain morphology are studied, and our analyses show that the magnetization reversal process is affected by the interaction between the moving domain wall and the existing nonmagnetic particles. This interaction strongly depends on the size of the particles, and it is found that particles with a particular size contribute the most to magnetic hardening. (paper)

  13. Probing quantum coherence in single-atom electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Philip; Paul, William; Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Bae, Yujeong; Choi, Taeyoung; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquin; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Lutz, Christoper P.

    2018-01-01

    Spin resonance of individual spin centers allows applications ranging from quantum information technology to atomic-scale magnetometry. To protect the quantum properties of a spin, control over its local environment, including energy relaxation and decoherence processes, is crucial. However, in most existing architectures, the environment remains fixed by the crystal structure and electrical contacts. Recently, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in combination with electron spin resonance (ESR), allowed the study of single adatoms and inter-atomic coupling with an unprecedented combination of spatial and energy resolution. We elucidate and control the interplay of an Fe single spin with its atomic-scale environment by precisely tuning the phase coherence time T2 using the STM tip as a variable electrode. We find that the decoherence rate is the sum of two main contributions. The first scales linearly with tunnel current and shows that, on average, every tunneling electron causes one dephasing event. The second, effective even without current, arises from thermally activated spin-flip processes of tip spins. Understanding these interactions allows us to maximize T2 and improve the energy resolution. It also allows us to maximize the amplitude of the ESR signal, which supports measurements even at elevated temperatures as high as 4 K. Thus, ESR-STM allows control of quantum coherence in individual, electrically accessible spins. PMID:29464211

  14. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  15. Fluctuations of the single-particle density in nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, P.; Randrup, J.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years semiclassical methods have been developed to study heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory, in which the collisionless mean field evolution has been augmented by a Pauli-blocked Nordheim collision term. Since these models describe the average dynamic trajectory, they cannot be applied to describe fluctuations of one-body observables, correlations in the emission of light particles and catastrophic processes like multifragmentation. The authors have developed a new method in order to include the stochastic part of the collision integral into BUU-type simulations of the nuclear dynamics. They apply this method to a two-dimensional gas of fermions on a torus, for which the time evolution of the mean trajectory and the associated correlation function are calculated; the variance of the phase-space occupancy follows closely the predictions of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and relaxes towards the appropriate quantum-statistical limit. The breaking of the translational and spherical symmetry in the model permits the study of unstable situations in phase-space. The introduction of the nonlinear one-body field allows them to explore dynamical instabilities and bifurcations. Therefore the model can be appropriate for studying nuclear multifragmentation

  16. Tagged particle in single-file diffusion with arbitrary initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cividini, J.; Kundu, A.

    2017-08-01

    We compute the full probability distribution of the positions of a tagged particle exactly for the given arbitrary initial positions of the particles, and for general single-particle propagators. We consider the thermodynamic limit of our exact expressions in quenched and annealed settings. For a particular class of single-particle propagators, the exact formula is expressed in a simple integral form in the quenched case whereas in the annealed case, it is expressed as a simple combination of Bessel functions. In particular, we focus on the step and the power-law initial configurations. In the former case, a drift is induced even when the one-particle propagators are symmetric. On the other hand, in the later case the scaling of the cumulants of the position of the tracer differs from the uniform case. We provide numerical verifications of our results.

  17. Nonlinear ion-mixing-mode particle transport in the dissipative trapped electron regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.S.; Terry, P.W.

    1993-09-01

    The nonlinear particle transport arising from the convection of nonadiabatic electron density by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is examined for trapped electron collisionality regimes. The renormalized dissipative nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density response is derived and used to calculate the nonlinear particle flux along with an ansatz for the turbulently broadened frequency spectrum. In the lower temperature end of this regime, trapped electrons are collisional and all components of the quasilinear particle flux are outward (i.e., in the direction of the gradients). Nonlinear effects can alter the phase between the nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density and the electrostatic potential, producing inward components in the particle flux. Specifically, both turbulent shifting of the peak of the frequency spectrum and nonlinear source terms in the trapped electron response can give rise to inward components. However, in the dissipative regime these terms are small and the trapped electron response remains dominantly laminar. When the trapped electrons are collisionless, there is a temperature threshold above which the electron temperature gradient driven component of the quasilinear particle flux changes sign and becomes inward. For finite amplitude turbulence, however, turbulent broadening of both the electron collisional resonance and the frequency spectrum removes tills threshold., and the temperature gradient driven component remains outward

  18. Impact of electron irradiation on particle track etching response in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy by an ionizing particle traversing a material medium. When the ... Their amorphous nature and radiation sensitivity further ... The samples were washed thoroughly in lukewarm soap solution to avoid non-uniformity in etching due to ...

  19. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  20. Low Secondary Electron Yield Carbon Coatings for Electron-cloud Mitigation in Modern Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Christina; Calatroni, Sergio; Chiggiato, Paolo; Costa Pinto, Pedro; Marques, Hugo; Neupert, Holger; Taborelli, Mauro; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Wevers, Ivo; Yaqub, Kashif

    2010-01-01

    Electron-cloud is one of the main limitations for particle accelerators with positively charged beams of high intensity and short bunch spacing, as the SPS at CERN. The Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of the inner surface of the vacuum chamber is the main parameter governing the phenomenon. The effect could be eliminated by coating the vacuum chambers with a material of low SEY, which does not require bake-out and is robust against air exposure. For such a purpose amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings were produced by magnetron sputtering of graphite targets. They exhibit maximum SEY between 0.95 and 1.05 after air transfer to the measuring instrument. After 1 month of air exposure the SEY rises by 10 - 20 % of the initial values. Storage in desiccator or by packaging in Al foil makes this increase negligible. The coatings have a similar X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) C1s spectrum for a large set of deposition parameters and exhibit an enlarged linewidth compared to HOPG graphite. The static outgassing witho...

  1. Elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1062 (1995)] reported measurements of large-angle elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon at an energy of 3.3 eV. They compared their results for the differential cross section with cross sections determined using phase shifts obtained from two different scattering potentials and found large discrepancies between theory and experiment at large angles. They state that these differences may be due to the effects of polarization of the target, which are not included in their calculations, as well as inaccurate representations of electron exchange in the local scattering potentials that are employed to determine the phase shifts. In order to test these proposed explanations of the discrepancies, we have carried out calculations of elastic scattering from Ar + using the R-matrix method. We compare both a single-state calculation, which does not include polarization, and a 17-state calculation, in which the effects of dipole polarizability are included through the use of polarization pseudostates within the close-coupling expansion, to each other and with the measurements. We find some differences between the two calculations at intermediate scattering angles, but very close agreement at angles above 100 degree. Although the calculated cross sections agree with experiment between 120 degree and 135 degree, large discrepancies persist at angles above 135 degree. We conclude that the differences between the measurements and theory cannot be explained on the basis of an inaccurate representation of electron exchange or polarization of the target. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-04-27

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  3. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  4. Two quasi-particle excitations with particle-hole core polarization in even-even single closed shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Giraud, B.; Rho, M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy levels and transition properties of the even-even N=28, 50 isotones and Z=28, 50, 82 isotopes are calculated in the framework of the Tamm-Dancoff and Random Phase Approximation, with an effective central interaction in an extended space consisting of two quasi-particle configurations for the open shell and particle-hole configurations for the closed core. Using the results of the Inverse Gap Equation Method, practically all the necessary input data (single quasi-particle energies, force strength) are extracted from the odd-mass nuclei. The ratios of the force components are kept at fixed values for all studied nuclei and no effective charge is used. An overall excellent agreement is obtained for the energies of the vibrational states. On the other hand, while the transition properties of the 3 - states are always well reproduced, those of the 2 + and 4 + states are often too small by about one order of magnitude [fr

  5. ORBXYZ: a 3D single-particle orbit code for following charged-particle trajectories in equilibrium magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Cohen, R.H.; Ferguson, J.R.; Johnston, B.M.; Sharp, C.B.; Willmann, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The single particle orbit code, TIBRO, has been modified extensively to improve the interpolation methods used and to allow use of vector potential fields in the simulation of charged particle orbits on a 3D domain. A 3D cubic B-spline algorithm is used to generate spline coefficients used in the interpolation. Smooth and accurate field representations are obtained. When vector potential fields are used, the 3D cubic spline interpolation formula analytically generates the magnetic field used to push the particles. This field has del.BETA = 0 to computer roundoff. When magnetic induction is used the interpolation allows del.BETA does not equal 0, which can lead to significant nonphysical results. Presently the code assumes quadrupole symmetry, but this is not an essential feature of the code and could be easily removed for other applications. Many details pertaining to this code are given on microfiche accompanying this report

  6. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  7. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  8. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  9. Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2012-06-19

    Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 x 10(-4) in units of gravitational acceleration g.

  10. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  11. Conceptual design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers system for α particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Brichard, B.; Croci, G.; Brolatti, G.; Di Pace, L.; Fernandes, A.; Giacomelli, L.; Lengar, I.; Moszynski, M.; Krasilnikov, V.; Muraro, A.; Pereira, R. C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rigamonti, D.; Rebai, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Salewski, M.; Santosh, P.; Sousa, J.; Zychor, I.; Gorini, G.

    2017-07-01

    We here present the principles and main physics capabilities behind the design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers (RGRS) system for alpha particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER. The diagnostic benefits from recent advances in gamma-ray spectrometry for tokamak plasmas and combines space and high energy resolution in a single device. The RGRS system as designed can provide information on α ~ particles on a time scale of 1/10 of the slowing down time for the ITER 500 MW full power DT scenario. Spectral observations of the 3.21 and 4.44 MeV peaks from the 9\\text{Be}≤ft(α,nγ \\right){{}12}\\text{C} reaction make the measurements sensitive to α ~ particles at characteristic resonant energies and to possible anisotropies of their slowing down distribution function. An independent assessment of the neutron rate by gamma-ray emission is also feasible. In case of runaway electrons born in disruptions with a typical duration of 100 ms, a time resolution of at least 10 ms for runaway electron studies can be achieved depending on the scenario and down to a current of 40 kA by use of external gas injection. We find that the bremsstrahlung spectrum in the MeV range from confined runaways is sensitive to the electron velocity space up to E≈ 30 -40 MeV, which allows for measurements of the energy distribution of the runaway electrons at ITER.

  12. Single-layer MoS2 electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Dominik; Bertolazzi, Simone; Kis, Andras

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: Atomic crystals of two-dimensional materials consisting of single sheets extracted from layered materials are gaining increasing attention. The most well-known material from this group is graphene, a single layer of graphite that can be extracted from the bulk material or grown on a suitable substrate. Its discovery has given rise to intense research effort culminating in the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov. Graphene however represents only the proverbial tip of the iceberg, and increasing attention of researchers is now turning towards the veritable zoo of so-called "other 2D materials". They have properties complementary to graphene, which in its pristine form lacks a bandgap: MoS2, for example, is a semiconductor, while NbSe2 is a superconductor. They could hold the key to important practical applications and new scientific discoveries in the two-dimensional limit. This family of materials has been studied since the 1960s, but most of the research focused on their tribological applications: MoS2 is best known today as a high-performance dry lubricant for ultrahigh-vacuum applications and in car engines. The realization that single layers of MoS2 and related materials could also be used in functional electronic devices where they could offer advantages compared with silicon or graphene created a renewed interest in these materials. MoS2 is currently gaining the most attention because the material is easily available in the form of a mineral, molybdenite, but other 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors are expected to have qualitatively similar properties. In this Account, we describe recent progress in the area of single-layer MoS2-based devices for electronic circuits. We will start with MoS2 transistors, which showed for the first time that devices based on MoS2 and related TMDs could have electrical properties on the same level as other, more established semiconducting materials. This

  13. Single particle detection: Phase control in submicron Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Shelly, Connor; Gallop, John; Kazakova, Olga

    2010-01-01

    We present a phase-sensitive ac-dc Hall magnetometry method which allows a clear and reliable separation of real and parasitic magnetic signals of a very small magnitude. High-sensitivity semiconductor-based Hall crosses are generally accepted as a preferential solution for non-invasive detection of superparamagnetic nanobeads used in molecular biology, nanomedicine, and nanochemistry. However, detection of such small beads is often hindered by inductive pick-up and other spurious signals. The present work demonstrates an unambiguous experimental route for detection of small magnetic moments and provides a simple theoretical background for it. The reliability of the method has been tested for a variety of InSb Hall sensors in the range 600 nm-5 μm. Complete characterization of empty devices, involving Hall coefficients and noise measurements, has been performed and detection of a single FePt bead with diameter of 140 nm and magnetic moment of μ≅10 8 μ B has been achieved with a 600 nm-wide sensor.

  14. A database of microwave and sub-millimetre ice particle single scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, Robin; Eriksson, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Ice crystal particles are today a large contributing factor as to why cold-type clouds such as cirrus remain a large uncertainty in global climate models and measurements. The reason for this is the complex and varied morphology in which ice particles appear, as compared to liquid droplets with an in general spheroidal shape, thus making the description of electromagnetic properties of ice particles more complicated. Single scattering properties of frozen hydrometers have traditionally been approximated by representing the particles as spheres using Mie theory. While such practices may work well in radio applications, where the size parameter of the particles is generally low, comparisons with measurements and simulations show that this assumption is insufficient when observing tropospheric cloud ice in the microwave or sub-millimetre regions. In order to assist the radiative transfer and remote sensing communities, a database of single scattering properties of semi-realistic particles is being produced. The data is being produced using DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) code which can treat arbitrarily shaped particles, and Tmatrix code for simpler shapes when found sufficiently accurate. The aim has been to mainly cover frequencies used by the upcoming ICI (Ice Cloud Imager) mission with launch in 2022. Examples of particles to be included are columns, plates, bullet rosettes, sector snowflakes and aggregates. The idea is to treat particles with good average optical properties with respect to the multitude of particles and aggregate types appearing in nature. The database will initially only cover macroscopically isotropic orientation, but will eventually also include horizontally aligned particles. Databases of DDA particles do already exist with varying accessibility. The goal of this database is to complement existing data. Regarding the distribution of the data, the plan is that the database shall be available in conjunction with the ARTS (Atmospheric

  15. On-Chip Magnetic Platform for Single-Particle Manipulation with Integrated Electrical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, Marco; Torti, Andrea; Cantoni, Matteo; Petti, Daniela; Albisetti, Edoardo; Manzin, Alessandra; Guerriero, Erica; Sordan, Roman; Gervasoni, Giacomo; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo

    2016-02-17

    Methods for the manipulation of single magnetic particles have become very interesting, in particular for in vitro biological studies. Most of these studies require an external microscope to provide the operator with feedback for controlling the particle motion, thus preventing the use of magnetic particles in high-throughput experiments. In this paper, a simple and compact system with integrated electrical feedback is presented, implementing in the very same device both the manipulation and detection of the transit of single particles. The proposed platform is based on zig-zag shaped magnetic nanostructures, where transverse magnetic domain walls are pinned at the corners and attract magnetic particles in suspension. By applying suitable external magnetic fields, the domain walls move to the nearest corner, thus causing the step by step displacement of the particles along the nanostructure. The very same structure is also employed for detecting the bead transit. Indeed, the presence of the magnetic particle in suspension over the domain wall affects the depinning field required for its displacement. This characteristic field can be monitored through anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements, thus implementing an integrated electrical feedback of the bead transit. In particular, the individual manipulation and detection of single 1-μm sized beads is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Imaging single atoms using secondary electrons with an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Inada, H; Nakamura, K; Wall, J

    2009-10-01

    Aberration correction has embarked on a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes. However, improvement of spatial resolution using aberration correction so far has been limited to the use of transmitted electrons both in scanning and stationary mode, with an improvement of 20-40% (refs 3-8). In contrast, advances in the spatial resolution of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), which are by far the most widely used instrument for surface imaging at the micrometre-nanometre scale, have been stagnant, despite several recent efforts. Here, we report a new SEM, with aberration correction, able to image single atoms by detecting electrons emerging from its surface as a result of interaction with the small probe. The spatial resolution achieved represents a fourfold improvement over the best-reported resolution in any SEM (refs 10-12). Furthermore, we can simultaneously probe the sample through its entire thickness with transmitted electrons. This ability is significant because it permits the selective visualization of bulk atoms and surface ones, beyond a traditional two-dimensional projection in transmission electron microscopy. It has the potential to revolutionize the field of microscopy and imaging, thereby opening the door to a wide range of applications, especially when combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy.

  17. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  18. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T.; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.154101] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  19. Preparation of spherical silver particles for solar cell electronic paste with gelatin protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yiwei; Yang Yunxia; Yuan Shuanglong; Ding Lihua; Chen Guorong

    2007-01-01

    Spherical silver particles used in electronic paste for solar cell were prepared using the chemical reduction method with ammonia as a complex agent, hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent, and gelatin as a protective agent. The gelatin protective mechanism in the preparing process of spherical silver particles was studied. Observations of SEM and results of laser particle size analysis and ultraviolet absorption spectra demonstrate the formation of the coordinative complex of silver ions with gelatin in aqueous solution which accelerated the reduction of silver ions. Moreover, gelatin can promote the nucleation of the metallic silver particles, thus beneficiating availability of the monodisperse spherical silver particles

  20. Electron Spin Resonance Experiments on a Single Electron in Silicon Implanted with Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, Dwight R.; Nguyen, K.; Tracy, L. A.; Carr, S.; Borchardt, J.; Bishop, N.; Ten Eyck, G.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we will discuss the results of our ongoing experiments involving electron spin resonance (ESR) on a single electron in a natural silicon sample. The sample consists of an SET, defined by lithographic polysilicon gates, coupled to nearby phosphorous donors. The SET is used to detect charge transitions and readout the spin of the electron being investigated with ESR. The measurements were done with the sample at dilution refrigerator temperatures in the presence of a 1.3 T magnetic field. We will present data demonstrating Rabi oscillations of a single electron in this system as well as measurements of the coherence time, T2. We will also discuss our results using these and various other pulsing schemes in the context of a donor-SET system. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, X. L.

    2008-01-01

    It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field

  2. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, J.; Poirier, J.P.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1965-01-01

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3 . (authors) [fr

  3. Electronic structure of single- and multiple-shell carbon fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Nori, F.

    1994-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multiple-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the π-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: C 240 , C 540 , C 960 , C 1500 , C 2160 , and C 2940 . Our iteration technique reduces the size of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of ∼12 and 20), while the symmetry-based approach reduces it by a factor of 10. We also find formulas for the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of C 60n 2 fullerenes as a function of n, demonstrating a tendency towards a metallic regime for increasing n. For multiple-shell fullerenes, we analytically obtain the eigenvalues of the intershell interaction

  4. Low-frequency noise in single electron tunneling transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Mygind, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    The noise in current biased aluminium single electron tunneling (SET) transistors has been investigated in the frequency range of 5 mHz ..., we find the same input charge noise, typically QN = 5 × 10–4 e/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz, with and without the HF shielding. At lower frequencies, the noise is due to charge trapping, and the voltage noise pattern superimposed on the V(Vg) curve (voltage across transistor versus gate voltage) strongly depends...... when ramping the junction voltage. Dynamic trapping may limit the high frequency applications of the SET transistor. Also reported on are the effects of rf irradiation and the dependence of the SET transistor noise on bias voltage. ©1998 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Introduction of the chronon in the theory of electron and the wave-particle duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldirola, P.

    1984-01-01

    The author summarizes the more important results obtained in the electron theory based on the chronon and stresses some peculiarities of the wave-particle duality directly connected with the introduction of the chronon. (Auth.)

  6. Iron speciation of airborne subway particles by the combined use of energy dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and Raman microspectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hae-Jin; Sobanska, Sophie; Chung, Sang-Gwi; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Sunwoo, Young; Ro, Chul-Un

    2013-11-05

    Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), known as low-Z particle EPMA, and Raman microspectrometry (RMS) were applied in combination for an analysis of the iron species in airborne PM10 particles collected in underground subway tunnels. Iron species have been reported to be a major chemical species in underground subway particles generated mainly from mechanical wear and friction processes. In particular, iron-containing particles in subway tunnels are expected to be generated with minimal outdoor influence on the particle composition. Because iron-containing particles have different toxicity and magnetic properties depending on their oxidation states, it is important to determine the iron species of underground subway particles in the context of both indoor public health and control measures. A recently developed analytical methodology, i.e., the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and RMS, was used to identify the chemical species of the same individual subway particles on a single particle basis, and the bulk iron compositions of airborne subway particles were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The majority of airborne subway particles collected in the underground tunnels were found to be magnetite, hematite, and iron metal. All the particles collected in the tunnels of underground subway stations were attracted to permanent magnets due mainly to the almost ubiquitous ferrimagnetic magnetite, indicating that airborne subway particles can be removed using magnets as a control measure.

  7. Characterisation of electron beams from laser-driven particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, E.; Manahan, G. G.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-21

    The development, understanding and application of laser-driven particle accelerators require accurate measurements of the beam properties, in particular emittance, energy spread and bunch length. Here we report measurements and simulations showing that laser wakefield accelerators can produce beams of quality comparable to conventional linear accelerators.

  8. Controlled assembly and single electron charging of monolayer protected Au144 clusters: an electrochemistry and scanning tunneling spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodappa, Nataraju; Fluch, Ulrike; Fu, Yongchun; Mayor, Marcel; Moreno-García, Pavel; Siegenthaler, Hans; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups exposed by the Au-MPCs enable their immobilization on Pt(111) substrates. By varying the humidity during their deposition, samples coated by stacks of compact monolayers of Au-MPCs or decorated with individual, laterally separated Au-MPCs are obtained. DPV experiments with stacked monolayers of Au144-MPCs and EC-STS experiments with laterally separated individual Au144-MPCs are performed both in aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Lower capacitance values were observed for individual clusters compared to ensemble clusters. This trend remains the same irrespective of the composition of the electrolyte surrounding the Au144-MPC. However, the resolution of the energy level spacing of the single clusters is strongly affected by the proximity of neighboring particles.Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups

  9. Poly-silicon quantum-dot single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kwon-Chil; Lee, Joung-Eob; Lee, Jung-Han; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyung-Cheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-01-01

    For operation of a single-electron transistors (SETs) at room temperature, we proposed a fabrication method for a SET with a self-aligned quantum dot by using polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si). The self-aligned quantum dot is formed by the selective etching of a silicon nanowire on a planarized surface and the subsequent deposition and etch-back of poly-silicon or chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The two tunneling barriers of the SET are fabricated by thermal oxidation. Also, to decrease the leakage current and control the gate capacitance, we deposit a hard oxide mask layer. The control gate is formed by using an electron beam and photolithography on chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Owing to the small capacitance of the narrow control gate due to the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) hard mask, we observe clear Coulomb oscillation peaks and differential trans-conductance curves at room temperature. The clear oscillation period of the fabricated SET is 2.0 V.

  10. Density and energy distribution of epithermal secondary electrons in a plasma with fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The production of intermediate energy secondary electrons in plasmas through collisions with fast charged particles is investigated. The density and the distribution of the secondary electrons are obtained by calculating the generation, slow down and diffusion rates, using basic Rutherford collision cross sections. It is shown that the total density of secondaries is much smaller than the fast particle density and that the energy distribution has roughly a 1/√E dependence. The higher generation secondary populations are also obtained. (orig.)

  11. Molecular electronics--resonant transport through single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lörtscher, Emanuel; Riel, Heike

    2010-01-01

    The mechanically controllable break-junction technique (MCBJ) enables us to investigate charge transport through an individually contacted and addressed molecule in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment at variable temperature ranging from room temperature down to 4 K. Using a statistical measurement and analysis approach, we acquire current-voltage (I-V) characteristics during the repeated formation, manipulation, and breaking of a molecular junction. At low temperatures, voltages accessing the first molecular orbitals in resonance can be applied, providing spectroscopic information about the junction's energy landscape, in particular about the molecular level alignment in respect to the Fermi energy of the electrodes. Thereby, we can investigate the non-linear transport properties of various types of functional molecules and explore their potential use as functional building blocks for future nano-electronics. An example will be given by the reversible and controllable switching between two distinct conductive states of a single molecule. As a proof-of-principle for functional molecular devices, a single-molecule memory element will be demonstrated.

  12. GraDeR: Membrane Protein Complex Preparation for Single-Particle Cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Florian; Gerle, Christoph; Fischer, Niels; Oshima, Atsunori; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Shimada, Satoru; Yokoyama, Ken; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Stark, Holger

    2015-09-01

    We developed a method, named GraDeR, which substantially improves the preparation of membrane protein complexes for structure determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). In GraDeR, glycerol gradient centrifugation is used for the mild removal of free detergent monomers and micelles from lauryl maltose-neopentyl glycol detergent stabilized membrane complexes, resulting in monodisperse and stable complexes to which standard processes for water-soluble complexes can be applied. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on three different membrane complexes, including the mammalian FoF1 ATP synthase. For this highly dynamic and fragile rotary motor, we show that GraDeR allows visualizing the asymmetry of the F1 domain, which matches the ground state structure of the isolated domain. Therefore, the present cryo-EM structure of FoF1 ATP synthase provides direct structural evidence for Boyer's binding change mechanism in the context of the intact enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Component tree analysis of cystovirus φ6 nucleocapsid Cryo-EM single particle reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M Oliveira

    Full Text Available The 3-dimensional structure of the nucleocapsid (NC of bacteriophage φ6 is described utilizing component tree analysis, a topological and geometric image descriptor. The component trees are derived from density maps of cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstructions. Analysis determines position and occupancy of structure elements responsible for RNA packaging and transcription. Occupancy of the hexameric nucleotide triphosphorylase (P4 and RNA polymerase (P2 are found to be essentially complete in the NC. The P8 protein lattice likely fixes P4 and P2 in place during maturation. We propose that the viral procapsid (PC is a dynamic structural intermediate where the P4 and P2 can attach and detach until held in place in mature NCs. During packaging, the PC expands to accommodate the RNA, and P2 translates from its original site near the inner 3-fold axis (20 sites to the inner 5-fold axis (12 sites with excess P2 positioned inside the central region of the NC.

  14. The plastic ball spectrometer - an electronic 4π detector with particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baden, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.

    1982-04-01

    For the high multiplicity events occuring in relativistic nuclear collisions an electronic 4π detector with particle identification has been built. It consists of 815 ΔE-E telescopes and 176 TOF telescopes covering 97% of 4π. Very good particle identification has been obtained for hydrogen and helium isotopes and also π + have been detected with high efficiency. (orig.)

  15. Electron, Muon, and Tau Heavy Lepton--Are These the Truly Elementary Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Martin L.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the present concept of the ultimate nature of matter--the elementary particle. An explanation is given for why the lepton family of particles--the electron, muon, and tau--may be truly elementary. The tau lepton is described in more detail. (Author/DS)

  16. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuqiang; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, C.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.; Wang, Fuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  17. A new seniority scheme for non-degenerate single particle orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.; Arima, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is proposed in the treatment of the seniority scheme. The method enables one to evaluate analytically the contribution from J = 0 Cooper pairs in non-degenerate single-particle orbits to many-body matrix elements. It includes the SU(2) quasi-spin and the BCS approximation as two extreme limits. The effect of particle number conservation is properly taken into account. (Auth.)

  18. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-01

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  19. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-28

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  20. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian Günther

    2015-01-01

    even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes...... place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our...... results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schro...

  1. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  2. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  3. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  4. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends * Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  5. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Harris, Paul G.; Ireland, Terry G., E-mail: terry.ireland@brunel.ac.uk; Fern, George R.; Silver, Jack

    2015-10-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. - Highlights: • Contrast enhancement are observed in secondary electron and cathodoluminescent images of phosphor particles sitting on top of others. • Backscattered electrons largely explain the observed contrast enhancement. • After glow effects in CL-micrographs of phosphors enable the determination of decay times. • Phosphor saturation can be used to determine the decay time of individual spectral transitions.

  6. Single twistor description of massless, massive, AdS, and other interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Picon, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The Penrose transform between twistors and the phase space of massless particles is generalized from the massless case to an assortment of other particle dynamical systems, including special examples of massless or massive particles, relativistic or nonrelativistic, interacting or noninteracting, in flat space or curved spaces. Our unified construction involves always the same twistor Z A with only four complex degrees of freedom and subject to the same helicity constraint. Only the twistor to phase space transform differs from one case to another. Hence, a unification of diverse particle dynamical systems is displayed by the fact that they all share the same twistor description. Our single twistor approach seems to be rather different and a strikingly economical construction of twistors compared to other past approaches that introduced multiple twistors to represent some similar but far more limited set of particle phase space systems

  7. Biological effects of single HZE-particles of the cosmic radiation: Free Flyer Biostack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Free Flyer Biostack is designed as a passive, longer term experiment for investigations into the dosimetry of cosmic HZE particles (high-charge energetic particles), the effects of single HZE particles on isolated biological samples, and the synergistic effects of conditions in space, as e.g. zero gravity and presence of a permanent, weakly ionizing component of the cosmic radiation. For the experiments summarized in this project report, the AgCl detector type developed in Frankfurt has been used, consisting of monocrystalline AgCl films, about 130-150 μm thick, and doped with 5000 ppm of Cd. (DG) With 9 figs [de

  8. Quasi-particle states of electron systems out of equilibrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 19 (2007), 195125/1-195125/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * quasi-particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  9. Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Paul, Manosh C.; Younger, Paul L.; Watson, Ian; Hossain, Mamdud; Welch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature rapid biomass combustion is studied based on single particle model. • Particle size changes in devolatilization and char oxidation models are addressed. • Time scales of various thermal sub-processes are compared and discussed. • Potential solutions are suggested to achieve better biomass co-firing performances. - Abstract: Biomass co-firing is becoming a promising solution to reduce CO 2 emissions, due to its renewability and carbon neutrality. Biomass normally has high moisture and volatile contents, complicating its combustion behavior, which is significantly different from that of coal. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion model of a single biomass particle is employed to study high-temperature rapid biomass combustion. The two-competing-rate model and kinetics/diffusion model are used to model biomass devolatilization reaction and char burnout process, respectively, in which the apparent kinetics used for those two models were from high temperatures and high heating rates tests. The particle size changes during the devolatilization and char burnout are also considered. The mass loss properties and temperature profile during the biomass devolatilization and combustion processes are predicted; and the timescales of particle heating up, drying, devolatilization, and char burnout are compared and discussed. Finally, the results shed light on the effects of particle size on the combustion behavior of biomass particle

  10. Evolution of Single-Particle Energies for N=9 Nuclei at Large N/Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuosmaa A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleus 14B using the 13B(d,p14B and 15C(d,3He14B reactions. The two reactions provide complementary information about the negative-parity 1s1/2 and 0d5/2 neutron single-particle states in 14B. The data from the (d,p reaction give neutron-spectroscopic strengths for these levels, and the (d,3He results confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state suggested in the literature. Together these results provide estimates of the sd-shell neutron effective single-particle energies in 14B.

  11. Quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion and damping of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu; Mukhopadhyay, Tapan

    1995-01-01

    The spectral statistics of single particle motion in deformed cavities with axial symmetry are presented. The single particle motion in the cavities considered are non-integrable and the systematics of the fluctuation measures of the spectra reveal a transition from regular to chaotic regime in the corresponding classical systems. Quantitative estimate of the degree of chaos enables us to introduce a correction factor to the one-body wall formula for the damping widths of isoscalar giant resonances. The damping widths calculated with this correction factor give much better agreement with experimental values than earlier calculations of one-body damping widths. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs

  12. Many-particle correlations in quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of many-particle correlation effects in semiconductor heterostructures containing quantum wells. Particular attention is paid towards quasi-particle pair correlations. Using the Green's function technique and the ladder approximation as a basis, the generalized mass action law, which describes the redistribution of particles between correlated and uncorrelated states in quasi-two-dimensional systems for different temperatures and total densities, is derived. The expression is valid beyond the low-density limit, which allows us to investigate the transition of the system from a dilute exciton gas to a dense electron-hole plasma. A generalized Levinson theorem, which takes k-space filling into account, is formulated. Screening in quasi-two-dimensional systems is analyzed rigorously. Firstly, the qualitatively new mechanism of static local screening by indirect excitons is studied using the simple Thomas-Fermi approximation. Then, a detailed many-body description suitable for a proper account of dynamic screening by a quasi-2D electron-hole plasma, and consistent with the previously derived mass action law, is provided. The generalized Lindhard approximation and excitonic plasmon-pole approximations are also derived. The theory is applied to single and double quantum wells. A self-consistent procedure is developed for numerical investigation of the ionization degree of an electron-hole plasma at different values of temperature/exciton Rydberg ratios. This procedure accounts for screening, k-space filling (exciton bleaching), and the formation of excitons. An abrupt jump in the value of the ionization degree that happens with an increase of the carrier density or temperature (Mott transition) is found in a certain density-temperature region. It has been found that the critical density of the Mott transition for indirect excitons may be much smaller than that for direct excitons. A suggestion has been made that some of the

  13. Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-ν-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ν layer - ρ < 3 kΩcm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (ρ< 0,02Ωcm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (νlayer) may range from 10 μm to 150 μm. Imported silicon with min. 5 kΩcm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (ν) layer) may range from 200 μm to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

  14. Particle simulation of intense electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    High-power free-electron lasers make new methods possible for heating plasmas and driving current in toroidal plasmas with electromagnetic waves. We have undertaken particle simulation studies with one and two dimensional, relativistic particle simulation codes of intense pulsed electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive. The particle simulation methods here are conventional: the algorithms are time-centered, second-order-accurate, explicit, leap-frog difference schemes. The use of conventional methods restricts the range of space and time scales to be relatively compact in the problems addressed. Nevertheless, experimentally relevant simulations have been performed. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Particle dynamics during electronic sputtering of solid krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutkiewicz, L.; Pedrys, R.; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled electronic sputtering of solid krypton by excimer production with molecular dynamics. Both excimer evolution in the solid and deexcitation processes have been incorporated in the simulation. The excimer dynamics in the lattice has been analyzed: the excimers formed near the surface...

  16. Device for irradiation with electron and a magnetic lens for deviation of beams of charged particles, especially electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    An electron beam is sweeping aver the object while this is moved forward. In order to achieve a uniform irradiation and compensate for geometric errors, an additional magnetic lens is located immediately beneath the exposed area. The magnetic lens refract the electron beam in such a manner that the particle trajectories become parallel or slightly convergent after the lens. The lens consists of two parallel permanent bar magnets, preferably laminated magnets. (L.F.)

  17. Single-particle characterization of the high-Arctic summertime aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sierau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mass-spectrometric measurements were carried out in the high Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS. The instrument deployed was an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 and 3000 nm in diameter showed mass-spectrometric patterns, indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the high Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol–cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest the presence of a particle type of

  18. Measurement of ambient aerosols in northern Mexico City by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous ambient measurements with aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS were made in an industrial/residential section in the northern part of Mexico City as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area-2006 campaign (MCMA-2006. Results are presented for the period of 15–27 March 2006. The submicron size mode contained both fresh and aged biomass burning, aged organic carbon (OC mixed with nitrate and sulfate, elemental carbon (EC, nitrogen-organic carbon, industrial metal, and inorganic NaK inorganic particles. Overall, biomass burning and aged OC particle types comprised 40% and 31%, respectively, of the submicron mode. In contrast, the supermicron mode was dominated by inorganic NaK particle types (42% which represented a mixture of dry lake bed dust and industrial NaK emissions mixed with soot. Additionally, aluminosilicate dust, transition metals, OC, and biomass burning contributed to the supermicron particles. Early morning periods (2–6 a.m. showed high fractions of inorganic particles from industrial sources in the northeast, composed of internal mixtures of Pb, Zn, EC and Cl, representing up to 73% of the particles in the 0.2–3μm size range. A unique nitrogen-containing organic carbon (NOC particle type, peaking in the early morning hours, was hypothesized to be amines from local industrial emissions based on the time series profile and back trajectory analysis. A strong dependence on wind speed and direction was observed in the single particle types that were present during different times of the day. The early morning (3:30–10 a.m. showed the greatest contributions from industrial emissions. During mid to late mornings (7–11 a.m., weak northerly winds were observed along with the most highly aged particles. Stronger winds from the south picked up in the late morning (after 11 a.m., resulting in a decrease in the concentrations of the major aged particle types and an increase in the number fraction of fresh

  19. Single-particle characterization of the high-Arctic summertime aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, B.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Leck, C.; Paatero, J.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-07-01

    Single-particle mass-spectrometric measurements were carried out in the high Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS). The instrument deployed was an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 and 3000 nm in diameter showed mass-spectrometric patterns, indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the high Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol-cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest the presence of a particle type of unknown composition

  20. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  1. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  2. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    1998-01-01

    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  3. Phase-coexistence simulations of fluid mixtures by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using single-particle models

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational

  4. Pulse laser induced change in thermal radiation from a single spherical particle on thermally bad conducting surface : an analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moksin, M.M.; Grozescu, V.I.; Yunus, W.M.M.; Azmi, B.Z.; Talib, Z.A.; Wahab, Z.A.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical expression was derived that provided a description of the radius and thermal properties of a single particle from the change in grey body radiation emission subsequent to pulse laser heating of the particle

  5. Particle tracking in a small electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumaki, K.

    1987-01-01

    A particle tracking method for a ring system in which a sextupole magnetic field is distributed along the beam axis has been developed. This method uses Jacobi's elliptic functions inside the bending magnet and the canonical integration method in the fringes. The calculation time for the new method is the same or faster than that of the canonical integration method, and it is ten times faster than the Runge-Kutta-Gill and thin lens approximation. A special characteristic of our method is that the calculation time is always constant, even if the magnet length is increased

  6. Electron Climbing a 'Devil's Staircase' in Wave-Particle Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alessandro; Doveil, Fabrice; Elskens, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Numerous nonlinear driven systems display spectacular responses to forcing, including chaos and complex phase-locking plateaus characterized by 'devil's staircase', Arnold tongues, and Farey trees. In the universality class of Hamiltonian systems, a paradigm is the motion of a charged particle in two waves, which inspired a renormalization group method for its description. Here we report the observation of the underlying 'devil's staircase' by recording the beam velocity distribution function at the outlet of a traveling wave tube versus the amplitude of two externally induced waves

  7. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  8. Visualized effect of oxidation on magnetic recording fidelity in pseudo-single-domain magnetite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Kasama, Takeshi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2014-01-01

    fidelity of Fe3O4 particles is greatly diminished over time by progressive oxidation to less magnetic iron oxides, such as maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), with consequent alteration of remanent magnetization potentially having important geological significance. Here we use the complementary techniques...... of environmental transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography to induce and visualize the effects of oxidation on the magnetization of individual nanoscale Fe3O4 particles as they transform towards γ-Fe2O3. Magnetic induction maps demonstrate a change in both strength and direction of remanent...... magnetization within Fe3O4 particles in the size range dominant in rocks, confirming that oxidation can modify the original stored magnetic information....

  9. SiO2-supported Pt particles studied by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Penner, S.; Su, D.S.; Rupprechter, G.; Hayek, K.; Schloegl, R.

    2003-01-01

    Regularly grown Pt particles supported by amorphous SiO 2 were heated in hydrogen at 873 K after an oxidising treatment. The morphological and structural changes were studied by electron microscopy. Platinum silicides Pt 3 Si with L1 2 (Cu 3 Au) structure, monoclinic Pt 3 Si and tetragonal Pt 12 Si 5 were identified after the treatment. The mechanisms of coalescence of the particles and the formation of irregular large particles are suggested. A topotactic structural transformation accompanied with the migration of Si from the substrate to the particles are suggested to take place during Pt 3 Si formation

  10. Laboratory studies of the growth, sublimation, and light- scattering properties of single levitated ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Neil Julian

    2001-12-01

    I describe experiments to investigate the properties of microscopic ice particles. The goal of the work was to measure parameters that are important in cloud processes and radiative transfer, using a novel technique that avoids the use of substrates. The experiments were conducted in two separate electrodynamic balance chambers. Single, charged ice particles were formed from frost particles or from droplets frozen either homogeneously or heteroge neously with a bionucleant. The particles were trapped at temperatures between -38°C and -4°C and grown or sublimated according to the temperature gradient in the cham ber. I describe observations of breakup of sublimating frost particles, measurements of light scattering by hexagonal crystals, and observations of the morphology of ice particles grown from frozen water droplets and frost particles. The breaking strength of frost particles was an order of magnitude less than that of bulk ice. Light scattering features not previously observed were analyzed and related to crystal dimension. Initial results from a computer model failed to reproduce these features. The widths of scattering peaks suggest that surface roughness may play a role in determining the angular distribution of scattered light. Ice particle mass evolution was found to be consistent with diffusion- limited growth. Crystals grown slowly from frozen droplets adopted isometric habits, while faster growth resulted in thin side-planes, although there was not an exact correspondence between growth conditions and particle morphology. From the morphological transition, I infer lower limits for the critical supersaturation for layer nucleation on the prism face of 2.4% at -15°C, 4.4% at -20°C, and 3.1% at -25°C. Analytic expressions for the size dependence of facet stability are developed, indicating a strong dependence of stability on both crystal size and surface kinetics, and compared with data. I discuss the role of complex particle morphologies in

  11. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  12. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  13. Oblique electron fire hose instability: Particle-in-cell simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Decyk, V.; Schriver, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-68 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) 284515 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : electron temperature anisotropy * fire hose instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019227/abstract

  14. Oxidation mechanism of nickel particles studied in an environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of nickel particles was studied in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope in 3.2 mbar of O2 between ambient temperature and 600°C. Several different transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy were...... diffusion of Ni2+ along NiO grain boundaries, self-diffusion of Ni2+ ions and vacancies, growth of NiO grains and nucleation of voids at Ni/NiO interfaces. We also observed the formation of transverse cracks in a growing NiO film in situ in the electron microscope....

  15. Controlled and tunable polymer particles' production using a single microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyav, Benzion; Benny, Ofra

    2018-04-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a new platform to control liquids under flow in small volumes. The advantage of using small-scale reactions for droplet generation along with the capacity to control the preparation parameters, making microfluidic chips an attractive technology for optimizing encapsulation formulations. However, one of the drawback in this methodology is the ability to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes, from sub-micron to microns using a single chip design. In fact, typically, droplet chips are used for micron-dimension particles, while nanoparticles' synthesis requires complex chips design (i.e., microreactors and staggered herringbone micromixer). Here, we introduce the development of a highly tunable and controlled encapsulation technique, using two polymer compositions, for generating particles ranging from microns to nano-size using the same simple single microfluidic chip design. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA 50:50) or PLGA/polyethylene glycol polymeric particles were prepared with focused-flow chip, yielding monodisperse particle batches. We show that by varying flow rate, solvent, surfactant and polymer composition, we were able to optimize particles' size and decrease polydispersity index, using simple chip designs with no further related adjustments or costs. Utilizing this platform, which offers tight tuning of particle properties, could offer an important tool for formulation development and can potentially pave the way towards a better precision nanomedicine.

  16. Single charging events on colloidal particles in a nonpolar liquid with surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Caspar; Vandewiele, Stijn; Brans, Toon; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beunis, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Electrical charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar liquids due to surfactant additives is investigated intensively, motivated by its importance in a variety of applications. Most methods rely on average electrophoretic mobility measurements of many particles, which provide only indirect information on the charging mechanism. In the present work, we present a method that allows us to obtain direct information on the charging mechanism, by measuring the charge fluctuations on individual particles with a precision higher than the elementary charge using optical trapping electrophoresis. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by studying the influence of added surfactant OLOA 11000 on the charging of single colloidal PMMA particles in dodecane. The particle charge and the frequency of charging events are investigated both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and with or without applying a DC offset voltage. It is found that at least two separate charging mechanisms are present below the critical micelle concentration. One mechanism is a process where the particle is stripped from negatively charged ionic molecules. An increase in the charging frequency with increased surfactant concentration suggests a second mechanism that involves single surfactant molecules. Above the CMC, neutral inverse micelles can also be involved in the charging process.

  17. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  18. Single Particle Potential of a Σ Hyperon in Nuclear Matter. II Rearrangement Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement contribution to the real part of the single particle potential of a Σ hyperon in nuclear matter, U Σ , is investigated. The isospin and spin dependent parts of U Σ are considered. Results obtained for four models of the Nijmegen baryon-baryon interaction are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Basic Evidence and Properties of Single-Particle States in Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindro, N. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1970-07-15

    1. Introduction: the shell-model orbitals; 2. Information about single-particle orbitals: a critical evaluation; 3. Experimental evidence: 3.1. The lead region; 3.2. The calcium region; 3.3. Nuclei far from closed shells; 4. Conclusion. (author)

  20. DECAY MODES OF HIGH-LYING SINGLE-PARTICLE STATES IN PB-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEAUMEL, D; FORTIER, S; GALES, S; GUILLOT, J; LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; LAURENT, H; MAISON, JM; VERNOTTE, J; BORDEWIJK, JA; BRANDENBURG, S; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; CRAWLEY, GM; MASSOLO, CP; RENTERIA, M

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Pb-209 excited by means of the (alpha, He-3) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high-spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the

  1. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  2. Effects of intraparticle heat and mass transfer during devolatilization of a single coal particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, A.; Poelje, W.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; van Beckum, F.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to elucidate the influence of intraparticle mass and heat transfer phenomena on the overall rate and product yields during devolatilization of a single coal particle in an inert atmosphere. To this end a mathematical model has been formulated which covers

  3. Summary report of the group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.; Bartolini, R.; Bazzani, A.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes the research on single-particle nonlinear beam dynamics. It discusses the following topics: analytical and semi-analytical tools; early prediction of the dynamic aperture; how the results are commonly presented; Is the mechanism of the dynamic aperture understand; ripple effects; and beam-beam effects

  4. Fluorescent detection of single tracks of alpha particles using lithium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium fluoride single crystals were successfully used for fluorescent imaging of single tracks of alpha particles. This was realized with a standard wide-field fluorescent microscope equipped with a 100× objective. Alpha particles create F_2 and F_3"+ color centers in LiF crystals. The subsequent illumination with the blue light (wavelength around 445 nm), excites these centers and produces fluorescence with a broad band peaked at 670 nm. The observed tracks of alpha particles have diameter of about 500 nm. Focusing of the microscope at different depths in a LiF crystal, enables imaging changes of shape and position of tracks, allowing for visualization of their paths. These encouraging results are the first step towards practical application of LiF as fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

  5. The single- and double-particle properties and the current reversal of coupled Brownian motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen-Pu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Hong; Shen, Wen-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the directed transport of coupled Brownian motors composed of two identical particles which is individually subject to a time-symmetric rocking force in spatially-symmetric periodic potentials. We find that both the coupling free length and the coupling strength can induce the reversed motion of the coupled Brownian motors, the essence of which is the coupled Brownian motors can exhibit completely different single- or double-particle properties under certain conditions. Namely, the current reversal is the result of the mutual conversion between the single- and double-particle properties of the coupled Brownian motors. Moreover, the directed current of coupled Brownian motors can be optimized and manipulated by adjusting the strength, the period, the phase difference of the rocking forces, and the noise intensity. (paper)

  6. Experimental study of single-particle inclusive hadron scattering and associated multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; LaVopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Meunier, R.; Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.S.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Massimo, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment using the Fermilab single arm spectrometer (SAS) facility and an associated nonmagnetic vertex detector studied the reactions a+p→c+X where a and c were π +- , K +- , p, or p-bar. Extensive measurements were made at 100 and 175 GeV/c beam momenta with the outgoing hadrons detected in the SAS covering a kinematic range 0.12< x<1.0 and p/sub T/<1.25 GeV/c. Additional data covering a more restricted range in x were also gathered at 70 GeV/c incident momentum. In this high-statistics experiment, the identification of both the incoming and outgoing charged hadrons were made with a total of eight Cerenkov counters. New and extensive single-particle inclusive data for charged-particle production in low-p/sub T/ hadronic fragmentation are presented. The average associated charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions are also given

  7. Treatment of Electronic Energy Level Transition and Ionization Following the Particle-Based Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A new method of treating electronic energy level transitions as well as linking ionization to electronic energy levels is proposed following the particle-based chemistry model of Bird. Although the use of electronic energy levels and ionization reactions in DSMC are not new ideas, the current method of selecting what level to transition to, how to reproduce transition rates, and the linking of the electronic energy levels to ionization are, to the author s knowledge, novel concepts. The resulting equilibrium temperatures are shown to remain constant, and the electronic energy level distributions are shown to reproduce the Boltzmann distribution. The electronic energy level transition rates and ionization rates due to electron impacts are shown to reproduce theoretical and measured rates. The rates due to heavy particle impacts, while not as favorable as the electron impact rates, compare favorably to values from the literature. Thus, these new extensions to the particle-based chemistry model of Bird provide an accurate method for predicting electronic energy level transition and ionization rates in gases.

  8. A practical theoretical formalism for atomic multielectron processes: direct multiple ionization by a single auger decay or by impact of a single electron or photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-04-01

    Multiple electron processes occur widely in atoms, molecules, clusters, and condensed matters when they are interacting with energetic particles or intense laser fields. Direct multielectron processes (DMEP) are the most complicated among the general multiple electron processes and are the most difficult to describe theoretically. In this work, a unified and accurate theoretical formalism is proposed on the DMEP of atoms including the multiple auger decay and multiple ionization by an impact of a single electron or a single photon based on the atomic collision theory described by a correlated many-body Green's function. Such a practical treatment is made possible by taking consideration of the different coherence features of the atoms (matter waves) in the initial and final states. We first explain how the coherence characteristics of the ejected continuum electrons is largely destructed, by taking the electron impact direct double ionization process as an example. The direct double ionization process is completely different from the single ionization where the complete interference can be maintained. The detailed expressions are obtained for the energy correlations among the continuum electrons and energy resolved differential and integral cross sections according to the separation of knock-out (KO) and shake-off (SO) mechanisms for the electron impact direct double ionization, direct double and triple auger decay, and double and triple photoionization (TPI) processes. Extension to higher order DMEP than triple ionization is straight forward by adding contributions of the following KO and SO processes. The approach is applied to investigate the electron impact double ionization processes of C+, N+, and O+, the direct double and triple auger decay of the K-shell excited states of C+ 1s2{s}22{p}2{}2D and {}2P, and the double and TPI of lithium. Comparisons with the experimental and other theoretical investigations wherever available in the literature show that our

  9. Role of bumpy fields on single particle orbit in near quasihelically symmetric stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, JaeChun; Hegna, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of symmetry breaking on single particle orbits in near helically symmetric stellarators is investigated. In particular, the effect of a symmetry-breaking bumpy term is included in the analysis of trapped particle orbits. It is found that all trapped particle drift orbits are determined by surfaces on which vertical bar B vertical bar min is constant. Trapped particle orbits reside on these surfaces regardless of pitch angle and are determined solely by the initial position and the shape of the vertical bar B vertical bar min contour. Since vertical bar B vertical bar min contours do not depend on the direction of the banana center motion, superbanana orbits do not appear

  10. Analysis of a Single Hot Particle by a Combination of Non-Destructive Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrnecek, E.; Aldave de las Heras, L.; Bielewski, M.; Carlos, R. [EC JRC Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [IAEA Environment Laboratories (Monaco)

    2013-07-15

    Radioactive substances are often released to the environment in the form of particles. The determination of their chemical composition is a key factor in the overall understanding of their environmental behaviour. The aim of this investigation was to identify the source of one single radioactive particle collected from the Irish Sea and to understand its fate in the environment and in human body fluids. As the particle was supposed to be analysed for its dissolution behaviour in humans after ingestion, it was necessary to gain as much information as possible beforehand on the chemical and isotopic composition by means of non-destructive analysis such as SEM, SIMS, {mu}-XRF and {mu}-XANES. In this paper, an overview of the different non-destructive methods applied for the analysis of this particle and the results obtained is given. Additionally, the dissolution behaviour in human digestive solutions is discussed. (author)

  11. Preparation of rod-like β-Si3N4 single crystal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, K.; Tsuge, A.; Brito, M.E.; Kanzaki, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of β-Si 3 N 4 particles as a seed material has been demonstrated to be effective for development of a self-reinforcing microstructure in sintered silicon nitride ceramics. We have confirmed the seeding effect and arrived at a concept that seed particles should consist of rod-like single crystals free from defects and with a large diameter. The present work describes our attempts to produce such particles with a controlled morphology and in high amount. β-Si 3 N 4 particles with a diameter of 1μm and length of 5μm were obtained by heating a mixture of α-Si 3 N 4 , SiO 2 and Y 2 O 3 , followed by acid rinse treatments to remove residual glassy phase. (orig.)

  12. Non-identical particle femtoscopy in models with single freeze-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiel, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We present femtoscopic results from hydrodynamics-inspired thermal models with single freeze-out. Non-identical particle femtoscopy is studied and compared to results of identical particle correlations. Special emphasis is put on shifts between average space-time emission points of non-identical particles of different masses. They are found to be sensitive to both the spatial shift coming from radial flow, as well as average emission time difference coming from the resonance decays. The Terminator Monte-Carlo program was chosen for this study because it realistically models both of these effects. In order to analyze the results we present and test the methodology of non-identical particle correlations. (author)

  13. Temperature effects on drift of suspended single-domain particles induced by the Magnus force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, S. I.; Lyutyy, T. V.; Reva, V. V.; Yermolenko, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the drift velocity of single-domain ferromagnetic particles induced by the Magnus force in a dilute suspension. A set of stochastic equations describing the translational and rotational dynamics of particles is derived, and the particle drift velocity that depends on components of the average particle magnetization is introduced. The Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of magnetization orientations is solved analytically in the limit of strong thermal fluctuations for both the planar rotor and general models. Using these solutions, we calculate the drift velocity and show that the out-of-plane fluctuations of magnetization, which are not accounted for in the planar rotor model, play an important role. In the general case of arbitrary fluctuations, we investigate the temperature dependence of the drift velocity by numerically simulating a set of effective stochastic differential equations for the magnetization dynamics.

  14. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  15. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Bender, H A; Wilcox, N S

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  16. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  17. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use of these products may lead to consumer and/or environmental exposure to TiO2, possibly in form of nanoparticles. The aim of this study is to perform a leaching test and apply state-of-the-art methods to investigate nano-TiO2 and total Ti release from five types of commercially available conventional textiles: table placemats, wet wipes, microfiber cloths, and two types of baby bodysuits, with Ti contents ranging from 2.63 to 1448 μg/g. Released particle analysis was performed using conventional and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and spICP-MS), in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to measure total and particulate TiO2 release by mass and particle number, as well as size distribution. Less than 1% of the initial Ti content was released over 24 h of leaching, with the highest releases reaching 3.13 μg/g. The fraction of nano-TiO2 released varied among fabric types and represented 0-80% of total TiO2 release. Particle mode sizes were 50-75 nm, and TEM imaging revealed particles in sizes of 80-200 nm. This study highlights the importance of using a multi-method approach to obtain quantitative release data that is able to provide an indication regarding particle number, size distribution, and mass concentration, all of which can help in understanding the fate and exposure of nanoparticles.

  18. Neutralization of positive particle beams by electron trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Irani, A.A.; LeMaire, J.L.; Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Initial results are presented of a planned series of experimental tests of positive ion beam neutralization, involving transverse space charge studies of a 720 keV 60mA H + beam in a drift region of 4.6 meters. Two conclusions drawn from the data are: (1) the change in transmission observed is consistent with complete neutralization in the drift pipe for grounded or negative electrodes, and with complete de-neutralization in the case of greater than +240 V electrodes; and (2) background gas ionization cannot be the main source of electrons

  19. Simultaneous diamagnetic and magnetic particle trapping in ferrofluid microflows via a single permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-07-01

    Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles.

  20. Simultaneous diamagnetic and magnetic particle trapping in ferrofluid microflows via a single permanent magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles. PMID:26221197